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Government College University, Faisalabad

Department of Electrical /Telecommunication Engineering,

Electronics Devices and Circuits


Lab Manual

Prepared & Edited by:


Engr. Irfan Riaz Shohab
Irfanriaz shohab@gcuf.edu.pk
Electronics Devices and Circuits Lab Manual

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PREFACE
The laboratory of each and every subject taught in the degree of Bachelors in Electrical
Engineering is of very much importance in every University. Fully equipped laboratory meeting
the industrial demands under the supervision of qualified, talented and practically motivated lab
assistants and lab engineers is also a basic criterion of the Pakistan Engineering Council. This
Manual has been formulated considering all these above mentioned points.
Electronics is the study and use of devices that control the flow of electron. These devices can be
used to process information or perform tasks using electromagnetic power. Electronic circuits
can be found in numerous household products, including such items as telephone, computers etc.
Electronic devices have also allowed great improvement in scientific measurements.
Basic electroncs Lab Work makes electronics concepts more accessible and giving practical
knowledge as well as providing technical information to the students.
With Regards
Engr.Irfan Riaz Shohab

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General Lab Instructions


Each student group consists of a maximum of 2-4 students. Each group member is
responsible in submitting lab report upon completion of each experiment on their
practical Note book.
Students are to wear proper attire i.e shoe or sandal instead of slipper. Excessive
jewelleries are not advisable as they might cause electrical shock.
A permanent record in ink of observations as well as results should be maintained by
each student and enclosed with the report.
The recorded data and observations from the lab manual need to be approved and
signed by the lab instructor upon completion of each experiment.
Before beginning connecting up, it is essential to check that all sources of supply at the
bench are switched off.
Start connecting up the experiment circuit by wiring up the main circuit path, then adds
the parallel branches as indicated in the circuit diagram.
After the circuit has been connected correctly, remove all unused leads from the
experiment area, set the voltage supplies at the minimum value, and check the meters are
set for the intended mode of operation.
The students may ask the lab instructor to check the correctness of their circuit before
switching on.
When the experiment has been satisfactory completed and the results approved by the
instructor, the students may disconnect the circuit and return the components and
instruments to the locker tidily. Chairs are to be slid in properly.

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Experiment No.2
TO BECOME FAMILIAR WITH THE
CHARACTERISTICS OF A SILICON DIODE
OBJECTIVE

Identify diode schematic symbols and Silicon based diode operating characteristics.
Identify diode construction characteristics.
Observe normal operations in a diode circuit.
VI characteristic curve for the diode

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

Instruments:
DMM
Components:

Resistors: 1 k, 1 M
Diode: 1N4007.

THEORY
Although the diode is a simple device, it forms the basis for an entire branch of
electronics. Transistors, integrated circuits, and microprocessors are all based on its theory and
technology. In today's world, semiconductors are found all around us. Cars, telephones,
consumer electronics, and more depend upon solid state devices for proper operation.
PN Junction
Now, we are ready to build a diode. To do this, we need two blocks of material, one N type and
one P type.

The resulting block of material is a diode. At the instant the two blocks are fused, their point of
contact becomes the PN junction. Some of the electrons on the N side are attracted to the P side,
while at the same time, an equal number of hole charges are attracted to the N side.

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As a result, the PN junction becomes electrically neutral. The barrier in Figure 3 is greatly
exaggerated. In some semiconductor devices, the PN junction barrier may only be a few atoms
thick. The PN junction is an electrical condition, rather than a physical one. The junction has no
charge; it is depleted of charges. Thus, another name for it is the depletion zone. Because of the
existence of the depletion zone, there is no static current flow from the N material to the P
material. The diode consists of two parts or elements, the N material and the P material. Their
proper names are cathode and anode. The cathode is the N material and the anode is the P
material. Electron current flow is from the cathode to the anode. Figure 4 illustrates a PN
junction diode.

Bias:
Average DC level of current, to set operating characteristics.
There are two types of bias in semiconductors, forward and reverse. Forward bias will
eliminate the depletion zone and cause a diode to pass current. Reverse bias will increase the size
of the depletion zone and in turn, block current. Figure 6 and 7 illustrates forward and reverse
bias.

A diode is biased by placing a difference in potential across it. Figure 7 illustrates a forward
biased diode. Because of the positive potential applied to the anode and the negative potential
applied to the cathode, the depletion zone disappears. Current flows from the negative terminal
of the battery through the N region, across the non-existent depletion zone, and through the P
region to the positive terminal of the battery. It takes a specific value of voltage for a diode to
begin conduction. Approximately .3 volts across a germanium diode or .7 volts across a silicon
diode are necessary to provide forward bias and conduction. A germanium diode requires a

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lower voltage due to its higher atomic number, which makes it more unstable. Silicon is used far
more extensively than germanium in solid state devices because of its stability.

