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Table of Content

Executive summery
Problem presentation
Literature review


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In performing my assignment, its a successful one I had to take the help and
guideline of some respected persons. First of all I would like to thank my parents who
gave me strength to accomplish my assignment. I would like to thank my gratitude
Mr. Prasad Jeerasinghe, Lecturer, Institute of Personnel Management Sri Lanka for
giving me a good guideline.
I would like to thank Institute of personnel management Sri Lanka. Finally I would
like to thank all my colleagues for their cordial cooperation. Actually it was not
possible for me to complete a severe task without such a help.
I have gone through various websites and books to get the accurate information for
analysis and tried to find the best conclusion.

Imbulana I.A.G.D

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Executive summery

The following report has been written with the intention to consider current health and
safety procedures of Hantaana tea factory. I have drafted a health and safety
procedures for Hantaana tea factory. To maintain sound quality work life of
employees more is the objective of this case study.
Following analysis I concluded that in order to survive, the Hantaana tea has to
become more profitable. I believe that building a successful organization portal, there
should be healthy employees, is important both for globalizing the brand and for
managing the different business through one platform. Furthermore, I believe that
Hantaana tea factory should concentrate on more of the QWL (quality of work life)
and WE (wok environment) through to become more successful.

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Introduction to the management case study

Hantaana Tea Factory is one of the leading tea factories in Sri Lanka. The factory is
highly concerned on safety requirement and also gives priorities to cooperate Social
Responsibility activities as well. Company allows public to make factory visits on
Friday with prior approvals.
Last year one of the leading schools got an opportunity to have a factory visit as part
of an educational program. A team consisting of about 40 students was received by
the factory for the plant visit. At around 09.30a.m a worker fell from the mezzanine
floor almost injuring a student.
On the same day new worker was seen teasing a machine operator on the ground floor
and after a while. As she tried to run away from the machine operator her hair was
caught by the running pulley of the nearby machine.
Student came to know last month also one tractor driver at the unloading bay had run
over a worker injuring severely.
In another incident a girl after being reprimanded try to commit suicide by consuming
pesticides stored just outside the factory.
The management has hired you as a consultant to rectify the situation. You are
expected to cover the following areas in your work.

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Problem Presentation
In this case study we have analyze the problems under 4 conditions.


So its easy to find solutions to the problems that weve found. When talking about
Hantaana Tea Factory they have mention there that they are priority to health and
safety of the employees. But unfortunately some incidents are happen. They are
Problems identified

Worker fell from a mezzanine floor injuring a student.

New worker's hair got caught by the running pulley while running away from
machine operator.
A tractor driver at the unloading bay had run over a worker injuring severely.
A girl had tried to commit suicide consuming pesticides outside the factory.

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Problem No1
Worker fell from a mezzanine floor injuring a student
People - student and a worker
Environment - unprotected, unfenced mezzanine floor
Equipment- not mentioned
Procedure training and health and safety workshops

Problem No 2
New workers hair got caught by a running pulley while running away from machine
People new worker and machine operator
Environment machinery environment
Equipment running pulley
Procedure has to conduct a disciplinary procedure and counselling session

Problem No 3
A tractor driver at the unloading bay had run over a worker injuring severely.
People - tractor driver and worker
Environment unloading bay
Equipment a tractor
Procedure more training and disciplinary action

Problem No 4
A girl had tried to commit suicide consuming pesticides outside the factory.
People - girl
Environment - pesticide store outside the factory
Equipment - pesticide
Procedure pesticides have to keep a separated place where any unauthorized person
cannot reach. Have to maintain a MSDS. Counselling has to be given for the girl.

