You are on page 1of 13

CHE312A:

Assignment 3: Solutions
1.

Consider a house that has a 10-m x 20-m base and a 4-m-high wall. All four walls of the house
have an R-value of 2.31 m2 C/W. The two 10-m x 4-m walls have no windows. The third
Chapter
Conduction
wall has five windows made of 0.5-cm-thick glass (k = 0.78 W/mK),
1.8 m Heat
in size.
The fourth wall has the same size and number of windows, but they are double- paned with a
3-34 Two of the walls of a house have no windows while the other two walls have single- or double-pane
1.5-cm-thick
stagnant air space (k = 0.026 W/m K) enclosed between two 0.5-cm-thick glass
windows. The average rate of heat transfer through each wall, and the amount of money this household
layers.
The
thermostat
in the by
house
is set atthe
22C
andpane
the average
outside
at that
will save per heating season
converting
single
windowstemperature
to double pane
windows
are to be
location
is
8C
during
the
winter.
Disregarding
any
direct
gain
or
loss
through
the
determined.
windows
and taking
heat transfer
inner
andthe
outer
surfaces
of the house
Assumptions
1 Heatthe
transfer
through coefficients
the window at
is the
since
indoor
and outdoor
temperatures
2
toremain
be 7 and
15
W/m

C,
respectively,
determine
the
average
rate
of
heat
transfer
through
constant at the specified values. 2 Heat transfer is one-dimensional since
any significant
each
the cost of
electric
is Rs.7/kWh,
heating
cost for
a4
temperature
will
exist inheating
the direction
from the estimate
indoors tothe
theannual
outdoors.
3 Thermal
conductivities
of the long
glass winter.
and air are
month
constant. 4 Heat transfer by radiation is disregarded.
Properties The thermal conductivities are given to be k = 0.026 W/m C for air, and 0.78 W/m C for glass.
Analysis The rate of heat transfer through each wall can be determined by applying thermal resistance
network. The convection resistances at the inner and outer surfaces are common in all cases.

Walls without windows :

1
1
Ri
hi A (7 W/m 2 . C)(10 4 m 2 )
R wall

L wall
kA

Ro

1
ho A

R total

Then

Ri

2.31 m 2 C/W

R value
A

0.05775 C/W

(10 4 m 2 )
1

(22 8) C
0.062988 C/W

Rtotal

0.001667 C/W

(15 W/m . C)(10 4 m )

R wall Ro 0.003571 0.05775 0.001667
1

Wall

0.003571 C/W

0.062988 C/W

222.3 W
Ri

Wall with single pane windows:

1
1
Ri
hi A (7 W/m 2 . C)(20 4 m 2 )
R wall
Rglass

R value
A

Lglass
kA

Reqv

R wall

Ro

1
ho A

R total

Then

2.

L wall
kA

Ri

Rwall

Ro

0.001786 C/W

2.31 m 2 C/W
(20 4) 5(1.2 1.8) m 2

0.033382 C/W

0.005 m

0.002968 C/W
(0.78 W/m 2 . o C)(1.2 1.8)m 2
1
1
1
5
5
Reqv 0.00058 o C/W
0.002968
Rglass 0.033382
1

Rglass
Ri

Rwall

Ro

0.000833 C/W
(15 W/m 2 . C)(20 4 m 2 )
Reqv Ro 0.001786 0.000583 0.000833 0.003202 C/W
Q

1 T
R total

(22 8) C
0.003202 C/W

4372 W

3-16

h02

ch02

4th wall with double pane windows:
Rglass
Ri

L wall
kA

R wall
Rglass

R value
A

2.31 m 2 C/W
(20 4) 5(1.2 1.8)m 2

Lglass

0.005 m

kA

0.015 m

Reqv

R wall

R total

Ri

Ro

(0.026 W/m 2 . o C)(1.2 1.8)m 2

2 Rglass Rair 2 0.002968 0.267094

R window

Then

Rglass

Rwall

Lair
kA

Rair

Rair

Reqv
T

R total

1
R window
Ro

0.033382 C/W

0.002968 C/W
0.267094 C/W

1
1
5
0.033382
0.27303

0.27303 C/W
Reqv

0.020717 C/W

0.001786 0.020717 0.000833 0.023336 C/W

(22 8) C
0.023336 C/W

600 W

The rate of heat transfer which will be saved if the single pane windows are converted to double pane
windows
Total
Heatisloss = 2*222.3+4372+600=5416.6W=5.417KW

