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heat

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You are on page 1of 3

7

5-cm-diameter cylindrical

uranium

rods at a rate

CHE 312A

- Assignment

2 of 7 " 10

3

W/m . If the length of the rods is 1 m, determine the rate of

Answer: 137.4 kW

heat generation in each rod.

r + r

r

modeled

heat generation

and can

be approximated

by g !as heat generation

Q.1 In a solar pond,

theasabsorption

of solar

energy

can be modeled

rate of heat absorption at the top surface

g0e#bx, where g0 is the-bx

and can be approximated

by

g

=g

e

, where g is the rate of heat absorption at the top

0

per unit volume and b is a constant. 0Obtain a relation for the tosurface per unit volume

is a constant.

Obtain

a surface

relationarea

forA and

the total rate of heat

tal rate ofand

heatbgeneration

in a water

layer of

FIGURE P222

generation in a water

layer Lofatsurface

area

and thickness L at the top of the pond.

thickness

the top of

the A

pond.

223 Starting with an energy

volume element, derive the on

Radiation Solar

conduction equation for a spher

beam being energy

ductivity and no heat generation.

absorbed

0

L

x

Q.2

Solar

pond

FIGURE P217

Consider

3-cm-thick

stainless to

steel

in

throughout and is 218

then taken

out aoflarge

the oven

and allowed

coolplate

in ambient

air at T by

which heat is generated uniformly at a rate of 5 " 106 W/m3.

convectionand radiation.

The emissivity of the outer surface of the cylinder is , and the

Assuming the plate is losing heat from both sides, determine

temperature of thethesurrounding

surfaces

. Theduring

average

heat transfer

surrplate

heat flux on the

surface is

of T

the

steadyconvection

operaFIGURE P223

2

W/m variable thermal conductivity and transient

tion. toAnswer:

coefficient is estimated

be h.75,000

Assuming

one-dimensional heat transfer, express the differential equation and the boundary

and a medium in wh

224 Consider

tion

is

given

in its simplest form

initial conditions ofHeat

thisConduction

heat conduction

problem.

Do

not

solve.

Equation

Write down the one-dimensional transient heat conducWater flows219

through

a pipe at an average temperature of 60C. The inner and

tion equation for a plane wall with constant thermal conductivouter radii of the pipe are r1= 8 cm and r2 = 9 cm, respectively. The outer surface ofthe

pipe is wrapped with a thin electric heater that consumes 400 W per m length of the pipe.

The exposed surface of the heater is heavily insulated so that the entire heat generated in

the heater is transferred to the pipe. Heat is transferred from the inner surface of the pipe

to the water by convection with a heat transfer coefficient of h = 65 W/m2 C. Assuming

constant thermal conductivity and one-dimensional heat transfer, express the differential

equation and the boundary conditions of the heat conduction in the pipe during steady

operation. Do not solve.

Q.3

Q.4

Consider a long rectangular bar of length a in the x-direction and width b in the ydirection that is initially at a uniform temperature of Ti. The surfaces of the bar at x=0 and

y=0 are insulated, while heat is lost from the other two surfaces by convection to the

surrounding medium at temperature T with a heat transfer coefficient of h. Assuming

constant thermal conductivity and transient two-dimensional heat transfer with no heat

$2 T 1

!

$x2 %

ive have to be a function of x?

integration related to derivation?

fer with no heat generation, express the mathematical formulation (the differential equation and the boundary and initial

conditions) of this heat conduction problem. Do not solve.

