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IJSTE - International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering | Volume 3 | Issue 01 | July 2016

ISSN (online): 2349-784X

Improvisation of Nagampadam Bus Terminal

Abin C Idicula
B. Tech. Student
Department of Civil Engineering
Amal Jyothi College of Engineering

Elizabeth Joseph
B. Tech. Student
Department of Civil Engineering
Amal Jyothi College of Engineering

Gifty Elizabath Syam

B. Tech. Student
Department of Civil Engineering
Amal Jyothi College of Engineering

Harithamol T H
B. Tech. Student
Department of Civil Engineering
Amal Jyothi College of Engineering

Kottayam is a place of tourism importance. It is a place of connectivity, for different modes of transit and region; a safe,
convenient, attractive place where the town interacts with its transit system. A fast growing town like Kottayam requires a
comprehensive plan to meet the demands and requirements in Traffic and Transport. Nagampadam are one of the major
congested area in area in Kottayam. The three major roads - Ettumanoor road, Shastri road and Collectorate road are meeting near
this bus station caus ing more congestion. This project aims at planning of Nagampadam bus terminal. As this bus terminal is a
place of more congestion, adequate facilities should be planned. For this, conventional methodology is adopted including
reconnaissance, surveying, design, analysis and cost estimation. Total station is used to conduct surveys. Important datas are
collected from nearby police station. Design process involves simple basic components. Necessary measures are planned for the
reduction of congestion in that area.
Keywords: Nagampadam Traffic and Transport, Nagampadam Bus Terminal


In the era of modern science and technology, man has been on the quest to conquer all the heights of life that has been throw n
before him. This unending quest for glory has brought immense growth in almost every field that mankind has had his imprints
on. Urbanization has been stemmed as a need to fulfil mans desire for a better life blessed with the best of facilities that one can
afford to be living in. This meant more and more people migrated from their heartlands in the rural environments to the citie s and
major towns in the country, in search of employment and also a better life. This lead to rapid expansion of Urban Settlements and
coupled with the wave of rising expectations, his needs kept on multiplying.
One of the major aspects that Urbanization was witness to, was the rapid explosion in terms of the number of vehicles that
have been on the roads in the recent past. As the financial capacities of man increased, more and more people started owning
their own vehicles. This phenomenon when taking p lace in a massive scale leads to problems as congestion and other traffic
related issues. India has also seen a similar trend in the rapid growth of traffic in the past two decades.
According to the RTOs of the major cities, the vehicle population in the cities have increased manifold, as much as 500%.
Such a massive increase in the vehicle population leads to problems such as frequent traffic snarls, congestion and delays in
commute. Kottayam is a place of tourism importance and has a vast network of rive rs, backwaters, ancient religious places, and
hill stations. A fast growing town like Kottayam requires a comprehensive plan to meet the demands and requirements in Traffic
and Transport. It offers social, economic and cultural benefits to the State.
The main objective is to design and propose an improvisation to the existing Nagampadam Bus Terminal which reduces traffic
congestion, ensures smooth traffic flow, provide more access options to passengers , efficiently utilizes modern technological and
scientific approaches, emphasis on passenger service improvement.
Problem identification will be done and then various surveys were conducted and based on the results obtained, improvements
on this junction shall be proposed. Focus is also highlighted on easing th e prevailing traffic congestion in view of the proposed
developments in Nagampadam.

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Improvisation of Nagampadam Bus Terminal

(IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 01 / 041)


Fig. 1: M ethodology


Topographical Survey
Traffic Volume Survey
Shop Area Survey
Accident Survey
Parking Survey
Bus Timings Survey

A. Planning
We have identified the various problems in the Nagampadam bus station from the surveys conducted and interviews of public.
The following are the main problems identified and the solutions planned:
1) Improper Drainage System
During rainy season it is a common phenomenon of flooding water in Nagampadam bus station. The main reason behind this is
the improper drainage system provided. The drainage is not effective in carrying the flooded water. The bed slope provided is the
major factor contributing this problem. If sufficient bed slope is provided more quantity of water can be withdrawn.
In IRC SP-050 it is suggested to provide a bed slope of 1:300 in natural channels for the effective movement of water. Initial
drain depth is provided as 15 cm and as the depth reaches 25 cm onwards provide cover slab this is from the safety
2) Improper Parking of Private Vehicles
Heavy congestion is caused in the premises and inside the bus station due to the unauthorised parking of private vehicles. Th is
causes hindrance in the movement of buses and pedestrians. Proper and orderly arrangement can minimise the congestion and
introducing pay and park system can contribute income to government. Separate space allotment was given for two wheelers and
four wheelers. The space allotment was provided considering IRC 35:1997.( 2.5 mx 12 m).