Qsave

Qsingle

Qdouble

4372 600 3772 W

pane
TOTAL ANNUALpaneCOST:
5.417 kW * 4 * 30 *24hr* 7Rs/kWh = Rs. 1,09,198.66
The
amount
of
energy
and
money
saved during a 7-month long heating season by switching from single

ChE312A: Assignment 3
pane
to
double
pane
windows
become

Qsave Q save t (3.772 kW)(7 30 24 h) = 19,011 kWh
1.
Money savings = (Energy saved)(Unit cost of energy) = (19,011 kWh)(\$0.08/kWh) = \$1521

Consider a house that has a 10-m x 20-m base and a 4-m-high wall. All four walls of
the house have an R-value of 2.31 m2 C/W. The two 10-m x 4-m walls have no
windows.
10/13/2008
18:58 The third wall has five windows made of 0.5-cm-thick glass (k = 0.78
W/mK), 1.2 m x 1.8 m in size. The fourth wall has the same size and number of
windows, but they are double- paned with a 1.5-cm-thick stagnant air space (k = 0.026
10/13/2008
18:58
W/m K) enclosed between two 0.5-cm-thick glass layers. The thermostat in the house
is set at 22C and the average temperature outside at that location is 8C during the
gain
throughConductionOne
the windows and
taking
CHAPT
E R or
2 loss
Dimension
the heat transfer coefficients at the inner and outer surfaces of the house to be 7 and 15
W/m2 C, respectively, determine theAaverage
of heat transfer
through each
wall.
P T E R 2rate
Dimension
2-62 A wall consists of a 1-mm layer ofC H
copper,
a 4-mm
layer of ConductionOne
1 percent carbon
steel, a
If the cost of electric heating is Rs.7/kWh, estimate the annual heating cost for a 4
1-cm layer
of asbestos
sheet, and 10 cm of fiberglass blanket. Calculate the overall
month
long winter.

2-62 A
wall consists
of a 1-mmfor
layer
copper, a 4-mm
of 1outside
percentsurfaces
carbon steel,
heat-transfer
coefficient
thisofarrangement.
If layer
the two
are ata
1-cm
10 interface
cm of fiberglass
blanket. Calculate the overall
10 andlayer
150of
C,asbestos
calculatesheet,
each and
of the
temperatures.
2.
2.
o
heat-transfer
coefficient
for thisstainless-steel
arrangement.
If the twoofoutside
surfaces
are 2at
flows at 120
Cfin
in of
a thin-wall
tube
with
K.
2-63 Air
A
circumferential
rectangular
profile has a(k=18W/m.K)
thickness
0.7
mm
andh=65W/m
is installed

The
diameter
of theeach
tubeofof
is3the
2.5
cm
the
wall thickness
is 0.4mm. The
tubeC.is
10
150having
C, calculate
temperatures.
on and
ainside
tube
a diameter
cminterface
thatand
is2maintained
at a temperature
of 200
o
exposed
to
an
environment
with
h=6.5
W/m
K
and
the
ambient
temperature
is
C.
2-63 A
circumferential
profile
has a thickness
of 0.7
mm andthe
is installed
The
length of the fin
fin of
is rectangular
2 cm and the
fin material
is copper.
Calculate
heat15
lost
C.
Calculate
heat-transfer
and the heat
metera length.
per
on
tube
having
a diameter
of
3 coefficient
cm thatenvironment
is maintained
a temperature
of 200What
by athe
finthe
tooverall
a surrounding
convection
atatloss
100
C with
convection
thickness
of
soft
rubber
(k=0.13W/m.K)
as
insulating
material
should
be
The
length ofcoefficient
the fin is 2ofcm
and
the2 fin
material is copper. Calculate the heat lostto
heat-transfer
524
W/m
C.
reduce
the toheat
loss by 50%?
What3-17
would be atyour
result
ifa convection
rigid foam
bythin
therod
fin
a surrounding
convection
environment
100which
C withare
2-64 (k=0.026W/m.K)
A
of length
L hasinits
two
ends
connected
to two
walls
maintained
is
used
place
of
rubber?
Compare
and
comment
on
your
results.
heat-transfer
coefficient
of
524 W/m2 The
C. rod loses heat to the environment
at
temperatures
T
and
T
,
respectively.
at T
1
2

