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Physics 212

Fall 2016

Problem Set #1
NOTE: Show ALL work and ALL answers on a piece of separate loose leaf paper, not on these sheets.
1) Skid and Mitch are pushing on a sofa in opposite
directions with forces of 530 N and 370 N respectively.
The mass of the sofa is 48 kg. The sofa is initially at rest
before it accelerates. There is no friction acting on the
sofa. (a) Calculate the acceleration of the sofa. (b) What
velocity does the sofa have after it moves 2.5 m? (c) How
long does it take to travel 2.5 m?

Skid

Mitch

Sofa

5) Skid throws his guitar up


into the air with a velocity
of 45 m/s. Calculate the
maximum height that the
guitar reaches from the
point at which Skid lets go
of the guitar. Use energy
methods.

Guitar

Skid

6)

2) You have three force


vectors acting on a
mass at the origin.
Use the component
method we covered
in lecture to find
the magnitude and
direction of the resultant force acting
on the mass.
3) You have three force

vectors acting on a
mass at the origin.
Use the component
method we covered
in lecture to find
the
magnitude
and
direction of the resultant force acting on
the mass.

F2 = 90 N
35

y
F1 = 40 N
45

F3 = 60 N

F2 = 65 N

50

y
60

F1 = 45 N

A beam of mass 12 kg and length 2 m is attached to a


hinge on the left. A box of 80 N is hung from the beam
50 cm from the left end. You hold the beam horizontally
with your obviously powerful index finger. With what
force do you push up on the beam?
7) The tennis ball of mass 57 g which
you have hung in your garage that
lets you know where to stop your
car so you dont crush your garbage
cans is entertaining you by swinging
in a vertical circle of radius 75 cm.
At the bottom of its swing it has a
speed of 4 m/s. What is the tension
in the string at this point?

70

F3 = 85 N

4) A bowling ball rolls off of a table that is 1.5 m tall. The


ball lands 2.5 m from the base of the table. At what speed
did the ball leave the table?

ANSWERS:
1) a) 3.33 m/s2
b) 4.08 m/s
c) 1.23 s
2) 48.0 N, 61.0 N of W
3) 27.4 N, 16.1 S of E

4)
5)
6)
7)

4.52 m/s
103.3 m
78.8 N
1.78N

Physics 212
Fall 2016

Problem Set #2
1)

+ 5q

1q

Neutral

5) For the same charge distribution of Problem #4, calculate


the magnitude and direction of the net electrostatic force
on the charge on the far right.

Three identical metal spheres, A, B, and C initially have


net charges as shown. The q is just any arbitrary amount
of charge. Spheres A and B are now touched together and
then separated. Sphere C is then touched to sphere A and
separated from it. Lastly, sphere C is touched to sphere B
and then separated from it. (a) How much charge ends
up on sphere C? What is the total charge on the
three spheres (b) before they are allowed to touch each
other and (c) after they have touched? (d) Explain the
relevance of the answers to (b) and (c).

Mitch

Skid

Skid of 40 kg and Mitch of 60 kg are standing on ice on


opposite sides of an infinite black pit. They are each
carrying neutral massless spheres while standing 8 m
apart. Suppose that 3.0 x 1015 electrons are removed from
one sphere and placed on the other. (a) Calculate the
magnitude of the electrostatic force on each sphere. Are
the forces the same or different? Explain. (b) Calculate
the magnitude of the accelerations for Skid and Mitch at
the moment they are 8 m apart. Are they the same or
different? Explain. (c) As Skid and Mitch move closer
together do their accelerations increase, decrease, or
remain the same? Explain.
3) An electron travels in a circular orbit around a stationary
proton (i.e. a hydrogen atom). In order to move in a circle
there needs to be a centripetal force acting on the electron.
This centripetal force is due to the electrostatic force
between the electron and the proton. The electron has a
kinetic energy of 2.18 x 1018 J. (a) What is the speed of
the electron? (b) What is the radius of orbit of the
electron?

+
3 cm

Qa

Qb

Two charged spheres are connected to a spring as shown.


The unstretched length of the spring is 14 cm. (a) With
Qa = 6 C and Qb = 7 C, the spring compresses to an
equilibrium length of 10 cm.
Calculate the spring
constant. (b) Qb is now replaced with a different charge
Qc. The spring now has an equilibrium length of 20 cm.
What is the magnitude of the charge Qc? (c) What is the
sign of Qc? How do you know this?

Infinite
Black Pit

2)

4)

6)

7)

4 C

12 C

+
8 cm

The two charges above are fixed and cannot move. Find
the location in between the charges that you could put a
proton so that the proton would have a net force of zero.

8) Three charges are fixed to an xy coordinate system.


A charge of 12 C is on the y axis at y = +3.0 m.
A charge of +18 C is at the origin. Lastly, a charge of
+ 45 C is on the x axis at x = +3.0 m. Calculate the
magnitude and direction of the net electrostatic force on
the charge x = +3.0 m.

9)

Four charges are situated


at the corners of a square
each side of length 18 cm.
The charges have the same
magnitude of q = 4 C but
different signs. See diagram.
Find the magnitude and
direction of the net force on
the lower right charge.

2 cm

Three charges are arranged as shown. From the left to


the right the values of the charges are 6 C, 1.5 C, and
2 C. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the net
electrostatic force on the charge on the far left.

10) For the same charge distribution of problem #9, find the
magnitude and direction of the net force on the upper
right charge.

14)

11)

4q

+4q

+9q

12 cm
+3q

+8q

+3q

+6q

1q

4q

All the charges above are multiples of q where q = 1C.


The horizontal and vertical distances between the charges
are 15 cm. Find the magnitude and direction of the net
electric force on the center charge.
12) Use the same charge distribution as in problem #11 but
change all even-multiple charges to the opposite sign.
Find the magnitude and direction of the net electric force
on the center charge.
13) Two small metallic spheres, each
of mass 0.30 g, are suspended by
light strings from a common point
as shown. The spheres are given
the same electric charge and it is
found that the two come to
equilibrium when the two strings
have an angle of 20 between
them. If each string is 20.0 cm
long, what is the magnitude of the
charge on each sphere?

