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Title: Investigating Properties of Solutions

Aim: To investigate the effect of temperature on solubility and the effect of solute on boiling
According to Science Daily, Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a
given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent which is measured in terms of the maximum
amount of solute dissolved in a solvent at equilibrium. Some factors that affect the solubility of a
solvent in another include Forces between particles, Temperature and Pressure. When one
substance dissolves in another, the attractive forces in both must be overcome. The dissolving
solute must be able to break up the molecules in the solvent, and the molecules of the solvent
must have sufficient attraction for the solute particles. Temperature is the measure of average
heat or thermal energy of the particles in a substance. The temperature of a solvent impact the
rate at which the solute dissolves. With an increase in temperature the particles in the solvent is
expected to vibrate and the intermolecular bonds that are holding the particles together will be
weaken at a faster rate because of the increase in energy (thermal energy).
Heating a solution of a solid makes it easier for the particles of solid to move between the
solution and the solid phase. This is the basis of the second law of thermodynamics; the second
law predicts that the solid solute will shift to the more disordered, more highly dispersed, and
will therefore tend to be more soluble when the temperature rises. Boiling point is the
temperature at which a liquid changes to a vapor or a gas. The boiling point of a solvent is
expected to change upon adding a solute. This is as a result of the property of boiling point
elevation which is expected to occur when the boiling point of a solution becomes higher than
the boiling point of a pure solvent. The temperature at which the solvent boils is increased by
adding any non-volatile solute.

Materials and Apparatus:

Bunsen burner
Tripod Stand
Boiling Tubes (3)

250 mL Beakers(3)
Distilled water
Potassium iodine (KI(s))
Potassium nitrate (KNO3(s))
Sodium chloride (NaCl(s))
Stop clock

Part one: The effect of temperature on solubility.
1. Three water baths of temperature 30C, 270C and 980C was prepared.
2. The three boiling tubes with 10cm3 of water was then placed in the desired area, with
a thermometer to allow the temperature to reach 30C, 270C and 980C, respectively.
3. Then, to each equilibrated boiling tube, 2g of NaCl was added and stirred to dissolve.
4. After, an observation of which boiling tube the salt dissolved fastest in was made and
5. Steps 1-4 was then repeated with KI and KNO3
Part two: The effect of solute on boiling point.
1. 20cm3 of the solvent (water) provided was heated in a 100cm3 beaker and its boiling
point was measured and recorded.
2. Then, 1g of the solute, (KI(S)) potassium iodine, was added to the hot solution and
reboiled to determine the boiling point of the solution.
3. After, 4g more of the solute was added to the solution from 2. And the boiling was
4. A record of the results obtained was made.

Table 1. Showing the effect of Temperature on Solubility.




3 oC
27 oC
98 oC



3 oC
27 oC
98 oC



3 oC
27 oC
98 oC


Table 2. Showing the effect of Solute on Boiling point


Original boiling

Boiling point with 1g

Boiling point with 4g

Potassium Iodine (KI)


of solute

of solute

In part one of this experiment which investigated the effect of temperature on solubility a
trend was seen in all the salts used; the higher the temperature of the solvent, the faster the solute
dissolved. Therefore it can be said that solubility is directly proportional to temperature under
normal circumstances. At 3 a solid solute dissolved at a slow rate in the liquid solvent in
comparison to the rate at which it dissolved at 27 and at 98. At 98 the solubility occurred
at a faster rate, this was because with an increase in temperature there is an increase in energy
thus causing intermolecular forces to weaken and dissolve at a much faster rate.
In part two of this experiment, for boiling to occur in a liquid the intermolecular forces of
the solution must be broken in order for a phase change to occur. When a solute is added, it
blocks some molecules from escaping to the gaseous stage as more intermolecular forces have to
be broken in the solution; Hence more energy is needed to do so and the boiling point increases.
The initial temperature was 980C, when 1g of the solute was added the temperature dropped to
740C then when reboiled the temperature rose to 1000C in 90 seconds. When the 4g was added,

the temperature dropped to 720C and when reboiled the temperature spiked at 1040C in 40
seconds. Some sources of error which occurred during this experiment include an inconsistent
stirring method, external temperatures (air-conditioner) and some of the solute stuck to the test
tube therefore there was a difference in the amount of solute per sample.

The solubility of a solid in a liquid also increases as the temperature increases. The boiling point
of a solvent increases with the introduction of additional solutes to the solvent.

Chem 132- General Chemistry II lab student manual, unpublished.
Solubility. ScienceDaily. Retreived February 10, 2014, from
Whitten, Kenneth W.Chemistry. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2007.