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SEP

10

ROR EXPLAIN WITH FIGURE AND DETAIL QUESTION AND


ANSWER

PART A GENERAL

Rule 1 Application
Rule 2 Responsibility
Rule 3 General Definition

PART B STEERING AND SAILING RULES


Section I Conduct of vessel in any condition of visibility

Rule 4 Application
Rule 5 Look-out
Rule 6 Safe Speed
Rule 7 Risk of Collision
Rule 8 Action to Avoid Collision
Rule 9 Narrow Channels
Rule 10 Traffic Separation Schemes
Section II Conduct of vessels in sight of one another
Rule 11 Application
Rule 12 Sailing Vessels
Rule 13 Overtaking
Rule 14 Head-on Situation
Rule 15 Crossing Situation
Rule 16 Action by Give way Vessel
Rule 17 Action by Stand on Vessel
Rule 18 Responsibilities between Vessels
Section III Conduct of vessels in restricted visibility
Rule 19 Conduct of Vessels in Restricted Visibility

PART C LIGHTS AND SHAPES

Rule 20 Application
Rule 21 Definitions
Rule 22 Visibility of Lights
Rule 23 Power Driven Vessels Underway
Rule 24 Towing and Pushing
Rule 25 Sailing Vessels Underway and Vessels Under Oars
Rule 26 Fishing Vessels
Rule 27 Vessels Not Under Command or Restricted in their Ability to Manoeuvre
Rule 28 Vessels Constrained by their Draught
Rule 29 Pilot Vessels
Rule 30 Anchored Vessels and Vessels Aground
Rule 31 Seaplanes

PART D SOUND AND LIGHT SIGNALS

Rule 32 Definitions 18
Rule 33 Equipment for Sound Signals 18
Rule 34 Manoeuvring and Warning Signals 18
Rule 35 Sound Signals in Restricted Visibility 20
Rule 36 Signal to Attract Attention 21
Rule 37 Distress Signals 21
PART E EXEMPTIONS
Rule 38 Exemptions
ANNEX I Positioning and Technical Details of Lights and Shapes
ANNEX II Additional Signals for Fishing Vessels Fishing in Close Proximity
ANNEX III Technical Details of Sound Signal Appliances
ANNEX IV Distress Signals

RULE - 1
APPLICATION
a) These Rules shall apply to all vessels upon the high seas & in all waters connected
therewith navigable by seagoing vessels.
b) Nothing in these Rules shall interfere with the operation of special Rules made by
an appropriate authority for road-steeds, harbour, rivers, lakes or inland
waterways connected with the high seas & navigable by seagoing vessels. Such
special Rules shall conform as closely as possible to these Rules.
c) Nothing in these Rules shall interfere with the operation of any special Rules
made by the Government of any State with respect to additional station or signal
lights, shapes or whistle signals for ships of war & vessels proceeding under
convoy or with respect to additional station or signal lights or shapes for fishing
vessels engaged in fishing as a fleet .These additional station or signal lights,
shapes or whistle signals shall , so far as possible , be such that they cannot be
mistaken for any lights , shapes or signal authorized elsewhere under these
Rules.
d) Traffic separation schemes may be adopted by the Organization for the purpose of
these Rules.
e) Whenever the Government concerned shall have determined that a vessel of
special construction or purpose cannot comply fully with the provisions of any of
these Rules with respect to the number , position , range or arc of visibility of
lights or shapes , as well as to the disposition & characteristics of sound-signaling
appliances , such vessel shall comply with such other provisions in regard to the
number , position , range or arc of visibility of lights or shape , as well as to the
disposition & characteristics of sound-signaling appliances , as her Government
shall have determined to be the closest possible compliance with these Rules in
respect of that vessel.
RULE 2
RESPONSIBILITY
a) Nothing in these Rules shall exonerate any vessel, or the owner, master or crew
thereof, from the consequences of any neglect to comply with these Rules or of
the neglect of any precaution which may be required by the ordinary practice of
seamen, or by the special circumstances of the case.
b) In construing & complying with these Rules due regard shall be had to all
dangers of navigation & collision & to any special circumstances , including the
limitations of the vessels involved , which may make a departure from these
Rules necessary to avoid immediate danger.
question
(Q) Define Rule 2-Responsibilities?
(a) That everybody is responsible for any action taken aboard a vessel, and if involved in
a collision then both parties are at fault, because the stand-on vessel did not use rule 7
risk of collision and rule 8 Action to avoid collision.

(Q) What is the responsibilities of a capt on the vessel?(a) To make


sure the vessel is a safe and healthy working environment

(Q) What are the responsibilities of individuals aboard your


vessel?
(a) To make sure their health is good and if they see any dangers then to report them to
the capt

RULE 3
GENERAL DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of these Rules, except where the context otherwise requires:
a) The word vessel includes every description of watercraft, including nondisplacement
craft and seaplanes, used or capable of being used as a means of
transportation on water.
b) The term power-driven vessel means any vessel propelled by machinery.
c) The term sailing vessel means any vessel under sail provided that propelling
machinery, if fitted, is not being used.
d) The term vessel engaged in fishing means any vessel fishing with nets, lines,
trawls or other fishing apparatus which restrict manoeuvrability, but does not
include a vessel fishing with trolling lines or other fishing apparatus which do not
restrict manoeuvrability.
e) The word seaplane includes any aircraft designed to manoeuvre on the water.
f) The term vessel not under command means a vessel which through some
exceptional circumstance is unable to manoeuvre as required by these rules and is
therefore unable to keep out of the way of another vessel.
g) The term vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre means a vessel which from
the nature of her work is restricted in her ability to manoeuvre as required by these
Rules and is therefore unable to keep out of the way of another vessel.
The term vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre shall include but not be
limited to;
A vessel engaged in laying, servicing or picking up a navigation mark, submarine
cable or pipeline;
A vessel engaged in dredging, surveying or underwater operations;
A vessel engaged in replenishment or transferring persons, provisions or cargo
while underway;
A vessel engaged in the launching or recovery of aircraft;
A vessel engaged in mine clearance operations;
A vessel engaged in a towing operation such as severely restricts the towing
vessel and her tow in their ability to deviate from their course.
h) The term vessel constrained by her draught means a power driven vessel, which
because of her draught in relation to the available depth and width of navigable
water is severely restricted in her ability to deviate from the course she is
following.
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i) The word underway means that a vessel is not at anchor, or made fast to the shore,
or aground.
j) The words length and breadth of a vessel mean her length overall and greatest
breadth.
k) Vessels shall be deemed to be in sight of one another only when one can be
observed visually from the other.
l) The term restricted visibility means any condition in which visibility is restricted
by fog, mist, falling snow, heavy rainstorms, sandstorms or any other similar
causes.
PART B STEERING AND SAILING RULES
SECTION I CONDUCT OF VESSELS IN ANY CONDITION OF
VISIBILITY
RULE - 4
APPLICATION
Rules in this section apply in any condition of visibility.
RULE 5
LOOKOUT
Every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper lookout by sight and hearing as
well as by all available means appropriate in the prevailing circumstances and
conditions so as to make a full appraisal of the situation and the risk of collision
QUESTION
.Q) Describe rule 5 look-out?

(a) By keeping a good look-out using eyes, ears and by using all navigation aids
including radios for listening out for navigation warnings, so you can appraise
any situation ahead of you.
RULE 6
SAFE SPEED
Every vessel shall at all times proceed at a safe speed so that she can take proper
and effective action to avoid collision and be stopped within a distance
appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions.
In determining a safe speed the following factors shall be among those taken into
account;
a) By all vessels;
The state of visibility;
The traffic density including concentrations of fishing vessels or any other
vessels;
The manoeuvrability of the vessel with special reference to stopping distance and
turning ability in the prevailing conditions;
At night the presence of background light such as from shore lights or from back
scatter of her own lights;
The state of wind, sea and current and the proximity of navigational hazards;
The draught in relation to the available depth of water.
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b) Additionally, by vessels with operational radar;
The characteristics, efficiency and limitations of the radar equipment;
Any constraints imposed by the radar range scale in use;
The effect on radar detection of the sea state, weather and other sources of
interference;
The possibility that small vessels, ice and other floating objects may not be
detected by radar at an adequate range;
The number, location and movement of vessels detected by radar;
The more exact assessment of the visibility that may be possible when radar is
used to determine the range of vessels or other objects in the vicinity.
(Q) Describe a safe speed by all vessels?
(a) Every vessel shall go at a safe speed so that you can stop your vessel in half
the distance you can see and use the other half to manoeuvre away from
danger, taking the following factors into account: -

By all vessels:-(i) the state of visibility


(ii) density of traffic
(iii) how manoeuvrable your vessel is, and how quick you can stop your vessel
(iv) the glare of your lights or light from the shore, you might not see the
harbour entrance
(v) weather, sea state and any navigation hazards
(vi) the draught of your own vessel
(Q) Describe a safe speed by vessels with operational radar?(i) the limitations
of your radar
(ii) the scale in use ( too small a scale could be hiding targets )
(iii) weather, sea and rain clutter ( target could be hiding in clutter )
(iv) ice, small vessels not detected by radar
(v) vessels detected by radar
(vi) determine the range of other vessels
RULE 7
RISK OF COLLISION
a) Every vessel shall use all available means appropriate to the prevailing
circumstances and conditions to determine if risk of collision exists. If there is any
doubt such risk shall be deemed to exist.
b) Proper use shall be made of radar equipment if fitted and operational, including
long-range scanning to obtain early warning of risk of collision and radar plotting
or equivalent systematic observation of detected objects.
c) Assumptions shall not be made on the basis of scanty information, especially
scanty radar information.
d) In determining if risk of collision exists the following considerations shall be
among those taken into account;
Such risk shall be deemed to exist if the compass bearing of an approaching vessel
does not appreciably change;
Such risk may sometimes exist even when an appreciable bearing change is
evident, particularly when approaching a very large vessel or a tow or when
approaching a vessel at close range.

Question
(Q) What would you use to determine a risk of collision?
(a) Compass, radar and visual bearings (visual bearings being the most
reliable)

(Q) What scale is your radar(s) on?


(a) 6 and 12 miles.

(Q) Why is your radar on the 12 miles scale?


(a) For early detection of targets.

(Q) You've taken 1 radar plot of a target, would you alter with this plot?
(a) No.

(Q) You've taken a 2nd radar plot of a target, would you alter with this plot?
(a) No.

(Q) Why would you not alter with 1 and 2 plots?


(a) Rule 7 part (c) says not to rely on scanty information, especially scanty
radar information.

(Q) What are the dangers with radar plotting?


(a) Time is being wasted and could put your vessel into a collision course

(Q) If the bearings are steady, is there a risk of collision?


(a) Yes.

(Q) If the bearings are not steady, could there still be a risk of collision?
(a) Yes.

(Q) What situations?


(a) With a large vessel, a long tow or a close quarter situation.

(Q) If plotting a vessel towing a vessel towing another vessel with the length of
tow being 2 miles long, what are you going to take bearings of?
(a) The stem of the towing vessel and the stern of the vessel being towed,
everything in between is a risk of collision.

RULE 8
ACTION TO AVOID COLLISION
a) Any action taken to avoid collision shall, if the circumstances of the case admit,
be positive, made in ample time and with due regard to the observance of good
seamanship.
b) Any alteration of course and/or speed to avoid collision shall, if the circumstances
of the case admit, be large enough to be readily apparent to another vessel
observing visually or by radar; a succession of small alterations of course and/or
speed should be avoided.
c) If there is sufficient sea room, alteration of course alone may be the most
effective action to avoid a close-quarters situation provided that it is made in
good time, is substantial and does not result in another close-quarters situation.
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d) Action taken to avoid collision with another vessel shall be such as to result in
passing at a safe distance. The effectiveness of the action shall be carefully
checked until the other vessel is finally past and clear.
e) If necessary to avoid collision or allow more time to assess the situation, a vessel
shall slacken her speed or take all way off by stopping or reversing her means of
propulsion.
f) (i) A vessel which by any of these Rules is required not to impede the passage or
safe passage of another vessel shall, when required by the circumstances of the
case, take early action to allow sufficient sea room for the safe passage of the
other vessel.
(ii) A vessel required not to impede the passage or safe passage of another vessel
is not relieved of this obligation if approaching the other vessel so as to involve
risk of collision and shall, when taking action, have full regard to the action
which may be required by the Rules of this Part.
(iii) A vessel the passage of which is not to be impeded remains fully obliged to
comply with the Rules of this Part when the two vessels are approaching one
another so as to involve risk of collision.

Question
(Q) What 4 actions can you take to avoid a collision?
(i) an early and bold alteration of course, as long as you do not put your vessel
into another close quarter situation/risk of collision with another vessel
(ii) slow your vessel down
(iii) stop your vessel
(iv) come astern with your vessel

(Q) Why are you always making an alteration of course, why do you not stop
your vessel?
(a) To make sure the risk of collision/close quarter situation is taken out, also
the other vessel ill see the change of aspect of your vessel (Visually and by
radar)

(Q) If you make an alteration of course, what have you to watch out for?
(a) That you don not put yourself into a close quarter situation with another
vessel.

(Q) If you make an alteration of course, why is it dangerous to make a series of


small alterations?
(a) Because you could go into a close quarters situation/risk of collision

(Q) If you're unsure about what to do in a situation, what's the best thing to
do?
(a) Slow your vessel down, best to stop your vessel altogether.

RULE 9
NARROW CHANNELS
a) A vessel proceeding along the course of a narrow channel or fairway shall keep as
near to the outer limit of the channel or fairway, which lies on her starboard side
as, is safe and practicable.
b) A vessel of less than 20 metres in length or a sailing vessel shall not impede the
passage of a vessel, which can safely navigate only within a narrow channel or
fairway.
c) A vessel engaged in fishing shall not impede the passage of any other vessel
navigating within a narrow channel or fairway.
d) A vessel shall not cross a narrow channel or fairway if such crossing impedes the
passage of a vessel, which can safely navigate only within such channel or
fairway. The latter vessel may use the sound signal prescribed in Rule 34(d) if in
doubt as to the intention of the crossing vessel.
e) (i) In a narrow channel or fairway when overtaking can take place only if the
vessel to be overtaken has to take action to permit safe passing, the vessel
intending to overtake shall indicate her intention by sounding the appropriate
signal prescribed in Rule 34(c)(i). The vessel to be overtaken shall, if in
agreement, sound the appropriate signal prescribed in Rule 34(c)(ii) and take steps
to permit safe passing. If in doubt she may sound the signals prescribed in Rule
34(d).
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(ii) This Rule does not relieve the overtaking vessel of her obligation under Rule
13.
f) A vessel nearing a bend or an area of a narrow channel or fairway where other
vessels may be obscured by an intervening obstruction shall navigate with
particular alertness and caution and shall sound the appropriate signal prescribed
in Rule 34(e).
g) Any vessel shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid anchoring in a
narrow channel.

Question
Q) What side of the narrow channel would you keep?
(a) The starboard side of the narrow channel as long as your vessel is in safe
water.

(Q) What would you sound to overtake a vessels starboard side?


(a) (Morse "G") (2 prolonged blasts followed by 1 short blast on the whistle

(Q) What would you sound to overtake a vessels port side?


(a) (Morse "Z")(2 prolonged blasts followed by 2 short blasts on the whistle)

(Q) What would you sound if you agree to be overtaken in a narrow channel?
(a) (Morse "C")(1 prolonged, 1 short, 1 prolonged, 1 short blast on the whistle)

(Q) What would you sound if you disagree to be overtaken in a narrow


channel?
(a) (5 or more short and rapid blasts on the whistle)

(Q) What would you sound coming up to a bend in a narrow channel?


(a) (1 prolonged blast on the whistle)

(Q) If there is another vessel coming around the bend and he heard your
warning signal, what would he sound?
(a) (1 prolonged blast on the whistle to let you know he is there)

(Q) What 3 vessels do not impede any other vessels using a narrow channel?
(a) A fishing vessel, sailing vessel and vessels under 20 metres

(Q) Are you allowed to cross a narrow channel?


(a) Yes, as long as you do not impede any vessel using the narrow channel

(Q) If you where in a narrow channel, and there is a vessel crossing a narrow
channel, what would you sound to get him to stop and let you pass?
(a) Five or more short and rapid blasts on the whistle to indicate that your
unsure of his intentions.
RULE 10
TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES
a) This Rule applies to traffic separation schemes adopted by the Organization and
does not relieve any vessel of her obligation under any other Rule.
b) A vessel using a traffic separation scheme shall;
Proceed in the appropriate traffic lane in the general direction of traffic flow for
that lane.
So far as practicable keep clear of a traffic separation line or separation zone.
Normally join or leave a traffic lane at the termination of the lane, but when
joining or leaving from either side shall do so at as small an angle to the general
direction of traffic flow as practicable.
c) A vessel shall, so far as practicable, avoid crossing traffic lanes but if obliged to
do so shall cross on a heading as nearly as practicable at right angles to the general
direction of traffic flow.
d) (i) A vessel shall not use an inshore traffic zone when she can safely use the
appropriate traffic lane within the adjacent traffic separation scheme. However,
vessels of less than 20 metres in length, sailing vessels and vessels engaged in
fishing may use the inshore traffic zone.
(ii) Not withstanding sub-paragraph (d) (i), a vessel may use an inshore traffic
zone when en route to or from a port, offshore installation or structure, pilot
station or any other place situated within the inshore traffic zone or to avoid
immediate danger.
e) A vessel other than a crossing vessel or a vessel joining or leaving a lane shall not
normally enter a separation zone or cross a separation line except;
In case of emergency to avoid immediate danger;
To engage in fishing within a separation zone.
f) A vessel navigating in areas near the terminations of traffic separation schemes
shall do so with particular caution.
g) A vessel shall so far as practicable avoid anchoring in a traffic separation scheme
or in areas near its terminations.
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h) A vessel not using a traffic separation scheme shall avoid it by as wide a margin
as is practicable.
i) A vessel engaged in fishing shall not impede the passage of any vessel following
the traffic lane.
j) A vessel of less than 20 metres in length or a sailing vessel shall not impede the
safe passage of a power driven vessel following a traffic lane.
k) A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre when engaged in an operation for
the maintenance of safety of navigation in a traffic separation scheme is exempted
from complying with this Rule to the extent necessary to carry out the operation.
l) A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre when engaged in an operation for
the laying, servicing or picking up of a submarine cable, within a traffic separation
scheme, is exempted from complying with this Rule to the extent necessary to
carry out the operation.

Question
(Q) How do you join a lane?
(a) At the start of a lane or at a small an angle as possible to the lane.

(Q) How do you leave a lane?


(a) At the end of a lane or at a small an angle as possible to the lane.

(Q) How do you cross the lanes?


(a) At 90 degrees to the general flow of traffic (DO NOT SAY TO THE LANE)

(Q) Why 90 degrees?


(a) Because it's the quickest way across, and vessels in the lane can see the
aspect of your vessel.

(Q) If crossing a lane, what 3 vessels do not impede any vessel using a lane?
(a) A fishing vessel, a sailing vessel and a power-driven vessel under 20metres.

(Q) What vessels can use the inshore zone?


(a) A power-driven vessel under 20 metres, sailing vessels, fishing vessels,
vessels going to or from a port, going from port to port in the scheme, going
into anchor to do emergency repairs, to avoid immediate danger, to lay
submarine cables or to do repairs to buoys within the scheme.

(Q) What vessels can use the traffic separation zone?


(a) Fishing vessels, anchor for emergency repairs, crossing vessels, to avoid
immediate danger, to lay submarine cables or to do repairs to buoys within the
scheme.

(Q) Where can you anchor in a scheme?


(a) Anywhere, as long as it's to do emergency repairs, try and avoid anchoring
in the lanes and at the terminations.

(Q) What would you do if you had to stop your main engine to do emergency
repairs in a lane and had to anchor?
(a) Call up the port and advise them, also put out a security warning other
vessels that you're at anchor, put up anchor lights and daytime signal.

(Q) Where can you fish in the scheme?


(a) Anywhere, but if fishing in a lane then go with the flow of traffic, and try
and avoid fishing at the terminations.

(Q) Would you fish in a traffic separation scheme?


(a) This is a personnel question, there is a lot of large traffic there; you would
be putting your crew and vessel into dangerous situations.

(Q) Could a supertanker leave a lane at 90 degrees come into the inshore zone
to a pilot station, pick up a pilot and then cross to the opposite inshore zone at
90 degrees?
(a) No, he would have to leave the lane at a small an angle as possible to the
lanes.

(Q) If you're in a power-driven vessel, crossing a scheme and on your port bow
is another power-driven vessel in a lane, the bearing are steady and the
distance is closing, what are you going to do?
(a) First find out length of vessel you are in.

(Q) Does it matter what size the power-driven vessel is that you're in?
(a) Yes, if under 20 metres and crossing a lane, then your not allowed to
impede ANY vessel that is in the traffic lane that is going with the flow of
traffic, if over 20 metres you would stand-on with caution maintaining your
course and speed, the Power-driven vessel that is in the lane has to leave the
lane at 90 degrees to take the risk of collision out.

(Q) Your in a 30 metres power-driven vessel crossing a lane, and there is a


power-driven vessel on your port bow in a lane, the bearings are steady and
the distance is closing, what are you going to do?
(a) Stand-on with caution, maintaining your course and speed.

(Q) How would the power-driven vessel leave the lane?


(a) He would make an early and bold alteration to starboard sounding 1 short
blast on the whistle indicating he is altering to starboard.

(Q) Would he line up your stern and go around it?


(a) No, this would be a close quarter situation and could make you alter your
course and put into a collision course with another vessel.

(Q) After the vessel came around your stern, how would he get back into the
lane?
(a) At a small angle as possible to the general flow of traffic.

(Q) If you where in any vessel, just outside the scheme, would you manoeuvre
here?
(a) No, it says if not using the scheme, then to give it a wide a margin as
possible.

(Q) If you're fishing in a lane, and there is a power-driven vessel overtaking


you, what are you going to do?
(a) Stand-on with caution, you have to use rule 13 Overtaking.

(Q) If you're crossing a lane in a fishing vessel and any vessel is on your port
bow in a lane, the bearings are steady and the distance is closing, what are you
going to do?
(a) If you're crossing and the bearings are steady, then you have to give-way
to all vessels in a lane.
Short cut to remember which vessels use the inshore zone and the
separation zone

Vessels that can use Inshore Zone Vessels that can use the Separation Zone

3 boats + P.P.AID FACID

Fishing Fishing Vessels


Sailing Vessels going into Anchor
PDV under 20 metres Crossing vessels
Boats going from Port to Port Boats leaving the lane to avoid immediatedanger
Boats anchoring Also
Boats leaving the lane to avoid immediate danger Vessels restricted in her ability to manoeuvre
Also laying cables/buoys
Vessels restricted in her ability to manoeuvre laying
cables/buoys

SECTION II CONDUCT OF VESSELS IN SIGHT OF ONE


ANOTHER
RULE 11
APPLICATION
Rules in this section apply to vessels in sight of one another.
RULE 12
SAILING VESSELS
a) When two sailing vessels are approaching one another, so as to involve risk of
collision , one of them shall keep out of the way of the other as follows ;
When each has the wind on a different side , the vessel which has the wind on the
port side shall keep out of the way of the other;
When both have the wind on the same side , the vessel which is to windward shall
keep out of the way of the vessel which is to leeward;
If a vessel with the wind on the port side sees a vessel to windward and cannot
determine with certainty whether the other vessel has the wind on the port or on
the starboard side, she shall keep out of the way of the other.
b) For the purposes of this Rule the windward side shall be deemed to be the side
opposite to that on which the mainsail is carried or, in the case of a square-rigged
vessel, the side opposite to that on which the largest fore-and-aft sail is carried.

Question

Q) In the following sketches which sailing vessel is the Give way vessel?
(Above image) The red sailing vessel is the Give way vessel as he has the wind
on his port side

(Above image) The green sailing vessel is the give way vessel as he is to
windward of the other vessel
(Above image) The red sailing vessel is the give way vessel as he is to
windward of the other vessel

(Above image) The red sailing vessel is the give way vessel, if he is unsure if
the sailing vessel to windward has the wind on his port or starboard side

(Q) On a sailing vessel, what is deemed as the windward side?


(a) For the purposes of this Rule the windward side shall be deemed to be the side
opposite that on which the mainsail is carried or, in the case of a square rigged vessel,
the side opposite to that on which the largest fore-and-aft sail is carried.
RULE 13
OVERTAKING
a) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Rules of Part B, Sections I and II, any
vessel overtaking any other shall keep out of the way of the vessel being
overtaken.
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b) A vessel shall be deemed to be overtaking when coming up with another vessel
from a direction more than 22.5 degrees abaft her beam, that is, in such a position
with reference to the vessel she is overtaking, that at night she would be able to
see only the sternlight of that vessel but neither of her sidelights.
c) When a vessel is in any doubt as to whether she is overtaking another, she shall
assume that this is the case and act accordingly.
d) Any subsequent alteration of the bearing between the two vessels shall not make
the overtaking vessel a crossing vessel within the meaning of these Rules or
relieve her of the duty of keeping clear of the overtaken vessel until she is finally
past and clear.

Question
(Q) What's classed as an overtaking vessel?
(a) When you're coming up on another vessel MORE than 22.5 degrees abaft
the beam.

(Q) What light will you see at night if you're overtaking another vessel?
(a) The sternlight of the other vessel.

(Q) What are your priorities when overtaking another vessel?


(a) To keep well clear of the vessel being overtaken until well past and clear.

(Q) What distance would you say is well past and clear?
(a) At least 4 miles.

(Q) If you're overtaking another vessel and now you're abeam of the other
vessel are you overtaking or crossing?
(a) You're still an overtaking vessel until well past and clear

(Q) If you're in any vessel and any vessel is overtaking you what would you do?
(a) Stand-on with caution keeping your course and speed.

(Q) If you're coming up on a vessel at 22.5 degrees abaft the beam, are you a
crossing vessel or overtaking vessel?
(a) You're a crossing vessel, the word MORE is missing.

(Q) If you're overtaking a vessel, you're on his starboard quarter and the other
vessel is on your stem, what action will you take?
(a) Take the shortest course, sound 2 short blasts on the whistle and make an
early and bold alteration to port and go around the other vessel's stern.

