1.4K views

Uploaded by Mukul Parashar

heat

heat

© All Rights Reserved

- PS+1+work+book+solution(1)
- Lecture 5_May 2014 heat trasfer
- HT3eChap2_1_69
- Unit 11problemsheet
- HT3eChap02_129_164
- Machine Design Elements
- Steam Problem Set
- Holman 1
- DIESEL ENGINE POWER PLANT DESIGN
- Cooling Tower
- 1. Prob. Sheet Basic Concepts
- HT3eChap08_1_64
- CH412 Problems 0003
- Triangle of Forces
- Stirling and Ericsson Cycles 2016.pdf
- Diseño de Elementos de Máquinas - V. M. Faires (4ta Edición) Solucion
- Spray Chamber
- Ch2 Problems
- Design Problems
- hw7

You are on page 1of 13

Assignment 3: Solutions

1.

Consider a house that has a 10-m x 20-m base and a 4-m-high wall. All four walls of the house

have an R-value of 2.31 m2 C/W. The two 10-m x 4-m walls have no windows. The third

Chapter

Conduction

wall has five windows made of 0.5-cm-thick glass (k = 0.78 W/mK),

1.2 m3xSteady

1.8 m Heat

in size.

The fourth wall has the same size and number of windows, but they are double- paned with a

3-34 Two of the walls of a house have no windows while the other two walls have single- or double-pane

1.5-cm-thick

stagnant air space (k = 0.026 W/m K) enclosed between two 0.5-cm-thick glass

windows. The average rate of heat transfer through each wall, and the amount of money this household

layers.

The

thermostat

in the by

house

is set atthe

22C

andpane

the average

outside

at that

will save per heating season

converting

single

windowstemperature

to double pane

windows

are to be

location

is

8C

during

the

winter.

Disregarding

any

direct

radiation

gain

or

loss

through

the

determined.

windows

and taking

heat transfer

inner

andthe

outer

surfaces

of the house

Assumptions

1 Heatthe

transfer

through coefficients

the window at

is the

steady

since

indoor

and outdoor

temperatures

2

toremain

be 7 and

15

W/m

C,

respectively,

determine

the

average

rate

of

heat

transfer

through

constant at the specified values. 2 Heat transfer is one-dimensional since

any significant

each

wall. If gradients

the cost of

electric

is Rs.7/kWh,

heating

cost for

a4

temperature

will

exist inheating

the direction

from the estimate

indoors tothe

theannual

outdoors.

3 Thermal

conductivities

of the long

glass winter.

and air are

month

constant. 4 Heat transfer by radiation is disregarded.

Properties The thermal conductivities are given to be k = 0.026 W/m C for air, and 0.78 W/m C for glass.

Analysis The rate of heat transfer through each wall can be determined by applying thermal resistance

network. The convection resistances at the inner and outer surfaces are common in all cases.

1

1

Ri

hi A (7 W/m 2 . C)(10 4 m 2 )

R wall

L wall

kA

Ro

1

ho A

R total

Then

Ri

2.31 m 2 C/W

R value

A

0.05775 C/W

(10 4 m 2 )

1

(22 8) C

0.062988 C/W

Rtotal

0.001667 C/W

R wall Ro 0.003571 0.05775 0.001667

1

Wall

0.003571 C/W

0.062988 C/W

222.3 W

Ri

1

1

Ri

hi A (7 W/m 2 . C)(20 4 m 2 )

R wall

Rglass

R value

A

Lglass

kA

Reqv

R wall

Ro

1

ho A

R total

Then

2.

L wall

kA

Ri

Rwall

Ro

0.001786 C/W

2.31 m 2 C/W

(20 4) 5(1.2 1.8) m 2

0.033382 C/W

0.005 m

0.002968 C/W

(0.78 W/m 2 . o C)(1.2 1.8)m 2

1

1

1

5

5

Reqv 0.00058 o C/W

0.002968

Rglass 0.033382

1

Rglass

Ri

Rwall

Ro

0.000833 C/W

(15 W/m 2 . C)(20 4 m 2 )

Reqv Ro 0.001786 0.000583 0.000833 0.003202 C/W

Q

1 T

R total

(22 8) C

0.003202 C/W

4372 W

3-16

h02

ch02

4th wall with double pane windows:

Rglass

Ri

L wall

kA

R wall

Rglass

R value

A

2.31 m 2 C/W

(20 4) 5(1.2 1.8)m 2

Lglass

0.005 m

kA

0.015 m

Reqv

R wall

R total

Ri

Ro

2 Rglass Rair 2 0.002968 0.267094

R window

Then

Rglass

Rwall

Lair

kA

Rair

Rair

Reqv

T

R total

1

R window

Ro

0.033382 C/W

0.002968 C/W

0.267094 C/W

1

1

5

0.033382

0.27303

0.27303 C/W

Reqv

0.020717 C/W

(22 8) C

0.023336 C/W

600 W

The rate of heat transfer which will be saved if the single pane windows are converted to double pane

windows

Total

Heatisloss = 2*222.3+4372+600=5416.6W=5.417KW

Qsave

Qsingle

Qdouble

pane

TOTAL ANNUALpaneCOST:

5.417 kW * 4 * 30 *24hr* 7Rs/kWh = Rs. 1,09,198.66

The

amount

of

energy

and

money

saved during a 7-month long heating season by switching from single

ChE312A: Assignment 3

pane

to

double

pane

windows

become

Qsave Q save t (3.772 kW)(7 30 24 h) = 19,011 kWh

1.

Money savings = (Energy saved)(Unit cost of energy) = (19,011 kWh)($0.08/kWh) = $1521

Consider a house that has a 10-m x 20-m base and a 4-m-high wall. All four walls of

the house have an R-value of 2.31 m2 C/W. The two 10-m x 4-m walls have no

windows.

10/13/2008

18:58 The third wall has five windows made of 0.5-cm-thick glass (k = 0.78

W/mK), 1.2 m x 1.8 m in size. The fourth wall has the same size and number of

windows, but they are double- paned with a 1.5-cm-thick stagnant air space (k = 0.026

10/13/2008

18:58

W/m K) enclosed between two 0.5-cm-thick glass layers. The thermostat in the house

is set at 22C and the average temperature outside at that location is 8C during the

winter. Disregarding any direct radiation

gain

throughConductionOne

the windows and

taking

CHAPT

E R or

2 loss

Steady-State

Dimension

the heat transfer coefficients at the inner and outer surfaces of the house to be 7 and 15

W/m2 C, respectively, determine theAaverage

of heat transfer

through each

wall.

P T E R 2rate

Steady-State

Dimension

2-62 A wall consists of a 1-mm layer ofC H

copper,

a 4-mm

layer of ConductionOne

1 percent carbon

steel, a

If the cost of electric heating is Rs.7/kWh, estimate the annual heating cost for a 4

1-cm layer

of asbestos

sheet, and 10 cm of fiberglass blanket. Calculate the overall

month

long winter.

2-62 A

wall consists

of a 1-mmfor

layer

copper, a 4-mm

of 1outside

percentsurfaces

carbon steel,

heat-transfer

coefficient

thisofarrangement.

If layer

the two

are ata

1-cm

10 interface

cm of fiberglass

blanket. Calculate the overall

10 andlayer

150of

C,asbestos

calculatesheet,

each and

of the

temperatures.

2.

2.

o

heat-transfer

coefficient

for thisstainless-steel

arrangement.

If the twoofoutside

surfaces

are 2at

flows at 120

Cfin

in of

a thin-wall

tube

with

K.

2-63 Air

A

circumferential

rectangular

profile has a(k=18W/m.K)

thickness

0.7

mm

andh=65W/m

is installed

The

diameter

of theeach

tubeofof

is3the

2.5

cm

the

wall thickness

is 0.4mm. The

tubeC.is

10

150having

C, calculate

temperatures.

on and

ainside

tube

a diameter

cminterface

thatand

is2maintained

at a temperature

of 200

o

exposed

to

an

environment

with

h=6.5

W/m

K

and

the

ambient

temperature

is

C.

2-63 A

circumferential

profile

has a thickness

of 0.7

mm andthe

is installed

The

length of the fin

fin of

is rectangular

2 cm and the

fin material

is copper.

Calculate

heat15

lost

C.

Calculate

heat-transfer

and the heat

metera length.

per

on

tube

having

a diameter

of

3 coefficient

cm thatenvironment

is maintained

a temperature

of 200What

by athe

finthe

tooverall

a surrounding

convection

atatloss

100

C with

convection

thickness

of

soft

rubber

(k=0.13W/m.K)

as

insulating

material

should

be

added

The

length ofcoefficient

the fin is 2ofcm

and

the2 fin

material is copper. Calculate the heat lostto

heat-transfer

524

W/m

C.

reduce

the toheat

loss by 50%?

What3-17

would be atyour

result

ifa convection

rigid foam

bythin

therod

fin

a surrounding

convection

environment

100which

C withare

2-64 (k=0.026W/m.K)

A

of length

L hasinits

two

ends

connected

to two

walls

maintained

is

used

place

of

rubber?

