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Distribution Systems

WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

INTRODUCTION

The main purpose of water distribution network is to supply water to the users according to

their demand with adequate pressure. Water distribution systems are composed of three major

components: pumping stations, storage tanks and distribution piping. These systems are

designed according to the loading conditions i.e., pressure and demand at nodal points. The

loading conditions may include fire demands, peak daily demands or critical demands when

the pipes are broken. A reliable design should consider all the loading conditions including

the critical conditions. In this lecture we will discuss the simulation and optimization models

for the design and analysis of water distribution networks.

Various components of water distribution systems are:

(i)

Pipes: These are the principal elements in the system. The flow or velocity is usually

described using Hazen Williams equation

f

(1)

where V is the average flow velocity. CHW is the Hazen Williams roughness

coefficient, R is the hydraulic radius and Sf is the slope.

In terms of headloss hL, the above equation can be expressed as,

hL

KLQ1.852

1.852 4.87

CHW

D

K p Q1.852

(2)

where L is the length of the pipe, D is the diameter and Q is the flow rate.

Headloss can also be determined using Darcy Weisbach equation as

hL

L V2

D 2g

8 fL

Q2

2

gD 2

K pQ 2

(3)

where f is the friction factor (determined from Moodys diagram) and g is the

acceleration due to gravity.

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Water Resources Systems Planning and Management: Water Resources Systems Modeling Water

Distribution Systems

(ii)

Node: Junction nodes are connections of pipes to transfer the water. The diameter of

pipe is changed at these nodes. Fixed grade nodes is where pressure and elevation are

fixed i.e., reservoirs, tanks etc.

(iii) Valves: These are used to vary the head loss or to control the flow.

(iv) Tanks: It stores water and acts as a buffer by storing water at low demands and

releasing at high demands.

(v)

SIMULATION OF NETWORK

The flow distribution through a network should satisfy the conservation of mass and

conservation of energy. Consider the network structure in Figure 1 with 6 pipes and 5 nodes.

750

200

1

Loop 1

Loop 2

350

200

Fig. 1

Conservation of mass: Flow at each junction nodes must be conserved

Q in

out

Qext

(4)

where Qin and Qout are the flows in and out of the node respectively and Qext is the external

supply or demand.

Conservation of energy: For each loop, energy must be conserved i.e., sum of head losses

should be zero.

hL i . j

D Nagesh Kumar, IISc, Bangalore

H pump

(5)

M8L2

Water Resources Systems Planning and Management: Water Resources Systems Modeling Water

Distribution Systems

where hLi,j is the head loss in the pipe connecting nodes i and j and Hpump is the energy added

by the pump (if any). hLi,j can be determined using either eqn. 2 or 3.

Energy must be conserved between the fixed grade nodes which are points of known head

(elevation plus pressure head).

EF

hLi , j

H pump

(6)

If the number of pipes in the network is NL, number of junction nodes is NJ and number of

fixed grade nodes is NF, then total number of equations will be NL + NJ + (NF -1).

The set of equations obtained can be solved by any iterative techniques like Hardy-Cross

method, linear theory method and Newton - Raphson method.

Hardy-Cross method

In this method, the loop equation (eqn. 5) in terms of flow is used. The loop equations are

transformed into so called Q equations in the form

K p ,i , j Qi , j

Qi , j

(7)

i,j

Eqn. 7 is rewritten to account the direction of flow as

hL ,i , j

K p ,i , j Qi , j

Qi , j sign Qi , j

Qi , j

(8)

i,j

K p ,i , j Qi , j

i, j

Qp

nK p ,i , j Qi , j

n 1

(9)

i, j

First a flow distribution is assumed across the network. Then the correction Q as given in

eqn. 9 is applied in a particular loop p. The numerator in eqn. 9 is the algebraic sum of

headloss in loop p taking care of the sign of the flow. If clockwise flows are taken positive,

then the corresponding headlosses are positive. The same is applicable while applying

M8L2

Water Resources Systems Planning and Management: Water Resources Systems Modeling Water

Distribution Systems

correction also i.e., Qp is added to flows in the clockwise direction and subtracted from

flows in counterclockwise direction.