2-64
A
thin
rod
of
length
L
has
its
two
ends
connected
to
two
walls
which
are
maintained
by
convection.
Derive
an
expression
(a)
for
the
temperature
distribution
in
the
rod

at temperatures
T1 and
T2lost
, respectively.
and
(b) for the total
heat
by the rod.The rod loses heat to the environment at T
3.
2-65 A
byrod
convection.
an expression
(a) foratthe
temperature
in thetorod
of lengthDerive
L has one
end maintained
temperature
T0distribution
and is exposed
an

and
(b)
for
the
total
heat
lost
by
the
rod.
environment of temperature T . An electrical heating element is placed in the rod
2-65 A
length
L has one
end maintained
temperature
is exposed
to an
so rod
thatof
heat
is generated
uniformly
along theatlength
at a rateTq0. and
Derive
an expression
environment
of
temperature
T
.
An
electrical
heating
element
is
placed
in
the
rod
(a) for the temperature distribution
in the rod and (b) for the total heat transferred

2-64

2-65

2-66

2-67

by the fin to a surrounding convection environment at 100 C with a convection

heat-transfer coefficient of 524 W/m2 C.
A thin rod of length L has its two ends connected to two walls which are maintained
at temperatures T1 and T2 , respectively. The rod loses heat to the environment at T
by convection. Derive an expression (a) for the temperature distribution in the rod
and (b) for the total heat lost by the rod.
3.
A rod of length L has one end maintained at temperature T0 and is exposed to an
environment of temperature T . An electrical heating element is placed in the rod
so that heat is generated uniformly along the length at a rate q . Derive an expression
(a) for the temperature distribution in the rod and (b) for the total heat transferred
to the environment. Obtain an expression for the value of q that will make the heat
transfer zero at the end that is maintained at T0 .

One end of a copper rod 30 cm long is firmly connected to a wall that is maintained
Ans.
at 200 C. The other end is firmly connected to a wall that is maintained at 93 C.
Air is blown across the rod so that a heat-transfer coefficient of 17 W/m2 C is
maintained. The diameter of the rod is 12.5 mm. The temperature of the air is 38 C.
What is the net heat lost to the air in watts?
Verify the temperature distribution for case 2 in Section 2-9, i.e., that
T T
cosh m(L x) + (h/mk) sinh m(L x)
=
T0 T
cosh mL + (h/mk) sinh mL
Subsequently show that the heat transfer is
q=

sinh mL + (h/mk) cosh mL

hPkA (T0 T )
cosh mL + (h/mk) sinh mL

2-68 An aluminum rod 2.0 cm in diameter and 12 cm long protrudes from a wall that is
maintained at 250 C. The rod is exposed to an environment at 15 C. The convection
heat-transfer coefficient is 12 W/m2 C. Calculate the heat lost by the rod.
2-69 Derive Equation (2-35) by integrating the convection heat loss from the rod of case 1
in Section 2-9.
2-70 Derive Equation (2-36) by integrating the convection heat loss from the rod of case 3
in Section 2-9.
2-71 A long, thin copper rod 5 mm in diameter is exposed to an environment at 20 C.
The base temperature of the rod is 120 C. The heat-transfer coefficient between the
rod and the environment is 20 W/m2 C. Calculate the heat given up by the rod.
2-72 A very long copper rod [k = 372 W/m C] 2.5 cm in diameter has one end maintained at 90 C. The rod is exposed to a fluid whose temperature is 40 C. The heattransfer coefficient is 3.5 W/m2 C. How much heat is lost by the rod?
2-73 An aluminum fin 1.5 mm thick is placed on a circular tube with 2.7-cm OD. The fin
is 6 mm long. The tube wall is maintained at 150 C, the environment temperature

# 101675
Cust: McGraw-Hill
Au: Holman
Title: Heat Transfer
10/e
Server:

Pg. No.67

K/PMS 293
Short / Normal / Long

DESIGN SERVICES OF

S4CARLISLE
Publishing Services

02

l e t0 - T - T *

( o'- tl) o --q

kA)