Compare

and

comment

on

your

results.

heat-transfer

coefficient

of

524 W/m2 The

C. rod loses heat to the environment

at

temperatures

T

and

T

,

respectively.

at T

1

2

2-64

A

thin

rod

of

length

L

has

its

two

ends

connected

to

two

walls

which

are

maintained

by

convection.

Derive

an

expression

(a)

for

the

temperature

distribution

in

the

rod

at temperatures

T1 and

T2lost

, respectively.

and

(b) for the total

heat

by the rod.The rod loses heat to the environment at T

3.

2-65 A

byrod

convection.

an expression

(a) foratthe

temperature

in thetorod

of lengthDerive

L has one

end maintained

temperature

T0distribution

and is exposed

an

and

(b)

for

the

total

heat

lost

by

the

rod.

environment of temperature T . An electrical heating element is placed in the rod

2-65 A

length

L has one

end maintained

temperature

is exposed

to an

so rod

thatof

heat

is generated

uniformly

along theatlength

at a rateTq0. and

Derive

an expression

environment

of

temperature

T

.

An

electrical

heating

element

is

placed

in

the

rod

(a) for the temperature distribution

in the rod and (b) for the total heat transferred

2-64

2-65

2-66

2-67

heat-transfer coefficient of 524 W/m2 C.

A thin rod of length L has its two ends connected to two walls which are maintained

at temperatures T1 and T2 , respectively. The rod loses heat to the environment at T

by convection. Derive an expression (a) for the temperature distribution in the rod

and (b) for the total heat lost by the rod.

3.

A rod of length L has one end maintained at temperature T0 and is exposed to an

environment of temperature T . An electrical heating element is placed in the rod

so that heat is generated uniformly along the length at a rate q . Derive an expression

(a) for the temperature distribution in the rod and (b) for the total heat transferred

to the environment. Obtain an expression for the value of q that will make the heat

transfer zero at the end that is maintained at T0 .

One end of a copper rod 30 cm long is firmly connected to a wall that is maintained

Ans.

at 200 C. The other end is firmly connected to a wall that is maintained at 93 C.

Air is blown across the rod so that a heat-transfer coefficient of 17 W/m2 C is

maintained. The diameter of the rod is 12.5 mm. The temperature of the air is 38 C.

What is the net heat lost to the air in watts?

Verify the temperature distribution for case 2 in Section 2-9, i.e., that

T T

cosh m(L x) + (h/mk) sinh m(L x)

=

T0 T

cosh mL + (h/mk) sinh mL

Subsequently show that the heat transfer is

q=

hPkA (T0 T )

cosh mL + (h/mk) sinh mL

2-68 An aluminum rod 2.0 cm in diameter and 12 cm long protrudes from a wall that is

maintained at 250 C. The rod is exposed to an environment at 15 C. The convection

heat-transfer coefficient is 12 W/m2 C. Calculate the heat lost by the rod.

2-69 Derive Equation (2-35) by integrating the convection heat loss from the rod of case 1

in Section 2-9.

2-70 Derive Equation (2-36) by integrating the convection heat loss from the rod of case 3

in Section 2-9.

2-71 A long, thin copper rod 5 mm in diameter is exposed to an environment at 20 C.

The base temperature of the rod is 120 C. The heat-transfer coefficient between the

rod and the environment is 20 W/m2 C. Calculate the heat given up by the rod.

2-72 A very long copper rod [k = 372 W/m C] 2.5 cm in diameter has one end maintained at 90 C. The rod is exposed to a fluid whose temperature is 40 C. The heattransfer coefficient is 3.5 W/m2 C. How much heat is lost by the rod?

2-73 An aluminum fin 1.5 mm thick is placed on a circular tube with 2.7-cm OD. The fin

is 6 mm long. The tube wall is maintained at 150 C, the environment temperature

# 101675

Cust: McGraw-Hill

Au: Holman

Title: Heat Transfer

10/e

Server:

Pg. No.67

K/PMS 293

Short / Normal / Long

DESIGN SERVICES OF

S4CARLISLE

Publishing Services

02

l e t0 - T - T *

kA)

'{ffi'x **

e - cpJhPl*e'*c2e

.r e t , /W

hP

--m

10/13/2008

18:58

o=ooatx=o

-kAq

,'.cr=oa-#-c2

- h A ( T - L I , =L = : , a i o r

*

^'

.