20

A meter stick of 15 kg is suspended by a string at the


60 cm location. A mass, m, is hung at the 80 cm mark.
A massless charged sphere of + 4 C is attached to the
meter stick at the left end. Below this charge is another
charge that is fixed 12 cm from the other when the meter
stick is horizontal. It has a charge of 4 C. Calculate
the mass, m, so that the meter stick remains horizontal.
15) You have two charged objects (A and B) that are a
certain distance apart. (a) You increase the distance
between them by a factor of 3. In order for the force to
stay constant, by what factor does one of the charges
have to change? (b) One charge increases by a factor of
2 while the force decreases by a factor of 1/2. By what
factor did the distance between them have to change?
(c) The objects are initially separated by a distance of
7.2 m. Object A has 5 C of charge. You move the
objects so that the distance between them changes to
3.3 m. If you keep the force constant and the charge on
B constant, what does the charge on A have to be?
16) You have two charged objects (A and B) that are a
certain distance apart. (a) You decrease the charge on
one of the objects by a factor of 1/4. In order for the
force to stay constant, by what factor does the distance
between them have to change? (b) The distance
between them decreases by a factor of 1/2 while the force
increases by a factor of 3. By what factor did the charge
on one of the objects have to change? (c) Object A has
6.4 C of charge and the force between the objects is
2.5 N. You now change the charge on object A to 9.3 C.
If you keep the distance between them constant and the
charge on B constant, what is the new force between
them?

ANSWERS:
1) a) +1.5q
b) +4q
c) +4q
2) a) FE, Skid = 32.4 N
b) aSkid = 0.81 m/s2
3) a) 2.19 x 106 m/s
b) 5.27 x 1011 m
4) FE = 133.2 N,
5) FE = 24.3 N,
6) a) 945 N/m
b) 4.2 x 105 C
7) 2.93 cm

8) 0.648 N, 17.2
9) 4.06 N, 45
10) 6.66 N, 64.5
11) 19.69 N, 80.1
12) 18.5 N, 23.4
13) 1.67 x 108 C
14) 10.56 kg
15) a) 9
b) 2
c) 1.05 C
16) a) 1/2 b) 3/4
c) 3.63 N

Physics 212
Fall 2016

Problem Set #3
1) A charge of 1.5 C is placed on the x axis at
x = +0.55 m, while a charge of +3.5 C is placed at
the origin. (a) Calculate the magnitude and direction of
the net electric field on the x-axis at x = +0.8 m.
(b) Determine the magnitude and direction of the force
that would act on a charge of 7.0 C if it was placed on
the x axis at x = +0.8 m.

7)

8q

2) For the same charge distribution of problem #1, do the


following. (a) Calculate the magnitude and direction of
the net electric field on the x-axis at x = +0.4 m.
(b) Determine the magnitude and direction of the force
that would act on a charge of +7.0 C if it was placed on
the x axis at x = +0.4 m.
3)

+6q

+
35 cm

+6q

q1

+9q
20 cm

q3

+9q

5q

+2q

4q

All the charges above are multiples of q where


q = 1C. The horizontal and vertical distances between
the charges are 25 cm. Find the magnitude and direction
of the net electric field at point P.

q2

Charges are placed at the three corners of a rectangle as


shown. The charge values are q1 = 6 nC, q2 = 4 nC, and
q3 = 2.5 nC. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the
electric field at the fourth corner.
4) For the same charge distribution of problem #3, with the
exception that you change both q1 and q2 to the opposite
sign, calculate the magnitude and direction of the electric
field at the fourth corner.
5) A drop of oil has a mass of 7.5 x 108 kg and a charge of
4.8 nC. The drop is floating because it is in a uniform
electric field. (a) Calculate the magnitude and direction of
the electric field. (b) If the sign of the charge is changed
to positive, then what is the acceleration of the oil drop?
(c) If the positive oil drop starts from rest, then calculate
the speed of the oil drop after it has traveled 25 cm.
6) A proton accelerates from rest in a uniform electric field
of magnitude 700 N/C. At a later time, its speed is
1.8 x 106 m/s. (a) Calculate the acceleration of the proton.
(b) How much time is needed for the proton to reach this
speed? (c) How far has the proton traveled during this
time? (d) What is the protons kinetic energy at this
time?

8) Use the same charge distribution as in problem #7 but


change all even-multiple charges to the opposite sign.
Find the magnitude and direction of the net electric field
at point P.

9)

vo

vo

In the above two diagrams, M & S, an electron is given an


initial velocity, vo, of 1.1 x 106 m/s in an electric field of
50 N/C. Ignore gravitation effects. (a) In diagram M,
how far does the electron travel before it stops? (b) In
diagram S, how far does the electron move vertically after
it has traveled 6 cm horizontally? (Hint: Think projectile
motion)

15) Use the same charge distribution as in problem #14


but change all odd-multiple charges to the opposite
sign. Find the magnitude of the net electric potential
at point P.

10) A 2 g plastic sphere is suspended


by a 25 cm long piece of string.
Do not ignore gravity. The sphere
is hanging in a uniform electric
field of magnitude 1100 N/C. See
diagram. When the sphere is in
equilibrium the string makes a 20
angle with the vertical. What is
the magnitude and state the sign of
the net charge on the sphere?
11)

20

4 C

12 C

+
6 cm

The two charges above are fixed and cannot move. Find a
point in space where the total electric field will equal
zero.
12)

4 C

12 C

+
6 cm

The two charges above are fixed and cannot move. Find a
point in space where the total electric potential will equal
zero.
13)

A positive charge of 16 nC is nailed down with a #6


brad. Point M is located 7 mm away from the charge
and point G is 18 mm away. (a) Calculate the electric
potential at Point M. (b) If you put a proton at point
M, what electric potential energy does it have? (c) You
release the proton from rest and it moves to Point G.
Through what potential difference does it move?
(d) Determine the velocity of the proton at point G.
14)

8q

+6q

+9q

5q

+2q

+9q

+6q

4q

All the charges above are multiples of q where


q = 1C. The horizontal and vertical distances between
the charges are 25 cm. Find the magnitude of the net
electric potential at point P.

16) A parallel plate setup has a distance


between the plates of 5 cm. An electron is
placed very near the negative plate and

released from rest. By the time it reaches


the positive plate it has a velocity of
8 x 106 m/s. (a) As the electron moves
between the plates what is the net work
done on the charge? (b) What is the potential difference that the electron moves through? (c) What is
the magnitude and direction of the electric field in
between the plates?
17) CSUF Staff Physicist & Sauv Dude, Bobby
Wright designs a lab experiment that consists
of a vertical rod with a fixed bead of charge
Q = 1.25 x 106 C at the bottom. See
q
diagram. Another bead that is free to slide on
the rod without friction has a mass of 25 g and
charge, q. Bobby releases the movable bead
from rest 95 cm above the fixed bead and it
gets no closer than 12 cm to the fixed bead.
(a) Calculate the charge, q, on the movable
Q
bead. Bobby then pushes the movable bead
down to 8 cm above Q. He releases it from rest.
(b) What is the maximum height that the bead reaches?

