You are on page 1of 37

PLU S : FU N ACTIVITIE S FO R TH E STUD ENTS TO DO

CHEMYSTERY

VOL 1 ISSUE NO. 1

DEMYSTIFYING THE WORLD OF CHEMISTRY

PRECIPITATION
REACTIONS
JANUARY 2015 PHILIPPINES FREE

NQDR

12272014

PRECIPITATION
REACTIONS
Find out how a
precipitation occurs
as well as the
different factors
affecting it

SOLUBILITY RULES

IONIC EQUATIONS

Learn how one can


determine if a
compound is soluble
or insoluble

Read to know more


about
writing
balanced equations
that
describe
chemical changes

[1]

CHEMYSTERY
January 2015

STRATEGIC INTERVENTION MATERIALS IN CHEMISTRY

CONTENTS
3

GuideCard

16 IonicEquations

PrecipitationReactions:

17 NetIonicEquations

FactorsthatAffectPrecipitation Rxn

18 Activity6:ThatsSoIonic

Activity1: Find Me!

19 4Pics1Word

SolubilityRules!

20 Crossword

Precipitation Reactions

10 Act.2:WhatstheMysteryWord?

21 EnrichmentCard

Solubility Rules

11 HowtoDetermineSolubility

23 AssessmentCard

Molecular Equations

12 Activity3: MatchMe!

24 QuickNotes

Net Ionic Equations

13 MoleculeSchmolecule

27 References

14 Activity4:WhatAmI?

28 AnswerCards

Ionic Equations

Spectator Ions

15 Activity5:BalanceMe!

[2]

SPECIAL POINTS OF
INTEREST:

CHEMYSTERY
January 2015

STRATEGIC INTERVENTION MATERIALS IN CHEMISTRY

WHATS INSIDE?

Try to find the hidden words


in the box

FIND ME
!

by determining
Discover the mystery word
or insoluble
if the compound is soluble

WHAT'S TWOHERD?
MYSTERY find

GUIDE CARD

ounds and
p
m
o
c
n
e
giv
Match the
rm
itate will fo
ip
c
e
r
p
a
out if

MATCH ME!

In this lesson, you will be able to learn


how a precipitation reaction occurs as well
as the different factors that affect it. The
different solubility rules will also be
discussed here to help you determine if a
compound is soluble or insoluble. This
lesson also contains a discussion on how
to get the ionic,net ionic and spectator
ions of a precipitation reaction.

Identify the g

iven molecula
r

formulas

WHAT A
M I?
as
Balance molecular formul

BALANCE ME
Write the ionic and net
ionic equations of the
given molecular
THAT
S SO
formulas
I

For you to understand this lesson easier,


you will be asked to answer some
activities.

ONIC

[3]

PRECIPITATION REACTIONS:
AN INTRODUCTION

Precipitation Reactions occur when cations and


anions of aqueous solutions combine to form an
insoluble ionic solid, called a precipitate
Precipitates are in- soluble ionic solid products of a
reaction, in which certain cations and anions
combine in an aqueous solution. The determining
factors of the formation of a precipitate can vary.
Some reactions depend on temperature, such as
solutions used for buffers, while others are
dependent only on solution concentration. The
solids produced in precipitate reactions are crystalline solids. This solid can be suspended
throughout the liquid or fall to the bottom of the
solution. The fluid that remains is called the
supernatant liquid. The two parts (precipitate and
supernate) can be separated by various methods,
such as filtration, centrifuging, or decanting.

[4]

Objectives:
This SIM has the following objectives:

To guide you in knowing the


different solubility rules

To help you differentiate a soluble


from an insoluble compound
To help you get the ionic, net ionic
and spectator ions of a
precipitation reaction
To help you understand precipitation
reactions

Good luck
and have
fun learning
chemistry!

DID YOU KNOW?


Precipitation is the primary mechanism for transporting water from the
atmosphere to the surface of the earth. There are several forms of
precipitation, the most common of which for the United States is rain. Other
forms of precipitation include; hail, snow, sleet, and freezing rain.