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Literature review
Mezzanine floor
In warehouses, offices, libraries, factories and many other workplaces, mezzanines are
used for manufacturing, storage and office space. Some mezzanine floors, however,
are not constructed appropriately or are used in a way they were not designed for. The
OHS require all employers to take measures to prevent falls greater than two meters
and take measures to reduce the injuries that may result from a fall. Unprotected
mezzanines frequently pose a high risk of someone falling off the edge, falling
through the surface or falling when accessing the level.
Protective ways to minimize accidents form mezzanine floors
Serious consideration and a detailed structural assessment of a mezzanine level should
be undertaken before storing any items on it or generating a need to access the level.
This should occur if an assessment has not been undertaken when the mezzanine was
first installed or if loading of the mezzanine has increased potentially beyond its
capacity or structural faults can be observed. If a risk assessment identifies that the
floor is safe to access, it is vital that the edges of the mezzanine be protected to ensure
that personnel and visitors are unable to fall. This is most likely to involve the
construction of safety guard rails and other edge protection.
Guard railing should include:
o a top rail
o one or more intermediate rails
o a toe board or kickboard
Any railing must be secured in such a way as to be effective in stopping people falling
from edges. Safety mesh can also stop people and objects falling from edges. Safe
access and work on mezzanines if access is frequent, it would be appropriate to install
a suitable stairway or passenger lift. This access would allow small lightweight items
to be carried manually while providing stable footing and suitable handrails for safety.
If a fixed stairway or lift is not reasonably practicable, a mobile platform or mobile
stairs should be considered. Where frequent carrying of stock or movement of large,
heavy or bulky items is required, then hoists, chutes, rollers or conveyors should be
considered and used to move items where reasonably practicable. Many mezzanines
are used to store larger items or palletized product. In this circumstance, mezzanines
are often loaded by using forklifts. To accommodate this, guard rails are often
replaced with a removable railing. These railings must be designed to allow access to
stock at the same time as removing the risk of anyone falling.

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Running pulley and accidents

Each piece of machinery has its own unique mechanical and non-mechanical hazards.
Machines can cause a variety of injuries ranging from minor abrasions, burns or cuts
to severe injuries such as fractures, lacerations, crushing injuries or even amputation.
Machine guards are your first line of defense against injuries caused by machine
operation. Each machine must have adequate safeguards to protect operators and other
employees in the immediate work area from hazards created by ingoing nip points,
rotating parts, sparks and flying debris.
A wide variety of mechanical motions and actions may present hazards to workers
operating or working around machinery. The three basic types of hazardous
mechanical motions and actions are:
Hazardous Motions including rotating machine parts, reciprocating motions
(sliding parts or up/down motions) and transverse motions (materials moving in a
continuous line)
Points of Operation the areas where the machine cuts, shapes, bores, or bends the
stock being fed through it
Pinch Points and Shear Points - area where a part of the body or clothing could be
caught between a moving part and a stationary object
This would include power transmission apparatuses such as flywheels, pulleys, belts,
chains, couplings, spindles, cams, gears, connecting rods and other machine
components that transmit energy.
There are also non-mechanical hazards that can injure machine operators or personnel
working in the vicinity of machinery. These hazards include flying splinters, chips or
debris; splashes, sparks or sprays that are created when the machine is operating.
These hazards can be prevented through the use of machine guarding and wearing/use
of required personal protective equipment (PPE).
Safety precautions on running belts and pulleys
Two basic methods are used to safeguard machines: guards and devices. Guards
provide physical barriers that prevent access to danger areas. Devices function by
interrupting the machine's operating cycle to prevent workers from reaching or
entering the danger area while the machine is cycling. Both types of safeguards
should be designed and installed to ensure worker protection. Guards are physical
barriers that enclose dangerous machine parts and prevent worker contact with them.
Guards must be secure and strong. Workers should not be able to bypass, remove, or
tamper with guards. To prevent tampering, guards typically require a tool to unfasten
and remove them. Guards should not create additional hazards such as pinch points or
shear points between guards and other machine parts. Guards should not obstruct the
operator's view or prevent workers from doing a job. Metal bars or similar guards are
suitable. Guard openings should be small enough to prevent workers from accessing
danger areas.