ANSWERS:
1) a) 1.67 x 105 N/C,
WEST
b) 1.17 N, EAST
2) a) 7.97 x 105 N/C,
EAST
b) 5.6 N, WEST
3) 516 N/C, 61.3
4) 717 N/C, 69.8
5) a) 153.1 N/C,
SOUTH
b) 19.6 m/s2
c) 3.13 m/s
6) a) 6.71 x 1010 m/s2
b) 2.68 x 105 s
c) 24.1 m
d) 2.71 x 1015 J
7) 1.23 x 106 N/C, 80.5
8) 3.06 x 105 N/C, 48.4

9) a) 6.89 cm
b) 1.31 cm
10) 6.49 x 106 C,
NEGATIVE
11) 8.2 cm left of 4
12) 1.5 cm right of 4
13) a) 2.06 x 104 V
b) 3.29 x 1015 J
c) 1.26 x 104 V
d) 1.55 x 106 m/s
14) 4.77 x 105 V
15) 7.87 x 104 V
16) a) 2.92 x 10-17 J
b) 182.2 V
c) 3644 N/C
17) a) 2.48 x 106 C
b) 1.42 m

Physics 212
Fall 2016

Problem Set #4
1) You have a parallel plate capacitor of plate separation
0.1 mm that is filled with a dielectric of neoprene rubber.
The area of each plate is 1.8 cm2. (a) Calculate the
capacitance of the capacitor. The capacitor is charged by
taking electrons from one plate and depositing them on
the other plate. You repeat this process until the potential
difference between the plates is 350 V. (b) How many
electrons have been transferred in order to accomplish
this?

6) A battery is attached to a capacitor and allowed to charge


up. The plate separation is increased by a factor of 4.
(a) By what factor does the capacitance change? (b) By
what factor does the charge on the capacitor change?
(c) By what factor does the energy density change? The
battery is now removed from the capacitor and the plate
separation is decreased by a factor of 1/2. (d) By what
factor does the charge on the capacitor change? (e) By
what factor does the energy stored in the capacitor
change?

2) A capacitor with ruby mica has an effective electric field


between the plates of 4600 V/m. The plates of the
capacitor are separated by a distance of 4 mm. 50 mJ of
energy is stored in the electric field. (a) What is the
capacitance of the capacitor? (b) Calculate the energy
density in between the plates.

7) A capacitor of 10 F is charged by connecting it to a


battery of 20 V. The battery is removed and you pull the
plates apart so that you triple the distance between them.
How much energy does the capacitor gain when you pull
the plates apart?

3) A capacitor with a dielectric of paper is charged to 0.5 mC.


The plates of the capacitor are separated by a distance of
8 mm. 40 mJ of energy is stored in the electric field.
(a) What is the strength of the effective electric field?
(b) Calculate the energy density in between the plates.

8) You attach a battery of 15 V to an air-filled capacitor of


5 F and let it charge up. You then remove the battery
and attach the capacitor to a different uncharged capacitor
of 2 F. What is the amount of charge on each capacitor
after they come to equilibrium?

4) The flash on a disposable


camera contains a capacitor
of 65 F. The capacitor has
a charge of 0.6 mC stored on
it. (a) Determine the energy
that is used to produce a
flash of light. (b) Assuming that the flash lasts for 6 ms,
find the power of the flash. (Think back to 211.)

9) A defibrillator is a device that


delivers an electric shock to a
patient whose heart has either
stopped or is in ventricular
fibrillation (i.e. not beating
properly). This shock causes the
heart to start beating in a regular
pattern. The energy to cause
this shock is stored in a capacitor. The capacitor has to be
charged first before the energy can be released. This is
similar to the camera flash example discussed in class.
Let's say that the capacitor used in the defibrillator has a
capacitance of 28 F, a plate separation of 50 m, and is
an "air" capacitor. The capacitor is charged by a voltage of
3500 V. (a) How much energy is released to the patient?
(b) What is the energy density in the electric field of the
capacitor?

5) Some of the more expensive


M
computer keyboards use keys
Dielectric
that function like a capacitor.
When you push down on a
Plates
key it decreases the distance
between the plates of the
capacitor. The computer senses the capacitance value and
when it becomes a certain "threshold" value the computer
knows the key has been pushed. The dielectric between
the plates is soft and can compress as you push the key.
Let's say that initially the plate separation is 5 mm and the
threshold capacitance is 15 pF. (a) If you push the key
and decrease the plate separation by a factor of 1/3, by
what factor does the capacitance change? (b) You swap
out the dielectric so that it changes by a factor of 2. By
what factor does the plate separation change if you want
the capacitor value to change by a factor of 8? (c) Going
back to the original key, let's say the capacitance value is
6.33 pF when the key is not pressed. What is the plate
separation when the capacitor reaches the threshold value?

10) The membrane of a cell in your body can act as a


capacitor. The thickness of such membranes is around
8 nm. The inner wall of the membrane accumulates
negative charge and acts as one plate of a capacitor and
the outer wall accumulates positive charge and acts as
the other plate of the capacitor. A possible capacitance
of a cell membrane is 25 pF. The membrane itself
would represent the dielectric in between the two
plates. Unlike a capacitor in which we don't want
charges to pass from one plate to another, for a cell
membrane, it does. A sodium ion, Na+, is forced to pass
through the membrane from inside the cell to outside. It
does this even though there is an electric field of about

9 x 106 V/m in the membrane that is trying to force it to


go the other way. This action is called "pumping" since
this positively charged sodium ion doesn't want to move
from the negative side to the positive side. Assume the
area of the cell wall is 5 x 103 mm2. (a) Calculate the
dielectric constant of the cell membrane. (b) What is
the energy stored in the cell membrane? (c) Calculate
and state the sign of the work done by the electric field
on the sodium ion as it leaves the cell.
11)

A
4 F
12 F

20 F
36 F
6 F

8 F

16 F

30 F

18 F
20 F

B
75 F

(a) Determine the equivalent capacitance between points


A and B for the capacitors shown in the circuit above.
(b) A battery of 10 V is attached to points A and B in
the circuit. What is the total charge coming from the
battery to charge up all the capacitors in the circuit?
14) Design a circuit that has an equivalent capacitance of
1.50 F using at least one of each of the following
capacitors: a 1 F, a 2 F, and a 6 F. [You must also
show where your A and B terminals are located.]
15) Three capacitors are connected in series. Their values are
15 F, 30 F, and 40 F. The capacitors are connected
to a battery of 25 V. (a) Draw a circuit diagram.
(b) Find the equivalent capacitance of the circuit you
drew. (c) Analyze the circuit by filling out a QCV chart.