FACTORS THAT AFFECT


PRECIPITATION REACTIONS
Solids that form during a reaction between chemicals in solution are called
precipitates. Precipitation reactions can help isolate useful products; they also help
researchers identify ions in solution in qualitative analysis. Consequently, it's very
helpful to understand some of the factors that determine whether and in what
quantities a precipitate will form.
Temperature

Solubility Chart

The solubility of a given solute in a given


solvent typically depends on temperature.
For many solids dissolved in liquid water,
solubility tends to correspond with increasing
temperature. As water molecules heat up,
they vibrate more quickly and are better able
to interact with and break apart the solute.

The solubility chart shows the solubility of


many salts. Salts of alkali met- als (and
ammonium), as well as those of nitrate and
acetate, are always soluble. Carbonates,
hydroxides, sulfates, phosphates, and
heavy metal salts are often insoluble.

Polarity
A popular saying used for predicting
solubility is "Like dissolves like." This
statement indicates that a solute will dissolve
best in a solvent that has a similar chemical
structure; the ability for a solvent to dissolve
various com- pounds depends primarily on its
polarity. For example, a polar solute such as
sugar is very soluble in polar water, less
soluble in moderately polar methanol, and
practically insoluble in non-polar solvents
such as benzene. In contrast, a non-polar
solute such as naphthalene is insoluble in
water, moderately soluble in methanol, and
highly soluble in benzene.

[5]

FACTORS THAT AFFECT PRECIPITATION


REACTIONS (C0NTD)

KEY
POINTS:

Solubility curves, like the one shown here, tell us


what mass of solute will dissolve in 100g of water over
a range of temperatures.

[6]

Solubility is the relative ability of


a solute to dissolve into a
solvent.

Several factors affect the


solubility of a given solute in a
given solvent. Temperature
often plays the largest role, al-
though pressure can have a
significant effect for gases.

To p r e d i c t w h e t h e r a
compound will be soluble in a
given solvent, remember the
saying, "Like dissolves like."
Highly polar ionic compounds
such as salt readily dissolve in
polar water, but do not readily
dissolve in non- polar solutions
such as benzene or
chloroform.

Solvent is the compound


(usually a liquid) that dissolves
the solute

Solute is the compound that


dissolves in solution (can be a
solid, liquid, or gas)

ACTIVITY NO. 1 FIND ME!

Locate and highlight all the words that are related to precipitation reactions. They can be
horizontal, vertical, diagonal or the other way around.
NOTE: There are 11 words hidden. Try to define them and there are also words written in shortcut for example,
equation = exn

[7]

Solubility Rules!
Guidelines for chemical compound solubility

Precipitation reactions usually involve ionic compounds, but only certain combinations of
electrolyte solutions result in the formation os a precipitate. Whether or not a precipitate
forms when two solutions are mixed depends on the solubility of the products.
In order to use these solubility rules, one first must understand the way that ions react. Most
precipitation reactions that occur are single replacement reactions or double replacement
reactions. A double replacement reaction occurs when two ionic reactants dissociate and
bond with the respective anion or cation from the other reactant. The ions replace each other
based on their charges as either a cation or an anion. This can be thought of as "switching
partners," that is, the two reactants "lose" their partner and form a bond with a different
partner:

CdSO4(aq)+K2S(aq)CdS(s)+K2SO4(aq)

[8]

Solubility Rules!
Guidelines for chemical compound solubility

In order to predict whether a precipitate will form in a reaction, the solubility of the
substances involved must be known. There are rules or guidelines determining solubility of
substances. If a substance involved is not soluble, the reaction forms a precipitate:
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-HZZm0bPmJGY/Tr74_mHMBRI/AAAAAAAAKF4/3j8KgPcZX-8/s1600/%25E5%258C
%2596%25E5%25AD%25B8%25E5%258E%259F%25E7%2590%2586%25E5%2595%259F%25E8%25BF
%25AA205+%25E5%2585%25B1%25E5%2590%258C%25E9%259B%25A2%25E5%25AD%2590.gif

DID YOU KNOW?


When an ionic substance such
as sodium chloride dissolves
in water, the water molecules
remove individual ions from
the three-dimensional solid
structure and surround them.
This process is called hydration.
Water is an excellent solvent for
ionic compounds because H2O is
a polar molecule.

[9]

E
H
T
S

WMHYATSTERY WORD ?