F,

H

F,

r,,.1,: W .lu' ft\ frk=

fulx-L

+t

e-

-,r q

- A

'

e*L*r-ffi

(1)

hP

2-62 A Part

wallB:

consists of a 1-mm layer of copper, a 4-mm layer of 1 percent carbon steel, a

PL

1-cm= layer

of asbestos

sheet, and 10 cm of fiberglass blanket. Calculate the overall

- T*\W+hA01

q

] o I h P Gcoefficient for this arrangement. If the two outside surfaces are at

heat-transfer

10 and 150 C, calculate each of -e-m\*4?'

the interface temperatures.

t

0

r

h

P

I

km a thickness

2-63 A circumferential

fin of rectangular profile has

+ q & + h Aof

0 20.7 mm and is installed

qt - k

L

m

l

+

e*L

e-*L

on a tube having a diameter of 3 cm that is maintained at a temperature of 200 C.

The

lengthL of the fin is 2 cm and the fin material is copper. Calculate the heat lost

Part C:

by the fin to a surrounding convection environment at 100 C with a convection

-tA+l coefficient

=o=eo of 524 W/m2 C.

heat-transfer

&lr_o

2-64 A thin

rod of length L *l*=o

has its two ends connected to two walls which are maintained

0 - lclmemx - c2m

at temperatures

T

and

T2 , respectively. The rod loses heat to the environment at T

1

.'. c1 - c2

by convection. Derive an expression (a) for the temperature distribution in the rod

t - 0 for

0 - qthe

A total heat lost by the rod.

andZ r(b)

hP

2-65 A rod of length L has

one end maintained at temperature T0 and is exposed to an

2h0L

environment of temperature

T . An electrical heating element is placed in the rod

km(emL - t-*L)

so that heat is generated uniformly along the length at a rate q . Derive an expression

(a) for the temperature1distribution

in the rod and (b) for the total

heat transferred

Last step uses value of c

as obtained while writing eq. (1).

to the environment. Obtain an expression for the value of q that will make the heat

transfer zero at the end that is maintained at T0 .

4.

2-66 One end of a copper rod 30 cm long is firmly connected to a wall that is maintained

?+ to a wall that is maintained at 93 C.

at 200 C. The other end is firmly connected

Air is blown across the rod so that a heat-transfer coefficient of 17 W/m2 C is

maintained. The diameter of the rod is 12.5 mm. The temperature of the air is 38 C.

What is the net heat lost to the air in watts?

2-67 Verify the temperature distribution for case 2 in Section 2-9, i.e., that

*(er-#)r'^l

q_Tk,.

T T

cosh m(L x) + (h/mk) sinh m(L x)

=

T0 T

cosh mL + (h/mk) sinh mL

Subsequently show that the heat transfer is

q=

hPkA (T0 T )

cosh mL + (h/mk) sinh mL

2-68 An aluminum rod 2.0 cm in diameter and 12 cm long protrudes from a wall that is

maintained at 250 C. The rod is exposed to an environment at 15 C. The convection

heat-transfer coefficient is 12 W/m2 C. Calculate the heat lost by the rod.

2-69 Derive Equation (2-35) by integrating the convection heat loss from the rod of case 1

in Section 2-9.

2-70 Derive Equation (2-36) by integrating the convection heat loss from the rod of case 3

in Section 2-9.

2-66

4

_dze

_ - - r _hP

_ 0 = A l e t m = - !W

"dx' lA

I k{

fl =12.5mm [-,=30 cm

h=I7

L = 38

Q= ct* * c2-w at x = 0 0 2W- 33=162 ls -386

, Tdz

A4

P =rd

-ilt,

r,

l(tz)o(o.ot

=3.754

m=l#l

L(386)a(0.0r2s)'

l

55=3.084cr

+0.324c2

0 =A.9kw +161.09e-re

qf!nred*=

'Jo

162=\*c2

cr =0.91

cz=161.@

= ^lnpattl.9lew-t6t.o9e-"18'3

npLp.grew-t6t.a9e-wl8

m

tew - | 61.@e-''* l8'3

=122.7W

2-68,

5.

Ak-204

5-mm-diameter

ball=lZ++

at 50C=125

is covered

by a 1-mm-thick

plastic insulation

ry- spherical

L,r ' 4=4L++

Tb=250oC

T*=lsoc

m

'

o

c

(k = 0.13 W/m C). The ball is exposed to a medium at 15C, with a combined

2

w radiation

^ lrdz

convection

h = l z - - : - oand

A _ heat transfer coefficient of 20 W/m C. Determine if the

c

4 will help or hurt heat transfer from the ball. What should

m".

plastic insulation

on the ball

be the minimum thickness of the insulation if the heat transfer rate has to be reduced to

m = of the original heat transfer rate?