12 F

6 F

22 F

50 F

(a) Determine the equivalent capacitance between points


A and B for the capacitors shown in the circuit above.
(b) A battery of 10 V is attached to points A and B in
the circuit. What is the total charge coming from the
battery to charge up all the capacitors in the circuit?
A

30 F

4 F

6 F

20 F

12)

13)

12 F

(a) Determine the equivalent capacitance between points


A and B for the capacitors shown in the circuit above.
(b) A battery of 10 V is attached to points A and B in
the circuit. What is the total charge coming from the
battery to charge up all the capacitors in the circuit?

16) Three capacitors are connected in parallel. Their values


are 5 F, 10 F, and 20 F. The capacitors are
connected to a battery of 5 V. (a) Draw a circuit
diagram. (b) Find the equivalent capacitance of the
circuit you drew. (c) Analyze the circuit by filling out a
QCV chart.

ANSWERS:
1) a) 1.067 x 1010 F
b) 2.34 x 1011 e
2) a) 2.95 x 104 F
b) 5.05 x 104 J/m3
3) a) 2 x 104 V/m
b) 6.55 x 103 J/m3
4) a) 2.8 x 103 J
b) 0.467 W
5) a) 3
b) 1/4
c) 2.11 mm
6) a) 1/4
b) 1/4
c) 1/16 d) 1
e) 1/2
7) 4 x 103 J

8) 2.14 x 105 C,
5.36 x 105 C
9) a) 171.5 J
b) 2.17 x 104 J/m3
10) a) 4.52
b) 6.48 x 1014 J
c) 1.15 x 1020 J
NEGATIVE
11) a) 4 F b) 40 C
12) a) 9 F b) 90 C
13) a) 10 F b) 100 C
14) Variety of solutions
15) b) 8 F
16) b) 35 F

Physics 212
Fall 2016

Problem Set #5
1) You have a piece of electrical steel wire that is 24 m long.
You attach this wire to the terminals of a AA battery
which supplies 1.5 V. The wire releases 270 J of heat in
5 minutes. (a) How many electrons pass through any
point in the wire in 10 minutes? (b) Calculate the radius
of the cable.
2)

An Oppo Digital Blu-Ray player [DMP-95] (Yes, I am an


audiophile.) has a power cable which has a metal that
allows 9 x 1019 electrons per cubic millimeter. On average,
the cable passes 1 x 1022 electrons every hour. The
electrons passing through the player have a drift velocity
of 4.5 m/s. (a) What current does the Oppo draw?
(b) Calculate the diameter of the cable?
3) The
Large
Hadron
Collider at CERN creates
proton beams which
collide together resulting
in pictures like the one
at the right. Some of
these beams can have a
radius of 1.1 mm with a
current of 1.5 mA. The
kinetic energy of each
proton in this beam is 2.5 MeV. (a) Calculate the
number density of the protons in the beam. (b) If the
beam is aimed at a metal target, how many protons would
strike the screen in 1 minute?
4) A modern hair dryer uses a
nichrome heating element
that typically is 30-gauge wire
which is around 40 cm in
length. The gauge rating on a
wire refers to its diameter.
In this case, 30-gauge wire has
a diameter of 0.254 mm.
Nichrome has a number
density of 7.94 x 1028 e/m3.
If the drift velocity of the electrons in the wire is
18.7 mm/s, what is the voltage that the hair dryer is
plugged into?

5) A nichrome cable has a current of 140 A running through


it. Between two points on the cable that are 0.22 m apart,
there is a potential difference of 0.036 V (a) Calculate the
diameter of the cable. (b) How much heat energy does
this part of the wire emit in 1 minute?
6) A Rockstar toaster uses a
tungsten heating element
(wire).
The toaster is
plugged into a standard
wall outlet in Kankakee,
Illinois. When the toaster
is turned on at 20 C, the
initial current is 1.6 A. A
few seconds later, the
toaster heats up and the current is 1.20 A. (a) What is
the new temperature of the heating element? (b) What is
the rate that energy is dissipated from the heating
element?
7) Skid runs a 10 mile line of copper cable out to his shack in
the sticks so he can have electricity to play Lord of the
Rings Online. At 20C the resistance of the cable is 12 .
At 50C the cable emits 1.5 kJ every second. (a) What is
the resistance of the cable at 50C? (b) What is the
current running through the cable at 50C? (c) What is
the cross-sectional area of the wire?
8)

Wire #1

Wire #2

Two copper wires are soldered together. Wire #1 has a


radius of 0.7 mm. Wire #2 has a radius of 1.2 mm.
Copper has a number density of 8.47 x 1028 e/m3. The
drift velocity in Wire #1 is 0.72 mm/s. If you want the
current to remain the same in both, what is the drift
velocity in Wire #2?
9) Skid's takes his dog, Neutrino, out
for a walk after midnight. He brings
along his special dog flashlight so
he can see in the forest behind
his mansion. The flashlight has a
1.75 Watt bulb inside of it and
passes 150 C of charge during the
time it takes to walk out to Neutrino's favorite tree.
At the tree, the bulb burns out, and Skid replaces it with a
1.2 Watt bulb from his pocket. How much charge does
the new bulb pass on the walk back to the mansion if
it takes the same amount of time?

10

30

10)

16

15) Three resistors are connected in parallel. Their values are


15 , 30 , and 40 . The resistors are connected to a
battery of 24 V. (a) Draw a circuit diagram. (b) Find
the equivalent resistance of the circuit you drew.
(c) Analyze the circuit by filling out a VIR chart.

A
8

54

16) Analyze the following circuit using a VIR chart.