Ti

one?

h

a

FIGURE P2121

generation, write the differential equation and the boundary and initial conditions of this

o you recognize a linear homogeneous differheat

conduction

problem.

solve. at a constant rate of g0. Heat is lost

whichDo

heatnot

is generated

Give an example and

explain

why it is linear

from the cylindrical surface at r # r0 by convection to the surs.

rounding

medium

T" withL=0.3

a heat transfer

coeffiQ.5

Consider

a

large

plane

wallat temperature

of thickness

m, thermal

conductivity k=2.5

o differential equations with constant coefficient of h. The bottom

surface

of

the

cylinder

at

z

#

0 is

2

those with variableW/mC,

coefficients?and

Give surface

an exarea

A=12

. The

left side

wall is

maintained at a constant

insulated,

whilemthe

top surface

at z #of

H isthe

subjected

to unipe.

Assuming

constant

and

formwhile

heat flux

q h. right

temperature of T1=80C

the

side

losesthermal

heat conductivity

by convection

to the surrounding

kind of differential equations can be solved by

steady two-dimensional

heat transfer,

express

the 120

mathematical

2

cen58933_ch02.qxd

9/10/2002

8:47

AM

Page

air at T =25C with formulation

a heat transfer

coefficient

oftheh=30W/m

C. Assuming constant

?

(the differential

equation and

boundary conditions)no

of heat

this heat

conduction problem.

Do not solve.

thermal

conductivity

generation

in the wall,

(a) write the differential equation

er a third order linear

and homogeneous

dif- and

n. How many arbitrary

constants

will

its

gen2123E Consider

a large one-dimensional

plane wall of thickness Lheat

# 0.5conduction

ft

and the boundary conditions

for steady

through the

lve?

and thermal conductivity k # 1.2 Btu/h ft F. The wall

wall, (b) obtain a relation

for the variation of temperature in the wall by solving the

is covered with a material that has an emissivity of $ # 0.80

s

differential equation, and

(c)

evaluate

of heat

transfer

through

and a solar

absorptivity

of rate

% # 0.45.

The inner

surface

of the the wall.

120the

HEAT TRANSFER

wall is maintained

at T1 # 520 R at all times, while the outer

r a small hot metal object of mass m and spesurface is exposed

to solar radiation

thatradioactive

is incident at a material

rate of

s initially at a temperature

Ti. Now the obQ.6 ofConsider

a homogeneous

spherical

piece

of

of radius

r0 =5uniform

cm heat generation i

276C

Consider

ofBtu/h

r ! r1ftto2. rThe

! router

discussis the

results.

Use

the

range

2, and

#

300

surface

also

losing

heat

by

qthe

cool in an environment at T" by convection

solar

sphere

of

equal

radius

made of the same ma

EES (or other) software.

that is generating heat

at a constant rate of g=5x107 W/m3. The environment.

heat generated

is

Which geometry

will have a h

270 In a food processing facility, a spherical container of

atisitsmaintained

center? Why? at a

dissipated to the environment

steadily.

The

outer

surface

of

the

sphere

inner radius r1 ! 40 cm, outer radius r2 ! 41 cm, and thermal

277

A 2-kW

resistance

uniform temperature of

70C and

thermal

conductivity

ofwater

the and

sphere

is k=15

W/m

C. heater wire with th

conductivity

k ! 1.5

W/m C

is used to store hot

to

ity

of

k

!

20

W/m

C,

keep

it

at

100C

at

all

times.

To

accomplish

this,

the

outer

surAssuming steady one-dimensional heat transfer, (a) write the differential equation and thea diameter of D ! 5

of L ! 0.7 m is used to boil water. If the out

face of the container is wrapped with a 500-W electric strip

boundary conditions for

heat

conduction

through

the

sphere,

(b)

obtain

a relation

for the

ature

of the resistance

wire is Ts ! 110C, d

heater and then insulated. The temperature of the inner surface

perature

at the and

center (c)

of the wire.

variation of temperature

the issphere

theat alldifferential

equation,

of the in

container

observedby

to besolving

nearly 100C

times. Assuming

of the

determine the temperature

at10thepercent

center

of heat

the generated

sphere. in the heater is lost

through the insulation, (a) express the differential equation and

the boundary conditions for steady one-dimensional heat conQ.7 In a food processing

spherical

container

offorinner

radius r1 =40 cm, outer

duction facility,

through theacontainer,

(b) obtain

a relation

the vari110C

ation

of

temperature

in

the

container

material

by

solving

the

radius r2 =42 cm, and thermal conductivity k =1.2 W/m C is used to store hot water and

differential equation, and (c) evaluate the outer surface temto keep it at 100C at perature

all times.

accomplish

this, the

outerwater

surface

of the container 0is

of theTo

container.