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Improvisation of Nagampadam Bus Terminal

(IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 01 / 041)

Fig. 2: Figure showing the detailed sketch of parking of private vehicles

3) Lack of Proper Topography of Ground Surface

The irregular shape and topography of ground surface also result in flooding and obstruction in the movement of water. The
normally adopted ground surface topography is egg shaped surface. IRC SP-050 suggest cement concrete flooring of slope 1%.
This is more effective in sudden draining of rain water to the side drains.
4) Seating Arrangements
Present condition of seating arrangement is not in an orderly manner. At present the seats are arranged in such a way that it
obstruct the movement of passengers. The new seating arrangement is planned in an orderly manner so t hat clear vision is
possible to the bus bays.
5) Improper Parking of Buses
The improper parking of buses causes the lack of circulation space for buses. This can lead to collision between buses. The
parking of bus are planned as bus bays so that fixed number of bays are planned considering maximum number of bus in peak
hour. By planning of bus bays orderly ways of parking of bus is possible. Bus can be parked on the consideration of various
routes. Bus bays are planned according to IRC 86: 1983.

Fig. 3: Showing the detailed sketch of parking of buses in the terminal

6) Entry and exit of buses

At present the entry and exit of buses is not in an ordered way. We have planned new entry and exit of bus which can be
explained using suitable circulation diagrams.

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Improvisation of Nagampadam Bus Terminal

(IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 01 / 041)

Fig. 4: Showing the detailed sketch of entry and exit of buses in the terminal

B. Design of Culvert

Fig. 5: Showing the design details of culvert

C. Cost estimation
Total cost for drainage design = Rs.35,57,516
This study identifies the issues related with inefficient operation of existing bus system in Nagampadam and also identifies some
solutions for improvement in performance of the urban bus system. This study also presents some indicators which can be used
to evaluate efficiency and effectiveness of urban bus service.
Recconaisance survey was done on the site and the details of existing terminal were obtained. A detailed survey was done
using total station and area of the plot, reduced levels, site plan and area of existing terminal were obtained. We have modified
the entry and exit of the bus station so as to make orderly movement of traffic with a specific way -in and way out. We have
planned bays for buses in different routes for its proper arrangement in the terminal.
In order to reduce the congestion caused by the private vehicles, we have planned a separate paid parking system for them. It
is provided separately for two wheelers and four wheelers. In order to solve the problem of flooding during rainy season, we
have planned and designed an efficient drainage system with adequate cover slabs.
Also for draining the flood water in all directions, we have proposed an egg shaped surface with cement concrete flooring wit h
1:1 slope. We have planned certain additional facilities such as big waste boxes for proper dumping of waste, ATM counters, rest
rooms, feeding rooms.

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Improvisation of Nagampadam Bus Terminal

(IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 01 / 041)

A. Further Scope
Further project aims at designing of overlays by CBR method or Benklenman beam deflection method. Since the project is vast
and due to practical difficulties, the design is not adaptable.
We take this opportunity to express our deep sense of gratitude and sincere thanks to all who helped us to complete the proje ct
work successfully. Our first and foremost thanks go to God Almighty who showered his immense blessings on our effort. We
would like to express our sincere gratitude to Sr. Prof. Claramma Rosary (Head of the department, Civil Engineering) for her
support and co-operation. We are deeply indebted to our guide, Mrs. Margret Sherin Joseph (Asst. Professor, Department of
Civil Engineering) and Mr. Jince P Zachariah (Asst. Professor, Department of Civil Engineering) for their excellent guidance,
constant encouragement, suggestions and constructive feedback in the completion of the project work. We also thank Mrs. Mini
Mathew (Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering) for extending her valuable support for the project work. We
wish to express our sincere gratitude towards the staff members and lab assistants of our Department and Department Library.

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