50%

= 0.429for critical

(3.43)(0.125)

q ='JTpla0oanh(mL")

mL, =Derive

Ans.

the expression

radius of insulation for sphere: it turns out to be

^-il2

y

rc=2k/h. For given values, critical radius is 13mm. Hence adding plastic insulation will

- ls)ranh(o

=20.89

q =l (r2)n(0.02)(204)n(0'0?)'

.4zs)

I the

ttto

increase

heat transfer as long

radius

of insulation

is lesswthan 13mm. Further

4l as

249

le-*16

-ffl

l;

:%l,F-,]

\t'.c^l0

hPeo

tffi

q_ffi=JhPta%

\18-

1t

hPIAeo

6.

Steam in a heating system flows through tubes whose outer diameter is 5 cm and

whose walls are maintained at a temperature of 180C. Circular aluminum alloy fins (k

= 186 W/m C) of outer diameter 6 cm and constant thickness 1 mm are attached to

the tube. The space between the fins is 3 mm, and thus there are 250 fins per meter

length of the tube. Heat is transferred to the surrounding air at 25C, with a heat

transfer coefficient of 40 W/m2 C. Determine the increase in heat transfer from the

tube per meter of its length as a result of adding fins.

3-110 Circular aluminum fins are to be attached to the tubes of a heating system. The increase in heat

transfer from the tubes per unit length as a result of adding fins is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform

over the entire fin surfaces. 3 Thermal conductivity is constant. 4 Heat transfer by radiation is negligible.

Properties The thermal conductivity of the fins is given to be k = 186 W/m C.

Analysis In case of no fins, heat transfer from the tube per meter of its length is

Ano fin

D1 L

Qno fin

m2 )(180 25) C

(40 W / m2 . C)(01571

.

T )

180 C

01571

.

m2

(0.05 m)(1 m)

974 W

The efficiency of these circular fins is, from the efficiency curve,

25 C

L

( D2

r2

(t / 2)

r1

t

2

0.03 (0.001 / 2)

0.025

h

kt

1.22

0.001

2

0.005

fin

40 W/m 2 o C

(186 W/m o C)(0.001 m)

0.97

0.08

Afin

2 (r2

Qfin

r1 )

2 r2 t

2 (0.03 2

fin Qfin,max

0.025 2 )

2 (0.03)(0.001) 0.001916 m 2

T )

11.53 W

Heat transfer from a single unfinned portion of the tube is

Aunfin

Q unfin

D1 s

hAunfin (Tb

25) C

2.92 W

There are 250 fins and thus 250 interfin spacings per meter length of the tube. The total heat transfer from

the finned tube is then determined from

Q total,fin

n(Qfin

Q unfin )

Therefore the increase in heat transfer from the tube per meter of its length as a result of the addition of the

fins is

Qincrease

Q total,fin

Q no fin

3613 974

2639 W

logic chips on one side, each dissipating 0.04 W. The board is impregnated with

copper fillings and has an effective thermal conductivity of 20 W/mC. All the heat

generated in the chips is conducted across the circuit board and is dissipated from the

back side of the board to a medium at 40C, with a heat transfer coefficient of 50

W/m2C. (a) Determine the temperatures on the two sides of the circuit board. (b)

Now a 0.2-cm-thick, 12-cm-high, and 18-cm-long aluminum plate (k = 237 W/mC)

with 864 2-cm-long aluminum pin fins of diameter 0.25 cm is attached to the back side

of the circuit board with a 0.02-cm-thick

epoxy adhesive (k = 1.8 W/mC). Determine

3-78

the new temperatures on the two sides of the circuit board.

determined for the cases of no fins and 864 aluminum pin fins on the back surface.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The temperature in the board and along the fins varies

in one direction only (normal to the board). 3 All the heat generated in the chips is conducted across the

circuit board, and is dissipated from the back side of the board. 4 Heat transfer from the fin tips is

negligible. 5 The heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform over the entire fin surface. 6 The thermal

properties of the fins are constant. 7 The heat transfer coefficient accounts for the effect of radiation from

the fins.

Properties The thermal conductivities are given to be k = 20 W/m C for the circuit board, k = 237 W/m C

for the aluminum plate and fins, and k = 1.8 W/m C for the epoxy adhesive.