Also determine

how much

at

r

100C

this

tank

can

supply

steadily

if

the

cold

water

enters

wrapped with a 600-W electric strip heater and then insulated. The temperature of the

at 20C.

D

Insulation

Hot

water

0

Resistance

heater

Electric

heater

r1

r2

FIGURE P277

r

100C

thermal conductivity k ! 25 W/m C. Heat

cylinder uniformly at a rate of g0 ! 35 W/cm

of the cylinder is maintained at a constant te

80C. The variation of temperature in the cy

Spherical

container

T(r) !

FIGURE P270

g r02

r

1" r

0

k

$ ! " ##T

2

Based Assuming

on this relation,10

determine (a) if the h

271

Reconsider Problem 270. Using the relation obsteady

or

transient,

(b)

if it is one-, two-, or t

percent of the heat generated intained

the forheater

is

lost

through

the

insulation,

(a)

write

the

the variation of temperature in the container material, plot the temperature as a function of the radius

r in the range of r ! r1 to r ! r2, and discuss the results. Use

the EES (or other) software.

272C Does heat generation in a solid violate the first law of

at r ! r0.

279

obtained for the variation of t

cylinder, plot the temperature as a function

the range of r ! 0 to r ! r0, and discuss th

EES (or other) software.

differential equation and the boundary conditions for steady one-dimensional heat

conduction through the container, (b) obtain a relation for the variation of temperature in

the container material by solving the differential equation, and (c) evaluate the outer

surface temperature of the container. Also determine how much water at 100C this tank

can supply steadily if the cold water enters at 20C.

Q.8

insulated, while the surface at x = L is maintained at a temperature of 25C. The thermal

conductivity of the wall is k = 20 W/m C, and heat is generated in the wall at a rate of

g= g0e-0.5x/L W/m3 where g0 = 8x106 W/m3. Assuming steady one-dimensional heat

transfer, (a) write the differential equation and the boundary conditions for heat

conduction through the wall, (b) obtain a relation for the variation of temperature in the

wall by solving the differential equation, and (c) determine the temperature of the

insulated surface of the wall.

Q.9

Consider a water pipe of length L=15 m, inner radius r1=15 cm, outer radius r2=20

cm, and thermal conductivity k=15W/mC. Heat is generated in the pipe material

uniformly by a 30-kW electric resistance heater. The inner and outer surfaces of the pipe

are at T1=50C and T2=80C, respectively. Obtain the relation for temperature

distribution in the pipe at steady state and determine the temperature at the center plane

of the pipe.

Q.10 Consider a cylindrical shell of stainless steel of length L, inner radius r1, and outer

k(T) = k0(1 +T) where k0 and are two specified constants. The inner surface of the shell

is maintained at a constant temperature of T1=600K while the outer surface is maintained

at T2=300K. Assuming steady one-dimensional heat transfer, obtain a relation for (a) the

heat transfer rate through the wall and (b) the temperature distribution T(r) in the shell.

How will your answers change if the shell was made of Aluminum Oxide? (Having a

look at fig. 2.62 of the text book will be helpful).

Q.11 Obtain the heat conduction rate and the temperature variation in a solid truncated

cone whose curved surface are well insulated while the base and the top are maintained at

constant temperatures. The circular cross section of the cone has a diameter of D=ax

where a=0.25. The small end is at x=50mm with T1=400K while the large end is at

x=100mm with T2=600K.

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