(Q) If you're overtaking a vessel, you're on his port quarter and the other
vessel is on your stem, what action will you take?
(a) Take the shortest course, sound 1 short blast on the whistle and make an
early and bold alteration to starboard and go around the other vessel's stern.
(Q) If you're coming up on a vessel, and one minute you're seeing his
sternlight, then his sidelight, then his sternlight, is this a crossing situation or
an overtaking situation?
(a) This is an overtaking situation
RULE 14
HEAD-ON SITUATION
a) When two power driven vessels are meeting on reciprocal or nearly reciprocal
courses so as to involve risk of collision each shall alter her course to starboard so
that each shall pass on the port side of the other.
b) Such a situation shall be deemed to exist when a vessel sees the other ahead or
nearly ahead and by night she could see the masthead lights of the other in a line
or nearly in a line and/or both sidelights and by day she observes the
corresponding aspect of the other vessel.
c) When a vessel is in any doubt as to whether such a situation exists she shall
assume that it does exist and act accordingly.
explanation

When you see a power-driven vessel coming towards you, you'll see his masthead
light(s) between his sidelights.
It becomes a crossing situation when you only see ONE sidelight
but it is still a head-on situation if you see One side light then Two then One then Two
sidelights, if your unsure then deem it a head-on situation
More Tips;

what's the other vessel go


Other Vessel what are you going to do?
do?

Power-Driven Vessel Giveway Giveway

Sailing Vessel Giveway Stand-on with Caution

Fishing Vessel Giveway Stand-on with Caution

Not Under Command (N.U.C.) Giveway Stand-on with Caution

Restricted in her ability to Manoeuvre Giveway Stand-on with Caution

If the circumstances of the


Constrained by her Draught Stand-on with Caution
case admit - Giveway

Turn 180 degrees and make


Minesweeper Stand-on with Caution
for the harbour

P.D.V. towing another Vessel Giveway Giveway

Restricted in her ability to manoeuvre


Giveway Stand-on with Caution
towing another vessel

Ferry Giveway Giveway

Supertanker Giveway Giveway


Pilot Vessel Giveway Giveway

High Speed Craft Giveway Giveway

Wig Aircraft Stand-on with Caution Giveway


You're in a Power-driven vessel and in a head-on situation with one of the following,
will you stand-on or giveway to the other vessel and does the other vessel stand-on or
giveway also?

Caution watch this vessel in a head on situation

This is a Power-driven vessel probably over 50 metres in length, Restricted in her ability to manoeuvre
engaged in underwater operations, probably a dredger, it is clear to pass down his port-side, his starboa
side is his working side, he could be a diving ship with divers down.

You sound 2 short blasts on the ships whistle and make a bold alteration to port and go down his port-s
a safe distance. he stands-on with caution mainting his course and speed
You'd make the same alteration if he had no sidelights swutched on

RULE 15
CROSSING SITUATION
When two power driven vessels are crossing so as to involve risk of collision, the
vessel which has the other on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way and
shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid crossing ahead of the other
vessel.

(Q) What type of vessels do you need for this rule?


(a) 2 power-driven vessels.

(Q) How do you know who is the give way vessel in a crossing situation?
(a) You're the give way vessel if you have another power-driven vessel on your
starboard side.

DIFFERENCE IN CROSSING AND


OVERTAKING
RULE 16
ACTION BY GIVE-WAY VESSEL
Every vessel which is directed to keep out of the way of another vessel shall, so
far as possible, take early and substantial action to keep well clear.

Question
(Q) If you were the Give way vessel, what action would you take?

(a) Make an early and bold alteration of course, you could slow down, stop your
vessel or come astern, but if plenty of distance, an alteration is the best means
to avoid a collision.
RULE 17
ACTION BY STAND-ON VESSEL
a) i) Where one of the two vessels is to keep out of the way the other shall keep her
course and speed.
ii) The latter vessel may however take action to avoid collision by her manoeuvre
alone, as soon as it becomes apparent to her that the vessel required to keep out of
the way is not taking appropriate action in compliance with these Rules.
8
b) When, from any cause, the vessel required to keep her course and speed finds
herself so close that collision cannot be avoided by the action of the give-way
vessel alone, she shall take such action as will best aid to avoid collision.
c) A power driven vessel which takes action in a crossing situation in accordance
with subparagraph (a)(ii) of this Rule to avoid collision with another power
driven vessel shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, not alter course to port
for a vessel on her own port side.
d) This Rule does not relieve the give-way vessel of her obligation to keep out of the
way.

Question

(Q) If you're the stand-on vessel, what action will you take?
(a) Stand-on with caution, keeping your course and speed.

(Q) If the Give way vessel were standing on, what warning signal would you
give him?
(a) 5 or more short and rapid blasts on the whistle, to indicate that you are
unsure of his intentions.

(Q) If you're in a power-driven vessel, and on your port bow there is another
power-driven vessel, who is standing-on, collision course, you've gave him 5 or
more short and rapid blasts on the whistle, you got no response from him, what
action will you take now?
(a) Make an early and bold alteration away from him, in this case, 1 short blast
on the whistle and an early and bold alteration to starboard and show him your
sternlight.

(Q) If you're in a fishing vessel, and on your starboard bow is a sailing vessel,
who is standing-on, collision course, you've gave him 5 or more short and rapid
blasts on the whistle, you got no response from him, what action will you take
now?
(a) Make an early and bold alteration away from him, in this case, 2 short
blasts on the whistle and make an early and bold alteration to port.

(Q) What actions for the stand-on vessel if the give way vessel stands-on?
(a) If the give way vessel stands on; the stand-on vessel may alter course
(outside 4 miles - Rule of thumb distance)
(inside 4 miles - Rule of thumb distance)If in a close quarter situation and the
give way vessel stands on; the stand-on vessel shall alter course
RULE 18
RESPONSIBILITIES BETWEEN VESSELS
Except where Rules 9, 10 and 13 otherwise require;

a) A power driven vessel underway shall keep out of the way of;
A vessel not under command;
A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre;
A vessel engaged in fishing;
A sailing vessel.
b) A sailing vessel underway shall keep out of the way of;
A vessel not under command;
A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre;
A vessel engaged in fishing.
c) A vessel engaged in fishing when underway shall, so far as possible, keep out of
the way of;
A vessel not under command;
A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre.
d) i) Any vessel other than a vessel not under command or a vessel restricted in her
ability to manoeuvre shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid impeding
the safe passage of a vessel constrained by her draught, exhibiting the signals in
Rule 28.
ii) A vessel constrained by her draught shall navigate with particular caution
having full regard to her special condition.
e) A seaplane on the water shall, in general, keep well clear of all vessels and avoid
impeding their navigation. In circumstances, however, where risk of collision
exists, she shall comply with the Rules of this Part.

Question
(Q) If you are in a power-driven vessel, there are 6 vessels that you should
give way to, name them?
(a) A power-driven vessel on your starboard bow.
(b) A sailing vessel
(c) A fishing vessel
(d) A vessel not under command
(e) A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre
(f) If the circumstances of the case admit, a vessel constrained by her draught.

(Q) If you are in a fishing vessel, then you have to give way to 4 vessels, name
them?
(a) A fishing vessel on your starboard bow
(b) A vessel not under command
(c) A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre
(d) If the circumstances of the case admit, a vessel constrained by her draught.

(Q) If you're in a power-driven vessel, or fishing vessel, would you stand-on or


give way to a vessel constrained by her draught?
(a) Your best to Give way to a vessel constrained by her draught.

(Q) Is there any rule that says you should try to avoid impeding the safe
passage of a vessel constrained by her draught?
(a) Yes, Rule 18d part (1) says any vessel other than a vessel not under
command or a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre, shall if the
circumstances of the case admit avoid impeding the safe passage of a vessel
constrained by her draught.

(Q) Usually what type of vessel would a vessel constrained by her draught be?
(a) Very large supertanker carrying crude oil.

(Q) So what would happen if you stood-on to a vessel constrained by her


draught?
(a) She could easily go aground and tear the bottom out of her hull, causing a
major ecological disaster, killing all seabirds, covering the coastline with oil,
pollution at its worst.

A power-driven vessel gives way to A fishing vessel gives way to.


3 Big Restricted in her ability to 3 Big Restricted in her ability to
manoeuvre manoeuvre
Not under command
Constrained by her draught Not under command

Constrained by her draught


2 small
Sailing
Fishing
1 awkward

A power-driven vessel on your own 1 awkward


starboard side
A fishing vessel on your own
starboard side

SECTION III CONDUCT OF VESSELS IN RESTRICTED


VISIBILITY
RULE 19
CONDUCT OF VESSELS IN RESTRICTED VISIBILITY
a) This Rule applies to vessels not in sight of one another when navigating in or near
an area of restricted visibility.
b) Every vessel shall proceed at a safe speed adapted to the prevailing circumstances
and conditions of restricted visibility. A power driven vessel shall have her
engines ready for immediate manoeuvre.
c) Every vessel shall have due regard to the prevailing circumstances and conditions
of restricted visibility when complying with the Rules of Section I of this Part.
d) A vessel which detects by radar alone the presence of another vessel shall
determine if a close-quarters situation is developing and/or risk of collision exists.
If so, she shall take avoiding action in ample time, provided that when such action
consists of an alteration of course, so far as possible the following shall be
avoided;
An alteration of course to port for a vessel forward of the beam, other than for
a vessel being overtaken;
An alteration of course towards a vessel abeam or abaft the beam.
e) Except where it has been determined that a risk of collision does not exist, every
vessel which hears apparently forward of her beam the fog signal of another
vessel, or which cannot avoid a close quarters situation with another vessel
forward of her beam, shall reduce her speed to the minimum at which she can be
kept on her course. She shall if necessary take all her way off and in any event
navigate with extreme caution until danger of collision is over.

Question
Q) What does Rule 19 mean to you?
(a) This Rule applies to all vessels in or near an area of Restricted Visibility.
IN OTHER WORDS: -
(THERE ARE NO STAND_ON VESSELS IN RESTRICTED VISIBILITY)

(Q) What would you say a safe speed was in Restricted visibility?
(a) A speed that you could stop your vessel in half the visible distance you could see, so
you could alter using Rule 19 (d) parts (i) and (ii)

(Q) What does part (a) say?


(a) This Rule Applies to all vessels in or near an area of restricted visibility

(Q) What does part (b) say?


(a) Go at a safe speed and have your engines ready for immediate manoeuvre's

(Q) What does part (c) say?


(a) Have Due regards to the prevailing condition

(Q) What does Rule 19 (d) say?(a) A vessel which detects by radar alone the
presence of another vessel shall determine if a close-quarter situation is
developing and/or risk of collision exists. if so she shall take avoiding action in
ample time, providing that when such action consists of an alteration of course,
so far as possible the following shall be avoided(Q) What does Rule 19 (d) Part
(i) say?(a) Avoid an alteration to port for a vessel forward of the beam, other than for a
vessel being overtaken(Q) What does Rule 19 (d) Part (ii) say?(a) Avoid an
alteration towards a vessel abeam or abaft the beam(Q) What does Rule 19 (e)
say?(a) Except where it has been determined that a risk of collision does not exist,
every vessel which hears apparently forward of her beam, the fog signal of another
vessel, or which cannot avoid a close-quarters situation with another vessel forward of
her beam, shall reduce her speed to a minimum at which she can be kept on her course.
Shall if necessary take all her way off and in any event navigate with extreme caution
until danger of collision is over.

PART C LIGHTS AND SHAPES


RULE 20
APPLICATION
a) Rules in this part shall be complied with in all weathers.
b) The Rules concerning lights shall be complied with from sunset to sunrise, and
during such times no other lights shall be exhibited, except such lights as cannot
be mistaken for the lights specified in these Rules or do not impair their visibility
or distinctive character, or interfere with the keeping of a proper look-out.
c) The lights prescribed by these Rules shall, if carried, also be exhibited from
sunrise to sunset in restricted visibility and may be exhibited in all other
circumstances when it is deemed necessary.
d) The Rules concerning shapes shall be complied with by day.
e) The lights and shapes specified in these Rules shall comply with the provisions of
Annex I to these Regulations.

RULE 21
DEFINITIONS
a) Masthead light means a white light placed over the fore and aft centre line of the
vessel showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 225 degrees and so
fixed as to show the light from right ahead to 22.5 degrees abaft the beam on
either side of the vessel.
b) Side lights means a green light on the starboard side and a red light on the port
side each showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 112.5 degrees
and so fixed as to show the light from right ahead to 22.5 degrees abaft the beam
on its respective side. In a vessel of less than 20 metres in length the side lights
may be combined in one lantern carried on the fore and aft centreline of the
vessel.
c) Stern light means a white light placed as nearly as practicable at the stern showing
an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 135 degrees and so fixed as to
show the light 67.5 degrees from right aft on each side of the vessel.
d) Towing light means a yellow light placed as nearly as practicable at the stern
showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 135 degrees and so fixed
as to show the light 67.5 degrees from right aft on each side of the vessel.
e) All-round light means a light showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon
of 360 degrees.
f) Flashing light means a light flashing at regular intervals at a frequency of 120
flashes or more per minute.
RULE 22
VISIBILITY OF LIGHTS
The lights prescribed in these Rules shall have an intensity as specified in Section
8 of Annex I to these Regulations so as to be visible at the following minimum
ranges;
a) In vessels of 50 metres or more in length;
A masthead light, 6 miles;
A side light, 3 miles;
A stern light, 3 miles;
A towing light, 3 miles;
A white, red, green or yellow all-round light, 3 miles.
b) In vessels of 12 metres or more in length but less than 50 metres in length;
A masthead light, 5 miles; except that where the length of the vessel is less
than 20 metres, 3 miles;
A side light, 2 miles;
A stern light, 2 miles;
A towing light, 2 miles;
A white, red, green or yellow all-round light, 2 miles.
c) In vessels of less than 12 metres in length;
A masthead light, 2 miles;
A side light, 1 mile;
A stern light, 2 miles;
A towing light, 2 miles;
A white, red, green or yellow all-round light, 2 miles.
d) In inconspicuous, partly submerged vessels or objects being towed;
A white all-round light, 3 miles.
RULE 23
POWER DRIVEN VESSELS UNDERWAY
a) A power driven vessel underway shall exhibit;
(i) A masthead light forward;
(ii) A second masthead light abaft of and higher than the forward one; except that
a vessel of less than 50 metres in length shall not be obliged to exhibit such
light but may do so;
(iii) Side lights;
(iv) A stern light.
b) An air cushion vessel when operating in the non-displacement mode shall, in
addition to the lights prescribed in paragraph (a) of this Rule, exhibit an all-round
flashing yellow light.
c) (i) A power driven vessel of less than 12 metres in length may in lieu of the lights
prescribed in paragraph (a) of this Rule exhibit an all-round white light and side
lights;
(ii) A power driven vessel of less than 7 metres in length whose maximum speed
does not exceed 7 knots may in lieu of the lights prescribed in paragraph (a) of
this Rule exhibit an all-round white light and shall, if practicable, also exhibit side
lights;
(iii) The masthead light or all-round white light on a power driven vessel of less
than 12 metres in length may be displaced from the fore and aft centre line of the
vessel if centre line fitting is not practicable, provided that the side lights are
combined in one lantern which shall be carried on the fore and aft centre line of
the vessel or located as nearly as practicable in the same fore and aft line as the
masthead light or the all-round white light.

Question
(Q) A Power-driven Vessel - UNDERWAY, what Navigation Lights does he
switch off if he is stopped and making no-way through the water?(a) None, he is
not entitled to switch off any Navigation Lights

(Q) What is classed as Navigation Lights?(a) Sidelights (Port & Starboard),


Sternlight, and if entitled to them Masthead light(s)

(Q) What vessels are not entitled to masthead lights if the vessel is
Underway?(a) Three vessels;
(i) Fishing vessel other than Trawling (Red Light over a White Light - 2 metres apart)
(ii) Not Under Command (Red light over a Red Light - 2 metres apart)
(iii) A Vessel engaged in Pilotage duties (White light over a Red Light - 2 metres apart)

(Q) How can you tell a Power-driven vessel is Makingway?(a) By taking a series
of Compass, Radar & Visual Bearings (visual Bearings being most accurate)

RULE 24
TOWING AND PUSHING
a) A power driven vessel when towing shall exhibit;
(i) Instead of the lights prescribed in Rule 23 (a) (i) or (a) (ii), two masthead lights
in a vertical line. When the length of the tow, measuring from the stern of the
towing vessel to the after end of the tow exceeds 200 metres, three such lights
in a vertical line;
(ii) Side lights;
12
(iii) A stern light;
(iv) A towing light in a vertical line above the stern light;
(v) When the length of the tow exceeds 200 metres, a diamond shape where it can
best be seen.
b) When pushing a vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a
composite unit they shall be regarded as a power driven vessel and exhibit the
lights prescribed in Rule 23
c) A power driven vessel when pushing ahead or towing alongside, except in the
case of a composite unit, shall exhibit;
(i) Instead of the light prescribed in Rule 23 (a) (i) or (a) (ii), two masthead lights
in a vertical line;
(ii) Side lights;
(iii) A stern light.
d) A power driven vessel to which paragraph (a) or (c) of this Rule applies shall also
comply with 23 (a) (ii).
e) A vessel or object being towed, other than those mentioned in paragraph (g) of
this Rule, shall exhibit;
(i) Side lights;
(ii) A stern light.
(iii) When the length of the tow exceeds 200 metres, a diamond shape where it can
best be seen.
f) Provided that any number of vessels being towed alongside or pushed in a group
shall be lighted as one vessel.
(i) A vessel being pushed ahead, not being part of a composite unit, shall exhibit
at the forward end, side lights.
(ii) A vessel being towed along side shall exhibit a stern light and at the forward
end, sidelights.
g) An inconspicuous, partly submerged vessel or object, or combination of such
vessels or object being towed, shall exhibit;
(i) If it is less than 25 metres in breadth, one all-round white light at or near the
forward end and one at or near the after end except that dracones need not
exhibit a light at or near the forward end;
(ii) If it is 25 metres or more in breadth, two additional all-round white lights at or
near the extremities of its breadth;
(iii) If it exceeds 100 metres in length, additional all-round white lights between
the lights prescribed in sub-paragraphs (i) and (ii) so that the distance between
the lights shall not exceed 100 metres;
(iv) A diamond shape at or near the aftermost extremity of the last vessel or object
being towed and if the length of the tow exceeds 200 metres an additional
diamond shape where it can best be seen and located as far forward as is
practicable.
13
h) Where from any sufficient cause it is impracticable for a vessel or object being
towed to exhibit the lights or shapes prescribed in paragraph (e) or (g) of this
Rule, all possible measures shall be taken to light the vessel or object towed or at
least to indicate the presence of such vessel or object.
i) Where from any sufficient cause it is impracticable for a vessel not normally
engaged in towing operations to display the lights prescribed in paragraph (a) or
(c) of this Rule, such vessel shall not be required to exhibit those lights when
engaged in towing another vessel in distress or otherwise in need of assistance. All
possible measures shall be taken to indicate the nature of the relationship between
the towing vessel and the vessel being towed as authorized by Rule 36, in
particular by illuminating the towline.

RULE 25
SAILING VESSELS UNDERWAY AND VESSELS UNDER OARS
a) A sailing vessel under way shall exhibit;
(i) Side lights;
(ii) A stern light.
b) In a sailing vessel of less than 20 metres in length the lights prescribed in
paragraph (a) of this Rule may be combined in one lantern carried at or near the
top of the mast where it can best be seen.
c) A sailing vessel underway may, in addition to the lights prescribed in paragraph
(a) of this Rule, exhibit at or near the top of the mast, where they can best be
seen, two all-round lights in a vertical line, the upper being red and the lower
green, but these lights shall not be exhibited in conjunction with the combined
lantern permitted by paragraph (b) of this Rule.
d) (i) A sailing vessel of less than 7 metres in length shall, if practicable, exhibit the
lights prescribed in paragraph (a) or (b) of this Rule, but if she does not, she shall
have ready at hand an electric torch or lighted lantern showing a white light
which shall be exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision.
(ii)A vessel under oars may exhibit the lights prescribed in this Rule for sailing
vessels, but if she does not, she shall have ready at hand an electric torch or
lighted lantern showing a white light which shall be exhibited in sufficient time to
prevent collision.
e) A vessel proceeding under sail when also being propelled by machinery shall
exhibit forward where it can best be seen a conical shape, apex downwards.
RULE 26
FISHING VESSELS
a) A vessel engaged in fishing, whether underway or at anchor, shall exhibit only the
lights and shapes prescribed in this Rule.
b) A vessel when engaged in trawling, by which is meant the dragging through the
water of a dredge net or other apparatus used as a fishing appliance, shall exhibit;
14
i) Two all round lights in vertical line, the upper being green and the lower white,
or a shape consisting of two cones with their apexes together in a vertical line one
above the other;
(ii) A masthead light abaft and higher than the all-round green light; a vessel of
less than 50 metres in length shall not be obliged to exhibit such a light but may
do so;
(iii) When making way through the water, in addition to the lights prescribed in
this paragraph, side lights and a stern light.
c) A vessel engaged in fishing, other than trawling, shall exhibit;
(i)Two all-round lights in vertical line, the upper being red and the lower white, or
a shape consisting of two cones with apexes together in a vertical line one above
the other;
(ii) When there is outlying gear extending more than 150 metres horizontally from
the vessel, an all-round white light or a cone apex upwards in the direction of the
gear;
(iii) When making way through the water, in addition to the lights prescribed in
this paragraph, sidelights and a stern light.
d) The additional signals described in Annex II to these Regulations apply to a vessel
engaged in fishing in close proximity to other vessels engaged in fishing.
e) A vessel when not engaged in fishing shall not exhibit the lights or shapes
prescribed in this Rule, but only those prescribed for a vessel of her length.
RULE 27
VESSEL NOT UNDER COMMAND OR RESTRICTED IN THEIR
ABILITY TO MANOEUVRE
a) A vessel not under command shall exhibit;
(i) Two all-round red lights in a vertical line where they can best be seen;
(ii) Two balls or similar shapes in a vertical line where they can best be seen;
(iii) When making way through the water, in addition to the lights prescribed in
this paragraph, side lights and a stern light.
b) A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre, except a vessel engaged in mine
clearance operations, shall exhibit;
(i) Three all-round lights in a vertical line where they can best be seen. The
highest and lowest of these lights shall be red and the middle light shall be white;
15
(ii) Three shapes in a vertical line where they can best be seen. The highest and
lowest of these shapes shall be balls and the middle one a diamond;
(iii) When making way through the water, a masthead light or lights, side lights
and a stern light, in addition to the lights prescribed in sub-paragraph (i);
(iv) When at anchor, in addition to the lights or shapes prescribed in subparagraphs
(i) and (ii), the light, lights or shape prescribed in Rule 30.
c) A power driven vessel engaged in a towing operation such as severely restricts the
towing vessel and her tow in their ability to deviate from their course shall, in
addition to the lights or shapes prescribed in Rule 24 (a), exhibit the lights or
shapes prescribed in sub-paragraphs (b)(i) and (ii) of this Rule.
d) A vessel engaged in dredging or under water operations, when restricted in her
ability to manoeuvre, shall exhibit the lights and shapes prescribed in subparagraphs
(b)(i),(ii) and (iii) of this Rule and shall in addition, when obstruction
exists, exhibit;
(i)Two all-round red lights or two balls in a vertical line to indicate the side on
which the obstruction exists;
(ii) Two all-round green lights or two diamonds in a vertical line to indicate the
side on which another vessel may pass;
(iii) When at anchor, the lights or shapes prescribed in this paragraph instead of
the lights or shape prescribed in Rule 30.
e) Whenever the size of a vessel engaged in diving operations makes it impracticable
to exhibit all lights and shapes prescribed in paragraph (d) of this Rule, the
following shall be exhibited;
(i) Three all-round lights in vertical line where they can best be seen. The highest
and lowest of these lights shall be red and the middle light shall be white;
(ii) A rigid replica of the International Code Flag A not less than 1 metre in
height. Measures shall be taken to ensure its all-round visibility.
f) A vessel engaged in mine clearance operations shall in addition to the lights
prescribed for a power driven vessel in Rule 23 or to the lights and shape
prescribed for a vessel at anchor in Rule 30 as appropriate, exhibit three all-round
green lights or three balls. One of these lights or shapes shall be exhibited near the
foremast head and one at each end of the fore yard. These lights or shapes indicate
that it is dangerous for another vessel to approach within 1000 metres of the mine
clearance vessel.
g) Vessels of less than 12 metres in length, except those engaged in diving
operations, shall not be required to exhibit the lights and shapes prescribed in this
Rule.
h) The signals prescribed in this Rule are not signals of vessels in distress and
requiring assistance. Such signals are contained in Annex IV to these
Regulations.
RULE 28
VESSELS CONSTRAINED BY THEIR DRAUGHT
A vessel constrained by her draught may, in addition to the lights prescribed for
power driven vessels in Rule 23, exhibit where they can best be seen three allround
red lights in a vertical line, or a cylinder.

RULE 29
PILOT VESSELS
a) A vessel engaged on pilotage duty shall exhibit;
(i) At or near the masthead, two all-round lights in a vertical line, the upper being
white and the lower red;
(ii) When underway, in addition, sidelights and a stern light;
(iii) When at anchor, in addition to the lights prescribed in sub-paragraph (i), the
light, lights or shape prescribed in Rule 30 for vessels at anchor.
b) A pilot vessel when not engaged on pilotage duty shall, exhibit the lights or
shapes prescribed for a similar vessel of her length.
RULE 30
ANCHORED VESSELS AND VESSELS AGROUND
a) A vessel at anchor shall exhibit where it can best be seen;
(i) In the fore part, an all-round white light or one ball;
(ii) At or near the stern and at a lower level than the light prescribed in subparagraph
(i), an all-round white light.
b) A vessel of less than 50 metres in length may exhibit an all-round white light
where it can best be seen instead of the lights prescribed in paragraph (a) of this
Rule.
c) A vessel at anchor may, and a vessel of 100 metres and more in length shall, also
use the available working or equivalent lights to illuminate her decks.
d) A vessel aground shall exhibit the lights prescribed in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this
Rule and in addition, where they can best be seen;
(i) Two all-round red lights in a vertical line;
(ii) Three balls in a vertical line.
e) A vessel of less than 7 metres in length, when at anchor, not in or near a narrow
channel, fairway or anchorage, or where other vessels normally navigate, shall not
be required to exhibit the lights or shapes prescribed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of
this Rule.
f) A vessel of less than 12 metres in length, when aground, shall not be required to
exhibit the lights or shapes prescribed in sub-paragraph (d)(i) and (ii) of this Rule.
RULE 31
SEAPLANES
Where it is impracticable for a seaplane to exhibit lights and shapes of the
characteristics or in the positions prescribed in the Rules of this Part she shall
exhibit lights and shapes as closely similar in characteristics and position as is
possible.
PART D SOUND AND LIGHT SIGNALS
RULE 32
DEFINITIONS
a) The word whistle means any sound-signalling appliance capable of producing the
prescribed blasts and which complies with the specifications in Annex III to these
Regulations.
b) The term short blast means a blast of about one seconds duration.
c) The term prolonged blast means a blast of from four to six seconds duration.