'{ffi'x **
e - cpJhPl*e'*c2e

.r e t , /W

hP

--m

10/13/2008

18:58

o=ooatx=o
-kAq

,'.cr=oa-#-c2

- h A ( T - L I , =L = : , a i o r

*
^'
.
F,
H
F,
r,,.1,: W .lu' ft\ frk=
fulx-L

C H A P T E R 2 Steady-State ConductionOne Dimension

+t

e-

-,r q
- A

'

e*L*r-ffi

(1)

hP

2-62 A Part
wallB:
consists of a 1-mm layer of copper, a 4-mm layer of 1 percent carbon steel, a
PL
1-cm= layer
of asbestos
sheet, and 10 cm of fiberglass blanket. Calculate the overall
- T*\W+hA01
q
] o I h P Gcoefficient for this arrangement. If the two outside surfaces are at
heat-transfer
10 and 150 C, calculate each of -e-m\*4?'
the interface temperatures.
t
0
r
h
P
I
km a thickness
2-63 A circumferential
fin of rectangular profile has
+ q & + h Aof
0 20.7 mm and is installed
qt - k
L
m
l
+
e*L
e-*L
on a tube having a diameter of 3 cm that is maintained at a temperature of 200 C.
The
lengthL of the fin is 2 cm and the fin material is copper. Calculate the heat lost
Part C:
by the fin to a surrounding convection environment at 100 C with a convection
-tA+l coefficient
=o=eo of 524 W/m2 C.
heat-transfer
&lr_o
2-64 A thin
rod of length L *l*=o
has its two ends connected to two walls which are maintained
0 - lclmemx - c2m
at temperatures
T
and
T2 , respectively. The rod loses heat to the environment at T
1
.'. c1 - c2
by convection. Derive an expression (a) for the temperature distribution in the rod
t - 0 for
0 - qthe
A total heat lost by the rod.
andZ r(b)
hP
2-65 A rod of length L has
one end maintained at temperature T0 and is exposed to an
2h0L
environment of temperature
T . An electrical heating element is placed in the rod
km(emL - t-*L)
so that heat is generated uniformly along the length at a rate q . Derive an expression

(a) for the temperature1distribution
in the rod and (b) for the total
heat transferred
Last step uses value of c
as obtained while writing eq. (1).
to the environment. Obtain an expression for the value of q that will make the heat
transfer zero at the end that is maintained at T0 .
4.
2-66 One end of a copper rod 30 cm long is firmly connected to a wall that is maintained
?+ to a wall that is maintained at 93 C.
at 200 C. The other end is firmly connected
Air is blown across the rod so that a heat-transfer coefficient of 17 W/m2 C is
maintained. The diameter of the rod is 12.5 mm. The temperature of the air is 38 C.
What is the net heat lost to the air in watts?

2-67 Verify the temperature distribution for case 2 in Section 2-9, i.e., that

*(er-#)r'^l

q_Tk,.

T T
cosh m(L x) + (h/mk) sinh m(L x)
=
T0 T
cosh mL + (h/mk) sinh mL
Subsequently show that the heat transfer is
q=

sinh mL + (h/mk) cosh mL

hPkA (T0 T )
cosh mL + (h/mk) sinh mL

2-68 An aluminum rod 2.0 cm in diameter and 12 cm long protrudes from a wall that is
maintained at 250 C. The rod is exposed to an environment at 15 C. The convection
heat-transfer coefficient is 12 W/m2 C. Calculate the heat lost by the rod.
2-69 Derive Equation (2-35) by integrating the convection heat loss from the rod of case 1
in Section 2-9.
2-70 Derive Equation (2-36) by integrating the convection heat loss from the rod of case 3
in Section 2-9.

2-66
4

_dze
_ - - r _hP
_ 0 = A l e t m = - !W
"dx' lA
I k{
fl =12.5mm [-,=30 cm
h=I7
L = 38
Q= ct* * c2-w at x = 0 0 2W- 33=162 ls -386
, Tdz
A4

P =rd

-ilt,
r,
l(tz)o(o.ot
=3.754
m=l#l
L(386)a(0.0r2s)'
l

55=3.084cr
+0.324c2
0 =A.9kw +161.09e-re

qf!nred*=
'Jo

162=\*c2

cr =0.91

cz=161.@

= ^lnpattl.9lew-t6t.o9e-"18'3
npLp.grew-t6t.a9e-wl8
m

= l(17)n(0.0I 25X386)tt(0.0| 25)zlr| 2 x 10.9

tew - | 61.@e-''* l8'3
=122.7W

2-68,

5.