ACTIVITY NO. 2

s are
en compound
iv
g
e
th
er
is soluble
ing wheth
e compound
by d etermin
th
ow
er
el
h
b
et
h
es
w
ox
o n the b
luble.
you r an swer
rrect letter
pound is in so
based from
m
e
co
r
a
e
s
th
er
if
tt
Write the co
le
soluble and
soluble. The
compound is
soluble or in
e
th
if
. Pick
or in soluble

1. Zn(NO3)2

2. KNO3

3. AgSO4

4. Na3PO4

5. PbS
6. Ca(OH)2

7. CdS
8. CaCO3

9. Al(OH)3

10. CuS

The mystery word is:

[10]

EXAMPLES ON HOW TO DETERMINE


THE SOLUBILITY OF A COMPOUND
1. Predict whether a precipitate will
form as a result of this reaction:

The products of the reaction must be examined; if either of


the substances formed in the reaction is insoluble, a
precipitate will form. Considering NaNO3, Rule #3 states that
nitrates tend to be soluble. A precipitate of this compound

2AgNO3+Na2SAg2S+2NaNO3

will not form. Next, consider Ag2S. According to Rule #5, that
sulfides tend to be in- soluble. Therefore, because of this
compound, a precipitate will form in the course of this
reaction.

2. Classify each of the following compounds as soluble or insoluble in water:

A. AgNO3

AgNO3 contains the nitrate ion (NO3- ). According to the the solubility rules,
all compounds containing the nitrate ion are soluble.

B. CaSO4

CaSO4 contains the sulfate ion (SO42-) . According to the solubility rules
compounds containing the sulphate ion are soluble except for some cations
like Ca2+ Therefore, it is insoluble.

C. K2CO3

This compound contains an alkali metal cation (K+). Therefore, it is soluble.

If the compound formed from the chemical reaction


is soluble write the symbol (aq) for aqueous :
A+B => AB(aq)
Ca+2 + OH - => Ca(OH)2 (aq)

However, if the compound formed is insoluble write
the symbol (s) for solid:
A+B => AB(s)
Ag + SO4 => AgSO4(s)

[11]

Remember

ACTIVITY NO. 3

match me!

Match the following compounds to form new compounds which form if the
solutions, as suggested by the following table, were mixed. Put a heart on
the compound that will precipitate from the following solutions.

[12]

molecule schmolecule
A Guide to Molecular Equations
Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2NaI(aq) > 2NaNO3(aq) + PbI2(s)
Based on this chemical equation, the metal cations seem to exchange anions. That is Pb2+ ion,
originally paired with NO3 ions, ends up paired with I ions; similarly, each Na+ ion, originally
paired with an I ion ends up with an NO3- ion. This equation, as written, is called a molecular
equation, which is a chemical equation written with all compounds represented by their
chemical formulas, making it look as though they exist in solution as molecules formula units.

Before you fully understand molecular equations you


must know enough chemistry to predict the products
of this type of chemical reaction.
Simply write the formulas for the reactants, and then
write formulas for the compounds that would form if
the cations in the reactants were to trade anions. For
example, if you want to write the equation for the
reaction that occurs when solutions of sodium sulphate
and barium hydroxide are combined, you would first
write the formulas of the reactants.

Na2SO4(aq) + Ba(OH)2(aq) ->


Then you would write the formula for one product by combining the cation form the first reactant (Na2+),
with the anion from the second reactant (OH-); and write the formula for the other product by combining
the cation from the second reactant (Ba2+) with the anion from the first (SO42- ). Thus, the equation is

Na2SO4(aq) + Ba(OH)2(aq) -> 2NaOH + BaSO4

[13]

ACTIVITY NO. 4

WHAT AM I?

Determine the following equation whether it is an unbalanced equation or


a balanced molecular equation and if a precipitation reaction happened.
color/shade

if it is an unbalanced equation,

color/ shade

if it is a balanced molecular exn, and

color/shade

if it involves precipitation reaction.

(Note: You can color or shade all if it applies to all)

1. CdSO4(aq)+K2S(aq)CdS(s)+K2SO4(aq)

2. 2KI(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) 2KNO3(aq) +


PbI(s)

3. 2 LiBr (aq) + AgNO3 (aq) LiNO3 (aq)


+ AgBr (s)

[14]

ACTIVITY NO. 5

BALANCE ME!
Balance the following molecular equations. This activity will test your ability to balance
chemical reactions.

