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CHAPT ER 13
(Time and Distance)

## 13.1 Basic formula based calculations (Distance = Speed x T ime)

1.
2.

The fundamental relationship between distance (s), time (t) and speed (v) is given by s = v x t.
Let v1 and v2 be the speeds of the two vehicles and let v1 > v2.
T IPS
If both the vehicles are moving in the same direction, then their
Conversions:
Relative speed = RV = v1 v2
5
1 km/h =
m/s and
If both the vehicles are moving in the opposite directions, then their
18
Relative speed = RV = v1 + v2

3.

## Total distance covered

Average speed =
Total time taken

1 m/s =

18
km/h
5

If x1 and x2 are distances covered at velocities v1 and v2 respectively, then the average speed over the
entire distance (x1 + x2) is given by

4.

x1 + x 2
.
x1 x 2
+
v1 v 2

If a man travels the first half of the distance at a speed v1 and the second
2v 1v 2
half of the distance at a speed v2, then average speed =
v1 + v 2

5.

If the distance is covered in three equal parts with different speeds v1, v2
3v 1v 2 v 3
and v3, then average speed =
v 1v 2 + v 2 v 3 + v 3 v 1

6.

7.

Do you Know?
If the speed of the
bodies is changed in
the ratio x : y, then
the ratio of the time
taken changes in the

For the same distance, the time is inversely proportional to the speed of
ratio y : x.
the object. These types of problems can be solved as the problems of
percentage.
When time is constant, the ratio of speeds of the object is equal to the ratio of the distance covered by
them, i.e.

v1
d
= 1
v2
d2

Illustrative Examples:
Ex.1 A car is moving at the speed of 54 km per hour. Find its speed in metre per second.
Sol. 1 km/ hr = (5/18) m/s, Thus, 54 km/hr = 54 x (5 /18) = 15 m/s.
Ex.2 A covers a distance of 200 metres at a speed of 72 km/hr. Find the time taken by A to cover
that distance.
Sol. Speed in m/s = 72 x (5/18) = 20 m/s which means he covers 20 metres every second.
Thus, time taken by A to cover 200 metres = 200/20 = 10 seconds.
Ex.3 A and B start moving simultaneously from P towards Q and their respective speeds are 36 km/h
and 15 m/s respectively. What is the distance between them 2 minutes after starting from the
point P?
Sol.

Speed of A = 36 km/h =

5
36 = 10 m/s.
18

Speed of B = 15 m/s

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So, in 1 second, B covers 5 m extra than A, so the distance between them will be 5 m.
In 2 minutes, i.e. 120 seconds, the distance between them will be 120 5 m = 600 m.
Ex.4 Ravi and Ram start from a particular point at 10 kmph and 15 kmph respectively. Find the
distance between them after 5 hours if they walk
(i) in the same direction
(ii) in the opposite directions
Sol. (i)
If they walk in the same direction, then distance between the two after one hour = 15 10 = 5
km.
Thus, after 5 hours, they will be (5 x 5) = 25 km apart.
(ii)
If they walk in the opposite directions, then distance between the two after one hour = 15 + 10 =
25 km. Thus, after 5 hours, they will be (25 x 5) = 125 km apart.
Ex.5 Sonu rides his bicycle at the rate of 10 kmph but stops for 10 minutes to take rest at the end of
every 15 km. How many hours will he take to cover 100 km?
(1) 10 hours
Sol.

(2) 11 hours

(3) 12 hours

(4) 11

1
hours
6

(5) 11

## In 100 km, number of stoppages after 15 km comes to be 6 as 15 6 = 90

Now, time taken for 100 km journey =

100
= 10 hours
10km / hr

## Total time at stoppages = 6 10 min = 60 min or 1 hour.

He will take 10 + 1 = 11 hours to complete the journey.