RULE 33
EQUIPMENT FOR SOUND SIGNALS
a) A vessel of 12 metres or more in length shall be provided with a whistle and a bell
and a vessel of 100 metres or more in length shall, in addition, be provided with a
gong, the tone and sound of which cannot be confused with that of the bell. The
whistle, bell and gong shall comply with the specifications in Annex III to these
Regulations. The bell or gong or both may be replaced by other equipment having
the same respective sound characteristics, provided that manual sounding of the
prescribed signals shall always be possible.
b) A vessel of less than 12 metres in length shall not be obliged to carry the sound
signalling appliances prescribed in paragraph (a) of this Rule but if she does not,
she shall be provided with some other means of making an efficient sound signal.

RULE 34
MANOEUVRING AND WARNING SIGNALS
a) When vessels are in sight of one another, a power driven vessel underway, when
manoeuvring as authorized or required by these Rules, shall indicate that
manoeuvre by the following signals on her whistle;
One short blast to mean I am altering my course to starboard
Two short blasts to mean I am altering my course to port
Three short blasts to mean I am operating astern propulsion.
b) Any vessel may supplement the whistle signals prescribed in paragraph (a) of this
Rule by light signals, repeated as appropriate, whilst the manoeuvre in being
carried out;
(i) These light signals shall have the following significance;
One flash to mean I am altering my course to starboard
Two flashes to mean I am altering my course to port
Three flashes to mean I am operating astern propulsion.
(ii) The duration of each flash shall be about one second, the interval between
flashes shall be about one second, and the interval between successive signals
shall be not less than ten seconds;
(iii) The light used for this signal shall, if fitted, be an all-round white light,
visible at a minimum range of 5 miles, and shall comply with the provisions of
Annex I to these Regulations.
c) When in sight of one another in a narrow channel or fairway;
(i) A vessel intending to overtake another shall in compliance with Rule 9 (e)(i)
indicate her intention by the following signals on her whistle;
Two prolonged blasts followed by one short blast to mean I intend to overtake
you on your starboard side;
Two prolonged blasts followed by two short blasts to mean I intend to overtake
you on your port side;
(ii) The vessel about to be overtaken when acting in accordance with Rule 9 (e)(i)
shall indicate her agreement by the following signal on her whistle;
One prolonged, one short, one prolonged and one short blast, in that order.
d) When vessels in sight of one another are approaching each other and from any
cause either vessel fails to understand the intentions or actions of the other, or is in
doubt whether sufficient action is being taken by the other to avoid collision, the
vessel in doubt shall immediately indicate such doubt by giving at least five short
and rapid blasts on the whistle. Such signal may be supplemented by a light signal
of at least five short and rapid flashes.
e) A vessel nearing a bend or an area of a channel or fairway where other vessels
may be obscured by an intervening obstruction shall sound one prolonged blast.
Such signal shall be answered with a prolonged blast by any approaching vessel
that may be within hearing around the bend or behind the intervening obstruction.
f) If whistles are fitted on a vessel at a distance apart of more than 100 metres, one
whistle only shall be used for giving manoeuvring and warning signals.
Question
(Q) 1,2,3 & 5 Short and Rapid blasts on the ships whistle, what condition of
visibility are these sound signals used?
(a) When vessels are in sight of one another

(Q) Does that mean clear visibility?(a) No, you can still see a vessel when it is hazy,
when you can see the vessel visually then you use this Rule and not Rule 35. Sound
Signals in Restricted Visibility

(Q) In a Narrow Channel, a vessel sounds 2 Prolonged Blasts followed by 1


short blast (Morse "G" - Golf), what does he intend to do?(a) He wants to
Overtake your Starboard side and he is awaiting your answer for you to agree for him to
pass

(Q) In a Narrow Channel, a vessel sounds 2 Prolonged Blasts followed by 2


short blast (Morse "Z" - Zulu), what does he intend to do?(a) He wants to
Overtake your Port side and he is awaiting your answer for you to agree for him to pass

(Q) What sound signal would you reply with if you agreed with the overtaking
manoeuvre?(a) (Morse "C" - Charlie) 1 Prolonged blast followed by 1 short blast
followed by 1 prolonged blast followed by 1 short blast on the ships whistle

(Q) What would you sound if you disagreed to be overtaken in a narrow


channel?(a) You'd sound 5 or more short and rapid blasts on the ships whistle, you can
also flash a light 5 or more times
(Q) In a Narrow channel, your coming towards a bend in the channel, what
warning signal will you sound?(a) One prolonged blast on the ships whistle

(Q) If I was coming around the bend towards you, what warning signal would I
sound?(a) One prolonged blast on the ships whistle

(Q) You're on a collison course with another vessel, you're the stand-on vessel,
the giveway vessel is standing-on, what warning signal will you sound?(a) You'll
sound 5 or more short and rapid blasts on the ships whistle

RULE 35
SOUND SIGNALS IN RESTRICTED VISIBILITY
In or near an area of restricted visibility, whether by day or night, the signals
prescribed in this Rule shall be used as follows;
a) A power driven vessel making way through the water shall sound at intervals of
not more than 2 minutes one prolonged blast.
b) A power driven vessel underway but stopped and making no way through the
water shall sound at intervals of not more than 2 minutes two prolonged blasts in
succession with an interval of about 2 seconds between them.
c) A vessel not under command, a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre, a
vessel constrained by her draught, a sailing vessel, a vessel engaged in fishing and
a vessel engaged in towing or pushing another vessel shall, instead of the signals
prescribed in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this Rule, sound at intervals of not more than
2 minutes three blasts in succession, namely one prolonged followed by two short
blasts.
d) A vessel engaged in fishing, when at anchor, and a vessel restricted in her ability
to manoeuvre when carrying out her work at anchor, shall instead of the signals
prescribed in paragraph (g) of this Rule, sound the signal prescribed in paragraph
(c) of this Rule.
e) A vessel towed or if more than one vessel is towed the last vessel of the tow, if
manned, shall at intervals of not more than 2 minutes sound four blasts in
succession, namely one prolonged followed by three short blasts. When
practicable, this signal shall be made immediately after the signal made by the
towing vessel.
f) When a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a
composite unit they shall be regarded as a power driven vessel and shall give the
signals prescribed in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this Rule.
g) A vessel at anchor shall at intervals of not more than one minute ring the bell
rapidly for about 5 seconds. In a vessel of 100 metres or more in length the bell
shall be sounded in the forepart of the vessel and immediately after the ringing of
the bell the gong shall be sounded rapidly for about 5 seconds in the after part of
the vessel. A vessel at anchor may in addition sound three blasts in succession,
namely one short, one prolonged and one short blast, to give warning of her
position and of the possibility of collision to an approaching vessel.
h) A vessel aground shall give the bell signal and if required the gong signal
prescribed in paragraph (g) of this Rule and shall, in addition, give three separate
and distinct strokes on the bell immediately before and after the rapid ringing of
the bell. A vessel aground may in addition sound an appropriate whistle signal.
i) A vessel of less than 12 metres in length shall not be obliged to give the above
mentioned signals but, if she does not, shall make some other efficient sound
signal at intervals of not more than 2 minutes.
j) A pilot vessel when engaged on pilotage duty may in addition to the signals
prescribed in paragraph (a), (b) or (g) of this Rule sound an identity signal
consisting of four short blasts.

Question

(Q) A vessel engaged in Pilotage duties, what is his identity


signal?(a) He may sound 4 short and rapid blasts on the ships whistle

(Q) May he sound the identity signal when vessels are in sight of
one another?(a) No, this is only to be sounded in Restricted Visibility

(Q) Is there a time length for the Pilots identity signal (I.E. not
exceeding 2 minutes)?(a) No, there is no time limit, he may sound the identity
signal as and when he wants

(Q) Name the vessels with a hampered fog signal (1 Prolonged


and 2 short)?(a)
(i) Sailing Vessel
(ii) Fishing vessels (Trawler & Fishing other than Trawling)
(iii) Not Under command
(iv) Restricted in her ability to manoeuvre
(v) Constrained by her Draught
(vi) Minesweeper
(vii) Vessel engaged in towing
(viii) Restricted in her ability to manoeuvre engaged in towing
(ix) A vessel engaged in pushing another vessel ahead
(x) A Fishing vessel other than trawling fishing while at anchor (Anchor Seine-net)
(xi) Restricted in her ability to manoeuvre while at anchor

(Q) A Power-driven vessel has 2 different Fog signals, what are


they?(a)
If Underway - Two Prolonged blasts on the ships whistle at intervals not exceeding two
minutes
If Makingway - One Prolonged blast on the ships whistle at intervals not exceeding two
minutes

(Q) A Short Blast - How long does it last for?(a) One second

(Q) A Prolonged Blast - How long does it last for?(a) Between 4 - 6


Seconds

(Q) What is the complete sound signal for a vessel engaged in


towing another vessel that is manned?(a) The towing vessel will sound 1
prolonged blast followed by 2 short blasts on the ships whistle, the vessel being towed
will immediately sound 1 prolonged blast followed by 3 short blasts on the ships whistle,
all within 2 minutes

(Q) A vessel at anchor (under 100 metres), what is his fog


signal?(a)
A rapid ringing on the bell (forward) for 5 seconds
at intervals not exceeding 1 minute

(Q) A vessel at anchor (Over 100 metres), what is his fog


signal?(a)
A rapid ringing on the bell for 5 (forward) seconds, then
A rapid ringing on the gong (aft) for 5 seconds
at intervals not exceeding 1 minute

(Q) A vessel at anchor has a warning signal he may use to alert


you of a possible collision, what is it?(a) He may sound (Morse "R" -
Romeo) 1 short blast followed by 1 prolonged blast followed by 1 short blast

(Q) A vessel aground (Under 100 metres), what is his fog


signal?(a)
3 distinct strokes on the bell, followed by
a rapid ringing on the bell for 5 seconds, followed by
3 distinct strokes on the bell (bell is forward in the ship)
at intervals not exceeding 1 minute

(Q) A vessel aground (Over 100 metres), what is his fog signal?(a)
3 distinct strokes on the bell, followed by
a rapid ringing on the bell for 5 seconds, followed by
3 distinct strokes on the bell followed by (bell is forward in the ship)
a rapid ringing on the gong (gong is aft in the ship) for 5 seconds
at intervals not exceeding 1 minute

RULE 36
SIGNAL TO ATTRACT ATTENTION
If necessary to attract the attention of another vessel any vessel may make light or
sound signals that cannot be mistaken for any signal authorized elsewhere in these
Rules, or may direct the beam of her searchlight in the direction of the danger, in
such a way as not to embarrass any vessel.
Any light to attract the attention of another vessel shall be such that it cannot be
mistaken for any aid to navigation. For the purpose of this Rule the use of high
intensity intermittent or revolving lights, such as strobe lights, shall be avoided.

RULE 37
DISTRESS SIGNALS
When a vessel is in distress and requires assistance she shall use or exhibit the
signals described in Annex IV to these Regulations.

PART E EXEMPTIONS
RULE 38
EXEMPTIONS
Any vessel (or class of vessels) provided that she complies with the requirements
of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1960, the keel of
which is laid or which is at a corresponding stage of construction before the entry
into force of these Regulations may be exempted from compliance therewith as
follows;
a) The installation of lights with ranges prescribed in Rule 22, until four years after
the date of entry into force of these Regulations.
b) The installation of lights with colour specifications as prescribed in Section 7 of
Annex I to these Regulations, until four years after the date of entry into force of
these Regulations.
c) The repositioning of lights as a result of conversion from Imperial to metric units
and rounding off measurement figures, permanent exemption.
d) (i) The repositioning of masthead lights on vessels of less than 150 metres in
length, resulting from the prescriptions of Section 3(a) of Annex I to these
Regulations, permanent exemption.
(ii) The repositioning of masthead lights on vessels of 150 metres or more in
length, resulting from the prescriptions of Section 3(a) of Annex I to these
Regulations, until nine years after the date of entry into force of these Regulations.
e) The repositioning of masthead lights resulting from the prescriptions of Section
2(b) of Annex I, to these Regulations until nine years after the date of entry into
force of these Regulations.
f) The repositioning of side lights resulting from the prescriptions of Section 2(g)
and 3(b) of Annex I to these Regulations until nine years after the date of entry
into force of these Regulations.
g) The requirements for sound signal appliances prescribed in Annex III, to these
Regulations until nine years after the date of entry into force of these Regulations.
h) The repositioning of all-round lights resulting from the prescriptions of Section
9(b) of Annex I to these Regulations, permanent exemption.

ANNEX I
POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND
SHAPES
1. DEFINITION:

The term height above the hull means height above the upper most continuous
deck. The height shall be measured from the position vertically beneath the
location of the light.

2. VERTICAL POSITIONING AND SPACING OF LIGHTS:

a) On a power driven vessel of 20 metres or more in length the masthead lights be


placed as follows;
(i) The forward masthead light, or if only one masthead light is carried, then that
light, at a height above the hull of not less than 6 metres, and, if the breadth of
the vessel exceeds 6 metres, then at a height above the hull not less than such
breadth, so however that the light need not be placed at a greater height above
the hull than 12 metres;
(ii) When two masthead lights are carried the after one shall be at least 4.5 metres
vertically higher than the forward one.
b) The vertical separation of masthead lights of power driven vessels shall be such
that in all normal conditions of trim the after light will be seen over and separate
from the forward light at a distance of 1000 metres from the stem when viewed
from sea level.
c) The masthead light of a power driven vessel of 12 metres but less than 20 metres
in length shall be placed at a height above the gunwale of not less than 2.5 metres.
d) A power driven vessel of less than 12 metres in length may carry the uppermost
light at a height of less than 2.5 metres above the gunwale. When however a
masthead light is carried in addition to side lights and a stern light or the all-round
light of Rule 23(c)(i) is carried in addition to side lights, then such masthead light
or all round light shall be carried at least 1 metre higher than the side lights.
e) One of the two or three masthead lights prescribed for a power driven vessel when
engaged in towing or pushing another vessel shall be placed in the same position
as either the forward masthead light or the after masthead light; provided that, if
carried on the aftermast, the lowest after masthead light shall be at least 4.5 metres
vertically higher than the forward masthead light.
f) (i) The masthead light or lights prescribed in Rule 23(a) shall be so placed as to be
above and clear of all other lights and obstructions except as described in subparagraph
(ii)
(ii) When it is impracticable to carry the all-round light prescribed by Rule
27(b)(i) or Rule 28 below the masthead lights, they may be carried above the
after masthead light(s) or vertically in between the forward masthead light(s)
and after masthead light(s), provided that in the latter case the requirement of
Section 3(c) of this Annex shall be complied with.
g) The sidelights of a power driven vessel shall be placed at a height above the hull
not greater than three-quarters of that of the forward masthead light. They shall
not be so low as to be interfered with by deck lights.
h) The side lights, if in a combined lantern and carried on a power driven vessel of
not less than 20 metres in length, shall be placed not less than 1 metre below the
masthead light.
i) When the Rules prescribe two or three lights to be carried in a vertical line, they
shall be spaced as follows;
(i) On a vessel of 20 metres in length or more such lights shall be spaced not less
than 2 metres apart, and the lowest of these lights shall, except where a towing
light is required, be placed at a height of not less than 4 metres above the hull;
(ii) On a vessel of less than 20 metres in length such lights shall be spaced not less
than 1 metre apart, and the lowest of these lights shall, except where a towing
light is required, be placed at a height of not less than 2 metres above the
gunwale;
(iii) When three lights are carried they shall be equally spaced.
j) The lower of the two all-round lights prescribed for a vessel when engaged in
fishing shall be at a height above the sidelights not less than twice the distance
between the two vertical lights.
k) The forward anchor light prescribed in Rule 30(a)(i), when two are carried, shall
not be less than 4.5 metres above the after one. On a vessel of 50 metres or more
in length this forward anchor light shall be placed at a height of not less than 6
metres above the hull.

3. HORIZONTAL POSITIONING AND SPACING OF LIGHTS:

a) When two masthead lights are prescribed for a power driven vessel, the horizontal
distance between them shall not be less than one-half of the length of the vessel
but need not be more than 100 metres. The forward light shall be placed not more
than one-quarter of the length of the vessel from the stem.
b) On a power driven vessel of 20 metres or more in length the sidelights shall not be
placed in front of the forward masthead lights. They shall be placed at or near the
side of the vessel.
c) When the lights prescribed in Rule 27(b)(i) or Rule 28 are placed vertically
between the forward masthead light(s) and the after masthead light(s) these allround
lights shall be placed at a horizontal distance of not less than 2 metres from
the fore and aft centreline of the vessel in the athwartship direction.
d) When only one masthead light is prescribed for a power driven vessel, this light
shall be exhibited forward of amidships; except that a vessel of less than 20 metres
in length need not exhibit this light forward of amidships but shall exhibit it as far
forward as is practicable.

4. DETAILS OF LOCATION OF DIRECTION-INDICATING LIGHTS FOR FISHING


VESSELS, DREDGERS AND VESSELS ENGAGED IN UNDERWATER OPERATIONS:

a) The light indicating the direction of the outlying gear from a vessel engaged in
fishing as prescribed in Rule 26(c)(ii) shall be placed at a horizontal distance of
not less than 2 metres and not more than 6 metres away from the two all-round red
and white lights. This light shall be placed not higher than the all-round white
light prescribed in Rule 26(c)(i) and not lower than side lights.
b) The lights and shapes on vessel engaged in dredging or underwater operations to
indicate the obstructed side and/or the side on which it is safe to pass, as
prescribed in Rule 27(d),(i) and (ii), shall be placed at the maximum practical
horizontal distance, but in no case less than 2 metres, from the lights or shapes
prescribed in Rule 27(b),(i) and (ii). In no case shall the upper of these lights or
shapes be at a greater height than the lower of the three lights or shapes prescribed
in Rule 27(b),(i) and (ii).

5. SCREENS FOR SIDE LIGHTS:

The side lights of vessels of 20 metres or more in length shall be fitted with
inboard screens painted matt black, and meeting the requirements of Section 9 of
this Annex. On vessels of less than 20 metres in length the side lights, if necessary
to meet the requirements of the Section 9 of this Annex, shall be fitted with
inboard matt black screens. With a combined lantern, using a single vertical
filament and a very narrow division between the green and red sections, external
screens need not be fitted.

6. SHAPES:

a) Shapes shall be black and of the following sizes;


i) A ball shall have a diametre of not less than 0.6 metre;
ii) A cone shall have a base diametre of not less than 0.6 metre and a height equal
to its diametre;
iii) a cylinder shall have a diametre of at least 0.6 metre and a height of twice its
diametre;
iv) a diamond shape shall consist of two cones as defined in (ii) above having a
common base.
b) The vertical distance between shapes shall be at least 1.5 metres
c) In a vessel of less than 20 metres in length shapes of lesser or dimensions but
commensurate with the size of the vessel may be used and the distance apart may
be correspondingly reduced.

7. COLOUR SPECIFICATION OF LIGHTS:

The chromaticity of all navigation lights shall conform to the following standards,
which lie with the boundaries of the area of the diagram specified for each colour
by the International Commission of Illumination (CIE).
The boundaries of the area for each colour are given by indicating the corner coordinates,
which are as follows;
(i) White
x
y
0.525
0.382
0.525
0.440
0.452
0.440
0.310
0.348
0.310
0.283
0.443
0.382
(ii) Green
x
y
0.028
0.385
0.009
0.723
0.300
0.511
0.203
0.356
(iii)Red
x
y
0.680
0.320
0.660
0.320
0.735
0.265
0.721
0.259
(iv)Yellow
x
y
0.612
0.382
0.618
0.382
0.575
0.425
0.575
0.406

8. INTENSITY OF LIGHTS:

a) The minimum luminous intensity of lights shall be calculated by using the


formula;
I = 3.43 x 106 x T x D2 x K-D
Where I is luminous intensity in candelas under service conditions.
T is the threshold factor 2 x 10-7 lux,
D is range of visibility (luminous range) of the light in nautical miles,
K is atmospheric transmissivity.
For prescribed lights the value of K shall be 0.8, corresponding to a
meteorological visibility of approximately 13 nautical miles.
b) A selection of figures derived from the formula is given in the following table;
Range of visibility (luminous range) of
light in nautical miles
D
Luminous intensity of light in candelas
for K=0.8
I
1
2
3
4
5
6
0.9
4.3
12
27
52
94
Note: The maximum luminous intensity of navigation lights should be limited to
avoid undue glare. This shall not be achieved by a variable control of the
luminous intensity.

9. HORIZONTAL SECTORS:

a) i) In the forward direction, side lights as fitted on the vessel shall show the
minimum required intensities. The intensities must decrease to reach practical cutoff
between 1 degree and 3 degrees outside the prescribed sectors.
(ii) For stern lights and masthead lights and at 22.5 degrees abaft the beam for side
lights, the minimum required intensities shall be maintained over the arc of
horizon upto 5 degrees within the limits of the sectors prescribed in Rule 21. From
5 degrees within the prescribed sectors the intensity may decrease 50 percent up to
the prescribed limits; it shall decrease steadily to reach practical cut-off at not
more than 5 degrees outside the prescribed sectors.
b) i) All-round lights shall be so located as not to be obscured by masts, topmasts or
structures within angular sectors of more than 6 degrees, except anchor lights
prescribed in Rule 30, which need not be placed at an impractical height above the
hull.
ii) If it is impracticable to comply with paragraph (b)(i) of this section by
exhibiting only one all-round light, two all-round lights shall be used suitably
positioned or screened so that they appear, as far as practicable, as one light at a
distance of one mile.

10. VERTICAL SECTORS:

a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on
sailing vessels underway shall ensure that;
i) At least the required minimum intensity is maintained at all angles from 5
degrees above to 5 degrees below the horizontal;
ii) At least 60 percent of the required minimum intensity is maintained from 7.5
degrees above to 7.5 degrees below the horizontal.
b) In the case of sailing vessels underway the vertical sectors of electric lights as
fitted shall ensure that;
i) At least the required minimum intensity is maintained at all angles from 5
degrees above to 5 degrees below the horizontal;
ii) At least 50 percent of the required minimum intensity is maintained from 25
degrees above to 25 degrees below the horizontal.
c) In the case of lights other than electric these specifications shall be met as closely
as possible.

11. INTENSITY OF NON-ELECTRIC LIGHT:

Non-electric lights shall so far as practicable comply with the minimum


intensities, as specified in the Table given in Section 8 of this Annex.

12. MANOEUVRING LIGHT:

Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2(f) of this Annex the manoeuvring


light described in Rule 34(b) shall be placed in the same fore and aft vertical plane
as the masthead light or lights and, where practicable, at a minimum height of 2
metres vertically above the forward masthead light, provided that it shall be
carried not less than 2 metres vertically above or below the after masthead light.
On a vessel where only one masthead light is carried, the manoeuvring light, if
fitted, shall be carried where it can best be seen, not less than 2 metres vertically
apart from the masthead light.

13. HIGH SPEED CRAFT:

The masthead light of high speed craft with a length to breadth ratio of less than
3.0 may be placed at a height related to the breadth of the craft lower than that
prescribed in paragraph 2(a)(i) of this Annex, provided that the base angle of the
isosceles triangles formed by the side lights and masthead light when seen in end
elevation is not less than 27.

14. APPROVAL:

The construction of lights and shapes and the installation of lights on board the
vessel shall be to the satisfaction of the appropriate authority of the State whose
flag the vessel is entitled to fly.

ANNEX II
ADDITIONAL SIGNALS FOR FISHING VESSELS FISHING
WITH CLOSE PROXIMITY
1. GENERAL

The lights mentioned herein shall, if exhibited in pursuance of Rule 26(d), be


placed where they can best be seen. They shall be at least 0.9 metre apart but at a
lower level than lights prescribed in Rule 26(b)(i) and (c)(i). The lights shall be
visible all round the horizon at a distance of at least 1mile but at a lesser distance
than the lights prescribed by these Rules for fishing vessels.

2. SIGNALS FOR TRAWLERS:

a) Vessels of 20 metres or more in length when engaged in trawling, whether using


demersal or pelagic gear, shall exhibit;
i) When shooting their nets;
Two white lights in a vertical line;
ii) When hauling their nets;
One white light over one red light in a vertical line;
iii) When the net has come fast upon an obstruction;
Two red lights in a vertical line.
b) Each vessel of 20 metres or more in length engaged in pair trawling shall exhibit;
i) By night, a searchlight directed forward and in the direction of the other vessel
of the pair;
ii) When shooting or hauling their nets or when their nets have come fast upon an
obstruction, then lights prescribed in 2(a) above.
c) A vessel of less than 20metres in length engaged in trawling, whether using
demersal or pelagic gear or engaged in pair trawling, may exhibit the lights
prescribed in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this Section, as appropriate.

3. SIGNALS FOR PURSE SEINERS:

Vessels engaged in fishing with purse seine gear may exhibit two yellow lights in
a vertical line. These lights shall flash alternately every second and with equal
light and occultation duration. These lights may be exhibited only when the vessel
is hampered by its fishing gear.

ANNEX III
TECHNICAL DETAILS OF SOUND SIGNAL APPLIANCES
1. WHISTLES:
a) Frequencies and ranges of audibility

The fundamental frequency of the signal shall lie within the range 70-700 Hz.
The range of audibility of the signal from a whistle shall be determined by those
frequencies, which may include the fundamental and/or one or more higher
frequencies, which lie within the range 180-700 Hz ( 1 percent) and which
provide the sound pressure levels specified in paragraph 1(c) below.

b) Limits of fundamental frequencies


To ensure a wide variety of whistle characteristics, the fundamental frequency of a
whistle shall be between the following limits;
i) 70-200 Hz, for a vessel 200 metres or more in length;
ii) 130-350 Hz, for a vessel 75 metres but less than 200 metres in length;
iii) 250-700 Hz, for a vessel less than 75 metres in length.

c) Sound signal intensity and range of audibility


A whistle fitted in vessel shall provide, in the direction of maximum intensity of
the whistle and at a distance of 1 metre from it, a sound pressure level in at least
one 1/3rd-octave band within the range of frequencies 180-700 Hz ( 1 percent) of
not less than the appropriate figure given in the table below;
Length of vessel in
metres
1/3rd-octave band level at 1
metre in dB referred to
2 x 10-5 N/m2
Audibility range in
nautical miles
200 or more
75 but less than 200
20 but less than 75
Less than 20
143
138
130
120
2
1.5
1
0.5
The range of audibility in the table above is for information and is approximately
the range at which a whistle may be heard on its forward axis with 90 percent
probability in conditions of still air on board a vessel having average background
noise level at the listening posts (taken to be 68 dB in the octave band centred on
250 Hz and 63 dB in the octave band centred on 500 Hz).
In practice the range in which a whistle may be heard is extremely variable and
depends critically on weather conditions; the values given can be regarded as
typical but under conditions of strong wind or high ambient noise level at the
listening post the range may be much reduced.

d) Directional properties
The sound pressure level of a directional whistle shall be not more than 4 dB
below the prescribed sound pressure level on the axis at any direction in the
horizontal plane within 45 degrees of the axis. The sound pressure level at any
other direction in the horizontal plane shall be not more than 10 dB below the
prescribed sound pressure level on the axis, so that the range in any direction will
be at least half the range on the forward axis. The sound pressure level shall be
measured in that 1/3rd-octave band which determines the audibility range.

e) Positioning of whistles
When a directional whistle is to be used as the only whistle on a vessel, it shall be
installed with its maximum intensity directed straight ahead.
A whistle shall be placed as high as practicable on a vessel, in order to reduce
interception of the emitted sound by obstructions and also to minimize hearing
damage risk to personnel. The sound pressure level of the vessels own signal at
listening posts shall not exceed 110 dB (A) and so far as practicable should not
exceed 100 dB (A).

f) Fitting of more than one whistle


If whistles are fitted at a distance apart of more than 100 metres, it shall be so
arranged that they are not sounded simultaneously.

g) Combined whistle systems


If due to the presence of obstructions the sound field of a single whistle or of one
of the whistles referred to in paragraph 1(f) above is likely to have a zone of
greatly reduced signal level, it is recommended that a combined whistle system be
fitted so as to overcome this reduction. For the purposes of the Rules a combined
whistle system is to be regarded as a single whistle. The whistles of a combined
system shall be located at a distance apart of not more than 100 metres and
arranged to be sounded simultaneously. The frequency of any one whistle shall
differ from those of the others by at least 10 Hz.