Ak-204
5-mm-diameter
ball=lZ++
at 50C=125
is covered
by a 1-mm-thick
plastic insulation
ry- spherical
L,r ' 4=4L++
Tb=250oC
T*=lsoc
m
'
o
c
(k = 0.13 W/m C). The ball is exposed to a medium at 15C, with a combined
2
^ lrdz
convection
h = l z - - : - oand
A _ heat transfer coefficient of 20 W/m C. Determine if the
c
4 will help or hurt heat transfer from the ball. What should
m".
plastic insulation
on the ball
be the minimum thickness of the insulation if the heat transfer rate has to be reduced to
m = of the original heat transfer rate?
50%

= 0.429for critical
(3.43)(0.125)
q ='JTpla0oanh(mL")
mL, =Derive
Ans.
the expression
radius of insulation for sphere: it turns out to be
^-il2
y
rc=2k/h. For given values, critical radius is 13mm. Hence adding plastic insulation will
- ls)ranh(o
=20.89
q =l (r2)n(0.02)(204)n(0'0?)'
.4zs)
I the
ttto
increase
heat transfer as long
of insulation
is lesswthan 13mm. Further
4l as

249

q-[ hP(r-r*)dx= hP\dx- Orl;e-rrxdx,= hP0o

le-*16
-ffl
l;

:%l,F-,]
\t'.c^l0

hPeo

tffi

q_ffi=JhPta%
\18-

1t

hPIAeo

6.

Steam in a heating system flows through tubes whose outer diameter is 5 cm and
whose walls are maintained at a temperature of 180C. Circular aluminum alloy fins (k
= 186 W/m C) of outer diameter 6 cm and constant thickness 1 mm are attached to
the tube. The space between the fins is 3 mm, and thus there are 250 fins per meter
length of the tube. Heat is transferred to the surrounding air at 25C, with a heat
transfer coefficient of 40 W/m2 C. Determine the increase in heat transfer from the
tube per meter of its length as a result of adding fins.

3-110 Circular aluminum fins are to be attached to the tubes of a heating system. The increase in heat
transfer from the tubes per unit length as a result of adding fins is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform
over the entire fin surfaces. 3 Thermal conductivity is constant. 4 Heat transfer by radiation is negligible.
Properties The thermal conductivity of the fins is given to be k = 186 W/m C.
Analysis In case of no fins, heat transfer from the tube per meter of its length is

Ano fin

D1 L

Qno fin

hAno fin (Tb

m2 )(180 25) C
(40 W / m2 . C)(01571
.

T )

180 C

01571
.
m2

(0.05 m)(1 m)

974 W

The efficiency of these circular fins is, from the efficiency curve,
25 C
L

( D2

r2

(t / 2)
r1

t
2

D1 ) / 2 (0.06 0.05) / 2 0.005 m

0.03 (0.001 / 2)
0.025

h
kt

1.22

0.001
2

0.005

fin

40 W/m 2 o C
(186 W/m o C)(0.001 m)

0.97

0.08

Afin

2 (r2

Qfin

r1 )

2 r2 t

2 (0.03 2

fin hAfin (Tb

fin Qfin,max

0.025 2 )

2 (0.03)(0.001) 0.001916 m 2

T )

0.97( 40 W/m 2 . C)(0.001916 m 2 )(180 25) C

11.53 W
Heat transfer from a single unfinned portion of the tube is

Aunfin
Q unfin

D1 s

hAunfin (Tb

T ) (40 W/m 2 . C)(0.0004712 m 2 )(180

25) C

2.92 W

There are 250 fins and thus 250 interfin spacings per meter length of the tube. The total heat transfer from
the finned tube is then determined from

Q total,fin

n(Qfin

Q unfin )

250(11.53 2.92) 3613 W

Therefore the increase in heat transfer from the tube per meter of its length as a result of the addition of the
fins is

Qincrease

Q total,fin

Q no fin

3613 974

2639 W

7. A 0.3-cm-thick, 12-cm-high, and 18-cm-long circuit board houses 80 closely spaced

logic chips on one side, each dissipating 0.04 W. The board is impregnated with
copper fillings and has an effective thermal conductivity of 20 W/mC. All the heat
generated in the chips is conducted across the circuit board and is dissipated from the
back side of the board to a medium at 40C, with a heat transfer coefficient of 50
W/m2C. (a) Determine the temperatures on the two sides of the circuit board. (b)
Now a 0.2-cm-thick, 12-cm-high, and 18-cm-long aluminum plate (k = 237 W/mC)
with 864 2-cm-long aluminum pin fins of diameter 0.25 cm is attached to the back side
of the circuit board with a 0.02-cm-thick
epoxy adhesive (k = 1.8 W/mC). Determine
3-78
the new temperatures on the two sides of the circuit board.

