You are on page 1of 20

:

,
e-mail: smavro@uom.edu.gr

,
.
(,
)
.
,

1980 .

,
( 2007-08),
.


.

-:
, , , ,



.

.

. ,
,

,
.
1980 ,

, ,
.

,

.

. ,
,
:

, , .
,
.


2007-08.

( )
(, ).


.

.

.

.

,

, ,
.


.



.



.
: E I

. II


.

,

.
.



,
.
,
( )


.

(
) 1940
(Walter Funk).


, ,
.


(),
.


.

(
). ,
( )


.

.


1973-74 (1950-74).



. , ,1

.
,


,
,
.
.


(, )
(
). ,


bancor2 .
, ,
(

) .




.
-
.
.

, (
)

.
1

bancor (Keynes) 1940-42. bancor



(unit of account) (clearing
system).

.
(
).
.
,
.

.

.

(.. )
.

.
,
. ,
(


).


)
(). , ,
,

(
).

, ,
( , ..),

-.
,

,

.


1973-74 1980
(1974-85). 1973-74



.
.
.

( )
(
)
.


.
,

, .


,

. ,



.


,
.

,
,
.



.
,
(..
, 3)
3


(Nixon), 1971,

.
2,25%
.
(.. ,
9%).
. , ( Pierre
Werner) 1970
-
.
2,25%
. 4,5%. ,
.
(
). 1973, , ,
,
, , ,
. , 1977
. 1979 (European
Monetary System EMS), . ,
(European Currency Unit ECU),
( )
. ECU
2,25% 6% (, ,
). , (European
Exchange Rate Mechanism ERM),
( )
-

.

.

,
(.. , , ).
(
)
. H
: (
)
( ).



1973-74.

( )

(
4
).

(
).
.

(
),

. , 1972
(European Monetary Cooperation Fund)
ECU - .
, EMS.
-,
,
( Bundesbank),
. ,
1990,
, ,
.
. ,
1999,
, EMS .

.


1980
. ,
( , ..
19 .) (..
)
.
4

,
,
.
.
1980
2007-08 (1990-2008)
.
(
)
(

).

(

)
(

)
(

). ,
anno mirabilis (
1989)
.

(
),



.
1973-74.
, , ,

( 5)
.
, ,
,
,

.
(
) (). ,
(
)
.

,

. (2016).

(
..). ,

.
,

-,
( ,
, ..). ,
.


.
,


.
,
-.
2007-08

(2007 ).

.
,

(de-couple)
. ,



.

:
(
) .

(
)
.


.6
,

(, 2012).
,
,
.
6


(

),
.
.

( ,
)

. ,
(
)

.

,

(,
7 ..) .

(..
)
.
,


. ,
.


.
: (
),
(
) .

Mundell (1961)
( )
.
,
. ,
-
.
7

, 1980,
. ,
.

,

.
,
.
:
(,
, ),

(Verdun, 2005: 11).
, ,

(

).

.
:
( )
:
,

(.. Haas, 1958).


(
).
(spill over effect)
(.. Sandholtz
& Zysman, 1989).
(intergovernmentalism)
, (power)
.

(.. Moravcsik, 1998).

(

)
-. ,

.

.
,

,

.

, (..
Schuman).
:
)
.
. ,
.
)
( ).



( ).


1980
.
.
.


(
). ,

(.. Mandel, 1970 Cocks, 1980).
,

.

()
.

(
) . ,

(
).



(

).

.


(.. Mandel, 1970)


.
1980
.
,



.
(..
Carchedi, 1997, 2001 Carchedi & Carchedi, 1999).
,
.8

.9 ,
( ) ,
,


.

.
.
New Left Review. ,
(Tom Nairn,
1972), (Perry Anderson)
(
)
. NLR
(
[Anderson, 2009] .


.
Brexit,

,
Lexit.
9

-

.
8

.

.
, ,

.

:



(.. Diez, 1997
Marcussen, 2000). : )
,

()
(Habermas),
.

(.. Jorgensen, 1997 Walker,


1989)
.
,

( )
.
, ,


.