2. BELL OR GONG
a) Intensity of signal

A bell or gong, or other device having similar sound characteristics shall produce a
sound pressure level of not less than 110 dB at a distance of 1 metre from it.

b) Construction

Bells and gongs shall be made of corrosion-resistant material and designed to give
a clear tone. The diametre of the mouth of the bell shall be not less than 300 mm
for vessels of 20 metres or more in length, and shall be not less than 200 mm for
vessels of 12 metres or more but of less than 20 metres in length. Where
practicable, a power driven bell striker is recommended to ensure constant force
but manual operation shall be possible. The mass of the striker shall be not less
than 3 percent of the mass of the bell.

3. APPROVAL.

The construction of sound signal appliances, their performance and their


installation on board the vessel shall be to the satisfaction of the appropriate authority
of the State whose flag the vessel is entitled to fly.

ANNEX IV
DISTRESS SIGNALS
1. The following signals, used or exhibited either together or separately, indicate
distress and need of assistance;
a) A gun or other explosive signal fired at intervals of about a minute;
b) A continuous sounding with any fog-signaling apparatus;
c) Rocket or shells, throwing red stars fired one at a time at short intervals;
d) A signal made by radiotelegraphy or by any other signaling method consisting of
the group --- (SOS) in the Morse Code;
e) A signal sent by radiotelephony consisting of the spoken word Mayday;
f) The International Code Signal of distress indicated by N.C.;
g) A signal consisting of a square flag having above or below it a ball or anything
resembling a ball;
h) Flames on the vessel (as from a burning tar barrel, oil barrel, etc.);
i) A rocket parachute flare or a hand flare showing a red light;
j) A smoke signal giving off orange-coloured smoke;
k) Slowly and repeatedly raising and lowering arms outstretched to each side;
l) The radiotelegraph alarm signal;
m) The radiotelephone alarm signal;
n) Signals transmitted by emergency position-indicating radio beacons (EPIRB).
o) Approved signals transmitted by radiocommunication systems, including survival
craft radar transponders.
2. The use or exhibition of any of the foregoing signals except for the purpose of
indicating distress and need of assistance and the use of other signals which may
be confused with any of the above signals is prohibited.
3. Attention is drawn to the relevant sections of the International Code of Signals,
the Merchant Ship Search and Rescue Manual and the following signals;
a) A piece of orange coloured canvas with either a black square and circle or other
appropriate symbol (for identification from the air);
b) A dye marker.

Posted 10th September 2012 by mariner

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RULE OF THE ROAD

WITH DETAIL FIGURES


AND QUESTIONS WITH

ANSWER

Classic

Flipcard

Magazine

Mosaic

Sidebar

Snapshot

Timeslide
1.
2.
NOV

23

ROR CARDS (ASPECT OF SHIP AT NIGHT)

1. power driven vessel towing underway seen on end on


less than 50m tow exceeds 200 m
probably 50 m or more, tow 200 m or less
ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL
1 short blast a/c to stbd
4. power driven vessel towing probably 50 or more underway tow 200 m or less seen from its stbd side
ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL
MAINTAIN COURSE AND SPEED

5. power driven vessel Probably 50 m or more underway tow 200 m or less seen from its port side
ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL
1 short blast a/c to stbd side

6. sailing vessel probably 20 m or more underway seen end on


ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL
1 short blast a/c to stbd side
7. sailing vessel probably 20 m or more underway seen from its stbd side
ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL
2 short blast a/c to port side

8. sailing vessel probably 20 m or more underway seen port side


ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL
1 short blast a/c to stbd side

ASPECT OF TRAWLERS AT NIGHT

ASPECT
9. TRAWLER PROBABLY 50 M OR MORE UNDERWAY BUT STOPPED OR AT ANCHOR, NETS FAST ON AN
ODBSTRUCTION SEEN FROM STBD SIDE

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

TWO SHORT BLAST A/C TO PORT


10.

ASPECT
10.11. TRAWLER LESS THAN 50
M MAKING WAY SHOOTING NETS SEEN FROM ITS PORT SIDE
ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

ONE SHORT BLAST A/C TO STBD


12.
ASPECT
TRAWLER PROBABLY 50M OR MORE MAKING WAY HAULING NETS SEEN FROM STBD SIDE

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL


TWO SHORT BLAST A/C TO PORT

ASPECT
TRAWLER PROBABLY 50M OR MORE MAKING WAY SHOOTING NETS SEEN FROM STBD SIDE

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL


TWO SHORT BLAST A/C TO PORT

ASPECT
TRAWLER PROBABLY 50M OR MORE MAKING WAY HAULING NETS SEEN END ON

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

ONE SHORT BLAST A/C TO STBD

13.

ASPECT
TRAWLER PROBABLY 50M OR MORE MAKING WAY SHOOTING NETS SEEN FROM PORT SIDE

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

ONE SHORT BLAST A/C TO STBD

14.
ASPECT
TRAWLER PROBABLY 50M OR MORE MAKING WAY HAULING NETS SEEN FROM PORT SIDE
ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

ONE SHORT BLAST A/C TO STBD

15.

ASPECT
16. TRAWLER LESS THAN 50M MAKING WAY HAULING NETS SEEN FROM PORT
SIDE3

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

ONE SHORT BLAST A/C TO STBD

ASPECT
TRAWLER PROBABLY 50M OR MORE UNDERWAY BUT STOPPED OR AT ANCHOR SEEN FROM STBD SIDE

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

TWO SHORT BLAST A/C TO PORT


17.

ASPECT
TRAWLER LESS THAN 50M MAKING WAY SHOOTING NETS SEEN FROM STBD SIDE
ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

TWO SHORT BLAST A/C TO PORT


18.
ASPECT
TRAWLER UNDERWAY BUT STOPPED OR AT ANCHOR HAULING NETS
19. ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

ONE SHORT BLAST A/C TO STBD

ASPECT
TRAWLER PROBABLY 50 M OR MORE MAKING WAY SHOOTING NETS SEEN END ON
20. ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

ONE SHORT BLAST A/C TO STBD

ASPECT
TRAWLER LESS THAN 50 M MAKING WAY HAULING NETS SEEN FROM STBD SIDE

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

TWO SHORT BLAST A/C TO PORT


21.

ASPECT
TRAWLER PROBABLY 50 M OR MORE UNDERWAY BUT STOPPED OR AT ANCHOR SEEN FROM
PORT SIDE

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

ONE SHORT BLAST A/C TO STBD

ASPECT OF FISHING
VESSEL AT NIGHT
ASPECT
FISHING VESSEL OTHER THAN TRAWLER MAKING WAY GEAR EXTENDING 150 M OR LESS
SEEN FROM PORT SIDE

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

ONE SHORT BLAST A/C TO STBD

ASPECT
FISHING VESSEL OTHER THAN TRAWLER MAKING WAY GEAR EXTENDING 150 M OR LESS
SEEN FROM STBD SIDE

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

TWO SHORT BLAST A/C TO PORT

ASPECT
FISHING VESSEL OTHER THAN TRAWLER MAKING WAY GEAR EXTENDING 150 M OR LESS
SEEN END ON

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

ONE SHORT BLAST A/C TO STBD

ASPECT
FISHING VESSEL OTHER THAN TRAWLER MAKING WAY GEAR EXTENDING 150 M SEEN FROM
ASTERN

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

ONE SHORT BLAST A/C TO STBD

ASPECT
FISHING VESSEL OTHER THAN TRAWLER MAKING WAY GEAR EXTENDING 150 M SEEN FROM
END ON

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

ONE SHORT BLAST A/C TO STBD

ASPECT
FISHING VESSEL OTHER THAN TRAWLER MAKING WAY GEAR EXTENDING 150 M SEEN FROM
ASTERN

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

TWO SHORT BLAST A/C TO PORT

ASPECT
FISHING VESSEL OTHER THAN TRAWLER MAKING WAY GEAR EXTENDING 150 M SEEN FROM
ASTERN

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

ONE SHORT BLAST A/C TO STBD

ASPECT
FISHING VESSEL OTHER THAN TRAWLER UNDERWAY BUT STOPPED OR AT ANCHOR GEAR
EXTENDING 150 M OR LESS
ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

ONE SHORT BLAST A/C TO STBD

ASPECT
FISHING VESSEL OTHER THAN TRAWLER MAKING WAY GEAR EXTENDING 150 M OR LESS
SEEN FROM STBD SIDE

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL


TWO SHORT BLAST A/C TO PORT

ASPECT
FISHING VESSEL OTHER THAN TRAWLER MAKING WAY GEAR EXTENDING 150 M OR LESS
SEEN FROM PORT SIDE

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

ONE SHORT BLAST A/C TO STBD

ASPECT
FISHING VESSEL OTHER THAN TRAWLER USING PURSE SEINE GEAR EXTENDING 150 M OR
LESS UNDERWAY BUT STOPPED OR AT ANCHOR

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

ONE SHORT BLAST A/C TO STBD

ASPECT
FISHING VESSEL OTHER THAN TRAWLER MAKING WAY GEAR EXTENDING MORE THAN 150
M SEEN FROM STBD SIDE

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

TWO SHORT BLAST A/C TO PORT

ASPECT
FISHING VESSEL OTHER THAN TRAWLER MAKING WAY GEAR EXTENDING MORE THAN150 M
SEEN FROM ASTERN

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

TWO SHORT BLAST A/C TO PORT


ASPECT
FISHING VESSEL OTHER THAN TRAWLER MAKING WAY GEAR EXTENDING MORE THAN150
M SEEN FROM PORT SIDE

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

ONE SHORT BLAST A/C TO STBD

ASPECT
FISHING VESSEL OTHER THAN TRAWLER MAKING WAY GEAR EXTENDING MORE THAN 150
M SEEN FROM STBD SIDE

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

TWO SHORT BLAST A/C TO PORT

ASPECT
FISHING VESSEL OTHER THAN TRAWLER USING PURSE SEINE GEAR EXTENDING MORE
THAN 150 M BUT STOPPED OR AT ANCHOR

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

ONE SHORT BLAST A/C TO STBD

ASPECT
FISHING VESSEL OTHER THAN TRAWLER MAKING WAY GEAR EXTENDING MORE THAN 150
M SEEN FROM PORT SIDE

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

ONE SHORT BLAST A/C TO STBD


ASPECT
FISHING VESSEL OTHER THAN TRAWLER MAKING WAY GEAR EXTENDING MORE THAN 150
M SEEN FROM ASTERN

ACTION TO TAKE BY YOUR VESSEL

TWO SHORT BLAST A/C TO PORT

ASPECT OF P.D VESSEL


TOWING AT NIGHT
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http://rorforsecondmates.blogspot.in/2012/09/part-general-rule1-application-rule2_3008.html
Posted 23rd November 2012 by mariner

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3.
SEP

12

BASIC OF CHARTWORK

Step By Step guide to learning Chart work


with figure assistances

NOTTATION IN CHART
1 arrow = true course.

2 arrows = the course and speed made good.

3 arrows = speed and course of tide.

How to do a Set and Drift (Chart work)

(1)Plot your starting position, CALL this "A"


(2)Find the true course you are steering.

(3) Draw a line from "A" and lay off your true course.

(4) Call the end of your course "D"

(5) Find the amount of time you have steamed for.

(6) Find your speed.

(7) On the line (A,D) measure the distance you will go in the time your given.
(E.g.) if your going at 10 knots for 3 hours then the distance is 30 miles so
you would measure 30 miles on the (A,D) line.

(8) At the end of the line you steamed for call this "B"

(9) Find out the course and speed of the tide, make sure the hours your are steaming
for
and the tide are the same
(E.g.) you steamed for 3 hours and the tide is set at 0400 2 knots, you would
have to
multiply 2 knots by 3 hours which is 6 miles of tide.

(10) At "B" measure off your tide for its course and distance

(11) At the end of the tide call this "C"

(12) Give the line (B,C) 3 arrows.

(13) From "A" draw a line to "C" this is the course you will be
streaming.
(14) Give the line (A,C) 2 arrows.

(15) The rate of the tide = (B,C) speed of tide

The amount of hours steamed

Track Made good, the course the tide will take you.
1) Plot your start position "A"

(2) Find the true course you are steering.

(3) From "A" draw a line for the true course.

(4) At the end of this line call this "D"

(5) On the (A,D) line measure the distance you will go in 1 hour

(6) Call this "B"

(7) Find the course and speed of the tide.


(8) From "B" lay of your course of the tide for 1 hour.

(9) Call this "C"

(10) From (A - C) this is the course and speed you will go in 1 hour (Ground track)

POINT TO BE NOTED

Make sure all distances are for 1 hour, some questions gives you the tide for
1
hour but you're steaming for 6 hours. Measure the distance covered as well as the
course from (A to
C)

Running fix (Without tide or wind)


(1) You are given 2 bearings of a point of land and the times when they where taken

(2) Measure these courses off on your chart.

(3) Anywhere on the 1st bearing of the point of land, draw a line for your true course.

(4) Call the starting position "A" and the end "D"

(5) The time given between the 2 bearings, work out the distance you will go in that
time.

(6) From "A" measure this distance on the (A,D) line.

(7) Call this "B"

(8) Using a parallel rules, lay them on the line from "A" to the point of land, move the
parallel rules onto "B"

(9) Draw a line from "B" along the parallel rules onto the 2nd bearing of the point of
land.

(10) This is your ships position

Running fix (With tide and/or wind)


1) You are given 2 bearings of a point of land and the times when they where taken.

(2) Measure these courses off on your chart.


(3) Anywhere on the 1st bearing of the point of land, draw a line for your true course.

(4) Call the starting position "A" and the end "D"

(5) The time given between the 2 bearings, work out the distance you will go in that
time.

(6) From "A" measure this distance on the (A,D) line.

(7) Call this "B"

(8) From "B" lay off the tide for 1 hour.

(9) At the end of the tide call this "C"

(10) Using a parallel rules, lay them on the line from "A" to the point of land, move the
parallel rulesonto"C"

(11) Draw a line from "C" along the parallel rules onto the 2nd bearing of the point of
land.

(12) This is your ships position

Counteraction course (countering against


tide/wind)
(1) Plot your start position and call this "A"

(2) Plot your finished position and call this "D"

(3) Draw a line from "A" to "D" (This is the course you want to
steer on)

(4) Find the speed and course of the tide.

(5) From "A" lay off the tide for 1 hour.

(6) At the end of the tide, call this "B"

(7) With a set of compasses, measure the distance your vessel will go in 1
hour.

(8) From "B" cut an arc on the "A" - "D" line, call this
"C"
(9) Draw a line from "A" to "C"

(10) This is your course to steer and speed you make good (speed you will
do)

(11) Measure the line "A" - "D" and the line "A" -
"C"
(12) The time is takes from "A" - "D" = distance AD
Distance AC

Horizontal and/or vertical Sextant angles.


(1) Find the positions of the land bearings on a chart

(2) Draw a line from the 1st to the 2nd to the 3rd positions, call them "A", "B" and "C"

(3) If the angle is less than 0900 then subtract it from 0900

(4) If the angle is more than 0900 then take the angle and subtract 0900 from it
(5) If the angle is less than 0900 draw the angle towards the sea

(6) If the angle is more than 0900 draw the angle towards the land.

(7) Using a protractor and the 00 is facing point "B" is on the line at point "A" mark the
degrees.

(8) From point "B" facing "A" mark the degrees.

(9) From point "B" facing "C" mark the degrees

(10) From point "C" facing "B" mark the degrees.

(11) Where "A" and "B" intersect, using a set of compasses, measure the distance from
the intersection to "A" and "B" they should both be the same, draw a circle

(12) Where "B" and "C" intersect, do the same again

(13) Where both circles cut this is your ships position

Posted 12th September 2012 by mariner

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4.
SEP

10

NAVIGATIONAL PROBLEMS AND FORMULA FOR SECOND


MATES

FORMULAE FOR NAVIGATION


1. PARALLEL SAILING

DEPARTURE = DLONG X COS LAT D LONG

2. PLANE SAILING

DEPARTURE = DLONG X COS M LAT DEP


MERCATOR SAILING DMP DIST

FIND COURSE & DISTANCE:


TAN CO = DLONG /DMP DLAT
DIST. = DLAT / COS CO

FIND ARRIVAL POSITION:


DLAT = DIST X COS CO
DLONG = TAN CO X DMP

4. GREAT CIRCLE SAILING (TRIANGLE CALCULATE IN


CLOCK WISE)

FIND DIST:
COS AB = COS PA X COS PB + SIN PA X SIN PB X COS P

FIND INITIAL COURSE:


COS PB COS AB X COS PA
COS A = -----------------------------------
SIN AB X SIN PA

FIND FINAL COURSE:


COS PA COS AB X COS PB
COS B = --------------------------------------
SIN AB X SIN PB

NAPIERS RULES
SIN MIDDLE PART = PRODUCT OF COS OF OPPOSITE PARTS
SIN MIDDLE PART = PRODUCT OF TAN OF ADJACENT PARTS

FOR QUADRANTAL SPHERICAL TRIANGLES I.E. ONE SIDE IS 90, WHEN 3 PARTS ARE
WRITTEN DOWN, THE TWO ADJACENTS OR TWO OPPOSITES ARE BOTH SIDES OR
ANGLES, AN EXTRA MINUS SIGN MUST BE INTRODUCED.

SOME OF THE WORKED EXAMPLES

AZIMUTH PROBLEMS (STARS)


ON 25 SEPT 1996, DR 6012N, 09229E, SEXT ALT 2503.8, I.E.-3ON, HE-20M, BODY
BRG-265 (C), 266 (G), ARCTURAS (PM HRS), VAR-5W, CT- 00h 40m 31s, CE-01m 01s
FAST. FIND MAG. & GYRO ERROR & DEV.

ANS;

CT = 25d 00h 40m 31s 25d 12h 40m 31s

CE = -01m 01s -01m 01s


CCT = 25d 00h 39m 30s OR 25d 12h 39m 30s
LIT (E )= 06h 09m 56s 06h 09m 56s
LMT = 25d 06h 49m 26s OR 25d 18h 49m 26s

AS TIME IS PM HRS, SO

CCT = 25d 12h 39m 30s

GHA 25d 12h = 184 35 SEXT ALT = 25 03.8

INCR 39m 30s = 9 54.1 I.E (ON) = -3

GHA = 194 29.1 OBS. ALT = 25 00.8


SHA* = 146 07.6 DIP (20) = -7.9
GHA* = 340 36.7 APP ALT = 24 52.9
LONG (E) = 092 29 T. CORR = -2.1
LHA * = 073 05.7 T. ALT = 24 50.8
DECL = 19 12.2N

A= Tan LAT / Tan LHA = 0.53 S T. BRG = 265.3 T. BRG = 265.3


B= Tan DEC / Sin LHA = 0.364 N C. BRG = 265 G. BRG = 266
C= A-B = 0.166 S C. ERR = 0.3 E G. ERR = 0.7 (H)

AZ = Tan-1 {1 / (C x Cos LAT)} VAR = 5 W


= S 85.3 W = 265.3 (T) DEV = 5.3 E

AZIMUTH PROBLEMS (SUN)


ON. 23 FEB 1996, 41 08N, 171 00E, HE-20M, SEXT ALT (LL) 35 17.5, I.E. 1ON, BODY
BRG 155 (C), 154 (G), SUN (AM), VAR 2E, CT 10h 09m 30s, CE-01m 12s SLOW. CTS 255
(T), WHAT IS GCTS? FIND MAG & GYRO ERROR & DEV.

SOLUTION

CT = 23d 10h 09m 30s 23d 10h 09m 30s


CE = +01m 12s +01m 12s
CCT = 23d 10h 10m 42s OR 23d 22h 10m 42s
LIT (E )= 11h 24m 00s 11h 24m 00s
LMT = 23d 21h 34m 42s OR 24d 09h 34m 42s

BUT DATE IS ON 23RD, SO


CCT = 22d 22h 10m 42s

GHA SUN 22d 22h = 146 36.7 DECL = 10 11.8S


INCRE 10m 42s = 2 40.5 d CORR (0.9)= -0.2
GHA 22d 22h 10m 42s= 149 17.2 DECL = 10 11.6S
LONG (E) = 171 00
LHA = 320 17.2

A= Tan LAT / Tan LHA = 1.05 S SEXT ALT = 35 17.5


B= Tan DEC / Sin LHA = 0.28 S IE (ON) = -1
C= A+B = 1.33 S OBS ALT = 35 16.5
AZ = Tan-1 {1 / (C x Cos LAT)} DIP (20) = -7.9
= S 44.9 E = 135.1 T APP ALT = 35 08.6
T. BRG = 135.1 T. CORR = +14.9
C. BRG = 155 T. ALT = 35 23.5
C. ERR = 19.9 W

VAR = 2 E DEV = 21.9 W G. ERR = 18.9 H GCTS = 273.9

AZIMUTH PROBLEMS (PLANET)


ON 25 MAY 1996, 12 00 S, 032 00 E, BRG - 225 (C), 220 (G). JUPITER (AM). VAR-4W.
CT- 02h 52m 08s. C.E.- NIL. TCTS - 034, WHAT IS GCTS?

GMT = 25d 02h 52m 08s OR 25d 14h 52m 08s

LIT (E)= 02h 08m 00s 02h 08m 00s

LMT = 25d 05h 00m 08s 25d 17h 00m 08s

AS TIME IS AM SO
GMT = 25d 02h 52m 08s
GHA 25d 02h = 344 30.4 DECL = 22 19.7S
INCRE 52m 08s = 13 02 d CORR (0.0) = 0.0
v CORR (2.6) = 02.3 DECL = 22 19.7 S
GHA = 357 34.7
LONG (E) = 032 00.0
LHA = 29 34.7

A= Tan LAT / Tan LHA = 0.374 N


B= Tan DEC / Sin LHA = 0.832 S = S 65.9 W = 245.9 T
C = A B = 0.458 S
AZ = Tan-1 {1 / (C x Cos LAT)}

T. BRG = 245.9 T.BRG = 245.9 TCTS = 034


C. BRG = 225 G. BRG = 220 GCTS = 008.1
C. ERR = 20.9 E G. ERR = 25.9 L
VAR = 4 W DEV = 24.9E

NOTE
1. C = A B (SAME NAME +)2. AZ NAMED AS N/S ACCORDING TO C &
E IF LHA IS EQUAL / MORE THAN 180 & VISE VERSA.3. A NAMED AS, IF
LHA IS 090~270, SAME AS LAT, OR ELSE OPPOSITE, B NAMED AS
DECL.

AMPLITUDE PROBLEMS
FIND MAG. & GYRO ERROR & MAG. DEV.
ON 20 NOV 1996, DR. POSITION 23o 30 N, 100o 00 W, SUN BRG 100.5o (C), 111o (G), AM
AMPLITUDE, VAR-20o W ?

LMT SUNRISE 20o N = 06h 13m


LAT CORR 3o30 = +00h 05m
LMT SUNRISE @ 23o30N = 06h 18m FOR 21ST
LMT SUNRISE @ 23o30N = 06h 16m FOR 18TH
TRI-DAILY CORR. = 02m DECL 20d 12h=19o 48.8 S
DAILY CORR . = 0.67m d CORR. (0.5)= +0.5
LMT SUNRISE ON 20TH = 06h 17m 20s DECL = 19o 49.3 S
LIT (w) = 06h 40m 00
GMT SUNRISE ON 20TH =12h 57m 20s

Sin AMPL = Sin DEC x Sec LAT

Sin ampl = Sin 19o 49.3 x Sec 23o 30

AMPL = E 21.7o S = 111.7o (T)

SUN BRG = 100.5o (C) MAG ERROR = 11.2o (E) DEV = 31.2o E
SUN BRG = 111o (G) GYRO ERROR = 0.7o L

ON. 26 APR 1996, DR POSITION 36o 30 N, 002o 10 W, SUN BRG 080o (C), 072o (G), AM
AMPL, VAR-10o W. IF C.T.S. 162o (T), WHAT IS GYRO C.T.S.?

LMT SUNRISE 25d 35o N = 05h 16m


LMT SUNRISE 28d 35o N = 05h 12m
TRI-DAILY CORR . = 04m DECL 26d 05h=13o 36.1 N
DAILY CORR. = 1.30m d CORR.(0.8) = +0.3
LMT SUNRISE ON 26TH35o = 05h 14m 40s DECL = 13o 36.4 N
LAT CORR. 1o 30 = -3m
LMT SUNRISE @ 36o30N = 05h 11m 40s FOR 26TH
LIT (w) = 00h 08m 40s
GMT SUNRISE ON 26TH =05h 20m 20s
Sin AMPL = Sin DEC x Sec LAT = Sin 13o 36.4 x Sec 36o 30

AMPL = E 17.0o N = 073.0o (T)

T. BRG. = 073o BRG. = 080o C.ERR. = 7o (w) VAR =10o W


DEV = 3o E
T. BRG = 073o G. BRG = 072o G. ERR = 1o (L) G.C.T.S.=161o (G)

NOTE: AMPL NAMED AS SUNSET (W), SUNRISE (E) & N/S


ACCORDING TO DECL

PARALLEL SAILING EXERCISES


1. A ship sailed due west along the equator for 18 hours at 16 knots. Find her final position if her
departure position was in longitude 10 30W.

2. How many miles must a vessel travel along the parallel of latitude 56 South in order to
change her longitude 10.

3. Two vessels are 50 miles apart in latitude 35N. They both travel due south until they are 55
miles apart. What is their present latitude and how far has each vessel traveled?