R1

14

27

Determine the equivalent resistance between points A


and B for the resistors shown in the circuit above.
11)

B
18

Given:
R1 = 15
R2 = 42
R3 = 27
R4 = 54

36 V
R3

R4

R2
60

30

17) Analyze the following circuit using a VIR chart.

R1
96

Given:
R1 = 25
R2 = 14
R3 = 12
R4 = 35

18

32

48 V
R3
R2

R4

Determine the equivalent resistance between points A


and B for the resistors shown in the circuit above.
18) Analyze the following circuit using a VIR chart.
12)

30

12
7

20

50
30

45

60
Determine the equivalent resistance between points A
and B for the resistors shown in the circuit above.
13) Design a circuit that has an equivalent resistance of
1.00 using at least one of each of the following
resistors: a 1 , a 2 , and a 6 . [You must also show
where your A and B terminals are located.]
14) Three resistors are connected in series. Their values are
5 , 10 , and 20 . The capacitors are connected to a
battery of 70 V. (a) Draw a circuit diagram. (b) Find
the equivalent resistance of the circuit you drew.
(c) Analyze the circuit by filling out a VIR chart.

Given:
R1 = 12
R2 = 3
R3 = 8
R4 = 36
R5 = 12
R6 = 15

R1

R2
28 V

R5

R4

R3
R6

19) Swap the location of the battery and R1 in the circuit


from problem #18. Analyze the circuit using a VIR
chart.

ANSWERS:
NOTE: Some of these answers are minimal since there are
checks that you can do to verify your answers.
1) a) 2.25 x 1021 e
b) 1.45 mm
2) a) 0.444 A
b) 2.96 mm
3) a) 1.13 x 1014 p+/m3
b) 5.63 x 1017 p+
4) 95.0 V
5) a) 0.033 m
b) 302 J
6) a) 94.1C, b) 144 W
7) a) 13.4 , b) 10.6 A
c) 2.31 x 105 m2

8) 0.245 mm/s
9) 103 C
10) 4
11) 14
12) 22
14) b) REQ = 35
15) b) REQ = 8
16) REQ = 12
17) REQ = 24
18) REQ = 2
19) REQ = 11.55

Physics 212
Fall 2016

Problem Set #6
6) The battery in this problem has an internal resistance of
0.15 . (a) Analyze the following circuit using a VIR
chart. (b) Is this circuit well designed? Discuss, explain.

1) Analyze the following circuit using a VIR chart.

Given:
R1 = 28
R2 = 6
R3 = 84
R4 = 7
R5 = 54

R2

R1
R3

R5

50 V

2) Analyze the following circuit using a VIR chart.

R2

R1

Given:
VB = 60 V
V2 = 50 V

VB

I1 = 2 A
I4 = 3 A
R3 = 8

3) Analyze the following circuit using a VIR chart.

I2 = 0.4 A
I4 = 0.5 A
R1 = 36
R3 = 60
R4 = 36
R6 = 32

R2

R3

R1

R4
R5
VB

5) The battery in this problem has an internal resistance of


1 . (a) Analyze the following circuit using a VIR chart.
(b) Is this circuit well designed? Discuss, explain.

I1 = 4 A
R3 = 12
R4 = 8

R1
VB

R2

R3
R4

R2

R5

R4

R7

R6

7) Analyze the circuit from problem


#2 using a VIR chart. You are
using only the diagram in #2, not
the values. New values are given at
the right. You may use a circuit
trick for this circuit, but only for
ONE value.

Given:
VB = 63 V
R1 = 8
R2 = 20
R3 = 35
R4 = 49

8) Analyze the circuit from problem


#3 using a VIR chart. You are
using only the diagram in #3, not
the values. New values are given at
the right. You may use a circuit
trick for this circuit, but only for
ONE value.

Given:
VB = 75 V
R1 = 16
R2 = 40
R3 = 48
R4 = 24
R5 = 8
R6 = 24

9) Analyze the following circuit using a VIR chart. You may


use circuit trick(s), but only for ONE value.

R6

4) A load of 3.5 is connected across a 12 V battery. You


measure a voltage of 9.5 V across the terminals of the
battery. (a) Find the internal resistance of the battery.
(b) Is this circuit well designed? Discuss, explain.

Given:
VB = 32 V
V2 = 16 V

R3

R4

R3

Given:
V5 = 32 V

R1

Given:
R1 = 18
R2 = 32
R3 = 15
55 V
R4 = 21
R5 = 42
R6 = 30
R7 = 52

R4

Given:
VB = 50 V
R1 = 9
R2 = 4
R3 = 18
R4 = 4
R5 = 7
R6 = 12

R1

R2
R3

R4
R5

10) Using the information you are


given for the circuit at the
right, answer the following.
(a) Determine the magnitude
and direction of the current in
the circuit.
(b) Determine
which point, A or B, is at a
higher potential.

R6

11
17 V

13
23 V
B

11) Calculate the unknown currents I1, I2, and I3 for the
circuit below.

I1

15) Given the circuit below, do the following. (a) Find all
voltages and currents for the resistors at the instant the
switch is closed. (b) After the switch has been closed a
long time, find all voltages and currents for the resistors.

10 V
I2
6

I3

I1

8V

R3

16)

Given:

I2

VB = 36 V

R1

I3

13) Calculate the unknown currents I1, I2, and I3 for the
circuit below.

I1

VB

C2

20 V

25 V

14) Given the circuit at the


right in which the following
values are used: R1 = 6 M,
R2 = 12 M, and C = 3 F.
(a) You close the switch at
t = 0. Find all voltages and
currents for the resistors.
(b) After a long time find all
voltages and currents for the
resistors. (c) Find the halflife of the circuit.

R3

I3

I2

C1

R4

12
3

R2

10 V

C2

Given the circuit below, do the


following. (a) Find all voltages and
currents for the resistors at the instant
the switch is closed. (b) After the
switch has been closed a long time, find
all voltages and currents for the
resistors.

R1 = 10
R2 = 4
R3 = 40
R4 = 4

R4

C1

12) Calculate the unknown currents I1, I2, and I3 for the
circuit below.

22 V

VB

R1 = 60
R2 = 45
R3 = 90
R4 = 15

R2

VB = 50 V

25 V

10

R1

Given:

17) Given the circuit below, do the following. (a) Find all
voltages and currents for the resistors at the instant the
switch is closed. (b) After the switch has been closed a
long time, find all voltages and currents for the resistors.