Reverse bias is accomplished by applying a positive potential to the cathode and a negative
potential to the anode as shown in Figure 6. The positive potential on the cathode will attract
electrons from the depletion zone. At the same time, the negative potential on the anode will
attract holes. The net result is that the depletion zone will increase in size.
A forward biased diode will conduct, with only a small voltage drop over it. The voltage drop for
a forward biased germanium diode is .3 volts, while .7 volts is normal for a silicon diode. We can
say that a forward biased conducting diode is almost a short. A reversed biased diode will not
conduct. Therefore, it can be considered an open circuit. We call a reversed biased diode cut off.
Cut off refers to the current flow through the diode being blocked, or cut off.

Diode characteristics
The diode consists of two elements, the anode and the cathode. The anode corresponds to the P
material and the cathode to the N material. Current flow is from the cathode to the anode.

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Figure 8 illustrates a forward biased diode with current flow and the diode elements labeled. The
graph in Figure 9 depicts current flow through a diode with different values of forward and
reverse bias.

Let's examine forward bias first:


As the forward bias is gradually increased, current through the diode will increased. A
small forward voltage (forward bias) will generate a very large forward current (cathode to
anode). Typical values of forward current are in the range of .2 to 20 amps. Of course, every
diode has a maximum value of forward current that can be passed without damage. Typical low
power diode current characteristics are:
If - the maximum forward current (up to 1 amp)
Ifm - maximum peak forward current (up to 5 amps, repetitive)
Ifs - maximum peak surge current (up to 35 amps, non-repetitive)
Reverse bias will effect diodes in a different manner. Figure 9 illustrates the point. As the reverse
bias or voltage is increased, there will be a very small reverse current (anode to cathode). It will
be in the range of 1 milliamp for a germanium (Ge) diode and 1 microampere for silicon (Si)
diode. As the reverse voltage is gradually increased, the reverse current will stay at a constant
low level until the junction breakdown voltage VB is reached. At that point, the junction will
cease to exist and the diode will conduct.

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As you can see in Figure 9, the current flow will be massive. Reverse current flow is so heavy
that it is called avalanche conduction. When the diode is operated in the avalanche region,
current flow becomes independent of voltage, and that point is called avalanche breakdown.
Due to the massive electron flow, normal PN junction diodes are destroyed when operated in this
manner.
The forward and reverse biased states of a diode can be compared to a variable resistor. Figure
10 illustrates the concept. A forward biased diode will drop only .3 or .7 V. That corresponds to
an internal resistance in the anode that drops from several Kilo-ohms at the point where
conduction begins to several ohms where a diode is conducting heavily. In the reverse bias state,
resistance will be in the Mega-ohms until breakdown voltage is reached. At that point, internal
resistance will drop rapidly.
The stripe on the body of the diode indicates the cathode. To test a diode, you will measure the
resistance of the barrier junction.

PROCEDURE:
PART 1: Diode test using diode measurement scale of DMM.
Perform the diode test using DMM diode testing scale and record the values in Table-1.
DMM test for diode using diode measurement scale of DMM
Forward
Reverse

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PART 2: Forward-Bias diode characteristics.

Figure-2

a) Construct the circuit as shown in figure-2.


b) Record the measured values of the resistor.
Rmeas= _________________.
c) Insure the supply voltage until VR reads 0.1 V. Then measure the VD and record in table2. Calculate ID using the equation ID(mA)= VR/Rmeas.
Table-2
VR(V)
VD(V)
ID(mA)
VS(V)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

VR(V)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
VD(V)
ID(mA)
VS(V)
d) Repeat the step-c for remaining values of VR.
e) On Figure-3, plot ID versus VD for the diode. Finish off the curves by extending the lower
region of the curve to the intersection of the axis at ID=0 mA and VD=0 V.Label each
curve and clearly indicate the data points.

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PART 2: Reverse-Bias diode characteristics.

Figure-4

a) Construct the circuit of figure-4 and record the measured values of R. since the reverse
saturation current will be relatively small, a large resistance of 1M is required if the
voltage across R is to be measurable dimensions.
Rmeas=___________________
b) Measure the voltage VR. Calculate the reverse saturarion current from IS=VR/(Rmeas|| Rm)
The internal resistance (Rm) of the DMM is included because of the large magnitude of
the resistance R. If internal resistance of DMM is unavailable, use typical vale of 10M.
Rm=______________________
(Measured)VR=_______________________
(Calculated)Is= _______________________
c) Determine the DC resistance level of the diode using the equation RDC=(V-VR)/IS.
(Calculated) RDC =____________________

PART 3: Perform the DC sweep analysis to get the VI-characteristic curve for the Diode.

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