4. At what speed is a point in latitude 60 carried around the earths axis?

5. A vessel in latitude 36 18N, steams 090T for 100 miles. She then steams 180 T for 11
hours, 270 for 100 miles and 000 for 11 hours. If the vessel is then 4 miles to the east of her
starting position, find her speed if it has been constant throughout.

ANSWERS:
1. Lat 0, long 15 18W
2. 335.5 miles
3. Lat 25 42N, 558 miles
4. 450 knots
5. 18.48 knots

DEPARTURE, DLONG, DLAT


37 30 N 150 12W 089 36E
29 48N 140 48E 086 12 W
07 42 S 069 00 W 175 48 W

PARALLEL SAILING
1. 23 N, 048 42E, STEAMS EAST 1000 MILES
DEP = DLONG x COS LAT
DLONG = 018 06.35 E
FINAL POSITION = 23 N, 066 48.35E
2. 36 N, 009 12E, STEAMS WEST 1833 MILES
D LONG = 37.76W LONG = 28 33.7W

PLANE SAILING
1. 10 30N, 056 48E. COURSE 060T, DIST 120. FINAL POSITION?

Sin CO = Dep / Dist


Dep = 103.9
Tan CO = Dep / Dlat
Dlat = 179.96 = 02 59.9N
Final Lat = 13 29.9N
Dep = Dlong x Cos mlat
Dlong = 105.22 = 001 45.8 E
Final Long = 058 33.8E

GREAT CIRCLE SAILING PROBLEMS

A 35 03S, 056 17W TO B 34 30S 017 20E

Cos AB = Cos PA x Cos PB + Sin PA x Sin PB x Cos P A 35 03S B 34 30S


AB = 3537.8 = Great Circle Dist.

Cos PB Cos AB x Cos PA


Cos A = ----------------------------------- 54.95 55.5
Sin AB x Sin PA

Angle A = S 67.3 E = 112.7 = Initial Course

Cos PA Cos AB x Cos PB


Cos B = -----------------------------------
Sin AB x Sin PB

Angle B = N 66.4 E = 066.4 = Final Course

GREAT CIRCLE SAILING EXERCISES


Find the initial, final courses and distance along the great circle track from position A to B:

1. A: 35 03S, 056 17W to B: 34 30S, 017 20E


2. A: 38 03N, 122 17W to B: 41 30N, 141 13E
3. A: 20 52S, 057 37E to B: 32 12S, 115 09E
4. A: 25 41N, 072 10W to B: 33 07N, 017 15W
5. A: 38 55N , 140 45W to B: 51 40N, 170 00E
6. A: 45 47S, 170 45E to B: 12 04S, 077 14W
7. A: 28 56N, 162 46E to B: 47 36N, 158 10W

8. Calculate the shortest distance and initial and final course, A: 48 20 N Departure 2667
9. Find (i) the positions of the vertex
(ii) the courses at each vertex
(iii) the distance to the north vertex
A vessel at Equator 100 W makes a great circle track with an initial course N 035 E

Answers:
1. Initial Course S 067.3 E, Final Course N 066.4 E Distance 3537.8
2. Initial Course N 052.4W, Final Course S 056.4 W Distance 4201.4
3. Initial Course S 064.8 E, Final Course N 087.5 E Distance 3126.1
4. Initial Course N 067.5 E , Final Course S 083.8 E Distance 2873.1
5. Initial Course N 052.9 W, Final Course S 089.1 W Distance 2167.3
6. Initial Course S 065.7 E, Final Course N 040.6 E Distance 5764.5
7. Initial Course N 047.2 E, Final Course N 072.3 E Distance 2122.1
8. Initial Course N 063.7 E, Final Course S 063.7 E Distance 2578.2
9. (i) 55 N, 010 W and 55S, 170E (ii) East for both cases (iii) 5400 miles

COMPOSITE GREAT CIRCLE SAILING PROBLEMS


ON. A 37 48 N 122 40W, B 35 40 N 141 00E, LIMITING LAT 45 N

As per Napiers Rule from Spherical Triangle PAV1,

Sin PV1 = Cos Comp A x Cos Comp PA


= Sin A x Sin PA
Angle A = N 063.5 W = Initial Co

Sin Comp PA = Cos AV1 x Cos PV1


Cos PA = Cos AV1 x Cos PV1
AV1 = 29.91 = 1794.79 = Great Circle Dist.

Cos P = Tan PV1 x Cot PA


P = 39.13
Spherical Triangle PBV2,
Cos P = Tan PV2 x Cot PB
P = 44.13

Cos PB = Cos PV2 x Cos BV2


BV2 = 2067.22 = Great circle dist

Sin PV2 = Sin PB x Sin B


B = S 060.5 W = Final Course

Triangle PV1V2
P = 83 40 (39.13 + 44.13) = 13.07
Dep = Dlong x Cos LAT
Dep = 554.51 = Rhumb Line Dist

COMPOSITE GREAT CIRCLE EXERCISES


1. The master instructed you to plan a great circle route from A to B:
Position A: Lat 37 48 N Long 122 40 W
Position B: Lat 35 40 N Long 141 00 E
Advice the master the initial and final courses and distance along the composite great circle
track. The company has a policy of not allowing vessels in the fleet to proceed beyond 45 N
latitude.

2. Find the distance and the initial course for a composite great-circle route from position A (10
18S, 020 10E) to position B (45 00S, 160 10E). The limiting latitude is 45S.

3. What is the total distance and the initial course for a composite great-circle route from Lat 34
55 S Long 056 10 W to Lat 33 55 S Long 018 25 E, given that the limiting latitude is 38S.

4. Calculate the shortest distance from 4 00 N 031 00 E to 42 00 S 145 00E. The trading
warranty stipulated that the vessel should not proceed further south than 42 S. What is the
vessels course when she crosses the equator.
5. A: 25 08N 121 41E to B: 37 48N 122 27W, Limiting latitude - 38N

6. A: 22 38S 157 32E to B: 47 50S 133 10W, Limiting Latitude - 47 50S

Answers:
1. Initial Co = N 63.5 W = 296.5 T
Final Co = S 60.5 W = 240.5 T
Total Dist = 2067.22 + 554.3 + 1794.8 = 4416.3 miles
Long V1 = 162 47.999 W Long V2 = 175 51.851 W

2. Initial Co = S 45 56.8 E = 134 T


Total Dist = 4521.2 + 2565.6 = 7086.8

3. Initial Co = S 73 56.6 E = 106 T


Total Dist = 1296.6 + 816.8 + 1500 = 3613.4

4. Total Dist = 5759 + 871.6 = 6630.6


Co at Eq = S 48 E = 132 T

5. Initial Co = N 060.5 E
Final Co = S 085.8 E
Total Distance = 2782.8 + 2643.1 + 325.3 = 5751.2
Long V1 = 175 46.8 E Long V2 = 129 19.1 W

6. Initial Co = S 46.7 E
Final Co = 090.0 E
Total Distance = 3523.3 + 60.8 + 0 = 3584.1
Long V1 = 135 39.2 W Long V2 = 133 10.0 W

INTERCEPT METHOD
FIND P/L & POSITION THROUGH WHICH IT PASSES.

PM HRS, 26 JUL 1996, DR POSITION 48 45 N, 018 10.0 W. SEXT ALT (LL) 28 20.0, I.E.
1.0 ON, H.E. 6.1 M, CT 05h 54m 00s, CE 01m 11s FAST.

CT = 26d 05h 54m 00s 26d 17h 54m 00s


CE = - 01m 11s - 01m 11s
CCT= 26d 05h 52m 49s OR 26d 17h 52m 49s
LIT (W)= - 01h 12m 40s 01h 12m 40s
LMT = 26d 04h 40m 09s 26d 16h 40m 09s

AS SIGHT TAKEN IN PM HRS, SO

GMT = 26d 17h 52m 49s


GHA 26d 17h = 073 22.6 DECL = 19 15.7N
INCRE 52m 49s = 13 12.3 d CORR (0.5) = - 0.5
GHA = 086 34.9 DECL = 19 15.2N
LONG (W) = 018 10.0
LHA = 068 24.9
Cos CZD = Cos LHA x Cos LAT x Cos DEC Sin LAT x Sin DEC
(DEC & LAT SAME NAME +)
SEXT ALT = 28 20.0
I.E. (ON) = -1.0
OBS ALT = 28 19.0
DIP (6.1M) = -4.3
APP ALT = 28 14.7
T. CORR. = + 14.2
T. ALT = 28 28.9
TZD = 61 31.1
CZD = 61 30.97
INTERCEPT = 0.13 (AWAY)

A = 0.451S AZ = 267.2 (T)


B = 0.376N P/L = 177.2 ~ 357.2 (T)
C = 0.075S ITP POSITION FROM DIAGRAM = 48 45N, 018 09.8 W

NOTE: INTERCEPT AWAY / TOWARDS IS TST FORMULAE, TRUE SMALLER TOWARDS

SAME EXERCISE IN LONG BY CHRON METHOD


OBTAIN FROM ABOVE EXCERSISE
GMT = 26d 17h 52m 49s GHA = 86 34.9 DECL = 19 15.2 N
T. ALT = 28 28.9

Sin T.ALT Sin LAT x Sin DEC


Cos P = -----------------------------------------
CosLATxCosDEC

P = 68 25.1 LHA = 68 25.1


GHA = 86 34.9 OBS LONG = 018 09.8 W 4845N
DR LAT = 48 45N LONG = 018 09.8W
AZ 267.2

NOTE: DECL & LAT SAME NAME (-)


ON 21 JAN 1996, MORNING TWILIGHT, DR 12 30 N, 106 14E, JUPITER. SEXT ALT 17
24, I.E 1.3OFF. HE 14.2 M. CT 10h 49m 09s, CE-05m 01s SLOW.

CT =21d 10h 49m 09s 21d 22h 49m 09s


CE = + 05m 01s + 05m 01s
CCT= 21d 10h 54m 10s OR 21d 22h 54m 10s
LIT (E)= + 07h 04m 56s 07h 04m 56s
LMT = 21d 17h 59m 06s 22d 05h 59m 06s

AS SIGHT TAKEN IN MORNING ON 21ST, SO

GMT = 20d 22h 54m 10s


GHA 20d 22h = 175 19.1 DECL = 23 09.6S
INCRE 54m 10s = 13 32.5
v CORR (1.9) = 1.7
GHA = 188 53.3
LONG (E) = 106 14.0
LHA = 295 07.3

Cos CZD = Cos LHA x Cos LAT x Cos DEC Sin LAT x Sin DEC
(DEC & LAT SAME NAME +)

CZD = 72 47.1

SEXT ALT = 17 24.0


I.E. (OFF) = + 1.3
OBS ALT = 17 25.3
DIP (14.2M) = -6.6
APP ALT = 17 18.7
T. CORR . = - 03.1
T. ALT = 17 15.6
TZD = 72 44.4
CZD = 72 47.1

INTERCEPT = 2.7 (TOWARDS)

A = 0.104S AZ = S 60.6 E = 119.4 (T)


B = 0.472S P/L = 029.4 ~ 209.4 (T)
C = 0.576S

MERIDIAN PASSAGE (SUN)


ON 20 MAR 1996, 25 22N, 116 37W, SEXT MER. ALT 64 45 (LL), I.E.-1.5 ON, HE- 17.9
M. FIND LAT & DIR OF P/L. WHAT IS THE BRG OF BODY AT M.P.?

PRINCIPAL METHOD : PRACTICAL METHOD:

GHA = LONG = 11637 LMT MER PASS = 20d 12h 07m


GHA 10310.2 = 20d 19h LIT (W) = 07h 46m 28s
INCRE. 1326.8 = 53m 47s GMT MER PASS = 20d 19h 53m 28s

GHA 11637 GMT = 20d 19h 53m 47s DECL 20d 19h = 00 10.8N
LIT (W) = 07h 46m 28s d CORR (1.0) = +0.9
LMT = 20d 12h 07m 19s DECL = 00 11.7N

SEXT M. ALT = 64 45
I.E. (ON) = +1.5
OBS ALT = 64 43.5
DIP (17.9) = -7.4
APP ALT = 64 36.1
T. CORR. = +15.8
T. ALT = 64 51.9
TZD (-90) = 25 08.1
DECL = 00 11.7 N
LAT = 25 19.8 N
P/L = 090 ~ 270
BRG = 180 (T)

ON 18 APR 1996, 00 00.5 S, 160 58 E, I.E.-1OFF, HE-17.4 M. FIND SETTING ON SEXT


ALT (LL). FOR SUNS M.P. WHAT IS AZ OF SUN AT M.P. FIND SMT OF ZONE 11 & P/L AT
MP.

PRINCIPAL METHOD: PRACTICAL METHOD:


GHA = 360-160 58 = 199 02 LMT MER PASS = 18d 11h 59m
GHA 19509.4 = 18d 01h LIT (E) = 10h 43m 52s
INCRE. 0352.6 = 15m 30s GMT MER PASS = 18d 15h 08m 18s
GHA 19902 GMT = 18d 01h 15m 30s DECL 18d 01h = 10 51.8N
LIT (E) = 10h 43m 52s d CORR (0.9) = +0.2
LMT = 18d 11h 59m 22s DECL = 10 52.0N
DECL = 10 52.0
DR. LAT = 00 00.5 S
Z.D. = 10 52.5
T. ALT = 79 07.5
T. CORR = -15.7
APP. ALT = 78 51.8
DIP(17.4) = +7.3 decl
OBS ALT = 78 59.1
I.E. (OFF) =- 1
SEXT ALT = 78 58.1

P/L = 090 ~ 270 AZ. = 000 (T)


SMT OF M.P.= 18d 12h 15m 30s
NOTE: FOR PRINCIPAL METHOD, IF LONG W, THEN GHA = LONG, OR ELSE,
GHA = 360-LONG

MERIDIAN PASSAGE (STAR)


ON. 4 MAR 1996, 4510 N, 120 30 W. SEXT MER ALT - 18 26.2 (ANTARES). I.E. 3.2 OFF,
H.E-10M, FIND LAT & P/L.

MP GMT = 05d 13h 05.8m SEXT ALT = 18 26.2


MP GMT = 02d 13h 17.6m I.E. = +3.2
TRI DAILY DIFF = 11.8m OBS M. ALT = 18 29.4
DAILY DIFF = 3.9m DIP (10) = -5.6
MP GMT = 04d 13h 09.7m APP ALT = 18 23.8
R.A. = 360 SHA* T. CORR = -2.9
= 247 17.8 T. ALT = 18 20.9
R.A.I.T. = 16h 26m 33s TZD = 71 39.1
LMT MP = GMT MP + R.A.I.T DECL = 26 25.3 S
= 05d 05h 36m 15s LAT = 45 13.7 N
1 Sidereal Day = - 23h 56m 04s P/L = 090 ~ 270
LMT MP = 04d 05h 40m 11s

(AS DAY IS 4TH)


NOTE: AS 1 SIDEREAL SAY = 23h 56m 04s, SO R.A.I.T. WILL BE (R.A./ 15 02 27.9)
& LMT MP = GMT MP +RAIT IS SAME AS LMT = GMT LONG.

MERIDIAN PASSAGE (PLANET)


4. 9 OCT 1996, 14 22 N, 179 39 W. SATURN. I.E.-2 ON, H.E.-28M. FIND SEXT ALT, AZ &
P/L.
LMT MP OF SATURN = 10d 22h 55m DECL = 01 14.3S
LMT MP OF SATURN = 07d 23h 08m dCORR = +0.1
TR-DAILY DIFF = 13m DECL = 01 14.4S
DAILY DIFF = 4.3m
LMT MP = 09d 22h 59.3m
LIT (W) = 11h 58.6m
GMT MP = 10d 10h 57.9m
DECL = 01 14.4S
LAT = 14 22N
ZD = 15 36.4
T.ALT = 74 23.6
T. CORR = +0.3
APP ALT = 74 23.9
DIP (28) = +9.3
OBS. ALT = 74 33.2
I.E. (ON) = +2
SEXT ALT = 74 35.2
AZ = 180 (T)
P/L = 090 ~ 270

POLARIS PROBLEMS
ON 01 May 1996, (Morning Twilight). DR 51 03 N, 150 00 E, Sext Alt - 50 46.8. I.E. Nil,
H.E.- 14 M. CT 05h 30m 30s, CE Nil. Mag comp brg - 005 (C), Var - 1 E, G. BRG- 001 (G).

CCT = 01d 05h 30m 30s OR 01d 17h 30m 30s


LIT (E)= 10m 10s 10m 10s
LMT = 01d 15h 30m 30s 02d 03h 30m 30s

AS MORNING TWILIGHT SO

CCT = 30d 17h 30m 30s FOR LMT 01d 03h 30m 30s
GHA 30d 17h = 113 54.8
INCRE 30m 30s = 007 38.8
GHA 30d 17h 30m 30s = 121 33.6
LONG (E) = 150 00.0
LHA = 271 33.6
SEXT ALT = 50 46.8 T. BRG = 001
I.E. = 00.0 G. BRG = 001
OBS ALT = 50 46.8 G. ERR = NIL
DIP (14m) = -6.6
APP ALT = 50 40.2 C. BRG = 005
T. CORR = -0.8 T. BRG = 001
T. ALT = 50 39.4 C. ERR = 004 W

ao = 1 25.3 VAR = 1 E
a1 = 0.6 DEV = 5 W
a2 = 0.4
= 52 05.7
-1
LAT = 51 05.7 N
AZ = 001 T
P/L = 091 ~ 271 T
NOTE: IF LAT IS NOT KNOWN, TAKE T. ALT AS LAT.

ON 04 SEP 1996, DR LAT NOT KNOWN, 171 00 E, SEXT ALT 48 40, I.E. 2 OFF, HE-
12M. CT 05h 11m 45s, CE 03m 00s SLOW. C. BRG - 003, VAR - 5W, G. BRG - 359
(MORNING TWILIGHT).

CT = 04d 05h 11m 45s


CE = + 03m 00s
CCT = 04d 05h 14m 45s OR 04d 17h 14m 45s
LIT (E)= 11h 24m 00s 11h 24m 00s
LMT = 04d 16h 38m 45s 05d 04h 38m 45s
AS MORNING TWILIGHT SO
CCT = 03d 17h 14m 45s FOR LMT 05d 04h 38m 45s
GHA 03d 17h = 238 06.3
INCRE 14m 45s = 003 41.9
GHA 03d 17h 14m 45s= 241 48.2
LONG (E) = 171 00.0
LHA = 052 48.2
SEXT ALT = 48 40.0 T. BRG = 359.6
I.E. = + 02.0 G. BRG = 359
OBS ALT = 48 42.0 G. ERR = 0.6 L
DIP (12m) = -6.1
APP ALT = 48 35.9 C. BRG = 003
T. CORR = -0.9 T. BRG = 359.6
T. ALT = 48 35.0 (TAKEN AS LAT) C. ERR = 3.4 W
ao = 0 15.3 VAR = 5 W
a1 = 0.6 DEV = 1.6 E
a2 = 0.3
= 48 51.2
-1
LAT = 47 51.2 N
AZ = 359.6 T
P/L = 089.6 ~ 269.6 T

ON 21 MAR 1996 (EVENING), DR 105 28 W, SEXT ALT 58 40, IE 3 ON, HE 13M, CT


01h 29m 18s, CE 02m 30s SLOW. C. BRG - 355, VAR - 5W, G. BRG - 002.
CT = 21d 01h 29m 18s 21d 01h 29m 18s
CE = + 02m 30s + 02m 30s
CCT = 21d 01h 31m 48s OR 21d 13h 31m 48s
LIT (W)= 07h 01m 52s 07h 01m 52s
LMT = 20d 18h 29m 56s 21d 06h 29m 56s

AS EVENING TWILIGHT SO

CCT = 22d 01h 31m 48s FOR LMT 20d 18h 29m 56s
GHA 22d 01h = 194 49.0
INCRE 31m 48s = 007 58.3
GHA 22d 01h 31m 48s = 202 47.3
LONG (W) = 105 28.0
LHA = 097 19.3
SEXT ALT = 58 40.0 T. BRG = 358.7
I.E. = - 03.0 G. BRG = 002
OBS ALT = 58 37.0 G. ERR = 3.3 H
DIP (13m) = -6.3
APP ALT = 58 30.7 C. BRG = 355
T. CORR = -0.6 T. BRG = 358.7
T. ALT = 58 30.1 (TAKEN AS LAT) C. ERR = 3.7 E

ao = 0 36.6 VAR = 5 W
a1 = 0.7 DEV = 8.7 E
a2 = 0.9
= 59 08.3
-1
LAT = 58 08.3 N
AZ = 358.7 T
P/L = 088.7 ~ 258.7 T

STAGGERED OBSERVATION
1. From the following sights find the position of the ship at the time of the second observation:
Time 1500 hrs, EP 19 10 N, 065 00 E, intercept 3.4 Away, Azimuth 286 T
Run 88 miles, course 220 T
Time 1700 hrs, EP 18 00 N 064 00E intercept 2.0 Towards, Azimuth 144 T
2. From the following sights find the position of the ship at the time of the second observation:
Time 1430 hrs, DR 43 13 N, 150 46 E, intercept 1.6 Towards, Azimuth 217 T
Run 60 miles, course 290 T
Time 1800 hrs, Using DR run up, intercept 5.0 Away, Azimuth 144 T
3. From the following sights find the position of the ship at the time of the second observation:
Time 0615 hrs, DR 20 13 N, 179 30 E, intercept 5.3 Towards, Azimuth 058 T
Run 84 miles, course 245 T
Time 1210 hrs, Obs Lat 19 36.1N
4. From the following sights find the position of the ship at the time of the second observation:
Time 1500 hrs, DR 27 15 S, 179 50 W, obs long 179 53.1W, Azimuth 275 T
Run 47 miles, course 227 T
Time 1830 hrs, Using DR latitude and obs long run up, intercept 4.9, Azimuth 053 T
5. From the following sights find the position of the ship at the time of the second observation:
Time 0830 hrs, DR 21 13 S, 179 38 W, intercept 3.3 Away, Azimuth 082 T
Run 56 miles, course 252 T
Time 1153 hrs, Using DR run up an ex-meridian sight gave a lat 21 23 S, Azimuth 178T
6. From the following sights find the position of the ship at the time of the second observation:
Time 0700 hrs, EP 30 54 N, 050 26 W, obs long 50 35.5W, Azimuth 114 T
Run 87.5 miles, course 258 T, Current 095T, drift 4.2 miles.
Time 1150 hrs, Obs Lat 30 40.5N
7. From the following sights find the position of the ship at the time of the second observation:
Time 1300 hrs, DR 19 20 N, 061 00 E, intercept 4.2 Away, Azimuth 280 T
Run 85 miles, course 215 T
Time 1900 hrs, DR 18 00 N 060 00E intercept 2.8 Towards, Azimuth 144 T
ANSWERS:
1. POSITION 17 59.5N, 064 03.5E
2. POSITION 43 35.1N, 149 22.1E
3. POSITION 19 36.1N, 179 16.7E
4. POSITION 27 39.8S, 179 28.9E
5. POSITION 21 23.2S, 179 20.3E
6. POSITION 30 40.5N, 052 07.4W
7. POSITION 18 05.1N, 060 12.1E
Posted 10th September 2012 by mariner

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ROR EXPLAIN WITH FIGURE AND DETAIL QUESTION AND


ANSWER
PART A GENERAL

Rule 1 Application
Rule 2 Responsibility
Rule 3 General Definition

PART B STEERING AND SAILING RULES


Section I Conduct of vessel in any condition of visibility

Rule 4 Application
Rule 5 Look-out
Rule 6 Safe Speed
Rule 7 Risk of Collision
Rule 8 Action to Avoid Collision
Rule 9 Narrow Channels
Rule 10 Traffic Separation Schemes
Section II Conduct of vessels in sight of one another
Rule 11 Application
Rule 12 Sailing Vessels
Rule 13 Overtaking
Rule 14 Head-on Situation
Rule 15 Crossing Situation
Rule 16 Action by Give way Vessel
Rule 17 Action by Stand on Vessel
Rule 18 Responsibilities between Vessels
Section III Conduct of vessels in restricted visibility
Rule 19 Conduct of Vessels in Restricted Visibility

PART C LIGHTS AND SHAPES

Rule 20 Application
Rule 21 Definitions
Rule 22 Visibility of Lights
Rule 23 Power Driven Vessels Underway
Rule 24 Towing and Pushing
Rule 25 Sailing Vessels Underway and Vessels Under Oars
Rule 26 Fishing Vessels
Rule 27 Vessels Not Under Command or Restricted in their Ability to Manoeuvre
Rule 28 Vessels Constrained by their Draught
Rule 29 Pilot Vessels
Rule 30 Anchored Vessels and Vessels Aground
Rule 31 Seaplanes

PART D SOUND AND LIGHT SIGNALS


Rule 32 Definitions 18
Rule 33 Equipment for Sound Signals 18
Rule 34 Manoeuvring and Warning Signals 18
Rule 35 Sound Signals in Restricted Visibility 20
Rule 36 Signal to Attract Attention 21
Rule 37 Distress Signals 21
PART E EXEMPTIONS
Rule 38 Exemptions
ANNEX I Positioning and Technical Details of Lights and Shapes
ANNEX II Additional Signals for Fishing Vessels Fishing in Close Proximity
ANNEX III Technical Details of Sound Signal Appliances
ANNEX IV Distress Signals

RULE - 1
APPLICATION
a) These Rules shall apply to all vessels upon the high seas & in all waters connected
therewith navigable by seagoing vessels.
b) Nothing in these Rules shall interfere with the operation of special Rules made by
an appropriate authority for road-steeds, harbour, rivers, lakes or inland
waterways connected with the high seas & navigable by seagoing vessels. Such
special Rules shall conform as closely as possible to these Rules.
c) Nothing in these Rules shall interfere with the operation of any special Rules
made by the Government of any State with respect to additional station or signal
lights, shapes or whistle signals for ships of war & vessels proceeding under
convoy or with respect to additional station or signal lights or shapes for fishing
vessels engaged in fishing as a fleet .These additional station or signal lights,
shapes or whistle signals shall , so far as possible , be such that they cannot be
mistaken for any lights , shapes or signal authorized elsewhere under these
Rules.
d) Traffic separation schemes may be adopted by the Organization for the purpose of
these Rules.
e) Whenever the Government concerned shall have determined that a vessel of
special construction or purpose cannot comply fully with the provisions of any of
these Rules with respect to the number , position , range or arc of visibility of
lights or shapes , as well as to the disposition & characteristics of sound-signaling
appliances , such vessel shall comply with such other provisions in regard to the
number , position , range or arc of visibility of lights or shape , as well as to the
disposition & characteristics of sound-signaling appliances , as her Government
shall have determined to be the closest possible compliance with these Rules in
respect of that vessel.
RULE 2
RESPONSIBILITY
a) Nothing in these Rules shall exonerate any vessel, or the owner, master or crew
thereof, from the consequences of any neglect to comply with these Rules or of
the neglect of any precaution which may be required by the ordinary practice of
seamen, or by the special circumstances of the case.
b) In construing & complying with these Rules due regard shall be had to all
dangers of navigation & collision & to any special circumstances , including the
limitations of the vessels involved , which may make a departure from these
Rules necessary to avoid immediate danger.
question
(Q) Define Rule 2-Responsibilities?
(a) That everybody is responsible for any action taken aboard a vessel, and if involved in
a collision then both parties are at fault, because the stand-on vessel did not use rule 7
risk of collision and rule 8 Action to avoid collision.