VB
24 V

R2

C1

R1

R1

R2

R3

C
Given:
VB = 35 V
R1 = 30
R2 = 15

R3 = 5
R4 = 8
R5 = 12

C2

R4
R5

ANSWERS:
NOTE: These answers are minimal since there are checks
that you can do to verify your answers.
1) REQ = 25
2) REQ = 12
3) REQ = 40
4) a) 0.923
5) REQ = 8
6) REQ = 12.15
7) REQ = 21
8) REQ = 25
9) REQ = 20
10) a) 0.167 A
b) B

14) a)
b)
c)
15) a)
b)
16) a)
b)
17) a)
b)

REQ = 4 M
REQ = 6 M
25 s
REQ = 20
REQ = 36
REQ = 12
REQ = 18
REQ = 14
REQ = 20

Physics 212
Fall 2016

Problem Set #7
1) Using the drawings below: (a) Find the direction of the force on a
proton moving through the magnetic field. (b) Repeat with an
electron.
v
v
B
v

B
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2) An alpha particle has a charge of +2e and a mass of


6.64 x 10-27 kg. It is accelerated from rest through a potential
difference of 1.2 x 106 V and then enters a uniform magnetic field
whose strength is 2.2 T. The alpha particle moves perpendicular
to the field. Calculate (a) the speed of the alpha particle, (b) the
magnitude of the magnetic force exerted on it, and (c) the radius
of its circular path.

5) Two very long wires, as shown in the


diagram at the right, each carry
currents of 8.0 A. However, they flow
in opposite directions. The distance
between the two wires is 0.12 m.
Calculate the net magnetic field at
point A, which is 0.03 m to the left of
the left wire, and at point B, which is
halfway between the two wires.

Velocity Selector

Electric
Field
B

6) A mass spectrometer is shown below. A single charged ion is shot


through the velocity selector into the rectangular deflection
chamber. The electric field between the plates of the velocity
selector is 950 V/m. The magnetic field in the velocity selector
and the deflection chamber is 0.93 T. Calculate the radius of the
path of the singly charged ion that has a mass of 2.18 x 10-26 kg.

3) A 50 g horizontal copper rod which rests along a North and South


line has a length of 1.0 m. Calculate the magnitude and direction
of the minimum current in the rod so that it will float in a
horizontal magnetic field of 2.0 T pointing to the West.
4) A 0.5 m length of wire is bent to
form a single square loop. The loop
has 12 A of current running
through it. The loop is placed in a
magnetic field of 0.12 T as shown
at the right (side view of loop).
What is the maximum torque that
the loop can experience?

7) An electron moves at a speed of 1.0 x 104 m/s in a circular path of


radius 2 cm inside a solenoid. The magnetic field of the solenoid
is perpendicular to the plane of the electrons path. Calculate
(a) the strength of the magnetic field inside the solenoid and
(b) the current in the solenoid if it has 25 turns per centimeter.

1) a)
b)
c)
d)

ANSWERS:
P-West, E-East
2) a) 1.08 x 107 m/s
P-Into, E-Out of
b) 7.6 x 10-12 N
P-Out of, E-Into
c) 1.02 x 10-1 m
P-North, E-South 3) 0.245 A, North
4) 0.023 Nm
5) a) 4.3 x 10-5 T
b) 5.3 x 10-5 T

6) 1.49 x 10-4 m
7) a) 2.8 x 10-6 T
b) 0.89 mA

Physics 212
Fall 2016

Problem Set #8
1) A uniform magnetic field of magnitude 0.078 T passes through a
circular area of radius 0.1 m. The magnetic field lines are oriented
at an angle of 25 with respect to a line that is normal to the
circular area. Calculate the flux through the surface.

6) Find the direction of the induced current through the resistor in


the drawing below (a) at the instant the switch is closed, (b) after
the switch has been closed for several minutes, and (c) at the
instant the switch is opened.

2) Skid is flying his Cessna Citation II twin-engine jet. The length of


the wings from tip to tip is 59 m. The jet is flying horizontally at
a speed of 220 m/s. The earths magnetic field has a vertical
component of magnitude 5.0 x 10-6 T. Calculate the induced
EMF between the wing tips.
3) A straight wire is partially bent into the shape of a circle as shown
below. The radius of the circle is 2.0 cm. A uniform magnetic
field of magnitude 0.55 T is directed perpendicular to the plane of
the circle. Each end of the wire is then pulled so that the area of
the circle shrinks to zero. This is done during a time of 0.25 s.
Calculate the magnitude of the average induced EMF between the
ends of the wire.

7) Skid needs to design a 60 Hz AC generator to run his stage


amplifier for his gig at Lollapalooza. The generator needs to
contain a 150-turn coil whose area is 0.85 m2 while its maximum
EMF needs to be 5500 V. What should be the magnitude of the
magnetic field in which the coil rotates?
8) A 300-turn solenoid has a radius of 5 cm and a length of 20 cm.
Find the energy stored in it when the current is 0.5 A.

4) A circular loop of wire with a radius of 20 cm is placed in a


uniform magnetic field of 0.2 T. The field is perpendicular to the
plane of the loop. The loop is removed from the field in 0.3 s.
Calculate the average induced EMF in the loop while it is being
pulled out of the field.

9) A step-up transformer is designed to have an output voltage of


2200 V RMS when the primary is connected across a 110 V RMS
source. (a) If there are 80 turns on the primary winding, how
many turns are required on the secondary? (b) If a load resistor
across the secondary draws a current of 1.5 A RMS, what is the
RMS current in the primary, assuming ideal conditions?

5) A long, straight wire has a current


running through it.
Above the
straight wire is a loop of wire that is
moved towards the straight wire. The
loop then passes over the straight wire
and continues downward, away from
the straight wire.
See diagram.
Determine the direction (clockwise or
counterclockwise) of the induced
current in the loop as it is (a) moved
towards the wire from above,
or (b) moved away from the wire.

