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from 0.02 to 0.20 in. Discuss the results.

216 In a nuclear reactor, heat is generated uniformly in the


7
5-cm-diameter cylindrical
uranium
rods at a rate
CHE 312A
- Assignment
2 of 7 " 10
3
W/m . If the length of the rods is 1 m, determine the rate of
Answer: 137.4 kW
heat generation in each rod.

217 In a solar pond, the absorption of solar energy can be


r + r
r
modeled
heat generation
and can
be approximated
by g !as heat generation
Q.1 In a solar pond,
theasabsorption
of solar
energy
can be modeled
rate of heat absorption at the top surface
g0e#bx, where g0 is the-bx
and can be approximated
by
g
=g
e
, where g is the rate of heat absorption at the top
0
per unit volume and b is a constant. 0Obtain a relation for the tosurface per unit volume
is a constant.
Obtain
a surface
relationarea
forA and
the total rate of heat
tal rate ofand
heatbgeneration
in a water
layer of
FIGURE P222
generation in a water
layer Lofatsurface
area
and thickness L at the top of the pond.
thickness
the top of
the A
pond.
223 Starting with an energy
volume element, derive the on
Radiation Solar
conduction equation for a spher
beam being energy
ductivity and no heat generation.
absorbed
0

L
x

Q.2

Solar
pond

FIGURE P217

A spherical metal ball of radius r0 is heated in an oven to a temperature of Ti


Consider
3-cm-thick
stainless to
steel
in
throughout and is 218
then taken
out aoflarge
the oven
and allowed
coolplate
in ambient
air at T by
which heat is generated uniformly at a rate of 5 " 106 W/m3.
convectionand radiation.
The emissivity of the outer surface of the cylinder is , and the
Assuming the plate is losing heat from both sides, determine
temperature of thethesurrounding
surfaces
. Theduring
average
heat transfer
surrplate
heat flux on the
surface is
of T
the
steadyconvection
operaFIGURE P223
2
W/m variable thermal conductivity and transient
tion. toAnswer:
coefficient is estimated
be h.75,000
Assuming
one-dimensional heat transfer, express the differential equation and the boundary
and a medium in wh
224 Consider
tion
is
given
in its simplest form
initial conditions ofHeat
thisConduction
heat conduction
problem.
Do
not
solve.
Equation
Write down the one-dimensional transient heat conducWater flows219
through
a pipe at an average temperature of 60C. The inner and
tion equation for a plane wall with constant thermal conductivouter radii of the pipe are r1= 8 cm and r2 = 9 cm, respectively. The outer surface ofthe
pipe is wrapped with a thin electric heater that consumes 400 W per m length of the pipe.
The exposed surface of the heater is heavily insulated so that the entire heat generated in
the heater is transferred to the pipe. Heat is transferred from the inner surface of the pipe
to the water by convection with a heat transfer coefficient of h = 65 W/m2 C. Assuming
constant thermal conductivity and one-dimensional heat transfer, express the differential
equation and the boundary conditions of the heat conduction in the pipe during steady
operation. Do not solve.

Q.3

Q.4

Consider a long rectangular bar of length a in the x-direction and width b in the ydirection that is initially at a uniform temperature of Ti. The surfaces of the bar at x=0 and
y=0 are insulated, while heat is lost from the other two surfaces by convection to the
surrounding medium at temperature T with a heat transfer coefficient of h. Assuming
constant thermal conductivity and transient two-dimensional heat transfer with no heat

$2 T 1
!
$x2 %

der a function f(x) and its derivative df/dx.


ive have to be a function of x?
integration related to derivation?

fer with no heat generation, express the mathematical formulation (the differential equation and the boundary and initial
conditions) of this heat conduction problem. Do not solve.

s the difference between an algebraic equantial equation?

s the difference between an ordinary differena partial differential equation?