(Q) What is the responsibilities of a capt on the vessel?(a) To make


sure the vessel is a safe and healthy working environment

(Q) What are the responsibilities of individuals aboard your


vessel?
(a) To make sure their health is good and if they see any dangers then to report them to
the capt

RULE 3
GENERAL DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of these Rules, except where the context otherwise requires:
a) The word vessel includes every description of watercraft, including nondisplacement
craft and seaplanes, used or capable of being used as a means of
transportation on water.
b) The term power-driven vessel means any vessel propelled by machinery.
c) The term sailing vessel means any vessel under sail provided that propelling
machinery, if fitted, is not being used.
d) The term vessel engaged in fishing means any vessel fishing with nets, lines,
trawls or other fishing apparatus which restrict manoeuvrability, but does not
include a vessel fishing with trolling lines or other fishing apparatus which do not
restrict manoeuvrability.
e) The word seaplane includes any aircraft designed to manoeuvre on the water.
f) The term vessel not under command means a vessel which through some
exceptional circumstance is unable to manoeuvre as required by these rules and is
therefore unable to keep out of the way of another vessel.
g) The term vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre means a vessel which from
the nature of her work is restricted in her ability to manoeuvre as required by these
Rules and is therefore unable to keep out of the way of another vessel.
The term vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre shall include but not be
limited to;
A vessel engaged in laying, servicing or picking up a navigation mark, submarine
cable or pipeline;
A vessel engaged in dredging, surveying or underwater operations;
A vessel engaged in replenishment or transferring persons, provisions or cargo
while underway;
A vessel engaged in the launching or recovery of aircraft;
A vessel engaged in mine clearance operations;
A vessel engaged in a towing operation such as severely restricts the towing
vessel and her tow in their ability to deviate from their course.
h) The term vessel constrained by her draught means a power driven vessel, which
because of her draught in relation to the available depth and width of navigable
water is severely restricted in her ability to deviate from the course she is
following.
2
i) The word underway means that a vessel is not at anchor, or made fast to the shore,
or aground.
j) The words length and breadth of a vessel mean her length overall and greatest
breadth.
k) Vessels shall be deemed to be in sight of one another only when one can be
observed visually from the other.
l) The term restricted visibility means any condition in which visibility is restricted
by fog, mist, falling snow, heavy rainstorms, sandstorms or any other similar
causes.
PART B STEERING AND SAILING RULES
SECTION I CONDUCT OF VESSELS IN ANY CONDITION OF
VISIBILITY
RULE - 4
APPLICATION
Rules in this section apply in any condition of visibility.
RULE 5
LOOKOUT
Every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper lookout by sight and hearing as
well as by all available means appropriate in the prevailing circumstances and
conditions so as to make a full appraisal of the situation and the risk of collision
QUESTION
.Q) Describe rule 5 look-out?

(a) By keeping a good look-out using eyes, ears and by using all navigation aids
including radios for listening out for navigation warnings, so you can appraise
any situation ahead of you.
RULE 6
SAFE SPEED
Every vessel shall at all times proceed at a safe speed so that she can take proper
and effective action to avoid collision and be stopped within a distance
appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions.
In determining a safe speed the following factors shall be among those taken into
account;
a) By all vessels;
The state of visibility;
The traffic density including concentrations of fishing vessels or any other
vessels;
The manoeuvrability of the vessel with special reference to stopping distance and
turning ability in the prevailing conditions;
At night the presence of background light such as from shore lights or from back
scatter of her own lights;
The state of wind, sea and current and the proximity of navigational hazards;
The draught in relation to the available depth of water.
3
b) Additionally, by vessels with operational radar;
The characteristics, efficiency and limitations of the radar equipment;
Any constraints imposed by the radar range scale in use;
The effect on radar detection of the sea state, weather and other sources of
interference;
The possibility that small vessels, ice and other floating objects may not be
detected by radar at an adequate range;
The number, location and movement of vessels detected by radar;
The more exact assessment of the visibility that may be possible when radar is
used to determine the range of vessels or other objects in the vicinity.
(Q) Describe a safe speed by all vessels?
(a) Every vessel shall go at a safe speed so that you can stop your vessel in half
the distance you can see and use the other half to manoeuvre away from
danger, taking the following factors into account: -

By all vessels:-(i) the state of visibility


(ii) density of traffic
(iii) how manoeuvrable your vessel is, and how quick you can stop your vessel
(iv) the glare of your lights or light from the shore, you might not see the
harbour entrance
(v) weather, sea state and any navigation hazards
(vi) the draught of your own vessel
(Q) Describe a safe speed by vessels with operational radar?(i) the limitations
of your radar
(ii) the scale in use ( too small a scale could be hiding targets )
(iii) weather, sea and rain clutter ( target could be hiding in clutter )
(iv) ice, small vessels not detected by radar
(v) vessels detected by radar
(vi) determine the range of other vessels
RULE 7
RISK OF COLLISION
a) Every vessel shall use all available means appropriate to the prevailing
circumstances and conditions to determine if risk of collision exists. If there is any
doubt such risk shall be deemed to exist.
b) Proper use shall be made of radar equipment if fitted and operational, including
long-range scanning to obtain early warning of risk of collision and radar plotting
or equivalent systematic observation of detected objects.
c) Assumptions shall not be made on the basis of scanty information, especially
scanty radar information.
d) In determining if risk of collision exists the following considerations shall be
among those taken into account;
Such risk shall be deemed to exist if the compass bearing of an approaching vessel
does not appreciably change;
Such risk may sometimes exist even when an appreciable bearing change is
evident, particularly when approaching a very large vessel or a tow or when
approaching a vessel at close range.

Question
(Q) What would you use to determine a risk of collision?
(a) Compass, radar and visual bearings (visual bearings being the most
reliable)

(Q) What scale is your radar(s) on?


(a) 6 and 12 miles.

(Q) Why is your radar on the 12 miles scale?


(a) For early detection of targets.

(Q) You've taken 1 radar plot of a target, would you alter with this plot?
(a) No.

(Q) You've taken a 2nd radar plot of a target, would you alter with this plot?
(a) No.

(Q) Why would you not alter with 1 and 2 plots?


(a) Rule 7 part (c) says not to rely on scanty information, especially scanty
radar information.

(Q) What are the dangers with radar plotting?


(a) Time is being wasted and could put your vessel into a collision course

(Q) If the bearings are steady, is there a risk of collision?


(a) Yes.

(Q) If the bearings are not steady, could there still be a risk of collision?
(a) Yes.

(Q) What situations?


(a) With a large vessel, a long tow or a close quarter situation.

(Q) If plotting a vessel towing a vessel towing another vessel with the length of
tow being 2 miles long, what are you going to take bearings of?
(a) The stem of the towing vessel and the stern of the vessel being towed,
everything in between is a risk of collision.

RULE 8
ACTION TO AVOID COLLISION
a) Any action taken to avoid collision shall, if the circumstances of the case admit,
be positive, made in ample time and with due regard to the observance of good
seamanship.
b) Any alteration of course and/or speed to avoid collision shall, if the circumstances
of the case admit, be large enough to be readily apparent to another vessel
observing visually or by radar; a succession of small alterations of course and/or
speed should be avoided.
c) If there is sufficient sea room, alteration of course alone may be the most
effective action to avoid a close-quarters situation provided that it is made in
good time, is substantial and does not result in another close-quarters situation.
4
d) Action taken to avoid collision with another vessel shall be such as to result in
passing at a safe distance. The effectiveness of the action shall be carefully
checked until the other vessel is finally past and clear.
e) If necessary to avoid collision or allow more time to assess the situation, a vessel
shall slacken her speed or take all way off by stopping or reversing her means of
propulsion.
f) (i) A vessel which by any of these Rules is required not to impede the passage or
safe passage of another vessel shall, when required by the circumstances of the
case, take early action to allow sufficient sea room for the safe passage of the
other vessel.
(ii) A vessel required not to impede the passage or safe passage of another vessel
is not relieved of this obligation if approaching the other vessel so as to involve
risk of collision and shall, when taking action, have full regard to the action
which may be required by the Rules of this Part.
(iii) A vessel the passage of which is not to be impeded remains fully obliged to
comply with the Rules of this Part when the two vessels are approaching one
another so as to involve risk of collision.

Question
(Q) What 4 actions can you take to avoid a collision?
(i) an early and bold alteration of course, as long as you do not put your vessel
into another close quarter situation/risk of collision with another vessel
(ii) slow your vessel down
(iii) stop your vessel
(iv) come astern with your vessel

(Q) Why are you always making an alteration of course, why do you not stop
your vessel?
(a) To make sure the risk of collision/close quarter situation is taken out, also
the other vessel ill see the change of aspect of your vessel (Visually and by
radar)

(Q) If you make an alteration of course, what have you to watch out for?
(a) That you don not put yourself into a close quarter situation with another
vessel.

(Q) If you make an alteration of course, why is it dangerous to make a series of


small alterations?
(a) Because you could go into a close quarters situation/risk of collision

(Q) If you're unsure about what to do in a situation, what's the best thing to
do?
(a) Slow your vessel down, best to stop your vessel altogether.

RULE 9
NARROW CHANNELS
a) A vessel proceeding along the course of a narrow channel or fairway shall keep as
near to the outer limit of the channel or fairway, which lies on her starboard side
as, is safe and practicable.
b) A vessel of less than 20 metres in length or a sailing vessel shall not impede the
passage of a vessel, which can safely navigate only within a narrow channel or
fairway.
c) A vessel engaged in fishing shall not impede the passage of any other vessel
navigating within a narrow channel or fairway.
d) A vessel shall not cross a narrow channel or fairway if such crossing impedes the
passage of a vessel, which can safely navigate only within such channel or
fairway. The latter vessel may use the sound signal prescribed in Rule 34(d) if in
doubt as to the intention of the crossing vessel.
e) (i) In a narrow channel or fairway when overtaking can take place only if the
vessel to be overtaken has to take action to permit safe passing, the vessel
intending to overtake shall indicate her intention by sounding the appropriate
signal prescribed in Rule 34(c)(i). The vessel to be overtaken shall, if in
agreement, sound the appropriate signal prescribed in Rule 34(c)(ii) and take steps
to permit safe passing. If in doubt she may sound the signals prescribed in Rule
34(d).
5
(ii) This Rule does not relieve the overtaking vessel of her obligation under Rule
13.
f) A vessel nearing a bend or an area of a narrow channel or fairway where other
vessels may be obscured by an intervening obstruction shall navigate with
particular alertness and caution and shall sound the appropriate signal prescribed
in Rule 34(e).
g) Any vessel shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid anchoring in a
narrow channel.

Question
Q) What side of the narrow channel would you keep?
(a) The starboard side of the narrow channel as long as your vessel is in safe
water.

(Q) What would you sound to overtake a vessels starboard side?


(a) (Morse "G") (2 prolonged blasts followed by 1 short blast on the whistle

(Q) What would you sound to overtake a vessels port side?


(a) (Morse "Z")(2 prolonged blasts followed by 2 short blasts on the whistle)

(Q) What would you sound if you agree to be overtaken in a narrow channel?
(a) (Morse "C")(1 prolonged, 1 short, 1 prolonged, 1 short blast on the whistle)

(Q) What would you sound if you disagree to be overtaken in a narrow


channel?
(a) (5 or more short and rapid blasts on the whistle)

(Q) What would you sound coming up to a bend in a narrow channel?


(a) (1 prolonged blast on the whistle)

(Q) If there is another vessel coming around the bend and he heard your
warning signal, what would he sound?
(a) (1 prolonged blast on the whistle to let you know he is there)

(Q) What 3 vessels do not impede any other vessels using a narrow channel?
(a) A fishing vessel, sailing vessel and vessels under 20 metres

(Q) Are you allowed to cross a narrow channel?


(a) Yes, as long as you do not impede any vessel using the narrow channel

(Q) If you where in a narrow channel, and there is a vessel crossing a narrow
channel, what would you sound to get him to stop and let you pass?
(a) Five or more short and rapid blasts on the whistle to indicate that your
unsure of his intentions.
RULE 10
TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES
a) This Rule applies to traffic separation schemes adopted by the Organization and
does not relieve any vessel of her obligation under any other Rule.
b) A vessel using a traffic separation scheme shall;
Proceed in the appropriate traffic lane in the general direction of traffic flow for
that lane.
So far as practicable keep clear of a traffic separation line or separation zone.
Normally join or leave a traffic lane at the termination of the lane, but when
joining or leaving from either side shall do so at as small an angle to the general
direction of traffic flow as practicable.
c) A vessel shall, so far as practicable, avoid crossing traffic lanes but if obliged to
do so shall cross on a heading as nearly as practicable at right angles to the general
direction of traffic flow.
d) (i) A vessel shall not use an inshore traffic zone when she can safely use the
appropriate traffic lane within the adjacent traffic separation scheme. However,
vessels of less than 20 metres in length, sailing vessels and vessels engaged in
fishing may use the inshore traffic zone.
(ii) Not withstanding sub-paragraph (d) (i), a vessel may use an inshore traffic
zone when en route to or from a port, offshore installation or structure, pilot
station or any other place situated within the inshore traffic zone or to avoid
immediate danger.
e) A vessel other than a crossing vessel or a vessel joining or leaving a lane shall not
normally enter a separation zone or cross a separation line except;
In case of emergency to avoid immediate danger;
To engage in fishing within a separation zone.
f) A vessel navigating in areas near the terminations of traffic separation schemes
shall do so with particular caution.
g) A vessel shall so far as practicable avoid anchoring in a traffic separation scheme
or in areas near its terminations.
6
h) A vessel not using a traffic separation scheme shall avoid it by as wide a margin
as is practicable.
i) A vessel engaged in fishing shall not impede the passage of any vessel following
the traffic lane.
j) A vessel of less than 20 metres in length or a sailing vessel shall not impede the
safe passage of a power driven vessel following a traffic lane.
k) A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre when engaged in an operation for
the maintenance of safety of navigation in a traffic separation scheme is exempted
from complying with this Rule to the extent necessary to carry out the operation.
l) A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre when engaged in an operation for
the laying, servicing or picking up of a submarine cable, within a traffic separation
scheme, is exempted from complying with this Rule to the extent necessary to
carry out the operation.

Question
(Q) How do you join a lane?
(a) At the start of a lane or at a small an angle as possible to the lane.

(Q) How do you leave a lane?


(a) At the end of a lane or at a small an angle as possible to the lane.

(Q) How do you cross the lanes?


(a) At 90 degrees to the general flow of traffic (DO NOT SAY TO THE LANE)

(Q) Why 90 degrees?


(a) Because it's the quickest way across, and vessels in the lane can see the
aspect of your vessel.

(Q) If crossing a lane, what 3 vessels do not impede any vessel using a lane?
(a) A fishing vessel, a sailing vessel and a power-driven vessel under 20metres.

(Q) What vessels can use the inshore zone?


(a) A power-driven vessel under 20 metres, sailing vessels, fishing vessels,
vessels going to or from a port, going from port to port in the scheme, going
into anchor to do emergency repairs, to avoid immediate danger, to lay
submarine cables or to do repairs to buoys within the scheme.

(Q) What vessels can use the traffic separation zone?


(a) Fishing vessels, anchor for emergency repairs, crossing vessels, to avoid
immediate danger, to lay submarine cables or to do repairs to buoys within the
scheme.

(Q) Where can you anchor in a scheme?


(a) Anywhere, as long as it's to do emergency repairs, try and avoid anchoring
in the lanes and at the terminations.

(Q) What would you do if you had to stop your main engine to do emergency
repairs in a lane and had to anchor?
(a) Call up the port and advise them, also put out a security warning other
vessels that you're at anchor, put up anchor lights and daytime signal.

(Q) Where can you fish in the scheme?


(a) Anywhere, but if fishing in a lane then go with the flow of traffic, and try
and avoid fishing at the terminations.

(Q) Would you fish in a traffic separation scheme?


(a) This is a personnel question, there is a lot of large traffic there; you would
be putting your crew and vessel into dangerous situations.

(Q) Could a supertanker leave a lane at 90 degrees come into the inshore zone
to a pilot station, pick up a pilot and then cross to the opposite inshore zone at
90 degrees?
(a) No, he would have to leave the lane at a small an angle as possible to the
lanes.

(Q) If you're in a power-driven vessel, crossing a scheme and on your port bow
is another power-driven vessel in a lane, the bearing are steady and the
distance is closing, what are you going to do?
(a) First find out length of vessel you are in.

(Q) Does it matter what size the power-driven vessel is that you're in?
(a) Yes, if under 20 metres and crossing a lane, then your not allowed to
impede ANY vessel that is in the traffic lane that is going with the flow of
traffic, if over 20 metres you would stand-on with caution maintaining your
course and speed, the Power-driven vessel that is in the lane has to leave the
lane at 90 degrees to take the risk of collision out.
(Q) Your in a 30 metres power-driven vessel crossing a lane, and there is a
power-driven vessel on your port bow in a lane, the bearings are steady and
the distance is closing, what are you going to do?
(a) Stand-on with caution, maintaining your course and speed.

(Q) How would the power-driven vessel leave the lane?


(a) He would make an early and bold alteration to starboard sounding 1 short
blast on the whistle indicating he is altering to starboard.

(Q) Would he line up your stern and go around it?


(a) No, this would be a close quarter situation and could make you alter your
course and put into a collision course with another vessel.

(Q) After the vessel came around your stern, how would he get back into the
lane?
(a) At a small angle as possible to the general flow of traffic.

(Q) If you where in any vessel, just outside the scheme, would you manoeuvre
here?
(a) No, it says if not using the scheme, then to give it a wide a margin as
possible.

(Q) If you're fishing in a lane, and there is a power-driven vessel overtaking


you, what are you going to do?
(a) Stand-on with caution, you have to use rule 13 Overtaking.

(Q) If you're crossing a lane in a fishing vessel and any vessel is on your port
bow in a lane, the bearings are steady and the distance is closing, what are you
going to do?
(a) If you're crossing and the bearings are steady, then you have to give-way
to all vessels in a lane.
Short cut to remember which vessels use the inshore zone and the
separation zone

Vessels that can use Inshore Zone Vessels that can use the Separation Zone

3 boats + P.P.AID FACID

Fishing Fishing Vessels


Sailing Vessels going into Anchor
PDV under 20 metres Crossing vessels
Boats going from Port to Port Boats leaving the lane to avoid immediatedanger
Boats anchoring Also
Boats leaving the lane to avoid immediate danger Vessels restricted in her ability to manoeuvre
Also laying cables/buoys
Vessels restricted in her ability to manoeuvre laying
cables/buoys

SECTION II CONDUCT OF VESSELS IN SIGHT OF ONE


ANOTHER
RULE 11
APPLICATION
Rules in this section apply to vessels in sight of one another.
RULE 12
SAILING VESSELS
a) When two sailing vessels are approaching one another, so as to involve risk of
collision , one of them shall keep out of the way of the other as follows ;
When each has the wind on a different side , the vessel which has the wind on the
port side shall keep out of the way of the other;
When both have the wind on the same side , the vessel which is to windward shall
keep out of the way of the vessel which is to leeward;
If a vessel with the wind on the port side sees a vessel to windward and cannot
determine with certainty whether the other vessel has the wind on the port or on
the starboard side, she shall keep out of the way of the other.
b) For the purposes of this Rule the windward side shall be deemed to be the side
opposite to that on which the mainsail is carried or, in the case of a square-rigged
vessel, the side opposite to that on which the largest fore-and-aft sail is carried.

Question

Q) In the following sketches which sailing vessel is the Give way vessel?

(Above image) The red sailing vessel is the Give way vessel as he has the wind
on his port side
(Above image) The green sailing vessel is the give way vessel as he is to
windward of the other vessel

(Above image) The red sailing vessel is the give way vessel as he is to
windward of the other vessel
(Above image) The red sailing vessel is the give way vessel, if he is unsure if
the sailing vessel to windward has the wind on his port or starboard side

(Q) On a sailing vessel, what is deemed as the windward side?


(a) For the purposes of this Rule the windward side shall be deemed to be the side
opposite that on which the mainsail is carried or, in the case of a square rigged vessel,
the side opposite to that on which the largest fore-and-aft sail is carried.

RULE 13
OVERTAKING
a) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Rules of Part B, Sections I and II, any
vessel overtaking any other shall keep out of the way of the vessel being
overtaken.
7
b) A vessel shall be deemed to be overtaking when coming up with another vessel
from a direction more than 22.5 degrees abaft her beam, that is, in such a position
with reference to the vessel she is overtaking, that at night she would be able to
see only the sternlight of that vessel but neither of her sidelights.
c) When a vessel is in any doubt as to whether she is overtaking another, she shall
assume that this is the case and act accordingly.
d) Any subsequent alteration of the bearing between the two vessels shall not make
the overtaking vessel a crossing vessel within the meaning of these Rules or
relieve her of the duty of keeping clear of the overtaken vessel until she is finally
past and clear.

Question
(Q) What's classed as an overtaking vessel?
(a) When you're coming up on another vessel MORE than 22.5 degrees abaft
the beam.

(Q) What light will you see at night if you're overtaking another vessel?
(a) The sternlight of the other vessel.

(Q) What are your priorities when overtaking another vessel?


(a) To keep well clear of the vessel being overtaken until well past and clear.

(Q) What distance would you say is well past and clear?
(a) At least 4 miles.

(Q) If you're overtaking another vessel and now you're abeam of the other
vessel are you overtaking or crossing?
(a) You're still an overtaking vessel until well past and clear

(Q) If you're in any vessel and any vessel is overtaking you what would you do?
(a) Stand-on with caution keeping your course and speed.

(Q) If you're coming up on a vessel at 22.5 degrees abaft the beam, are you a
crossing vessel or overtaking vessel?
(a) You're a crossing vessel, the word MORE is missing.

(Q) If you're overtaking a vessel, you're on his starboard quarter and the other
vessel is on your stem, what action will you take?
(a) Take the shortest course, sound 2 short blasts on the whistle and make an
early and bold alteration to port and go around the other vessel's stern.

(Q) If you're overtaking a vessel, you're on his port quarter and the other
vessel is on your stem, what action will you take?
(a) Take the shortest course, sound 1 short blast on the whistle and make an
early and bold alteration to starboard and go around the other vessel's stern.

(Q) If you're coming up on a vessel, and one minute you're seeing his
sternlight, then his sidelight, then his sternlight, is this a crossing situation or
an overtaking situation?
(a) This is an overtaking situation
RULE 14
HEAD-ON SITUATION
a) When two power driven vessels are meeting on reciprocal or nearly reciprocal
courses so as to involve risk of collision each shall alter her course to starboard so
that each shall pass on the port side of the other.
b) Such a situation shall be deemed to exist when a vessel sees the other ahead or
nearly ahead and by night she could see the masthead lights of the other in a line
or nearly in a line and/or both sidelights and by day she observes the
corresponding aspect of the other vessel.
c) When a vessel is in any doubt as to whether such a situation exists she shall
assume that it does exist and act accordingly.
explanation

When you see a power-driven vessel coming towards you, you'll see his masthead
light(s) between his sidelights.
It becomes a crossing situation when you only see ONE sidelight
but it is still a head-on situation if you see One side light then Two then One then Two
sidelights, if your unsure then deem it a head-on situation
More Tips;

what's the other vessel go


Other Vessel what are you going to do?
do?

Power-Driven Vessel Giveway Giveway

Sailing Vessel Giveway Stand-on with Caution

Fishing Vessel Giveway Stand-on with Caution

Not Under Command (N.U.C.) Giveway Stand-on with Caution

Restricted in her ability to Manoeuvre Giveway Stand-on with Caution

If the circumstances of the


Constrained by her Draught Stand-on with Caution
case admit - Giveway

Turn 180 degrees and make


Minesweeper Stand-on with Caution
for the harbour

P.D.V. towing another Vessel Giveway Giveway

Restricted in her ability to manoeuvre


Giveway Stand-on with Caution
towing another vessel

Ferry Giveway Giveway

Supertanker Giveway Giveway

Pilot Vessel Giveway Giveway

High Speed Craft Giveway Giveway

Wig Aircraft Stand-on with Caution Giveway


You're in a Power-driven vessel and in a head-on situation with one of the following,
will you stand-on or giveway to the other vessel and does the other vessel stand-on or
giveway also?

Caution watch this vessel in a head on situation

This is a Power-driven vessel probably over 50 metres in length, Restricted in her ability to manoeuvre
engaged in underwater operations, probably a dredger, it is clear to pass down his port-side, his starboa
side is his working side, he could be a diving ship with divers down.
You sound 2 short blasts on the ships whistle and make a bold alteration to port and go down his port-s
a safe distance. he stands-on with caution mainting his course and speed
You'd make the same alteration if he had no sidelights swutched on

RULE 15
CROSSING SITUATION
When two power driven vessels are crossing so as to involve risk of collision, the
vessel which has the other on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way and
shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid crossing ahead of the other
vessel.

(Q) What type of vessels do you need for this rule?


(a) 2 power-driven vessels.

(Q) How do you know who is the give way vessel in a crossing situation?
(a) You're the give way vessel if you have another power-driven vessel on your
starboard side.

DIFFERENCE IN CROSSING AND


OVERTAKING

RULE 16
ACTION BY GIVE-WAY VESSEL
Every vessel which is directed to keep out of the way of another vessel shall, so
far as possible, take early and substantial action to keep well clear.

Question
(Q) If you were the Give way vessel, what action would you take?

(a) Make an early and bold alteration of course, you could slow down, stop your
vessel or come astern, but if plenty of distance, an alteration is the best means
to avoid a collision.
RULE 17
ACTION BY STAND-ON VESSEL
a) i) Where one of the two vessels is to keep out of the way the other shall keep her
course and speed.
ii) The latter vessel may however take action to avoid collision by her manoeuvre
alone, as soon as it becomes apparent to her that the vessel required to keep out of
the way is not taking appropriate action in compliance with these Rules.
8
b) When, from any cause, the vessel required to keep her course and speed finds
herself so close that collision cannot be avoided by the action of the give-way
vessel alone, she shall take such action as will best aid to avoid collision.
c) A power driven vessel which takes action in a crossing situation in accordance
with subparagraph (a)(ii) of this Rule to avoid collision with another power
driven vessel shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, not alter course to port
for a vessel on her own port side.
d) This Rule does not relieve the give-way vessel of her obligation to keep out of the
way.