Analysis (a) The total rate of heat transfer dissipated by the chips is

Q

80 ( 0.04 W)

2 cm

3.2 W

Repoxy

Rboard

RAluminum

Rconv

T1

A

( 0.12 m) ( 0.18 m)

Rboard

L

kA

Rconv

1

hA

Rtotal

Rboard

T2

0.0216 m 2

0.003 m

(20 W / m. C)(0.0216 m2 )

1

(50 W / m2 . C)(0.0216 m 2 )

Rconv

0.00694 0.9259

0.00694 C / W

0.9259 C / W

0.93284 C / W

Q

Q

T1 T 2

Rtotal

T1 T2

Rboard

T1

T2

40 C (3.2 W)(0.93284 C / W)

QRtotal

T1 QRboard

43.0 C

40.5 0.02

43.0 C

(b) Noting that the cross-sectional areas of the fins are constant, the efficiency of the circular fins can be

determined to be

hp

kAc

tanh aL

aL

h D

4(50 W / m2 . C)

(237 W / m. C)(0.0025 m)

4h

kD

k D /4

18.37 m-1

0.957

18.37 m -1 0.02 m

The fins can be assumed to be at base temperature provided that the fin area is modified by multiplying it

by 0.957. Then the various thermal resistances are

L

0.0002 m

Repoxy

0.0051 C / W

kA (18

. W / m. C)(0.0216 m2 )

L

0.002 m

RAl

0.00039 C / W

kA (237 W / m. C)(0.0216 m2 )

fin

Afinned

Aunfinned

Atotal,with fins

fin n

DL

D2

4

0.0216 864

Aunfinned

3-83

0130

.

0.017

0.0216 864

Afinned

(0.0025) 2

4

0147

.

m2

Rconv

1

hAtotal,with fins

(50 W / m . C)(0147

.

m2 )

Rtotal

Rboard

Raluminum

Repoxy

1

2

0130

.

m2

0.0174 m2

01361

.

C/W

Rconv

.

01484

.

C/W

Then the temperatures on the two sides of the circuit board becomes

Q

Q

T1 T 2

Rtotal

T1 T2

Rboard

T1

T2

QRtotal

T1 QRboard

40 C (3.2 W)(01484

.

C / W)

40.5 C (3.2 W)(0.00694 C / W)

40.5 C

40.5 0.02

40.5 C

8. Consider a house with a flat roof whose outer dimensions are 12 m x12 m. The outer

walls of the house are 6 m high. The walls and the roof of the house are made of 20cm thick concrete (k = 0.75 W/m C). The temperatures of the inner and outer

surfaces of the house are 15C and 3C, respectively. Accounting for the effects of the

Chapter

3 Steady

Heat Conduction

edges of adjoining surfaces, determine the rate of heat loss

from

the house

through its

walls

and the roof. What is the error involved in ignoring the effects of the edges and

3-129 The walls and the roof of the house are made of 20-cm thick concrete, and the inner and outer

corners

the roof at

asspecified

a 12 mtemperatures.

x 12 m surface

and

ashouse

6 mthrough

x 12 m

surfaces and

of thetreating

house are maintained

The rate of

heatthe

losswalls

from the

its walls and

roof is to be determined, and the error involved in ignoring the edge and corner effects is

surfaces

for the

simplicity?

to be assessed.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Heat transfer at the edges and corners is two-or threedimensional. 3 Thermal conductivity of the concrete is constant. 4 The edge effects of adjoining surfaces

on heat transfer are to be considered.

Properties The thermal conductivity of the concrete is given to be k = 0.75 W/m C.

Analysis The rate of heat transfer excluding the edges and corners is

first determined to be

3 C

Atotal

403.7 m2

kAtotal

(0.75 W / m. C)(403.7 m2 )

Q

(T1 T2 )

(15 3) C 18,167 W

L

0.2 m

The heat transfer rate through the edges can be determined using the

shape factor relations in Table 3-5,

S corners+ edges 4 corners 4 edges 4 0.15L 4 0.54 w

4 0.15(0.2 m) + 4 0.54(12 m)

Q corners + edges

and

Qtotal

L

15 C

L

26.04 m

234 W

Ignoring the edge effects of adjoining surfaces, the rate of heat transfer is determined from

Atotal

(12)(12) 4(12)(6)

432 m2

kAtotal

(0.75 W/m. C)(432 m 2 )

(T1 T2 )

(15 3) C 1.94 10 4 19.4 kW

L

0.2 m

The percentage error involved in ignoring the effects of the edges then becomes

19.4 18.4

%error

100 5.6%

18.4

Q

3-130 The inner and outer surfaces of a long thick-walled concrete duct are maintained at specified

temperatures. The rate of heat transfer through the walls of the duct is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Heat transfer is two15 C

dimensional (no change in the axial direction). 3 Thermal conductivity of

the concrete is constant.