ANSWERS:
1) 2.2 mWb
2) 65 mV
3) 2.8 mV
4) 84 mV
5) a) CW b) CW

6)
7)
8)
9)

a) East b) No I c) West
0.11 T
5.55 x 10-4 J
a) 1600 turns
b) 30 A

Physics 212
Fall 2016

Problem Set #9
1) An RMS voltage of 100 V is applied to a purely resistive load of
5.0 . Find (a) the MAX voltage applied, (b) the RMS current
supplied, and (c) the MAX current supplied.
2) A 7.5 F capacitor is attached to an AC source. It has a reactance
of 168 . What is the frequency of the AC source?
3) An inductor has a reactance of 480 when attached to an AC
source of frequency 1350 Hz. What is the reactance when the
frequency is 450 Hz?
4) An AC source, a 275 resistor, an inductor of inductive reactance
648 , and a capacitor of capacitive reactance 415 are arranged
to form a series RLC circuit. The current in the circuit is 0.233 A.
Calculate the voltage of the AC source.
5) An AC source produces a current of 0.04 A at a frequency of
4.8 kHz when attached to a 232 resistor and a 0.25 F
capacitor that are connected in series. Calculate (a) the voltage of
the AC source and (b) the phase angle between the current and
the voltage across the resistor/capacitor combination.

6) A 215 resistor and a 0.2 H inductor are connected in series with


an AC source of 234 V and frequency 106 Hz. (a) What is the
current in the circuit? (b) Calculate the phase angle between the
current and the voltage of the AC source.
7) An RLC circuit containing a 10 resistor, a 17 mH inductor, and
a 12 F capacitor are connected in series with a 155 V RMS AC
source. (a) Calculate the frequency of the AC source at which the
current will be a maximum. (b) Calculate the maximum value of
the RMS current.
8) When in California, Skid listens to The Arrow at 107.1 MHz.
What is the wavelength of this radio signal?
9) A classroom window is made from a piece of flint glass that is
4 mm thick. How long does it take light to pass through the
glass?

ANSWERS:
1) a) 141 V
b) 20 A
c) 28.3 A
2) 126 Hz
3) 160
4) 83.9 V
5) a) 10.7 V
b) -29.8
6) a) 0.925 A
b) 31.8
7) a) 352 Hz
b) 15.5 A
8) 2.8 m
9) 2.21 x 10-11 s

Physics 212
Fall 2016

Problem Set #10


1) Two plane mirrors are oriented with an angle of 120 between
them. See diagram. A light ray is incident on Mirror #1 at an
angle of 65. Calculate the angle, , at which it leaves Mirror #2.

6) The distance from a converging lens to its focal points is 40 cm.


An object is placed 20 cm from the lens. a) Draw a Light Ray
Diagram for this situation, b) Calculate the image distance and
the magnification,
c)
Describe the state of the image
(real/virtual, upright/inverted, bigger/smaller).

Mirror #2
65

120

Mirror #1
2) Mitch and Skid are out hunting sharks in their boat. While
drunk, Skid drops Mitchs lucky guitar pick into the water. They
use the spotlight to try to locate the pick before Mitch forces
Skid into the shark infested waters to retrieve it. See diagram.
Determine the distance, d, which is the distance from the edge of
the boat to the location of the guitar pick.

spotlight
2.5 m
8.0 m

pick

4.0 m

Bruce

5) The radius of curvature for a convex mirror is 20 cm. An object


is placed 30 cm from the mirror. a) Draw a Light Ray Diagram
for this situation, b) Calculate the image distance and the
magnification, c) Describe the state of the image (real/virtual,
upright/inverted, and bigger/smaller).

3) A point source of light is submerged 2.2 m below the surface of a


swimming pool. The light source emits light in all directions.
On the surface of the pool, directly above the source, a circular
area is illuminated. What is the maximum radius of this circle?

7) The distance from a diverging lens to its focal points is 20 cm.


An object is placed 30 cm from the lens. a) Draw a Light Ray
Diagram for this situation, b) Calculate the image distance and
the magnification,
c)
Describe the state of the image
(real/virtual, upright/inverted, bigger/smaller).
8) Skid is slightly nearsighted. He has far points of 5 m from the
right eye and 6.5 m from the left eye. Skid goes to the
optometrist for contact lenses. What prescription does the
doctor write? (i.e. What is the power of each corrective lens?)
9) In the early days of the Charming Beggars, Skid used a concave
makeup mirror to apply black eyeliner (very 80s) before a gig.
The mirror was designed in such a way that a person 25 cm in
front of the mirror would see an upright image magnified by a
factor of two. What is the radius of curvature of Skids mirror?
10) A convex mirror with a radius of curvature of 10 cm creates a
virtual image that is one-third the size of the object. Where is
the object located?
11) Two identical diverging lenses are placed 16 cm apart. The
focal points are located 8 cm away from the lenses. An object is
placed 4 cm to the left of the lens on the left. Calculate the
final image distance relative to the right lens.

4) The distance from a concave mirror to its focal point is 30 cm.


An object is placed 45 cm from the mirror. a) Draw a Light Ray
Diagram for this situation, b) Calculate the image distance and
the magnification, c) Describe the state of the image (real/virtual,
upright/inverted, bigger/smaller).

ANSWERS:
1) 55
2) 12.1 m
3) 2.5 m
4) b) 90 cm, -2
5) b) -7.5 cm, 0.25
6) b) -40 cm, 2
7) b) -12 cm, 0.4
8) Right: 0.2 diopters, Left: 0.15 diopters
9) 1 m
10) 10 cm
11) -5.6 cm

Physics 212
Fall 2016

Problem Set #11


1) Light is reflected from a glass television screen. When the angle
of incidence is 56.7, the reflected light is completely polarized
parallel to the surface of the glass. What is the index of
refraction of the glass?

5) A double slit is placed 4.5 m away from a screen. The distance


between the third order minima (dark fringe) and the central
bright fringe is 0.037 m. The light that is incident on the slits
has a wavelength of 490 nm. Calculate the slit separation.

2) Unpolarized light of intensity 1.1 W/m2 is incident on a


polarizer. (a) What is the intensity of the light that leaves the
polarizer?
(b) If an analyzer is set at an angle of 75 with
respect to the polarizer, what is the intensity of the light that
leaves the analyzer?

6) Light of wavelength 475 nm that is incident on a double-slit


gives a first order bright fringe that is 0.024 m off the central. If
light of wavelength 611 nm is incident on the same double slit,
how far off the central is the first order bright fringe?

3) Two coherent sources emit waves that have a wavelength of


0.44 m.
Determine whether constructive or destructive
interference occurs at a point whose distances from the two
sources are as follows: (a) 1.32 m and 3.08 m; (b) 2.67 m and
3.33 m; (c) 2.20 m and 3.74 m; (d) 1.10 m and 4.18 m.
4) Light of wavelength 630 nm is incident on a double-slit. The slit
separation is 5.3 x 10-5 m. Find the angles that locate the (a)
first order, (b) second order, and (c) third order bright fringes on
a wall 10 m away.