1. __ AgI + __ Na2S __ Ag2S + __ NaI


2. __ Ba3N2+ __ H2O __ Ba(OH)2+ __ NH3
3. __ CaCl2+ __ Na3PO4 __ Ca3(PO4)2+ __ NaCl
4. __ FeS + __ O2 __ Fe2O3+ __ SO2
5. __ PCl5+ __ H2O __ H3PO4+ __ HCl
6. __ As + __ NaOH __ Na3AsO3+ __ H2
7. __ Hg(OH)2+ __ H3PO4 __ Hg3(PO4)2+ __ H2O
8. __ HClO4+ __ P4O10 __ H3PO4+ __ Cl2O7
9. __ CO + __ H2 __ C8H18+ __ H2O
10.

__ KClO3+ __ P4 __ P4O10+ __ KCl

[15]

IONIC EQUATIONS
Although molecular equations are useful,
especially from the standpoint of knowing which
solutions to combine in the laboratory, they are in
a sense unrealistic. Soluble ionic compounds are
strong electrolytes. As such, they exist in solution as
hydrated ions, rather than as formula units. Thus, it
would be more realistic to represent the aqueous
species in the reaction of Na2SO4(aq) with Ba(OH)2 as

Na2SO4(aq) > 2Na+ (aq) + SO4 2-(aq)


Ba(OH)2(aq) > Ba2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq)
NaOH(aq) > Na+(aq) + OH-(aq)

follows:
If we were to rewrite the equation, representing the dissolved compounds as hydrated ions,
it would be:

2Na+(aq) + SO4 2-(aq) + Ba+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) -> 2Na+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) + BaSO4(s)


This version of the equation is called an ionic equation, a chemical equation in which any
compound that exists completely or predominantly as ions in a solution is represented as those
ions. Species that are insoluble or that exists in a solution completely or predominantly as
molecules are represented with their chemical formulas, as they were in the molecular equation.
Another example is: AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)

Ag+(aq) + NO3-(aq) + Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq) AgCl(s) + Na+(aq) + NO3-(aq)


is the ionic equation of the chemical reaction

DID YOU KNOW??


The notation of the + and - charges on ions is very important as it conveys a
definite meaning. Whereas elements are neutral in charge, IONS have either
a positive or negative charge depending upon whether there is an excess of
protons (positive ion) or excess of electrons (negative ion).

[16]

Net Ionic Equations


Na+ (aq) and OH- (aq) both appear as reactants and products in the ionic equation for the reaction of Na2SO4(aq) with
Ba(OH)2(aq). Ions that appear on both sides of the equation arrow are called spectator ions because they do not participate
in the reaction. Spectator ions cancel one another, just as identical terms on both sides of an algebraic equation cancel one
another, so we need not show spectator ions in chemical equations.

Eliminating the spectator ions yields the following equation:

2Na+(aq) + SO4 2-(aq) + Ba+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) -> 2Na+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) + BaSO4(s)


This version of the equation is called a net ionic equation, which is a chemical equation that includes only the species that
are actually involved in the reaction. The net ionic equation, in effect, tells us what actually happens when we combine
solutions of sodium sulphate and barium hydroxide.

STEPS IN DETERMINING THE MOLECULAR, IONIC AND NET


IONIC EQUATIONS FOR A PRECIPITATION REACTION:
1. Write and balance the molecular equation, predicting the products by
assuming that the cations trade anions.
2. Write the ionic equation by separating strong electrolytes into their
constituent ions.
3. Write the net ionic equation by identifying and cancelling spectator
ions on both sides of the equation

[17]

ACTIVITY NO.6
THATS SO IONIC
Complete the following chemical reactions then write
the complete ionic and net ionic equations for each of
the following reactions.
1. (NH4)2CO3 (aq) + Al(NO3)3 (aq) >

COMPLETE IONIC EQUATION

NET IONIC EQUATION

2. NaOH (aq) + H2SO4 (aq) -->

3. Mg (s) + HCl (aq) >

4. Zn (s) + CuSO4 (aq) >

5. Na2CO3 (aq) + 2 HNO3 (aq) ->

[18]