(
) .

(Bieler & Morton, 2001 Van
Apeldoorn et al., 2003). , .
, ,
(ntonio Gramsci)

. ,
.

,
,
(.. Cox, 1983). : )

, ()
)
.

, .
,
, ,


(Mavroudeas, 1999).
,

.



( ).



.

II.




/ .
(
)
. ,

.
, ,



. ,
, ,
,
.




.


(, 2016). ,


.

.
,
.

(
Carchedi, 1997, 1999, 2001)
, , .
,

- ,
( Bukharin, 1972).
,
,
.
,

(
).
(


)
()

().

(
),
(
).

.
,
,
(
).
,
,

.

(
)
.


,


.

,
.

:

( )

,

( ) . ,

( )
. ,

(David Harvey) (


[extractivism]),


.
,

.
. ,
.
,
( ,
. ),

().
, ( )

( ) .

.
, ,

,
. ,
,
(
) .
,
( )
.

. ,


. ,



.
,


( )
( ).
,

.

.
,


.



.

:
,
.
, , , (

).


. (Lenin, 1974)
[]
, ,
.

, . (2012), ,
, 1.
, . (2016), ,
,
1.
, . (2016),
;, , 19-9-2015.

Anderson, P. (2009), The New Old World, London, Verso.


Bieler, A. Morton, A.D. (eds) (2001), Social Forces in the Making of
the New Europe: The Restructuring of European Social Relations
in the Global Political Economy, Houndsmill, Palgrave.
Bukharin, N. (1972), Imperialism and World Economy, London,
Martin Lawrence.
Carchedi, B. Carchedi, G. (1999), Contradictions of European
Integration, Capital and Class 67.
Carchedi, G. (1997), The EMU, Monetary Crises and the Single
European Currency, Capital and Class 63.
Carchedi, G. (2001), For Another Europe: A Class Analysis of
European Economic Integration, London, Verso.
Cocks, P. (1980), Towards a Marxist Theory of European
Integration, Intemational Organization 34.
Cox, R. (1983), Gramsci, Hegemony and International Relations: an
Essay in Method, Millennium 12 (2).
Diez, T. (1997), International Ethics and European Integration:
Federal State or Network Horizon?, Alternatives 22.
Haas, E.B. (1958), The Uniting of Europe, London, Stevens.
Jrgensen, K.-E. (ed.) (1997), Reflectivist Approaches to European
Governance, London, Macmillan.
Lenin, V.I. (1974), On the Slogan for a United States of Europe,
in Collected Works, vol. 21, Moscow, Progress Publishers,
pp, 339-343.
Mandel, E. (1970), Europe versus America? Contradictions of
Imperialism, London, New Left Books.
Mundell, R.A. (1961), A Theory of Optimum Currency Areas.
American Economic Review 51 (4)
Marcussen, M. (2000), Ideas and Elites: The Social Construction of
Economic and Monetary Union, Aalborg, Aalborg University
Press.
Mavroudeas, S. (1999), Regulation Theory: The Road from Creative
Marxism to Post-Modern Disintegration, Science & Society 63
(3).
Moravcsik, A. (1998), The Choice for Europe, Ithaca, Cornell
University Press.
Nairn, T. (1972), The Left against Europe?, New Left Review I, 75.
Sandholtz, W. Zysman, J. (1989), 1992: Recasting the European
Bargain, World Politics 42 (1).
Van Apeldoorn, B. Overbeek, H. Ryner, M. (2003), Theories of
European Integration: A Critique, in Cafruny, A.W. Ryner, M.
(eds), A Ruined Fortress? Neoliberal Hegemony and
Transformation in Europe, London, Rowman & Littlefield.
Verdun, A. (2005), An American-European divide in European
integration studies: bridging the gap with international political
economy (IPE), in Jones, E. Verdun, A. (2005), The Political
Economy of European Integration: Theory and analysis, London,
Routledge.

Walker, R.B.J. (1989), History and Structure in the Theory of I.R.,


Millennium 18 (2).