Question

(Q) If you're the stand-on vessel, what action will you take?
(a) Stand-on with caution, keeping your course and speed.

(Q) If the Give way vessel were standing on, what warning signal would you
give him?
(a) 5 or more short and rapid blasts on the whistle, to indicate that you are
unsure of his intentions.

(Q) If you're in a power-driven vessel, and on your port bow there is another
power-driven vessel, who is standing-on, collision course, you've gave him 5 or
more short and rapid blasts on the whistle, you got no response from him, what
action will you take now?
(a) Make an early and bold alteration away from him, in this case, 1 short blast
on the whistle and an early and bold alteration to starboard and show him your
sternlight.

(Q) If you're in a fishing vessel, and on your starboard bow is a sailing vessel,
who is standing-on, collision course, you've gave him 5 or more short and rapid
blasts on the whistle, you got no response from him, what action will you take
now?
(a) Make an early and bold alteration away from him, in this case, 2 short
blasts on the whistle and make an early and bold alteration to port.
(Q) What actions for the stand-on vessel if the give way vessel stands-on?
(a) If the give way vessel stands on; the stand-on vessel may alter course
(outside 4 miles - Rule of thumb distance)
(inside 4 miles - Rule of thumb distance)If in a close quarter situation and the
give way vessel stands on; the stand-on vessel shall alter course
RULE 18
RESPONSIBILITIES BETWEEN VESSELS
Except where Rules 9, 10 and 13 otherwise require;

a) A power driven vessel underway shall keep out of the way of;
A vessel not under command;
A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre;
A vessel engaged in fishing;
A sailing vessel.
b) A sailing vessel underway shall keep out of the way of;
A vessel not under command;
A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre;
A vessel engaged in fishing.
c) A vessel engaged in fishing when underway shall, so far as possible, keep out of
the way of;
A vessel not under command;
A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre.
d) i) Any vessel other than a vessel not under command or a vessel restricted in her
ability to manoeuvre shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid impeding
the safe passage of a vessel constrained by her draught, exhibiting the signals in
Rule 28.
ii) A vessel constrained by her draught shall navigate with particular caution
having full regard to her special condition.
e) A seaplane on the water shall, in general, keep well clear of all vessels and avoid
impeding their navigation. In circumstances, however, where risk of collision
exists, she shall comply with the Rules of this Part.

Question
(Q) If you are in a power-driven vessel, there are 6 vessels that you should
give way to, name them?
(a) A power-driven vessel on your starboard bow.
(b) A sailing vessel
(c) A fishing vessel
(d) A vessel not under command
(e) A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre
(f) If the circumstances of the case admit, a vessel constrained by her draught.

(Q) If you are in a fishing vessel, then you have to give way to 4 vessels, name
them?
(a) A fishing vessel on your starboard bow
(b) A vessel not under command
(c) A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre
(d) If the circumstances of the case admit, a vessel constrained by her draught.

(Q) If you're in a power-driven vessel, or fishing vessel, would you stand-on or


give way to a vessel constrained by her draught?
(a) Your best to Give way to a vessel constrained by her draught.

(Q) Is there any rule that says you should try to avoid impeding the safe
passage of a vessel constrained by her draught?
(a) Yes, Rule 18d part (1) says any vessel other than a vessel not under
command or a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre, shall if the
circumstances of the case admit avoid impeding the safe passage of a vessel
constrained by her draught.

(Q) Usually what type of vessel would a vessel constrained by her draught be?
(a) Very large supertanker carrying crude oil.

(Q) So what would happen if you stood-on to a vessel constrained by her


draught?
(a) She could easily go aground and tear the bottom out of her hull, causing a
major ecological disaster, killing all seabirds, covering the coastline with oil,
pollution at its worst.

A power-driven vessel gives way to A fishing vessel gives way to.

3 Big Restricted in her ability to 3 Big Restricted in her ability to


manoeuvre manoeuvre
Not under command
Constrained by her draught Not under command

Constrained by her draught


2 small
Sailing
Fishing
1 awkward

A power-driven vessel on your own 1 awkward


starboard side
A fishing vessel on your own
starboard side

SECTION III CONDUCT OF VESSELS IN RESTRICTED


VISIBILITY
RULE 19
CONDUCT OF VESSELS IN RESTRICTED VISIBILITY
a) This Rule applies to vessels not in sight of one another when navigating in or near
an area of restricted visibility.
b) Every vessel shall proceed at a safe speed adapted to the prevailing circumstances
and conditions of restricted visibility. A power driven vessel shall have her
engines ready for immediate manoeuvre.
c) Every vessel shall have due regard to the prevailing circumstances and conditions
of restricted visibility when complying with the Rules of Section I of this Part.
d) A vessel which detects by radar alone the presence of another vessel shall
determine if a close-quarters situation is developing and/or risk of collision exists.
If so, she shall take avoiding action in ample time, provided that when such action
consists of an alteration of course, so far as possible the following shall be
avoided;
An alteration of course to port for a vessel forward of the beam, other than for
a vessel being overtaken;
An alteration of course towards a vessel abeam or abaft the beam.
e) Except where it has been determined that a risk of collision does not exist, every
vessel which hears apparently forward of her beam the fog signal of another
vessel, or which cannot avoid a close quarters situation with another vessel
forward of her beam, shall reduce her speed to the minimum at which she can be
kept on her course. She shall if necessary take all her way off and in any event
navigate with extreme caution until danger of collision is over.

Question
Q) What does Rule 19 mean to you?
(a) This Rule applies to all vessels in or near an area of Restricted Visibility.
IN OTHER WORDS: -
(THERE ARE NO STAND_ON VESSELS IN RESTRICTED VISIBILITY)

(Q) What would you say a safe speed was in Restricted visibility?
(a) A speed that you could stop your vessel in half the visible distance you could see, so
you could alter using Rule 19 (d) parts (i) and (ii)

(Q) What does part (a) say?


(a) This Rule Applies to all vessels in or near an area of restricted visibility

(Q) What does part (b) say?


(a) Go at a safe speed and have your engines ready for immediate manoeuvre's

(Q) What does part (c) say?


(a) Have Due regards to the prevailing condition

(Q) What does Rule 19 (d) say?(a) A vessel which detects by radar alone the
presence of another vessel shall determine if a close-quarter situation is
developing and/or risk of collision exists. if so she shall take avoiding action in
ample time, providing that when such action consists of an alteration of course,
so far as possible the following shall be avoided(Q) What does Rule 19 (d) Part
(i) say?(a) Avoid an alteration to port for a vessel forward of the beam, other than for a
vessel being overtaken(Q) What does Rule 19 (d) Part (ii) say?(a) Avoid an
alteration towards a vessel abeam or abaft the beam(Q) What does Rule 19 (e)
say?(a) Except where it has been determined that a risk of collision does not exist,
every vessel which hears apparently forward of her beam, the fog signal of another
vessel, or which cannot avoid a close-quarters situation with another vessel forward of
her beam, shall reduce her speed to a minimum at which she can be kept on her course.
Shall if necessary take all her way off and in any event navigate with extreme caution
until danger of collision is over.
PART C LIGHTS AND SHAPES
RULE 20
APPLICATION
a) Rules in this part shall be complied with in all weathers.
b) The Rules concerning lights shall be complied with from sunset to sunrise, and
during such times no other lights shall be exhibited, except such lights as cannot
be mistaken for the lights specified in these Rules or do not impair their visibility
or distinctive character, or interfere with the keeping of a proper look-out.
c) The lights prescribed by these Rules shall, if carried, also be exhibited from
sunrise to sunset in restricted visibility and may be exhibited in all other
circumstances when it is deemed necessary.
d) The Rules concerning shapes shall be complied with by day.
e) The lights and shapes specified in these Rules shall comply with the provisions of
Annex I to these Regulations.

RULE 21
DEFINITIONS
a) Masthead light means a white light placed over the fore and aft centre line of the
vessel showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 225 degrees and so
fixed as to show the light from right ahead to 22.5 degrees abaft the beam on
either side of the vessel.
b) Side lights means a green light on the starboard side and a red light on the port
side each showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 112.5 degrees
and so fixed as to show the light from right ahead to 22.5 degrees abaft the beam
on its respective side. In a vessel of less than 20 metres in length the side lights
may be combined in one lantern carried on the fore and aft centreline of the
vessel.
c) Stern light means a white light placed as nearly as practicable at the stern showing
an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 135 degrees and so fixed as to
show the light 67.5 degrees from right aft on each side of the vessel.
d) Towing light means a yellow light placed as nearly as practicable at the stern
showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 135 degrees and so fixed
as to show the light 67.5 degrees from right aft on each side of the vessel.
e) All-round light means a light showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon
of 360 degrees.
f) Flashing light means a light flashing at regular intervals at a frequency of 120
flashes or more per minute.
RULE 22
VISIBILITY OF LIGHTS
The lights prescribed in these Rules shall have an intensity as specified in Section
8 of Annex I to these Regulations so as to be visible at the following minimum
ranges;
a) In vessels of 50 metres or more in length;
A masthead light, 6 miles;
A side light, 3 miles;
A stern light, 3 miles;
A towing light, 3 miles;
A white, red, green or yellow all-round light, 3 miles.
b) In vessels of 12 metres or more in length but less than 50 metres in length;
A masthead light, 5 miles; except that where the length of the vessel is less
than 20 metres, 3 miles;
A side light, 2 miles;
A stern light, 2 miles;
A towing light, 2 miles;
A white, red, green or yellow all-round light, 2 miles.
c) In vessels of less than 12 metres in length;
A masthead light, 2 miles;
A side light, 1 mile;
A stern light, 2 miles;
A towing light, 2 miles;
A white, red, green or yellow all-round light, 2 miles.
d) In inconspicuous, partly submerged vessels or objects being towed;
A white all-round light, 3 miles.
RULE 23
POWER DRIVEN VESSELS UNDERWAY
a) A power driven vessel underway shall exhibit;
(i) A masthead light forward;
(ii) A second masthead light abaft of and higher than the forward one; except that
a vessel of less than 50 metres in length shall not be obliged to exhibit such
light but may do so;
(iii) Side lights;
(iv) A stern light.
b) An air cushion vessel when operating in the non-displacement mode shall, in
addition to the lights prescribed in paragraph (a) of this Rule, exhibit an all-round
flashing yellow light.
c) (i) A power driven vessel of less than 12 metres in length may in lieu of the lights
prescribed in paragraph (a) of this Rule exhibit an all-round white light and side
lights;
(ii) A power driven vessel of less than 7 metres in length whose maximum speed
does not exceed 7 knots may in lieu of the lights prescribed in paragraph (a) of
this Rule exhibit an all-round white light and shall, if practicable, also exhibit side
lights;
(iii) The masthead light or all-round white light on a power driven vessel of less
than 12 metres in length may be displaced from the fore and aft centre line of the
vessel if centre line fitting is not practicable, provided that the side lights are
combined in one lantern which shall be carried on the fore and aft centre line of
the vessel or located as nearly as practicable in the same fore and aft line as the
masthead light or the all-round white light.

Question
(Q) A Power-driven Vessel - UNDERWAY, what Navigation Lights does he
switch off if he is stopped and making no-way through the water?(a) None, he is
not entitled to switch off any Navigation Lights

(Q) What is classed as Navigation Lights?(a) Sidelights (Port & Starboard),


Sternlight, and if entitled to them Masthead light(s)
(Q) What vessels are not entitled to masthead lights if the vessel is
Underway?(a) Three vessels;
(i) Fishing vessel other than Trawling (Red Light over a White Light - 2 metres apart)
(ii) Not Under Command (Red light over a Red Light - 2 metres apart)
(iii) A Vessel engaged in Pilotage duties (White light over a Red Light - 2 metres apart)

(Q) How can you tell a Power-driven vessel is Makingway?(a) By taking a series
of Compass, Radar & Visual Bearings (visual Bearings being most accurate)

RULE 24
TOWING AND PUSHING
a) A power driven vessel when towing shall exhibit;
(i) Instead of the lights prescribed in Rule 23 (a) (i) or (a) (ii), two masthead lights
in a vertical line. When the length of the tow, measuring from the stern of the
towing vessel to the after end of the tow exceeds 200 metres, three such lights
in a vertical line;
(ii) Side lights;
12
(iii) A stern light;
(iv) A towing light in a vertical line above the stern light;
(v) When the length of the tow exceeds 200 metres, a diamond shape where it can
best be seen.
b) When pushing a vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a
composite unit they shall be regarded as a power driven vessel and exhibit the
lights prescribed in Rule 23
c) A power driven vessel when pushing ahead or towing alongside, except in the
case of a composite unit, shall exhibit;
(i) Instead of the light prescribed in Rule 23 (a) (i) or (a) (ii), two masthead lights
in a vertical line;
(ii) Side lights;
(iii) A stern light.
d) A power driven vessel to which paragraph (a) or (c) of this Rule applies shall also
comply with 23 (a) (ii).
e) A vessel or object being towed, other than those mentioned in paragraph (g) of
this Rule, shall exhibit;
(i) Side lights;
(ii) A stern light.
(iii) When the length of the tow exceeds 200 metres, a diamond shape where it can
best be seen.
f) Provided that any number of vessels being towed alongside or pushed in a group
shall be lighted as one vessel.
(i) A vessel being pushed ahead, not being part of a composite unit, shall exhibit
at the forward end, side lights.
(ii) A vessel being towed along side shall exhibit a stern light and at the forward
end, sidelights.
g) An inconspicuous, partly submerged vessel or object, or combination of such
vessels or object being towed, shall exhibit;
(i) If it is less than 25 metres in breadth, one all-round white light at or near the
forward end and one at or near the after end except that dracones need not
exhibit a light at or near the forward end;
(ii) If it is 25 metres or more in breadth, two additional all-round white lights at or
near the extremities of its breadth;
(iii) If it exceeds 100 metres in length, additional all-round white lights between
the lights prescribed in sub-paragraphs (i) and (ii) so that the distance between
the lights shall not exceed 100 metres;
(iv) A diamond shape at or near the aftermost extremity of the last vessel or object
being towed and if the length of the tow exceeds 200 metres an additional
diamond shape where it can best be seen and located as far forward as is
practicable.
13
h) Where from any sufficient cause it is impracticable for a vessel or object being
towed to exhibit the lights or shapes prescribed in paragraph (e) or (g) of this
Rule, all possible measures shall be taken to light the vessel or object towed or at
least to indicate the presence of such vessel or object.
i) Where from any sufficient cause it is impracticable for a vessel not normally
engaged in towing operations to display the lights prescribed in paragraph (a) or
(c) of this Rule, such vessel shall not be required to exhibit those lights when
engaged in towing another vessel in distress or otherwise in need of assistance. All
possible measures shall be taken to indicate the nature of the relationship between
the towing vessel and the vessel being towed as authorized by Rule 36, in
particular by illuminating the towline.

RULE 25
SAILING VESSELS UNDERWAY AND VESSELS UNDER OARS
a) A sailing vessel under way shall exhibit;
(i) Side lights;
(ii) A stern light.
b) In a sailing vessel of less than 20 metres in length the lights prescribed in
paragraph (a) of this Rule may be combined in one lantern carried at or near the
top of the mast where it can best be seen.
c) A sailing vessel underway may, in addition to the lights prescribed in paragraph
(a) of this Rule, exhibit at or near the top of the mast, where they can best be
seen, two all-round lights in a vertical line, the upper being red and the lower
green, but these lights shall not be exhibited in conjunction with the combined
lantern permitted by paragraph (b) of this Rule.
d) (i) A sailing vessel of less than 7 metres in length shall, if practicable, exhibit the
lights prescribed in paragraph (a) or (b) of this Rule, but if she does not, she shall
have ready at hand an electric torch or lighted lantern showing a white light
which shall be exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision.
(ii)A vessel under oars may exhibit the lights prescribed in this Rule for sailing
vessels, but if she does not, she shall have ready at hand an electric torch or
lighted lantern showing a white light which shall be exhibited in sufficient time to
prevent collision.
e) A vessel proceeding under sail when also being propelled by machinery shall
exhibit forward where it can best be seen a conical shape, apex downwards.
RULE 26
FISHING VESSELS
a) A vessel engaged in fishing, whether underway or at anchor, shall exhibit only the
lights and shapes prescribed in this Rule.
b) A vessel when engaged in trawling, by which is meant the dragging through the
water of a dredge net or other apparatus used as a fishing appliance, shall exhibit;
14
i) Two all round lights in vertical line, the upper being green and the lower white,
or a shape consisting of two cones with their apexes together in a vertical line one
above the other;
(ii) A masthead light abaft and higher than the all-round green light; a vessel of
less than 50 metres in length shall not be obliged to exhibit such a light but may
do so;
(iii) When making way through the water, in addition to the lights prescribed in
this paragraph, side lights and a stern light.
c) A vessel engaged in fishing, other than trawling, shall exhibit;
(i)Two all-round lights in vertical line, the upper being red and the lower white, or
a shape consisting of two cones with apexes together in a vertical line one above
the other;
(ii) When there is outlying gear extending more than 150 metres horizontally from
the vessel, an all-round white light or a cone apex upwards in the direction of the
gear;
(iii) When making way through the water, in addition to the lights prescribed in
this paragraph, sidelights and a stern light.
d) The additional signals described in Annex II to these Regulations apply to a vessel
engaged in fishing in close proximity to other vessels engaged in fishing.
e) A vessel when not engaged in fishing shall not exhibit the lights or shapes
prescribed in this Rule, but only those prescribed for a vessel of her length.
RULE 27
VESSEL NOT UNDER COMMAND OR RESTRICTED IN THEIR
ABILITY TO MANOEUVRE
a) A vessel not under command shall exhibit;
(i) Two all-round red lights in a vertical line where they can best be seen;
(ii) Two balls or similar shapes in a vertical line where they can best be seen;
(iii) When making way through the water, in addition to the lights prescribed in
this paragraph, side lights and a stern light.
b) A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre, except a vessel engaged in mine
clearance operations, shall exhibit;
(i) Three all-round lights in a vertical line where they can best be seen. The
highest and lowest of these lights shall be red and the middle light shall be white;
15
(ii) Three shapes in a vertical line where they can best be seen. The highest and
lowest of these shapes shall be balls and the middle one a diamond;
(iii) When making way through the water, a masthead light or lights, side lights
and a stern light, in addition to the lights prescribed in sub-paragraph (i);
(iv) When at anchor, in addition to the lights or shapes prescribed in subparagraphs
(i) and (ii), the light, lights or shape prescribed in Rule 30.
c) A power driven vessel engaged in a towing operation such as severely restricts the
towing vessel and her tow in their ability to deviate from their course shall, in
addition to the lights or shapes prescribed in Rule 24 (a), exhibit the lights or
shapes prescribed in sub-paragraphs (b)(i) and (ii) of this Rule.
d) A vessel engaged in dredging or under water operations, when restricted in her
ability to manoeuvre, shall exhibit the lights and shapes prescribed in subparagraphs
(b)(i),(ii) and (iii) of this Rule and shall in addition, when obstruction
exists, exhibit;
(i)Two all-round red lights or two balls in a vertical line to indicate the side on
which the obstruction exists;
(ii) Two all-round green lights or two diamonds in a vertical line to indicate the
side on which another vessel may pass;
(iii) When at anchor, the lights or shapes prescribed in this paragraph instead of
the lights or shape prescribed in Rule 30.
e) Whenever the size of a vessel engaged in diving operations makes it impracticable
to exhibit all lights and shapes prescribed in paragraph (d) of this Rule, the
following shall be exhibited;
(i) Three all-round lights in vertical line where they can best be seen. The highest
and lowest of these lights shall be red and the middle light shall be white;
(ii) A rigid replica of the International Code Flag A not less than 1 metre in
height. Measures shall be taken to ensure its all-round visibility.
f) A vessel engaged in mine clearance operations shall in addition to the lights
prescribed for a power driven vessel in Rule 23 or to the lights and shape
prescribed for a vessel at anchor in Rule 30 as appropriate, exhibit three all-round
green lights or three balls. One of these lights or shapes shall be exhibited near the
foremast head and one at each end of the fore yard. These lights or shapes indicate
that it is dangerous for another vessel to approach within 1000 metres of the mine
clearance vessel.
g) Vessels of less than 12 metres in length, except those engaged in diving
operations, shall not be required to exhibit the lights and shapes prescribed in this
Rule.
h) The signals prescribed in this Rule are not signals of vessels in distress and
requiring assistance. Such signals are contained in Annex IV to these
Regulations.
RULE 28
VESSELS CONSTRAINED BY THEIR DRAUGHT
A vessel constrained by her draught may, in addition to the lights prescribed for
power driven vessels in Rule 23, exhibit where they can best be seen three allround
red lights in a vertical line, or a cylinder.

RULE 29
PILOT VESSELS
a) A vessel engaged on pilotage duty shall exhibit;
(i) At or near the masthead, two all-round lights in a vertical line, the upper being
white and the lower red;
(ii) When underway, in addition, sidelights and a stern light;
(iii) When at anchor, in addition to the lights prescribed in sub-paragraph (i), the
light, lights or shape prescribed in Rule 30 for vessels at anchor.
b) A pilot vessel when not engaged on pilotage duty shall, exhibit the lights or
shapes prescribed for a similar vessel of her length.
RULE 30
ANCHORED VESSELS AND VESSELS AGROUND
a) A vessel at anchor shall exhibit where it can best be seen;
(i) In the fore part, an all-round white light or one ball;
(ii) At or near the stern and at a lower level than the light prescribed in subparagraph
(i), an all-round white light.
b) A vessel of less than 50 metres in length may exhibit an all-round white light
where it can best be seen instead of the lights prescribed in paragraph (a) of this
Rule.
c) A vessel at anchor may, and a vessel of 100 metres and more in length shall, also
use the available working or equivalent lights to illuminate her decks.
d) A vessel aground shall exhibit the lights prescribed in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this
Rule and in addition, where they can best be seen;
(i) Two all-round red lights in a vertical line;
(ii) Three balls in a vertical line.
e) A vessel of less than 7 metres in length, when at anchor, not in or near a narrow
channel, fairway or anchorage, or where other vessels normally navigate, shall not
be required to exhibit the lights or shapes prescribed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of
this Rule.
f) A vessel of less than 12 metres in length, when aground, shall not be required to
exhibit the lights or shapes prescribed in sub-paragraph (d)(i) and (ii) of this Rule.
RULE 31
SEAPLANES
Where it is impracticable for a seaplane to exhibit lights and shapes of the
characteristics or in the positions prescribed in the Rules of this Part she shall
exhibit lights and shapes as closely similar in characteristics and position as is
possible.
PART D SOUND AND LIGHT SIGNALS
RULE 32
DEFINITIONS
a) The word whistle means any sound-signalling appliance capable of producing the
prescribed blasts and which complies with the specifications in Annex III to these
Regulations.
b) The term short blast means a blast of about one seconds duration.
c) The term prolonged blast means a blast of from four to six seconds duration.

RULE 33
EQUIPMENT FOR SOUND SIGNALS
a) A vessel of 12 metres or more in length shall be provided with a whistle and a bell
and a vessel of 100 metres or more in length shall, in addition, be provided with a
gong, the tone and sound of which cannot be confused with that of the bell. The
whistle, bell and gong shall comply with the specifications in Annex III to these
Regulations. The bell or gong or both may be replaced by other equipment having
the same respective sound characteristics, provided that manual sounding of the
prescribed signals shall always be possible.
b) A vessel of less than 12 metres in length shall not be obliged to carry the sound
signalling appliances prescribed in paragraph (a) of this Rule but if she does not,
she shall be provided with some other means of making an efficient sound signal.

RULE 34
MANOEUVRING AND WARNING SIGNALS
a) When vessels are in sight of one another, a power driven vessel underway, when
manoeuvring as authorized or required by these Rules, shall indicate that
manoeuvre by the following signals on her whistle;
One short blast to mean I am altering my course to starboard
Two short blasts to mean I am altering my course to port
Three short blasts to mean I am operating astern propulsion.
b) Any vessel may supplement the whistle signals prescribed in paragraph (a) of this
Rule by light signals, repeated as appropriate, whilst the manoeuvre in being
carried out;
(i) These light signals shall have the following significance;
One flash to mean I am altering my course to starboard
Two flashes to mean I am altering my course to port
Three flashes to mean I am operating astern propulsion.
(ii) The duration of each flash shall be about one second, the interval between
flashes shall be about one second, and the interval between successive signals
shall be not less than ten seconds;
(iii) The light used for this signal shall, if fitted, be an all-round white light,
visible at a minimum range of 5 miles, and shall comply with the provisions of
Annex I to these Regulations.
c) When in sight of one another in a narrow channel or fairway;
(i) A vessel intending to overtake another shall in compliance with Rule 9 (e)(i)
indicate her intention by the following signals on her whistle;
Two prolonged blasts followed by one short blast to mean I intend to overtake
you on your starboard side;
Two prolonged blasts followed by two short blasts to mean I intend to overtake
you on your port side;
(ii) The vessel about to be overtaken when acting in accordance with Rule 9 (e)(i)
shall indicate her agreement by the following signal on her whistle;
One prolonged, one short, one prolonged and one short blast, in that order.
d) When vessels in sight of one another are approaching each other and from any
cause either vessel fails to understand the intentions or actions of the other, or is in
doubt whether sufficient action is being taken by the other to avoid collision, the
vessel in doubt shall immediately indicate such doubt by giving at least five short
and rapid blasts on the whistle. Such signal may be supplemented by a light signal
of at least five short and rapid flashes.
e) A vessel nearing a bend or an area of a channel or fairway where other vessels
may be obscured by an intervening obstruction shall sound one prolonged blast.
Such signal shall be answered with a prolonged blast by any approaching vessel
that may be within hearing around the bend or behind the intervening obstruction.
f) If whistles are fitted on a vessel at a distance apart of more than 100 metres, one
whistle only shall be used for giving manoeuvring and warning signals.
Question
(Q) 1,2,3 & 5 Short and Rapid blasts on the ships whistle, what condition of
visibility are these sound signals used?
(a) When vessels are in sight of one another

(Q) Does that mean clear visibility?(a) No, you can still see a vessel when it is hazy,
when you can see the vessel visually then you use this Rule and not Rule 35. Sound
Signals in Restricted Visibility

(Q) In a Narrow Channel, a vessel sounds 2 Prolonged Blasts followed by 1


short blast (Morse "G" - Golf), what does he intend to do?(a) He wants to
Overtake your Starboard side and he is awaiting your answer for you to agree for him to
pass

(Q) In a Narrow Channel, a vessel sounds 2 Prolonged Blasts followed by 2


short blast (Morse "Z" - Zulu), what does he intend to do?(a) He wants to
Overtake your Port side and he is awaiting your answer for you to agree for him to pass

(Q) What sound signal would you reply with if you agreed with the overtaking
manoeuvre?(a) (Morse "C" - Charlie) 1 Prolonged blast followed by 1 short blast
followed by 1 prolonged blast followed by 1 short blast on the ships whistle

(Q) What would you sound if you disagreed to be overtaken in a narrow


channel?(a) You'd sound 5 or more short and rapid blasts on the ships whistle, you can
also flash a light 5 or more times

(Q) In a Narrow channel, your coming towards a bend in the channel, what
warning signal will you sound?(a) One prolonged blast on the ships whistle

(Q) If I was coming around the bend towards you, what warning signal would I
sound?(a) One prolonged blast on the ships whistle

(Q) You're on a collison course with another vessel, you're the stand-on vessel,
the giveway vessel is standing-on, what warning signal will you sound?(a) You'll
sound 5 or more short and rapid blasts on the ships whistle

RULE 35
SOUND SIGNALS IN RESTRICTED VISIBILITY
In or near an area of restricted visibility, whether by day or night, the signals
prescribed in this Rule shall be used as follows;
a) A power driven vessel making way through the water shall sound at intervals of
not more than 2 minutes one prolonged blast.
b) A power driven vessel underway but stopped and making no way through the
water shall sound at intervals of not more than 2 minutes two prolonged blasts in
succession with an interval of about 2 seconds between them.
c) A vessel not under command, a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre, a
vessel constrained by her draught, a sailing vessel, a vessel engaged in fishing and
a vessel engaged in towing or pushing another vessel shall, instead of the signals
prescribed in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this Rule, sound at intervals of not more than
2 minutes three blasts in succession, namely one prolonged followed by two short
blasts.
d) A vessel engaged in fishing, when at anchor, and a vessel restricted in her ability
to manoeuvre when carrying out her work at anchor, shall instead of the signals
prescribed in paragraph (g) of this Rule, sound the signal prescribed in paragraph
(c) of this Rule.
e) A vessel towed or if more than one vessel is towed the last vessel of the tow, if
manned, shall at intervals of not more than 2 minutes sound four blasts in
succession, namely one prolonged followed by three short blasts. When
practicable, this signal shall be made immediately after the signal made by the
towing vessel.
f) When a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a
composite unit they shall be regarded as a power driven vessel and shall give the
signals prescribed in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this Rule.
g) A vessel at anchor shall at intervals of not more than one minute ring the bell
rapidly for about 5 seconds. In a vessel of 100 metres or more in length the bell
shall be sounded in the forepart of the vessel and immediately after the ringing of
the bell the gong shall be sounded rapidly for about 5 seconds in the after part of
the vessel. A vessel at anchor may in addition sound three blasts in succession,
namely one short, one prolonged and one short blast, to give warning of her
position and of the possibility of collision to an approaching vessel.
h) A vessel aground shall give the bell signal and if required the gong signal
prescribed in paragraph (g) of this Rule and shall, in addition, give three separate
and distinct strokes on the bell immediately before and after the rapid ringing of
the bell. A vessel aground may in addition sound an appropriate whistle signal.
i) A vessel of less than 12 metres in length shall not be obliged to give the above
mentioned signals but, if she does not, shall make some other efficient sound
signal at intervals of not more than 2 minutes.
j) A pilot vessel when engaged on pilotage duty may in addition to the signals
prescribed in paragraph (a), (b) or (g) of this Rule sound an identity signal
consisting of four short blasts.