Properties The thermal conductivity of concrete is given to be k = 0.75

9.W/m

HotC.water at an average temperature of 80C and an average velocity

100 C of 1.5 m/s is

flowing

25-m

section

of a pipe

thatinhas

Analysis through

The shape a

factor

for this

configuration

is given

Tablean

3-5outer

to be diameter of 5 cm. The pipe

extends

2

m

in

the

ambient

air

above

the

ground,

dips

into the ground (k = 1.5 W/m

a 16

2 L

2 (10 m)

S

0.8 1.41

358.7 m

C)bvertically

for 3 m, and continues

at this depth for 20m more before it

a horizontally

20

0.785 ln 0.8

0.785 ln

enters the next building. The firstbsection of the pipe is exposed to the

air at

16 ambient

cm

2

8C,

a heat

transfer

coefficient

22ofW/m

C.

If the surface of the ground is

Thenwith

the steady

rate of

heat transfer

through theof

walls

the duct

becomes

4

covered

with

snow

at

0C,

determine

(a)

the

total

rate

of

heatkW

loss from the hot water

Q Sk (T1 T2 ) (358.7 m)(0.75 W/m. C)(100 15) C 2.29 10 W 22.9

20 cm

and (b) the temperature drop of the hot water as it flows through this 25-m-long

section of the pipe.

3-97

axial direction). 3 Thermal conductivity of the ground is constant. 4 The pipe is at the same temperature as

the hot water.

Properties The thermal conductivity of the ground is given to be k = 1.5 W/m C.

Analysis (a) We assume that the surface temperature of the tube is equal to the temperature of the water.

Then the heat loss from the part of the tube that is on the ground is

(0.05 m )(2 m )

As

DL

hAs (Ts

0.3142 m 2

8 C

T )

0 C

498 W

Considering the shape factor, the heat loss for vertical part

of the tube can be determined from

2 (3 m)

2 L

4L

ln

D

4(3 m)

ln

(0.05 m)

Sk ( T1 T2 )

3m

3.44 m

20 m

( 3.44 m)(15

. W / m. C)(80 0) C

80 C

413 W

The shape factor, and the rate of heat loss on the horizontal part that is in the ground are

2 (20 m)

2 L

4z

ln

D

4(3 m)

ln

(0.05 m)

Sk ( T1 T2 )

22.9 m

( 22.9 m)(15

. W / m. C)(80 0) C

2748 W

and the total rate of heat loss from the hot water becomes

Qtotal

(b) Using the water properties at the room temperature, the temperature drop of the hot water as it flows

through this 25-m section of the wall becomes

Q

mC p T

Q

mC p

Q

( V )C p

Q

( VAc )C p

3659 J/s

3

3-96

(0.05 m) 2

(4180 J/kg. C)

4

0.30 C

- PS+1+work+book+solution(1)Uploaded byNur Nadhirah
- Lecture 5_May 2014 heat trasferUploaded byAhmedHassan
- HT3eChap2_1_69Uploaded bymsdhiman2003
- Unit 11problemsheetUploaded byKelmy Thomas Maria
- HT3eChap02_129_164Uploaded bymsdhiman2003
- Machine Design ElementsUploaded byMarco Paolo Avenir Magay
- Steam Problem SetUploaded byMavrix Agustin
- Holman 1Uploaded byKumar Samyanaik
- DIESEL ENGINE POWER PLANT DESIGNUploaded byka3bool13
- Cooling TowerUploaded byʞǝǝs Uǝ Ǝpıɥ
- 1. Prob. Sheet Basic ConceptsUploaded byAnonymous mXicTi8hB
- HT3eChap08_1_64Uploaded bymsdhiman2003
- CH412 Problems 0003Uploaded byBSMK60
- Triangle of ForcesUploaded byIqbal Jafar
- Stirling and Ericsson Cycles 2016.pdfUploaded byMarion Villamor
- Diseño de Elementos de Máquinas - V. M. Faires (4ta Edición) SolucionUploaded byCristian Lizaraso Pérez
- Spray ChamberUploaded bykang1995
- Ch2 ProblemsUploaded bymfruge5
- Design ProblemsUploaded byNelson Naval Cabingas
- hw7Uploaded byr8chel
- Midterm Exam 1st Semester 2017-2018Uploaded byvisayasstateu
- HW_2_solutions.pdfUploaded byJovani Perez
- Heat and Mass transfer(NPTEL).pdfUploaded byArnab Midya
- SOLUCIONARIO FAIRES.pdfUploaded byjuan13579
- Tutorial 1Uploaded byKeefwat Tawfeek
- Building Science- Physics of HeatUploaded byChan Kok Cheng
- Jacket Spec Sheet ExampleUploaded bytiffanyyy00
- 2 ConductionUploaded byIslam Saqr
- Szczukiewicz Et Al. 2014 Proposed Models, Ongoing Experiments, And Latest Numerical Simulation of Microchannel TP FB-(Cp)Uploaded byChong Jen Haw
- C612Uploaded bydinhtung2210