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Unloading bay protection

The area around the loading bay and the vehicle can be a dangerous working zone. On
occasions vehicles have been known to drive away from the loading bay prematurely
during the loading or unloading process, this is known as a Drive-Off. When this
happens, the resulting consequences can lead to serious injury or even a fatality.
Vehicles creeping from the loading bay can also lead to a dangerous situation. A
similar scenario to a Drive-Off can occur when forklift trucks moves from the
warehouse to the vehicle. When the forklift travels onto the vehicle, the resulting
momentum forces can cause the vehicle to creep away from the warehouse. When this
scenario occurs, the dock-leveler lip can drop from the bed of the vehicle which can
also lead to a dangerous situation.
The best method is Dock management system.
The Dock Management System is easily installed and affordable solution to prevent
an industry problem that has caused countless accidents and injuries. It prevents
vehicles driving away from the loading bay before the dock doors have been safely
closed. There are a number of possible implementations depending upon the degree of
management control required; however, in all cases the process will involve attaching
the drivers vehicle. When a driver arrives on-site and checks into the transport office,
the keys are snapped onto the system. The more advanced versions ensure that the
dock door cannot be opened until the keys are safely retained in the cabinet and the
keys cannot be taken until the dock door is fully closed.

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Employee suicide and counselling

An employee suicide has a deep, disturbing impact on immediate colleagues as well
as on overall organizational morale. In circumventing this emerging concern, a
broader sphere of prevention movement is necessitated. One of the movements
would be the kick-start from workplace. Workplaces are a critical partner in
preventing suicide.
Workplaces people with a sense of purpose and belongingness to a certain community
both of which are psychological buffers to distress. This gives rise to the question of
within the workplace, how does an organization implement a program to engage,
motivate and assist those in need to get help when they feel extreme despair and
hopelessness. The following entails the necessary measures needed to be taken by
leaders and the management to move towards a suicide-free environment
1. Alertness, Awareness and Observation
Most often than not, managers are well positioned to notice if his/her employees or
subordinates are struggling or showing signs of depression. The first step under such
scenario would be assisting them to get help. Managers generally have vast
experience and spend a great deal amount of time working not to mention have dayto-day contact with his/her subordinates. It is natural that a manager gets to know
his/her subordinates over the time horizon and can observe changes in their behavior,
and may see them at critical points in their life. It is imperative of managers to alertly
identify employees who may be at risk of committing suicide where risk factors such
o prior suicide attempt
o alcohol, drug abuse or compelled gambling
o Mood and anxiety disorders.
For individuals who are already at risk, a triggering event causing shame or despair
may make them more likely to attempt suicide. Withal to that, workplaces often have
a structure, such as a HR department to which managers can refer employees to help
them find a mental health professional.
2. Positive Work Environment
Managers may also assume an active role in suicide prevention by creating a work
environment that fosters communication, a sense of belonging, and respect. Feeling
connected to a community promotes emotional well-being and reduce risk of
occupational suicide. Workplace environment should be ideally transparent with open
communication. Such environment bestows employees a sense that they belong to the
community within an organization. Work would subsequently become meaningful
since the employees know that what they contribute affects the organization that they
are affiliated with. Rewards are necessary to encourage and reinforce certain
positive behaviors in employees. This is known as positive reinforcement
under operant conditioning.
A reward here doesnt have to be monetary in nature; sometimes even simple verbal
recognition by the supervisor is all that is necessary to spur the employees
motivation. By rewarding employees who exert remarkable efforts in their work, it is
like to lead to lesser distress, lesser feeling of being coerced and ultimately lesser
mental disorder.
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3. Rewarding Mental Wellness Programs

Just as workplaces offer incentive programs for nutrition and fitness, workplaces can
also create motivation and opportunities to obtain optimal mental health. For example,
employees can earn points when they take workshops on how to reduce stress or
improve sleep.
4. Offering Educational Programs on Mental Illness
Employee assistance professionals or other local mental health service professionals
can provide "lunch-and-learn" sessions that increase awareness about the signs
and symptoms of depression, bipolar disorder, alcohol dependence, and other mental
illnesses that can lead to suicide. By offering stories of recovery and successful
offer hope and modeling that treatment works. Furthermore, misperceptions dissipate
when workers interact with providers and are able to ask questions about concerns
that may resolve disparate understanding of a corporate psychologist, such as whether
employer has access to their counseling records, whether diagnosis will be a
hindrance to promotion etc.