Question

(Q) A vessel engaged in Pilotage duties, what is his identity


signal?(a) He may sound 4 short and rapid blasts on the ships whistle

(Q) May he sound the identity signal when vessels are in sight of
one another?(a) No, this is only to be sounded in Restricted Visibility

(Q) Is there a time length for the Pilots identity signal (I.E. not
exceeding 2 minutes)?(a) No, there is no time limit, he may sound the identity
signal as and when he wants

(Q) Name the vessels with a hampered fog signal (1 Prolonged


and 2 short)?(a)
(i) Sailing Vessel
(ii) Fishing vessels (Trawler & Fishing other than Trawling)
(iii) Not Under command
(iv) Restricted in her ability to manoeuvre
(v) Constrained by her Draught
(vi) Minesweeper
(vii) Vessel engaged in towing
(viii) Restricted in her ability to manoeuvre engaged in towing
(ix) A vessel engaged in pushing another vessel ahead
(x) A Fishing vessel other than trawling fishing while at anchor (Anchor Seine-net)
(xi) Restricted in her ability to manoeuvre while at anchor

(Q) A Power-driven vessel has 2 different Fog signals, what are


they?(a)
If Underway - Two Prolonged blasts on the ships whistle at intervals not exceeding two
minutes
If Makingway - One Prolonged blast on the ships whistle at intervals not exceeding two
minutes

(Q) A Short Blast - How long does it last for?(a) One second

(Q) A Prolonged Blast - How long does it last for?(a) Between 4 - 6


Seconds

(Q) What is the complete sound signal for a vessel engaged in


towing another vessel that is manned?(a) The towing vessel will sound 1
prolonged blast followed by 2 short blasts on the ships whistle, the vessel being towed
will immediately sound 1 prolonged blast followed by 3 short blasts on the ships whistle,
all within 2 minutes

(Q) A vessel at anchor (under 100 metres), what is his fog


signal?(a)
A rapid ringing on the bell (forward) for 5 seconds
at intervals not exceeding 1 minute

(Q) A vessel at anchor (Over 100 metres), what is his fog


signal?(a)
A rapid ringing on the bell for 5 (forward) seconds, then
A rapid ringing on the gong (aft) for 5 seconds
at intervals not exceeding 1 minute

(Q) A vessel at anchor has a warning signal he may use to alert


you of a possible collision, what is it?(a) He may sound (Morse "R" -
Romeo) 1 short blast followed by 1 prolonged blast followed by 1 short blast

(Q) A vessel aground (Under 100 metres), what is his fog


signal?(a)
3 distinct strokes on the bell, followed by
a rapid ringing on the bell for 5 seconds, followed by
3 distinct strokes on the bell (bell is forward in the ship)
at intervals not exceeding 1 minute

(Q) A vessel aground (Over 100 metres), what is his fog signal?(a)
3 distinct strokes on the bell, followed by
a rapid ringing on the bell for 5 seconds, followed by
3 distinct strokes on the bell followed by (bell is forward in the ship)
a rapid ringing on the gong (gong is aft in the ship) for 5 seconds
at intervals not exceeding 1 minute

RULE 36
SIGNAL TO ATTRACT ATTENTION
If necessary to attract the attention of another vessel any vessel may make light or
sound signals that cannot be mistaken for any signal authorized elsewhere in these
Rules, or may direct the beam of her searchlight in the direction of the danger, in
such a way as not to embarrass any vessel.
Any light to attract the attention of another vessel shall be such that it cannot be
mistaken for any aid to navigation. For the purpose of this Rule the use of high
intensity intermittent or revolving lights, such as strobe lights, shall be avoided.

RULE 37
DISTRESS SIGNALS
When a vessel is in distress and requires assistance she shall use or exhibit the
signals described in Annex IV to these Regulations.

PART E EXEMPTIONS
RULE 38
EXEMPTIONS
Any vessel (or class of vessels) provided that she complies with the requirements
of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1960, the keel of
which is laid or which is at a corresponding stage of construction before the entry
into force of these Regulations may be exempted from compliance therewith as
follows;
a) The installation of lights with ranges prescribed in Rule 22, until four years after
the date of entry into force of these Regulations.
b) The installation of lights with colour specifications as prescribed in Section 7 of
Annex I to these Regulations, until four years after the date of entry into force of
these Regulations.
c) The repositioning of lights as a result of conversion from Imperial to metric units
and rounding off measurement figures, permanent exemption.
d) (i) The repositioning of masthead lights on vessels of less than 150 metres in
length, resulting from the prescriptions of Section 3(a) of Annex I to these
Regulations, permanent exemption.
(ii) The repositioning of masthead lights on vessels of 150 metres or more in
length, resulting from the prescriptions of Section 3(a) of Annex I to these
Regulations, until nine years after the date of entry into force of these Regulations.
e) The repositioning of masthead lights resulting from the prescriptions of Section
2(b) of Annex I, to these Regulations until nine years after the date of entry into
force of these Regulations.
f) The repositioning of side lights resulting from the prescriptions of Section 2(g)
and 3(b) of Annex I to these Regulations until nine years after the date of entry
into force of these Regulations.
g) The requirements for sound signal appliances prescribed in Annex III, to these
Regulations until nine years after the date of entry into force of these Regulations.
h) The repositioning of all-round lights resulting from the prescriptions of Section
9(b) of Annex I to these Regulations, permanent exemption.

ANNEX I
POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND
SHAPES
1. DEFINITION:

The term height above the hull means height above the upper most continuous
deck. The height shall be measured from the position vertically beneath the
location of the light.

2. VERTICAL POSITIONING AND SPACING OF LIGHTS:

a) On a power driven vessel of 20 metres or more in length the masthead lights be


placed as follows;
(i) The forward masthead light, or if only one masthead light is carried, then that
light, at a height above the hull of not less than 6 metres, and, if the breadth of
the vessel exceeds 6 metres, then at a height above the hull not less than such
breadth, so however that the light need not be placed at a greater height above
the hull than 12 metres;
(ii) When two masthead lights are carried the after one shall be at least 4.5 metres
vertically higher than the forward one.
b) The vertical separation of masthead lights of power driven vessels shall be such
that in all normal conditions of trim the after light will be seen over and separate
from the forward light at a distance of 1000 metres from the stem when viewed
from sea level.
c) The masthead light of a power driven vessel of 12 metres but less than 20 metres
in length shall be placed at a height above the gunwale of not less than 2.5 metres.
d) A power driven vessel of less than 12 metres in length may carry the uppermost
light at a height of less than 2.5 metres above the gunwale. When however a
masthead light is carried in addition to side lights and a stern light or the all-round
light of Rule 23(c)(i) is carried in addition to side lights, then such masthead light
or all round light shall be carried at least 1 metre higher than the side lights.
e) One of the two or three masthead lights prescribed for a power driven vessel when
engaged in towing or pushing another vessel shall be placed in the same position
as either the forward masthead light or the after masthead light; provided that, if
carried on the aftermast, the lowest after masthead light shall be at least 4.5 metres
vertically higher than the forward masthead light.
f) (i) The masthead light or lights prescribed in Rule 23(a) shall be so placed as to be
above and clear of all other lights and obstructions except as described in subparagraph
(ii)
(ii) When it is impracticable to carry the all-round light prescribed by Rule
27(b)(i) or Rule 28 below the masthead lights, they may be carried above the
after masthead light(s) or vertically in between the forward masthead light(s)
and after masthead light(s), provided that in the latter case the requirement of
Section 3(c) of this Annex shall be complied with.
g) The sidelights of a power driven vessel shall be placed at a height above the hull
not greater than three-quarters of that of the forward masthead light. They shall
not be so low as to be interfered with by deck lights.
h) The side lights, if in a combined lantern and carried on a power driven vessel of
not less than 20 metres in length, shall be placed not less than 1 metre below the
masthead light.
i) When the Rules prescribe two or three lights to be carried in a vertical line, they
shall be spaced as follows;
(i) On a vessel of 20 metres in length or more such lights shall be spaced not less
than 2 metres apart, and the lowest of these lights shall, except where a towing
light is required, be placed at a height of not less than 4 metres above the hull;
(ii) On a vessel of less than 20 metres in length such lights shall be spaced not less
than 1 metre apart, and the lowest of these lights shall, except where a towing
light is required, be placed at a height of not less than 2 metres above the
gunwale;
(iii) When three lights are carried they shall be equally spaced.
j) The lower of the two all-round lights prescribed for a vessel when engaged in
fishing shall be at a height above the sidelights not less than twice the distance
between the two vertical lights.
k) The forward anchor light prescribed in Rule 30(a)(i), when two are carried, shall
not be less than 4.5 metres above the after one. On a vessel of 50 metres or more
in length this forward anchor light shall be placed at a height of not less than 6
metres above the hull.

3. HORIZONTAL POSITIONING AND SPACING OF LIGHTS:

a) When two masthead lights are prescribed for a power driven vessel, the horizontal
distance between them shall not be less than one-half of the length of the vessel
but need not be more than 100 metres. The forward light shall be placed not more
than one-quarter of the length of the vessel from the stem.
b) On a power driven vessel of 20 metres or more in length the sidelights shall not be
placed in front of the forward masthead lights. They shall be placed at or near the
side of the vessel.
c) When the lights prescribed in Rule 27(b)(i) or Rule 28 are placed vertically
between the forward masthead light(s) and the after masthead light(s) these allround
lights shall be placed at a horizontal distance of not less than 2 metres from
the fore and aft centreline of the vessel in the athwartship direction.
d) When only one masthead light is prescribed for a power driven vessel, this light
shall be exhibited forward of amidships; except that a vessel of less than 20 metres
in length need not exhibit this light forward of amidships but shall exhibit it as far
forward as is practicable.

4. DETAILS OF LOCATION OF DIRECTION-INDICATING LIGHTS FOR FISHING


VESSELS, DREDGERS AND VESSELS ENGAGED IN UNDERWATER OPERATIONS:

a) The light indicating the direction of the outlying gear from a vessel engaged in
fishing as prescribed in Rule 26(c)(ii) shall be placed at a horizontal distance of
not less than 2 metres and not more than 6 metres away from the two all-round red
and white lights. This light shall be placed not higher than the all-round white
light prescribed in Rule 26(c)(i) and not lower than side lights.
b) The lights and shapes on vessel engaged in dredging or underwater operations to
indicate the obstructed side and/or the side on which it is safe to pass, as
prescribed in Rule 27(d),(i) and (ii), shall be placed at the maximum practical
horizontal distance, but in no case less than 2 metres, from the lights or shapes
prescribed in Rule 27(b),(i) and (ii). In no case shall the upper of these lights or
shapes be at a greater height than the lower of the three lights or shapes prescribed
in Rule 27(b),(i) and (ii).
5. SCREENS FOR SIDE LIGHTS:

The side lights of vessels of 20 metres or more in length shall be fitted with
inboard screens painted matt black, and meeting the requirements of Section 9 of
this Annex. On vessels of less than 20 metres in length the side lights, if necessary
to meet the requirements of the Section 9 of this Annex, shall be fitted with
inboard matt black screens. With a combined lantern, using a single vertical
filament and a very narrow division between the green and red sections, external
screens need not be fitted.

6. SHAPES:

a) Shapes shall be black and of the following sizes;


i) A ball shall have a diametre of not less than 0.6 metre;
ii) A cone shall have a base diametre of not less than 0.6 metre and a height equal
to its diametre;
iii) a cylinder shall have a diametre of at least 0.6 metre and a height of twice its
diametre;
iv) a diamond shape shall consist of two cones as defined in (ii) above having a
common base.
b) The vertical distance between shapes shall be at least 1.5 metres
c) In a vessel of less than 20 metres in length shapes of lesser or dimensions but
commensurate with the size of the vessel may be used and the distance apart may
be correspondingly reduced.

7. COLOUR SPECIFICATION OF LIGHTS:

The chromaticity of all navigation lights shall conform to the following standards,
which lie with the boundaries of the area of the diagram specified for each colour
by the International Commission of Illumination (CIE).
The boundaries of the area for each colour are given by indicating the corner coordinates,
which are as follows;
(i) White
x
y
0.525
0.382
0.525
0.440
0.452
0.440
0.310
0.348
0.310
0.283
0.443
0.382
(ii) Green
x
y
0.028
0.385
0.009
0.723
0.300
0.511
0.203
0.356
(iii)Red
x
y
0.680
0.320
0.660
0.320
0.735
0.265
0.721
0.259
(iv)Yellow
x
y
0.612
0.382
0.618
0.382
0.575
0.425
0.575
0.406

8. INTENSITY OF LIGHTS:

a) The minimum luminous intensity of lights shall be calculated by using the


formula;
I = 3.43 x 106 x T x D2 x K-D
Where I is luminous intensity in candelas under service conditions.
T is the threshold factor 2 x 10-7 lux,
D is range of visibility (luminous range) of the light in nautical miles,
K is atmospheric transmissivity.
For prescribed lights the value of K shall be 0.8, corresponding to a
meteorological visibility of approximately 13 nautical miles.
b) A selection of figures derived from the formula is given in the following table;
Range of visibility (luminous range) of
light in nautical miles
D
Luminous intensity of light in candelas
for K=0.8
I
1
2
3
4
5
6
0.9
4.3
12
27
52
94
Note: The maximum luminous intensity of navigation lights should be limited to
avoid undue glare. This shall not be achieved by a variable control of the
luminous intensity.

9. HORIZONTAL SECTORS:

a) i) In the forward direction, side lights as fitted on the vessel shall show the
minimum required intensities. The intensities must decrease to reach practical cutoff
between 1 degree and 3 degrees outside the prescribed sectors.
(ii) For stern lights and masthead lights and at 22.5 degrees abaft the beam for side
lights, the minimum required intensities shall be maintained over the arc of
horizon upto 5 degrees within the limits of the sectors prescribed in Rule 21. From
5 degrees within the prescribed sectors the intensity may decrease 50 percent up to
the prescribed limits; it shall decrease steadily to reach practical cut-off at not
more than 5 degrees outside the prescribed sectors.
b) i) All-round lights shall be so located as not to be obscured by masts, topmasts or
structures within angular sectors of more than 6 degrees, except anchor lights
prescribed in Rule 30, which need not be placed at an impractical height above the
hull.
ii) If it is impracticable to comply with paragraph (b)(i) of this section by
exhibiting only one all-round light, two all-round lights shall be used suitably
positioned or screened so that they appear, as far as practicable, as one light at a
distance of one mile.

10. VERTICAL SECTORS:

a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on
sailing vessels underway shall ensure that;
i) At least the required minimum intensity is maintained at all angles from 5
degrees above to 5 degrees below the horizontal;
ii) At least 60 percent of the required minimum intensity is maintained from 7.5
degrees above to 7.5 degrees below the horizontal.
b) In the case of sailing vessels underway the vertical sectors of electric lights as
fitted shall ensure that;
i) At least the required minimum intensity is maintained at all angles from 5
degrees above to 5 degrees below the horizontal;
ii) At least 50 percent of the required minimum intensity is maintained from 25
degrees above to 25 degrees below the horizontal.
c) In the case of lights other than electric these specifications shall be met as closely
as possible.
11. INTENSITY OF NON-ELECTRIC LIGHT:

Non-electric lights shall so far as practicable comply with the minimum


intensities, as specified in the Table given in Section 8 of this Annex.

12. MANOEUVRING LIGHT:

Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2(f) of this Annex the manoeuvring


light described in Rule 34(b) shall be placed in the same fore and aft vertical plane
as the masthead light or lights and, where practicable, at a minimum height of 2
metres vertically above the forward masthead light, provided that it shall be
carried not less than 2 metres vertically above or below the after masthead light.
On a vessel where only one masthead light is carried, the manoeuvring light, if
fitted, shall be carried where it can best be seen, not less than 2 metres vertically
apart from the masthead light.

13. HIGH SPEED CRAFT:

The masthead light of high speed craft with a length to breadth ratio of less than
3.0 may be placed at a height related to the breadth of the craft lower than that
prescribed in paragraph 2(a)(i) of this Annex, provided that the base angle of the
isosceles triangles formed by the side lights and masthead light when seen in end
elevation is not less than 27.

14. APPROVAL:

The construction of lights and shapes and the installation of lights on board the
vessel shall be to the satisfaction of the appropriate authority of the State whose
flag the vessel is entitled to fly.

ANNEX II
ADDITIONAL SIGNALS FOR FISHING VESSELS FISHING
WITH CLOSE PROXIMITY
1. GENERAL

The lights mentioned herein shall, if exhibited in pursuance of Rule 26(d), be


placed where they can best be seen. They shall be at least 0.9 metre apart but at a
lower level than lights prescribed in Rule 26(b)(i) and (c)(i). The lights shall be
visible all round the horizon at a distance of at least 1mile but at a lesser distance
than the lights prescribed by these Rules for fishing vessels.

2. SIGNALS FOR TRAWLERS:

a) Vessels of 20 metres or more in length when engaged in trawling, whether using


demersal or pelagic gear, shall exhibit;
i) When shooting their nets;
Two white lights in a vertical line;
ii) When hauling their nets;
One white light over one red light in a vertical line;
iii) When the net has come fast upon an obstruction;
Two red lights in a vertical line.
b) Each vessel of 20 metres or more in length engaged in pair trawling shall exhibit;
i) By night, a searchlight directed forward and in the direction of the other vessel
of the pair;
ii) When shooting or hauling their nets or when their nets have come fast upon an
obstruction, then lights prescribed in 2(a) above.
c) A vessel of less than 20metres in length engaged in trawling, whether using
demersal or pelagic gear or engaged in pair trawling, may exhibit the lights
prescribed in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this Section, as appropriate.

3. SIGNALS FOR PURSE SEINERS:

Vessels engaged in fishing with purse seine gear may exhibit two yellow lights in
a vertical line. These lights shall flash alternately every second and with equal
light and occultation duration. These lights may be exhibited only when the vessel
is hampered by its fishing gear.

ANNEX III
TECHNICAL DETAILS OF SOUND SIGNAL APPLIANCES
1. WHISTLES:
a) Frequencies and ranges of audibility

The fundamental frequency of the signal shall lie within the range 70-700 Hz.
The range of audibility of the signal from a whistle shall be determined by those
frequencies, which may include the fundamental and/or one or more higher
frequencies, which lie within the range 180-700 Hz ( 1 percent) and which
provide the sound pressure levels specified in paragraph 1(c) below.

b) Limits of fundamental frequencies


To ensure a wide variety of whistle characteristics, the fundamental frequency of a
whistle shall be between the following limits;
i) 70-200 Hz, for a vessel 200 metres or more in length;
ii) 130-350 Hz, for a vessel 75 metres but less than 200 metres in length;
iii) 250-700 Hz, for a vessel less than 75 metres in length.

c) Sound signal intensity and range of audibility


A whistle fitted in vessel shall provide, in the direction of maximum intensity of
the whistle and at a distance of 1 metre from it, a sound pressure level in at least
one 1/3rd-octave band within the range of frequencies 180-700 Hz ( 1 percent) of
not less than the appropriate figure given in the table below;
Length of vessel in
metres
1/3rd-octave band level at 1
metre in dB referred to
2 x 10-5 N/m2
Audibility range in
nautical miles
200 or more
75 but less than 200
20 but less than 75
Less than 20
143
138
130
120
2
1.5
1
0.5
The range of audibility in the table above is for information and is approximately
the range at which a whistle may be heard on its forward axis with 90 percent
probability in conditions of still air on board a vessel having average background
noise level at the listening posts (taken to be 68 dB in the octave band centred on
250 Hz and 63 dB in the octave band centred on 500 Hz).
In practice the range in which a whistle may be heard is extremely variable and
depends critically on weather conditions; the values given can be regarded as
typical but under conditions of strong wind or high ambient noise level at the
listening post the range may be much reduced.

d) Directional properties
The sound pressure level of a directional whistle shall be not more than 4 dB
below the prescribed sound pressure level on the axis at any direction in the
horizontal plane within 45 degrees of the axis. The sound pressure level at any
other direction in the horizontal plane shall be not more than 10 dB below the
prescribed sound pressure level on the axis, so that the range in any direction will
be at least half the range on the forward axis. The sound pressure level shall be
measured in that 1/3rd-octave band which determines the audibility range.

e) Positioning of whistles
When a directional whistle is to be used as the only whistle on a vessel, it shall be
installed with its maximum intensity directed straight ahead.
A whistle shall be placed as high as practicable on a vessel, in order to reduce
interception of the emitted sound by obstructions and also to minimize hearing
damage risk to personnel. The sound pressure level of the vessels own signal at
listening posts shall not exceed 110 dB (A) and so far as practicable should not
exceed 100 dB (A).

f) Fitting of more than one whistle


If whistles are fitted at a distance apart of more than 100 metres, it shall be so
arranged that they are not sounded simultaneously.

g) Combined whistle systems


If due to the presence of obstructions the sound field of a single whistle or of one
of the whistles referred to in paragraph 1(f) above is likely to have a zone of
greatly reduced signal level, it is recommended that a combined whistle system be
fitted so as to overcome this reduction. For the purposes of the Rules a combined
whistle system is to be regarded as a single whistle. The whistles of a combined
system shall be located at a distance apart of not more than 100 metres and
arranged to be sounded simultaneously. The frequency of any one whistle shall
differ from those of the others by at least 10 Hz.
2. BELL OR GONG
a) Intensity of signal

A bell or gong, or other device having similar sound characteristics shall produce a
sound pressure level of not less than 110 dB at a distance of 1 metre from it.

b) Construction

Bells and gongs shall be made of corrosion-resistant material and designed to give
a clear tone. The diametre of the mouth of the bell shall be not less than 300 mm
for vessels of 20 metres or more in length, and shall be not less than 200 mm for
vessels of 12 metres or more but of less than 20 metres in length. Where
practicable, a power driven bell striker is recommended to ensure constant force
but manual operation shall be possible. The mass of the striker shall be not less
than 3 percent of the mass of the bell.

3. APPROVAL.

The construction of sound signal appliances, their performance and their


installation on board the vessel shall be to the satisfaction of the appropriate authority
of the State whose flag the vessel is entitled to fly.

ANNEX IV
DISTRESS SIGNALS
1. The following signals, used or exhibited either together or separately, indicate
distress and need of assistance;
a) A gun or other explosive signal fired at intervals of about a minute;
b) A continuous sounding with any fog-signaling apparatus;
c) Rocket or shells, throwing red stars fired one at a time at short intervals;
d) A signal made by radiotelegraphy or by any other signaling method consisting of
the group --- (SOS) in the Morse Code;
e) A signal sent by radiotelephony consisting of the spoken word Mayday;
f) The International Code Signal of distress indicated by N.C.;
g) A signal consisting of a square flag having above or below it a ball or anything
resembling a ball;
h) Flames on the vessel (as from a burning tar barrel, oil barrel, etc.);
i) A rocket parachute flare or a hand flare showing a red light;
j) A smoke signal giving off orange-coloured smoke;
k) Slowly and repeatedly raising and lowering arms outstretched to each side;
l) The radiotelegraph alarm signal;
m) The radiotelephone alarm signal;
n) Signals transmitted by emergency position-indicating radio beacons (EPIRB).
o) Approved signals transmitted by radiocommunication systems, including survival
craft radar transponders.
2. The use or exhibition of any of the foregoing signals except for the purpose of
indicating distress and need of assistance and the use of other signals which may
be confused with any of the above signals is prohibited.
3. Attention is drawn to the relevant sections of the International Code of Signals,
the Merchant Ship Search and Rescue Manual and the following signals;
a) A piece of orange coloured canvas with either a black square and circle or other
appropriate symbol (for identification from the air);
b) A dye marker.

Posted 10th September 2012 by mariner

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