- SQC Module5 DD-doneUploaded byjaskaran singh
- leveraging-big-data-to-improve-water-system-operations.pdfUploaded byMukul Parashar
- Case Interviews CrackedUploaded bySaurabhYadav
- domestic-fixed-deposit-plus-18-1-2019.pdfUploaded byMukul Parashar
- Xat e Prospectus 2019Uploaded byMukul Parashar
- Assignment 1Uploaded byMukul Parashar
- Answer for Tutorial 2Uploaded byMukul Parashar
- ChE - Old Papers [Before 2011-12 I]Uploaded byMukul Parashar
- syllabus_7226Uploaded byMukul Parashar
- Time TableUploaded byMukul Parashar
- Packed BedUploaded byMukul Parashar
- Sociological Film ReviewUploaded byMukul Parashar
- Solution A2 CHE 312AUploaded byMukul Parashar
- Assignment 3Uploaded byMukul Parashar
- Assignment 2Uploaded byMukul Parashar
- Assignment 5Uploaded byMukul Parashar
- odd-ME.docUploaded byMukul Parashar
- Us a Lifestyle BrochureUploaded bynonex2
- orca_share_media1478442485080Uploaded byMukul Parashar
- quiz4_solnUploaded byMukul Parashar
- Art401 Written Assignment Cover Summer CourseUploaded byMukul Parashar
- quiz3_solnUploaded byMukul Parashar
- odd-CHEUploaded byagautam07
- Economics TutorialsUploaded byMukul Parashar
- Assignment 1Uploaded byMukul Parashar
- Lab m AnnualUploaded byMukul Parashar
- Lecture NotesUploaded bygirish19

- Glucose input rate AssignmentUploaded byShaikh Bilal Mehmood
- 10441 SignageUploaded byphilipyap
- Mentor PADS95 PADS Net List Library Guidelines Rev1a-556Uploaded byZeynep Emirhan Şenyüz
- Corrosion in Oil and Gas PipelinesUploaded bySk Shukla
- Critical Review Jurnal InternationalUploaded bymirza
- APSM 5300 Sr. Project Syllabus, Spring 2012, PDFUploaded byabraham.caa
- ENAE 641Uploaded bybob3173
- Rockwool Rti Product Catalogue ExportUploaded byBeomHee Lee
- Hai-O storyUploaded bykamaruddin@mesiniaga.com.my
- Perkins PDS Eng Iss1Uploaded bynanocycle
- Offset MeasurementsUploaded bydung_trinh_11
- Rr411809 Light Metals and AlloysUploaded bySRINIVASA RAO GANTA
- Borland C Builder 6 VCL Object Hierarchy Poster Www.itlibitum.ruUploaded byshadi22
- astm-f442f442m-13-6943Uploaded byBinodh Daniel
- Structuralism-Post-definitiUploaded byJustyna Seman
- Best practices Running SQL Server in Hyper-VUploaded byDeepak Gupta (DG)
- A Guide to HACCP System in the Seafood IndustryUploaded bycysauts
- Analytical method for the kinetostatic analysis of the second-class RRR Assur group allowing for friction in the kinematic pairsUploaded bygerman
- The city of Groningen has been described as a "mini - metropolis". Is this justifiable?Uploaded byIlgvars Jansons
- TM 9-748 90-MM GUN MOTOR CARRIAGE M36B1, 1945Uploaded byAdvocate
- Fourier TransformUploaded byAguirre Ur
- Widening Gyre HERO SystemUploaded byKurt Garwood
- Boathouse Group v. Tiger Logic Corp., 10-12125-NMG (D. Mass.; Mar. 7, 2011)Uploaded byVenkat Balasubramani
- Stone Age Nail ClipersUploaded byZdravko Susko
- Zziplib LicenseUploaded byLklkjjj
- 1065160, 1065161, 1068204, 1068205Uploaded byAnthony Lezcano M
- Java Book and TutorialUploaded byparvathi
- Columbia MasterplanUploaded byAdriana Mendonça
- Solution Manual for Structural Analysis 9th Edition by Hibbeler %28Chapter 17 Not Included%29Uploaded byZamirBeltranOtero
- SUPERFLEX Super Elastic Coupling.08.02.02.pdfUploaded byvangeliskyriakos8998