determined for the cases of no fins and 864 aluminum pin fins on the back surface.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The temperature in the board and along the fins varies
in one direction only (normal to the board). 3 All the heat generated in the chips is conducted across the
circuit board, and is dissipated from the back side of the board. 4 Heat transfer from the fin tips is
negligible. 5 The heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform over the entire fin surface. 6 The thermal
properties of the fins are constant. 7 The heat transfer coefficient accounts for the effect of radiation from
the fins.
Properties The thermal conductivities are given to be k = 20 W/m C for the circuit board, k = 237 W/m C
for the aluminum plate and fins, and k = 1.8 W/m C for the epoxy adhesive.
Analysis (a) The total rate of heat transfer dissipated by the chips is
Q

80 ( 0.04 W)

2 cm

3.2 W

The individual resistances are

Repoxy

Rboard

RAluminum

Rconv

T1
A

( 0.12 m) ( 0.18 m)

Rboard

L
kA

Rconv

1
hA

Rtotal

Rboard

T2

0.0216 m 2

0.003 m
(20 W / m. C)(0.0216 m2 )
1
(50 W / m2 . C)(0.0216 m 2 )
Rconv

0.00694 0.9259

0.00694 C / W
0.9259 C / W
0.93284 C / W

The temperatures on the two sides of the circuit board are

Q
Q

T1 T 2
Rtotal
T1 T2
Rboard

T1
T2

40 C (3.2 W)(0.93284 C / W)

QRtotal

T1 QRboard

43.0 C

40.5 0.02

43.0 C

Therefore, the board is nearly isothermal.

(b) Noting that the cross-sectional areas of the fins are constant, the efficiency of the circular fins can be
determined to be

hp
kAc

tanh aL
aL

h D

4(50 W / m2 . C)
(237 W / m. C)(0.0025 m)

4h
kD

k D /4

18.37 m-1

tanh(18.37 m-1 0.02 m)

0.957
18.37 m -1 0.02 m
The fins can be assumed to be at base temperature provided that the fin area is modified by multiplying it
by 0.957. Then the various thermal resistances are
L
0.0002 m
Repoxy
0.0051 C / W
kA (18
. W / m. C)(0.0216 m2 )
L
0.002 m
RAl
0.00039 C / W
kA (237 W / m. C)(0.0216 m2 )
fin

Afinned
Aunfinned
Atotal,with fins

fin n

DL

0.957 864 (0.0025 m)(0.02 m)

D2
4

0.0216 864

Aunfinned

3-83
0130
.
0.017

0.0216 864
Afinned

(0.0025) 2
4
0147
.
m2

Rconv

1
hAtotal,with fins

(50 W / m . C)(0147
.
m2 )

Rtotal

Rboard

Raluminum

Repoxy

1
2

0130
.
m2
0.0174 m2

01361
.
C/W

Rconv

0.00694 0.0051 0.00039 01361

.
01484
.
C/W
Then the temperatures on the two sides of the circuit board becomes
Q
Q

T1 T 2
Rtotal
T1 T2
Rboard

T1
T2

QRtotal

T1 QRboard

40 C (3.2 W)(01484
.
C / W)
40.5 C (3.2 W)(0.00694 C / W)

40.5 C

40.5 0.02

40.5 C

8. Consider a house with a flat roof whose outer dimensions are 12 m x12 m. The outer

walls of the house are 6 m high. The walls and the roof of the house are made of 20cm thick concrete (k = 0.75 W/m C). The temperatures of the inner and outer
surfaces of the house are 15C and 3C, respectively. Accounting for the effects of the
Chapter
Heat Conduction
edges of adjoining surfaces, determine the rate of heat loss
from
the house
through its
walls
and the roof. What is the error involved in ignoring the effects of the edges and
3-129 The walls and the roof of the house are made of 20-cm thick concrete, and the inner and outer
corners
the roof at
asspecified
a 12 mtemperatures.
x 12 m surface
and
ashouse
6 mthrough
x 12 m
surfaces and
of thetreating
house are maintained
The rate of
heatthe
losswalls
from the
its walls and
roof is to be determined, and the error involved in ignoring the edge and corner effects is
surfaces
for the
simplicity?
to be assessed.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Heat transfer at the edges and corners is two-or threedimensional. 3 Thermal conductivity of the concrete is constant. 4 The edge effects of adjoining surfaces
on heat transfer are to be considered.
Properties The thermal conductivity of the concrete is given to be k = 0.75 W/m C.
Analysis The rate of heat transfer excluding the edges and corners is
first determined to be
3 C