Ti

s the order of a differential equation deter-

o you distinguish a linear differential equation


one?

h
a

FIGURE P2121

generation, write the differential equation and the boundary and initial conditions of this

2122 Consider a short cylinder of radius r0 and height H in


o you recognize a linear homogeneous differheat
conduction
problem.
solve. at a constant rate of g0. Heat is lost
whichDo
heatnot
is generated
Give an example and
explain
why it is linear
from the cylindrical surface at r # r0 by convection to the surs.
rounding
medium
T" withL=0.3
a heat transfer
coeffiQ.5
Consider
a
large
plane
wallat temperature
of thickness
m, thermal
conductivity k=2.5
o differential equations with constant coefficient of h. The bottom
surface
of
the
cylinder
at
z
#
0 is
2
those with variableW/mC,
coefficients?and
Give surface
an exarea
A=12
. The
left side
wall is
maintained at a constant
insulated,
whilemthe
top surface
at z #of
H isthe
subjected
to unipe.

Assuming
constant
and
formwhile
heat flux
q h. right
temperature of T1=80C
the
side
losesthermal
heat conductivity
by convection
to the surrounding
kind of differential equations can be solved by
steady two-dimensional
heat transfer,
express
the 120
mathematical
2
cen58933_ch02.qxd
9/10/2002
8:47
AM
Page
air at T =25C with formulation
a heat transfer
coefficient
oftheh=30W/m
C. Assuming constant
?
(the differential
equation and
boundary conditions)no
of heat
this heat
conduction problem.
Do not solve.
thermal
conductivity
generation
in the wall,
(a) write the differential equation
er a third order linear
and homogeneous
dif- and
n. How many arbitrary
constants
will
its
gen2123E Consider
a large one-dimensional
plane wall of thickness Lheat
# 0.5conduction
ft
and the boundary conditions
for steady
through the
lve?
and thermal conductivity k # 1.2 Btu/h ft F. The wall
wall, (b) obtain a relation
for the variation of temperature in the wall by solving the
is covered with a material that has an emissivity of $ # 0.80
s
differential equation, and
(c)
evaluate
of heat
transfer
through
and a solar
absorptivity
of rate
% # 0.45.
The inner
surface
of the the wall.
120the
HEAT TRANSFER
wall is maintained
at T1 # 520 R at all times, while the outer
r a small hot metal object of mass m and spesurface is exposed
to solar radiation
thatradioactive
is incident at a material
rate of
s initially at a temperature
Ti. Now the obQ.6 ofConsider
a homogeneous
spherical
piece
of
of radius
r0 =5uniform
cm heat generation i
276C
Consider
ofBtu/h
r ! r1ftto2. rThe
! router
discussis the
results.
Use
the
range
2, and
#
300
surface
also
losing
heat
by
qthe
cool in an environment at T" by convection
solar
sphere
of
equal
radius
made of the same ma
EES (or other) software.
that is generating heat
at a constant rate of g=5x107 W/m3. The environment.
heat generated
is
Which geometry
will have a h
270 In a food processing facility, a spherical container of
atisitsmaintained
center? Why? at a
dissipated to the environment
steadily.
The
outer
surface
of
the
sphere
inner radius r1 ! 40 cm, outer radius r2 ! 41 cm, and thermal
277
A 2-kW
resistance
uniform temperature of
70C and
thermal
conductivity
ofwater
the and
sphere
is k=15
W/m
C. heater wire with th
conductivity
k ! 1.5
W/m C
is used to store hot
to
ity
of
k
!
20
W/m

C,
keep
it
at
100C
at
all
times.
To
accomplish
this,
the
outer
surAssuming steady one-dimensional heat transfer, (a) write the differential equation and thea diameter of D ! 5
of L ! 0.7 m is used to boil water. If the out
face of the container is wrapped with a 500-W electric strip
boundary conditions for
heat
conduction
through
the
sphere,
(b)
obtain
a relation
for the
ature
of the resistance
wire is Ts ! 110C, d
heater and then insulated. The temperature of the inner surface
perature
at the and
center (c)
of the wire.
variation of temperature
the issphere
theat alldifferential
equation,
of the in
container
observedby
to besolving
nearly 100C
times. Assuming
of the
determine the temperature
at10thepercent
center
of heat
the generated
sphere. in the heater is lost
through the insulation, (a) express the differential equation and
the boundary conditions for steady one-dimensional heat conQ.7 In a food processing
spherical
container
offorinner
radius r1 =40 cm, outer
duction facility,
through theacontainer,
(b) obtain
a relation
the vari110C
ation
of
temperature
in
the
container
material
by
solving
the
radius r2 =42 cm, and thermal conductivity k =1.2 W/m C is used to store hot water and
differential equation, and (c) evaluate the outer surface temto keep it at 100C at perature
all times.
accomplish
this, the
outerwater
surface
of the container 0is
of theTo
container.
Also determine
how much
at
r
100C
this
tank
can
supply
steadily
if
the
cold
water
enters
wrapped with a 600-W electric strip heater and then insulated. The temperature of the
at 20C.
D
Insulation