JUST FOR FUN

4 PICS 1 WORD
In this activity, you're shown 4 images as clues to the hidden word relating to the past lectures, and
you will have to guess the word that links them all

1. __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __

3. __ __ __ __ __

2. __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __

__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __

4. __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __

5. __ __ __

[19]

__ __ __ __ __

JUST FOR FUN

CROSSWORD PUZZLE
ACROSS
1 When a substance can be
dissolved
2 A solid substance formed when
mixing liquid substances
3 Chemical Equation from which
spectator ions have been
removed
4 When a substance cannot be
dissolved anymore

DOWN
1 Rules indicating whether the
compound is soluble or
insoluble
2 A chemical reaction in which a
precipitate is form
3 An ion that does not
participate in the reaction and
appears on both the reactant
and product side
4 Chemical equation in which
all strong electrolyte are show
as ions
5 The maximum amount of
solute that will dissolve in a
given quantity of solvent
[20]

ENRICHMENT
CARD #1

riddle OR quiz

In this section you will be given a choice to answer a riddle or a question from our past discussions. For
example, if you cant answer the first question of the quiz, you can answer the first question of the riddle
instead, and proceed onto the second question of the quiz.
1. What do you call a tooth in a glass of
water?

1. What is a chemical equation written with


all compounds represented by their
chemical formulas?
_______________________________

_______________________________

2. Poor people have it. Rich people need it.


If you eat it you die. What is it?

2. What is a chemical equation in which any


compound that exists as ions in a solution
is represented as those ions, and species
that are insoluble are represented with
their chemical formulas?
_______________________________

_______________________________

3. What two things can you never eat for


breakfast?

_______________________________

4. What has hands but cannot clap?

3. What compounds are strong electrolytes?

_______________________________

_______________________________

5. What is as light as a feather, but even the


worlds strongest man couldnt hold it for
more than a minute?

4. Give three (3) Insoluble Compounds.

5. What dissolves a solute?


_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

6. What starts with an e but only has a


single letter in it?

6. What is the ability of a solute to dissolve a


solvent called? ______________________

_______________________________

7. Imagine you are swimming in the ocean


and a bunch of hungry sharks surround
you. How do you get out alive?

7. What are the four objectives of the SIM?

8. What is the primary mechanism for


transporting water from the atmosphere
to the surface of the earth?
_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

8. How many apples grow on a tree?

_______________________________

9. What kind of tree is carried in your hand?

9. What is the insoluble ionic solid that is


formed when Precipitation Reactions
occur? ______________________________

_______________________________

10. What has a foot but no leg?

_______________________________

_______________________________

10. It is a saying to remember whether a


compound will be soluble in a given
solvent.
_______________________________

[21]

ENRICHMENT
CARD #2

Using the solubility rules, predict if the following reactions will produce a
precipitation by writing P and write in the parentheses whether the
compound will be aqueous (aq) or solid (s).

__ 1. 2 AgNO3(aq) + MgBr2 2AgBr (__) + Mg (NO3)2 (__)


__ 2. 2 KCl(aq) + Pb (NO3)2(aq) 2 KNO3 (__) + PbCl2 (__)
__ 3. CdSO4 (aq) + K2S (aq) CdS(__) + K2 SO4 (__)
__ 4. 2 NaOH(aq) + MgCl2 (aq)2NaCl (__) + Mg(OH)2 (__)
__ 5. Fe (NO3)3(aq) + NaOH (aq) Fe (OH3) (__) + NaNO3 (__)
__ 6. 2 AgNO3 (aq) + CaCl2 (aq) 2 AgCl (__) + Ca(NO3)2 (__)

S
U
O
E
U
Q
A

SOLID

[22]

ASSESSMENT
CARD

Check your Understanding


wer these questions to see if
Now that you've gone over the lectures, ans

you understood it.

Classify each of the substances as being

Nos. 14-18 Write the precipitation reaction for

soluble (S) or insoluble (I) in water.

zinc nitrate(aq) and sodium phosphate(aq).


Determine its molecular formula, complete ionic

____ 1.

Potassium bromide

____ 2.

Lead(II) carbonate

____ 3.

Barium sulfate

____ 4.

Zinc hydroxide

____ 5.

Sodium acetate

________________________________________

____ 6.

Silver iodide

________________________________________

____ 7.

Cadmium(II) sulphide

____ 8.

Zinc carbonate

____ 9.

Silver acetate

equation and net ionic equation.