7) 660 nm light illuminates a single-slit. The angle locating the first


order dark fringe is 0.10. Calculate the width of the slit.
8) A single-slit of width 4.3 x 10-5 m is placed 1.32 m from a wall.
Light of wavelength 635 nm illuminates the slit and creates a
diffraction pattern on the wall. What is the width of the central
maximum?
9) A diffraction grating has light of wavelength 621 nm incident
upon it. A third order maximum is formed at an angle of 18.
Calculate how many lines per centimeter the grating contains.

ANSWERS:
1) 1.52
2) a) 0.55 W/m2
b) 0.037 W/m2
3) a) Constructive
4) a) 0.68
b) 1.4
c) 2.0
5) 1.49 x 10-4 m
6) 0.0309 m
7) 3.8 x 10-4 m
8) 0.0390 m
9) 1660 lines/cm

Physics 212
Fall 2016

Problem Set #12


1) An electron, in the first excited state of a hydrogen atom, acquires
an additional 2.86 eV of energy. What is the quantum number
n of the state into which the electron moves?
2) In the line spectrum of a hydrogen atom there is another group of
lines called the Pfund series. These spectral lines are created when
electrons make transitions to the n = 5 level. (a) Calculate the
longest wavelength of light in this series. (b) Calculate the
shortest wavelength of light in this series. (c) In what part of the
EM spectrum do these lines exist?
3) Calculate the energy (in Joules) of the photon that is emitted
when the electron in a hydrogen atom makes a transition from
n = 7 to produce a spectral line in the Paschen series.
4) Calculate the ionization energy (in electron volts) that is required
to remove the remaining electron from a singly ionized helium
atom He+ (Z = 2).
5) A certain metal has a work function of 2.28 eV. Calculate the
maximum wavelength (in nm) that an electromagnetic wave can
have in order for electrons to ONLY eject from the metal.
6) Ultraviolet light that has a frequency of 3 x 1015 Hz is incident on
a metal surface. The electrons that are ejected have a maximum
kinetic energy of 6.1 eV. Calculate the work function of the metal
in units of electron volts.

7) EM waves of a certain wavelength cause electrons with a


maximum kinetic energy of 0.68 eV to be ejected from a surface.
The work function of the surface is 2.75 eV. The same EM waves
are now incident on a different surface whose work function is
2.17 eV. What will be the maximum kinetic energy (in eV) of the
electrons ejected from this different surface?
8) White light has wavelengths that range from 380 nm to 750 nm.
This light strikes a metal that has a work function of 2.28 eV.
(a) What is the maximum kinetic energy (in joules) of the
electrons that are emitted from the metal? (b) For what range of
wavelengths will no electrons be emitted?
9) A proton in a particle accelerator has a de Broglie wavelength of
1.3 x 10-14 m. Calculate the kinetic energy (in joules) of the
proton.
10) A ball of mass 0.2 kg is released from rest at the top of a building
that is 50 m tall. Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of the ball
right before it hits the ground.
11) A beam of electrons is incident on a single slit of width 0.5 nm
that is 20 cm from a screen. A diffraction pattern is formed on
the screen that has minima that are spaced 2.1 cm apart. What
is the kinetic energy of the incident electrons?

ANSWERS:
1) 5
2) a) 7458 nm
b) 2279 nm
3) 1.98 x 10-19 J
4) 54.4 eV
5) 545 nm
9) 7.77 x 10-13 J
6) 6.3 eV
10) 1.06 X 10-34 m
7) 1.26 eV
11) 545 eV
8) a) 1.6 x 10-19 J
b) 545 nm - 750 nm

Physics 212
Fall 2016

The Very Last Problem Set


1) An Unidentified Flying Object has a red flashing light mounted
at the bottom of its fuselage. The light flashes every 1.5 s. You
are out in the desert drinking heavily with your posse. You see
the flying saucer and observe that the light flashes every 2.5 s.
Assuming that your inebriated state is not the cause of the time
difference, calculate the velocity of the UFO.
2) Skid purchases a new Mustang that can achieve velocities
approaching the speed of light. Skid drives by you in the
Mustang at 0.9c relative to the Earth. As it passes, you
determine that the length of the car is 1.4 m. When Skid
eventually comes back and stops to chat with you what length
do you measure the car?
3) If astronauts could travel at 0.95c, we on Earth would say it
takes 4.42 years to reach Alpha Centauri, which is 4.2 lightyears away. The astronauts disagree. (a) How much time
passes relative to the astronauts? (b) What is the distance to
Alpha Centauri relative to the astronauts?
4) A friend in a starship travels past you at a high speed. He tells
you that his ship is 20 m long and that the identical ship you
are in is 19 m long. Relative to you, (a) how long is your ship,
(b) how long is his ship, and (c) what is the speed of his ship?

5) An electron is accelerated from rest to speed of 0.99c. What


amount of work is done on the electron?
6) A proton moves with a speed of 0.95c. Calculate its (a) rest
energy, (b) total energy, and (c) kinetic energy.
7) Calculate the velocity of a proton when its total energy is equal
to four times its rest energy.
8) A spacecraft from Barnards Star approaches Earth and
launches an exploration vehicle. After the launch, an observer
on Earth sees the spacecraft approaching at a speed of 0.5c and
the exploration vehicle approaching at a speed of 0.7c. What is
the velocity of the exploration vehicle relative to the
spacecraft?
9) Greezy-X is walking down Lincoln Ave. in Chicago after a late
night at The Metro.
He notices Small Spaceship #1
approaching from the right at 0.75c and Small Spaceship #2
approaching from the left at 0.65c. What is the relative
velocity between the two spaceships as measured by an alien on
one of them?
10) An electron moves to the right with a speed of 0.9c relative to
the laboratory frame of reference. A proton moves to the left
with a speed of 0.7c relative to the electron. Calculate the
speed of the proton relative to the lab frame.

ANSWERS:
1) 0.8c
2) 3.21 m
3) a) 1.38 years
b) 1.31 light-years
4) c) 0.31c
5) 5.0 x 10-13 J
6) a) 939 MeV
b) 3.0 GeV
c) 2.06 GeV

7) 0.968c
8) 0.31c
9) 0.94c
10) 0.54c