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Material safety data sheet (MSDS)

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is a document that contains information on the
potential health effects of exposure to chemicals, or other potentially dangerous
substances, and on safe working procedures when handling chemical products. It is an
essential starting point for the development of a complete health and safety program.
It contains hazard evaluations on the use, storage, handling and emergency procedures
related to that material. The MSDS contains much more information about the
material than the label and it is prepared by the supplier. It is intended to tell what the
hazards of the product are, how to use the product safely, what to expect if the
recommendations are not followed, what to do if accidents occur, how to recognize
symptoms of overexposure, and what to do if such incidents occur.
Content of MSDS,
1. Product information
2. Composition / Information on Ingredients
3. Hazards Identification
4. First-Aid Measures
5. Fire Fighting Measures
6. Accidental Release Measures
7. Information on Recommended Handling and Storage Conditions
8. Exposure Controls / Personal Protection
9. Physical and Chemical Properties
10. Stability and Reactivity Data
11. Toxicological Information
12. Ecological Information
13. Disposal Considerations
14. Transport Information
15. Regulatory Information
16. Other Information

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Sample MSDS

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Hazzard assessment
A hazard assessment is an evaluation of a work place, or work situation, as to the
potential for hazards that an employee may encounter while performing the job.
Employers are required (by OSHA) to certify in writing that they have assessed the
work place to determine if hazards are present or likely that would require personal
protective equipment (PPE)and/or medical monitoring, or other requirements such as
fit testing for respirator use, and vaccines. Each department Supervisor is required to
perform a job hazard assessment and oversee that personal protective equipment is
appropriate for the hazard and is being used accordingly. It may be difficult to begin
assessing every location, job title, or job task. The most logical place to begin is to
review your accident and illness reports. If injury and illness reports do not point you
towards a place to begin, consider beginning with:

Close calls or near misses

New tasks or positions
Tasks that have changed
Non-routine jobs Routine jobs

Identify the Hazards As you walk through the area and discuss work tasks with
employees, look for the following hazards. If you are unsure whether something
should be included in your hazard assessment, contact EHS for assistance or try using
the reference material suggested on some of the slides.
Falling Objects Are there objects which may fall from above onto employees working
overhead Tools or materials handled above your head
Chemical use requires safe procedures as well as protective equipment. If your
employees use chemicals examples include cleaners, drugs, paint, gasoline, etc. as
part of their job duties, they need to know the hazards associated with those
Harmful Dusts/Mists/Fumes/Particulates employees exposed to chemicals or harmful
dusts/mists/fumes Examples:

Any chemical, particulate of microorganisms which poses a health hazard

Welding fumes
Solder fumes

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Sample Hazzard assessment form

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Personnel protective equipment

Personnel protective equipment is used by the employees to prevent from the working
place hazards. Personnel Protective Equipment includes both protective clothing and
protective equipment. Protective clothing: The external garments used by employee
are called protective clothing. Any device used by an employee to defend him from
physical injuries is called protective equipment. Personnel Protective Equipment also
means devices used to protect an employee from injury or illness preventing him from
contact with chemical materials radiological physical injury electrical shock
mechanical or other work hazards
Personnel Protective Equipment includes all the type of materials devices that are
helpful to defend the employee in work place save his or her life.
Personnel Protective Equipment is not a primary tool but used as a last resort which
means the hazard cannot be controlled by the administration engineering or industrial
hygiene controls.

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Solutions for the problems found in the case

Problem No 1

Use zebra lines

Using railings
Safety signs
Safety nets
Has to mark a separate paths to visitors

Problem No 2
o All the running parts has to be covered or fenced
o Proper induction has to be done

Problem No 3
o Drivers have to be participating for training on misconducts and unloading bay
Problem No 4
o Proper MSDS has to be done regularly
o Stores that pesticide are kept, has to be locked or only authorized person can

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Employee health & safety plays a major role at today business. Current health &
safety practices target to improve the overall efficiency of the organizations, reduce
accidents while using machines and tools , maintain higher level of discipline among
employees, improve proper health and safety practices among employees and
identifying grievances of employees. By using proper health and safety methods,
management develops employee security and reduces the accidents.
Finally, I could understand how current health and safety procedure is practically
implementing at Hantaana tea factory while facing the critical circumstances in the

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Labor laws by Baddegama D Amarasena
Fundamental principles of Occupational Health and Safety by Benjamin O.Alli


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