________________________________________

________________________________________

Nos. 19-20 Write the complete ionic and net

____ 10. Copper(II) sulfide

ionic equation of the given precipitation reaction:

Hg2(NO3)2(aq) + CuCl2(aq)
Hg2Cl2(s) + Cu(NO303)2(aq)

Balance the following molecular formulas


11. __FeBr3 + __ H2SO4 __ Fe2(SO4)3
+ __HBr

________________________________________
________________________________________

12. __ C4H6O3 + __ H2O __ C2H4O2

________________________________________

13. __ C2H4 + __ O2 __ CO2 + __H20

[23]

QUICK NOTES
Precipitation and Double Replacement
Reactions
In order to use these solubility rules, one first must understand the way that ions react.
Most precipitation reactions that occur are single replacement reactions or double
replacement reactions. A double replacement reaction occurs when two ionic
reactants dissociate and bond with the respective anion or cation from the other
reactant. The ions replace each other based on their charges as either a cation or an
anion. This can be thought of as "switching partners," that is, the tworeactants "lose"
their partner and form a bond with a different partner:

Figure 2:A double replacement reaction

A double replacement reaction is specifically classified as a precipitation


reactionwhenthe chemical equation in question occurs in aqueous solution and one
of theof the products formed is insoluble.An example of aprecipitation reactionis as
follows:
CdSO4(aq)+K2S(aq)CdS(s)+K2SO4(aq)
As you can see, both of the reactants are aqueous and the one of the products is
solid. Because the reactants are ionic and they are aqueous, i.e., in water, means
that these reactants will dissociate and thus are soluble. However, there are six
solubilityguidelines thathelp us predict which molecules areinsoluble in water. These
molecules will form a solid precipitatein solution.

[24]

QUICK NOTES
Solubility Rules
Whether or not a reaction will form a precipitate is dictated by the solubility
rules.These rules provide us with the guidelines thattell which ions form solids and
which remain in their ionic form in aqueous solution. The rules are to be followed from
the top down, meaning that if something is insoluble (or soluble) due to rule 1, it has
precedence over a higher-numbered rule, for example rule 4.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Salts formed with group 1 cations andNH+4cations aresoluble. There


are some exceptions for certainLi+salts
Acetates (C2H3O2), nitrates (NO3), and perchlorates (ClO4)
aresoluble
Bromides, chlorides, and iodides aresoluble
Sulfates (SO24) are soluble with the exception of sulfates formed
withCa2+,Sr2+, andBa2+
Salts containing silver, lead, and mercury (I) areinsoluble
Carbonates (CO23), phosphates (PO34), sulfides, oxides, and
hydroxides (OH) areinsoluble. Sulfides formed withgroup 2 cations
and hydroxides formed with calcium, strontium, and barium are
exceptions

If the rulesstate that an ion is soluble, then it will remain in its aqueous ion form. If an
ion is insoluble based on the solubility rules, then it will form a solid with an ion from
the other reactant in an equation. If all the ions in a reaction are shown to be soluble,
then no precipitation reaction occurs.

[25]

QUICK NOTES
Net Ionic Equations
To understand the definition of anet ionic equation, let's look back on the equation for the
double replacement reaction. Because this particular reaction is a precipitation reaction, we
can assign states of matter to each variable pair.
AB(aq) +CD(aq)AD(aq) +CB(s)
The first step to writing a net ionic equation is to separate the soluble (aqueous) reactants and
products into their respective cations and anions. Precipitates, as we know, do not dissociate
in water, so do not separate the solid into its ions. The resulting equation would looklike this:
A+(aq) +B-(aq) +C+(aq) +D-(aq)A+(aq) +D-(aq) +CB(s)
In the equation above, A+and D- ions are present on both sides of the equation. These are
calledspectator ionsbecause they remainunchanged throughout the reaction.Since they go
through the equation unchanged, theycan beeliminated to show thenet ionic equation:
C+(aq)+B-(aq)CB(s)
The net ionic equation only shows the precipitation reaction. A net ionic equation must be
balanced on both sides not only in terms of atoms of elements but also in terms of electric
charge. Precipitation reactions are usually represented solely by their net ionic equation. If all
products are aqueous, a net ionic equation cannot be written because all ions are cancelled
out as spectator ions. Therefore,no precipitationreaction occurs.