Hot
water
0

Resistance
heater

Electric
heater

r1

r2

FIGURE P277
r

100C

278 Consider a long solid cylinder of rad


thermal conductivity k ! 25 W/m C. Heat
cylinder uniformly at a rate of g0 ! 35 W/cm
of the cylinder is maintained at a constant te
80C. The variation of temperature in the cy

Spherical
container

T(r) !

FIGURE P270

g r02
r
1" r
0
k

$ ! " ##T
2

inner surface of the container is observed to be nearly 100C at all times.


Based Assuming
on this relation,10
determine (a) if the h
271
Reconsider Problem 270. Using the relation obsteady
or
transient,
(b)
if it is one-, two-, or t
percent of the heat generated intained
the forheater
is
lost
through
the
insulation,
(a)
write
the
the variation of temperature in the container material, plot the temperature as a function of the radius
r in the range of r ! r1 to r ! r2, and discuss the results. Use
the EES (or other) software.

Heat Generation in a Solid


272C Does heat generation in a solid violate the first law of

and (c) the value of heat flux on the side surfa


at r ! r0.

279

Reconsider Problem 278. U


obtained for the variation of t
cylinder, plot the temperature as a function
the range of r ! 0 to r ! r0, and discuss th
EES (or other) software.

differential equation and the boundary conditions for steady one-dimensional heat
conduction through the container, (b) obtain a relation for the variation of temperature in
the container material by solving the differential equation, and (c) evaluate the outer
surface temperature of the container. Also determine how much water at 100C this tank
can supply steadily if the cold water enters at 20C.
Q.8

Consider a large plane wall of thickness L = 0.05 m. The wall surface at x = 0 is


insulated, while the surface at x = L is maintained at a temperature of 25C. The thermal
conductivity of the wall is k = 20 W/m C, and heat is generated in the wall at a rate of
g= g0e-0.5x/L W/m3 where g0 = 8x106 W/m3. Assuming steady one-dimensional heat
transfer, (a) write the differential equation and the boundary conditions for heat
conduction through the wall, (b) obtain a relation for the variation of temperature in the
wall by solving the differential equation, and (c) determine the temperature of the
insulated surface of the wall.
Q.9

Consider a water pipe of length L=15 m, inner radius r1=15 cm, outer radius r2=20
cm, and thermal conductivity k=15W/mC. Heat is generated in the pipe material
uniformly by a 30-kW electric resistance heater. The inner and outer surfaces of the pipe
are at T1=50C and T2=80C, respectively. Obtain the relation for temperature
distribution in the pipe at steady state and determine the temperature at the center plane
of the pipe.
Q.10 Consider a cylindrical shell of stainless steel of length L, inner radius r1, and outer

radius r2 whose thermal conductivity varies linearly in a specified temperature range as


k(T) = k0(1 +T) where k0 and are two specified constants. The inner surface of the shell
is maintained at a constant temperature of T1=600K while the outer surface is maintained
at T2=300K. Assuming steady one-dimensional heat transfer, obtain a relation for (a) the
heat transfer rate through the wall and (b) the temperature distribution T(r) in the shell.
How will your answers change if the shell was made of Aluminum Oxide? (Having a
look at fig. 2.62 of the text book will be helpful).
Q.11 Obtain the heat conduction rate and the temperature variation in a solid truncated

cone whose curved surface are well insulated while the base and the top are maintained at
constant temperatures. The circular cross section of the cone has a diameter of D=ax
where a=0.25. The small end is at x=50mm with T1=400K while the large end is at
x=100mm with T2=600K.