Atotal

(12 0.4)(12 0.4) 4(12 0.4)(6 0.2)

403.7 m2

kAtotal
(0.75 W / m. C)(403.7 m2 )
Q
(T1 T2 )
(15 3) C 18,167 W
L
0.2 m
The heat transfer rate through the edges can be determined using the
shape factor relations in Table 3-5,
S corners+ edges 4 corners 4 edges 4 0.15L 4 0.54 w
4 0.15(0.2 m) + 4 0.54(12 m)
Q corners + edges

and

Qtotal

L
15 C
L

26.04 m

234 W

18,167 234 1.840 10 4 W 18.4 kW

Ignoring the edge effects of adjoining surfaces, the rate of heat transfer is determined from

Atotal

(12)(12) 4(12)(6)

432 m2

kAtotal
(0.75 W/m. C)(432 m 2 )
(T1 T2 )
(15 3) C 1.94 10 4 19.4 kW
L
0.2 m
The percentage error involved in ignoring the effects of the edges then becomes
19.4 18.4
%error
100 5.6%
18.4
Q

3-130 The inner and outer surfaces of a long thick-walled concrete duct are maintained at specified
temperatures. The rate of heat transfer through the walls of the duct is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Heat transfer is two15 C
dimensional (no change in the axial direction). 3 Thermal conductivity of
the concrete is constant.
Properties The thermal conductivity of concrete is given to be k = 0.75
9.W/m
HotC.water at an average temperature of 80C and an average velocity
100 C of 1.5 m/s is
flowing
25-m
section
of a pipe
thatinhas
Analysis through
The shape a
factor
for this
configuration
is given
Tablean
3-5outer
to be diameter of 5 cm. The pipe
extends
2
m
in
the
ambient
air
above
the
ground,
dips
into the ground (k = 1.5 W/m
a 16
2 L
2 (10 m)
S
0.8 1.41
358.7 m
C)bvertically
for 3 m, and continues
at this depth for 20m more before it
a horizontally
20
0.785 ln 0.8
0.785 ln
enters the next building. The firstbsection of the pipe is exposed to the
air at
16 ambient
cm
2
8C,
a heat
transfer
coefficient
22ofW/m
C.
If the surface of the ground is
Thenwith
rate of
heat transfer
through theof
walls
the duct
becomes
4
covered
with
snow
at
0C,
determine
(a)
the
total
rate
of
heatkW
loss from the hot water
Q Sk (T1 T2 ) (358.7 m)(0.75 W/m. C)(100 15) C 2.29 10 W 22.9
20 cm
and (b) the temperature drop of the hot water as it flows through this 25-m-long
section of the pipe.

3-97

axial direction). 3 Thermal conductivity of the ground is constant. 4 The pipe is at the same temperature as
the hot water.
Properties The thermal conductivity of the ground is given to be k = 1.5 W/m C.
Analysis (a) We assume that the surface temperature of the tube is equal to the temperature of the water.
Then the heat loss from the part of the tube that is on the ground is
(0.05 m )(2 m )

As

DL

hAs (Ts

0.3142 m 2

8 C

T )

(22 W/m 2 . C)(0.3142 m 2 )(80 8) C

0 C

498 W

Considering the shape factor, the heat loss for vertical part
of the tube can be determined from

2 (3 m)

2 L
4L
ln
D

4(3 m)
ln
(0.05 m)

Sk ( T1 T2 )

3m

3.44 m

20 m

( 3.44 m)(15
. W / m. C)(80 0) C

80 C

413 W

The shape factor, and the rate of heat loss on the horizontal part that is in the ground are
2 (20 m)

2 L
4z
ln
D

4(3 m)
ln
(0.05 m)

Sk ( T1 T2 )

22.9 m

( 22.9 m)(15
. W / m. C)(80 0) C

2748 W

and the total rate of heat loss from the hot water becomes

Qtotal

498 413 2748 3659 W

(b) Using the water properties at the room temperature, the temperature drop of the hot water as it flows
through this 25-m section of the wall becomes
Q

mC p T

Q
mC p

Q
( V )C p

Q
( VAc )C p

3659 J/s
3

3-96

(0.05 m) 2
(4180 J/kg. C)
4

0.30 C