Applications and Examples


Precipitation reactions are useful for finding out whether or not a certain element is present in
a solution. If one knows that a precipitate is formed when a chemical reacts to form a
precipitate with lead, for example, one could test for lead in water sources by seeing if a
precipitate forms. In addition, precipitation reactions can be used to extract elements, such as
magnesium from seawater. Precipitation reactions even occur in our bodies between
antibodies and antigens, however the environment in which this occurs is still being studied.

[26]

Rea

REFERENCES:

d M
ore

Learn more about precipitation reactions, solubility and


molecular equations at home

STUDENTS FEEDBACK

Did you learn something from us?


1. h t t p : / / c h e m w i k i . u c d a v i s . e d u /
I n o r g a n i c _ C h e m i s t r y /
Reactions_in_Aqueous_Solutions/
Precipitation_Reactions
2. http://www.sparknotes.com/testprep/
b o o ks / s at 2 / c h e m i s t r y /
chapter6section3.rhtml
3. h t t p : / / w w w . o c c c . e d u / k m b a i l e y /
chem1115tutorials/Net_Ionic_Eqns.htm
4. https://www.boundless.com/chemistry/
textbooks/boundless-chemistrytextbook/aqueous-reactions-4/
precipitation-reactions-46/
solubility-239-7532/
5. Burdge and Overby, Chemistry-Atoms
First, New York City; McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc. 2012, pp. 312-316a

[27]

No
A little
YES!

ANSWER CARDS
NO PEEKING

[28]

ACTIVITY NO. 1

FIND ME!

[29]

ACTIVITY NO. 2

WHATS THE MYSTERY WORD?


S

1. Zn(NO3)2

2. KNO3

3. AgSO4

4. Na3PO4

5. PbS
6. Ca(OH)2

7. CdS
8. CaCO3

9. Al(OH)3

10. CuS

I
I

The mystery word is:

[30]

ACTIVITY NO. 3

match me!

ACTIVITY NO. 4

WHAT AM I?

[31]

ACTIVITY NO. 5 BALANCE ME!



1. 2 AgI + 1 Na2S 1 Ag2S + 2 NaI
2. 1 Ba3N2+ 6 H2O 3 Ba(OH)2+ 2 NH3
3. 3 CaCl2+ 2 Na3PO4 1 Ca3(PO4)2+ 6 NaCl
4. 4 FeS + 7 O2 2 Fe2O3+ 4 SO2
5. 1 PCl5+ 4 H2O 1 H3PO4+ 5 HCl
6. 2 As + 6 NaOH 2 Na3AsO3+ 3 H2
7. 3 Hg(OH)2+ 2 H3PO4 1 Hg3(PO4)2+ 6 H2O
8. 12 HClO4+ 1 P4O10 4 H3PO4+ 6 Cl2O7
9. 8 CO + 17 H2 1 C8H18+ 8 H2O
10. 10 KClO3+ 3 P4 3 P4O10+ 10 KCl

[32]

ACTIVITY NO. 6 THATS

SO IONIC

1. 3 (NH4)2CO3 (aq) + 2 Al(NO3)3 (aq) --> 6 NH4NO3 (aq) + Al2(CO3)3 (s)


Complete Ionic Equation:
+
23+
+
6 NH4 (aq) + 3 CO3 (aq) + 2 Al (aq) + 6 NO3 (aq) --> 6 NH4 (aq) + 6 NO3 (aq) + Al2(CO3)3 (s)
3+

Net Ionic Equation: 2 Al

2(aq) + 3 CO3 (aq) --> Al2(CO3)3 (s)

2. NaOH (aq) + H2SO4 (aq) --> Na2SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (l)


Complete Ionic Equation:
+
+
2+
22 Na (aq) + 2 OH (aq) + 2 H (aq) + SO4 (aq) --> 2 Na (aq) + SO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (l)
+
+
Net Ionic Equation: 2 OH (aq) 2 H (aq) --> 2 H2O (l) OH (aq) + H (aq) --> H2O (l)
3. Mg (s) + 2 HCl (aq) --> MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)
Complete Ionic Equation:
+
2+
Mg(s) + 2 H (aq) + 2 Cl (aq) --> Mg (aq) + 2 Cl (aq) + H2(g)
+
2+
Net Ionic Equation: Mg(s) + 2 H (aq) --> Mg (aq) + H2 (g)
4. Zn (s) + CuSO4 (aq) --> ZnSO4 (aq) + Cu (s)
2+

Complete Ionic Equation:Zn (s) + Cu

2+
(aq) + Cu (s)Zn(s) and Zn (aq) are not the same. One is elemental while the
2+
other is a monoatomic ion. The same applies to Cu(s) and Cu (aq).
Net Ionic Equation:Zn (s) + Cu

2+

22+
2(aq) + SO4 (aq) --> Zn (aq) + SO4 (aq) + Cu (s)
2+

(aq) --> Zn

5. Na2CO3 (aq) + 2 HNO3 (aq) --> 2 NaNO3 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)
Complete Ionic Equation:
+
2+
+
2 Na (aq) + CO3 (aq) + 2 H (aq) + 2 NO3 (aq) --> 2 Na (aq) + 2 NO3 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)
2+
Net Ionic Equation: CO3 (aq) + 2 H (aq) --> H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

[33]

ANSWERS FOR JUST FOR FUN


ANSWERS TO 4 PICS 1 WORD

ANSWERS TO CROSSWORD PUZZLE

1. Precipitation
2. Solubility
3. Ionic Equation
4. Spectator
5. Net Ionic

[34]

ANSWERS FOR ENRICHMENT CARD


ANSWERS TO ENRICHMENT CARD NO.1
Answers to riddles

Answers to quiz

1. Molar Solution

1. Molecular Equation

2. Nothing

2. Ionic Equation

3. Lunch and Dinner

3. Soluble Ionic Compounds

4. Clock

4. Carbonates, Hydroxides, Sulfides, Chlorides

5. Breath

5. Solvent

6. Envelope

6. Solubility

7. Stop Imagining.

7. See Objectives. p.4

8. All apples grow on trees.

8. Precipitation

9. A palm tree.

9. Precipitate

10. A ruler.

10. Like dissolves like.

ANSWERS TO ENRICHMENT CARD NO.2


1. 2AgBr (s) + Mg (NO3)2 (aq)
2. 2KNO3 (aq) + PbCl2 (s)
3. CdS (s) + K2SO4 (aq)
4. 2NaCl (aq) + Mg(OH)2 (s)
5. Fe (OH3) (s) + NaNO3 (aq)
6. 2 AgCl (s) + Ca(NO3)2 (aq)

[35]

ANSWERS FOR ASSESSMENT CARD


1. Soluble
2. Insoluble
3. Insoluble

14-18.
Molecular Equation
3Zn(NO3)2(aq) + 2Na3PO4(aq)6NaNO3(aq) +
Zn3(PO4)2(s)

4. Insoluble

Complete Ionic Equation

5. Soluble

3Zn2+(aq)+ 6NO3-(aq)+ 6Na+(aq) +2PO43-

6. Insoluble
7. Insoluble

(aq)6Na+(aq) +6NO3-(aq)+ Zn3(PO4)2(s)


Net Ionic Equation
3Zn2+(aq) + 2PO43-(aq)Zn3(PO4)2(s)

8. Insoluble
9. Soluble

19-20.

10. Insoluble

Complete Ionic Equation

11. 2FeBr3 +3 H2SO4 --

Hg22+(aq) + 2NO33-(aq) + Cu2+(aq) +2Cl-(aq)

Fe2(SO4)3 + 6HBr

Hg-2Cl2(s) + Cu2+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq)

12. C4H6O3 + H2O 2C2H4O2

Net Ionic Equation

13. C2H4 + 3O2 --- 2CO2 + 2H20

Hg22+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq)Hg2Cl2(s)

[36]

STRATEGIC
INTERVENTION
MATERIALS
IN CHEMISTRY
Submitted By:

Submitted To:

Marie Therese del Rosario


Joel Ivan Sarmiento
Louis Arthur Sta Ana

Mr. Prudencio G.
Galsim Jr.
(Chemistry II Teacher)

SY: 2014- 2015

[37]

CHEMYSTERY
All rights reserved
January 2015