Example:

Consider the pipe network shown below. The friction factor = 0.2. Determine the flow rate in

each pipe.

L = 1500 m; D = 0.6 m

L = 1200 m;

D = 0.7 m

L = 1200 m;

D = 0.7 m

L = 1500 m; D = 0.8 m

1 m3/s

E L = 1500 m; D = 0.7 m

L = 1500 m; D = 0.7 m

0.5 m3/s

L = 1200 m;

D = 0.7 m

2.5 m3/s

1 m3/s

Solution:

Step 1: Determine the K values in eqn. 3

hL

8 fL

Q2

2

2

gD

KAB = 3.88;

KQ 2 where K

8 fL

2

gD 2

Loop 1

1 m3/s

1 m3/s

Loop 2

0.5 m3/s

0.5 m3/s

1 m3/s

1.5 m3/s

0.5 m3/s

2.5 m3/s

0.5 m /s

1 m3/s

D

1 m3/s

M8L2

Distribution Systems

flows positive.

Q1

2

1 K AF Q AF

2 K AF Q AF

2

K FE QFE

K FE QFE

2

K BE QBE

K BE QBE

2

K AB Q AB

K AB Q AB

2

2

2

2

1 4.05 1 5.06 1 4.05 0.5 3.88 1.5

2 4.05 1 5.06 1 4.05 0.5 3.88 1.5

0.0187

Q2

2

2

2

2

1 4.05 0.5 5.06 0.5 4.05 0.5 6.89 1

2 4.05 0.5 5.06 0.5 4.05 0.5 6.89 1

0.2088

QAF = 1 + 0.0187 = 1.0187

QFE = 1 + 0.0187 = 1.0187

QBE = 0.5 0.0187 + 0.2088 = 0.6901

QAB = 1.5 - 0.0187 = 1.4813

QED = 0.5 + 0.2088 = 0.7088

QCD = 0.5 0.2088 = 0.2912

QBC = 1 0.2088 = 0.7912

Repeat steps 2 to 5 with new flows till Q is insignificant.

Linear theory method

Linear theory is more efficient when compared to Hardy-Cross method. Here we will

demonstrate through the example network given below.

M8L2

Distribution Systems

750

200

1

Loop 1

3

5

Loop 2

2

3

350

200

Conservation of mass:

Node 1: Q1 + Q6 = 750

Node 2: Q1 - Q2 = 200

Node 3: Q2 + Q3 Q4 = 350

Node 4: Q4 + Q5 = 200

Node 5: Q6 - Q3 Q5 = 0

Among these 5 eqns. only 4 need to be used to avoid redundancy

Conservation of energy:

Loop 1: K12 Q122 + K23 Q232 K35 Q352 K51 Q512 = 0

Loop 2: K53 Q532 + K34 Q342 - K45 Q452 = 0

Linearising the above eqns. using k = Kp Q, the eqns. can be written as

Loop 1: k12 Q12 + k23 Q23 k35 Q35 k51 Q51 = 0

Loop 2: k53 Q53 + k34 Q34 - k45 Q45 = 0

M8L2

Distribution Systems

These 2 eqns. along with the 4 mass conservation eqns. can be solved to obtain 5 unknown

discharges.

OPTIMIZATION OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

Simulation of distribution networks as discussed above helps to determine the hydraulic

parameters such as pressure heads, tank levels etc. These models are unable to determine the

optimal or minimum cost system. In addition to the cost minimization, the typical goals of

water distribution systems problem in designing pipe system can be:

A) Meeting the household demands.

B) Meeting the required water pressure at all nodes of the distribution system.

C) Optimal positioning of valves.

Therefore, designing water distribution system is a multiobjective problem, which is also

characterized by nonlinearity resulting from the simulation model.

Since the main purpose of a water distribution system is to supply according to the demands

with adequate pressure, a typical optimization problem will be to minimize the systems cost

while meeting the demands at required pressures. Hence optimization problem can be stated

as:

Minimize : Total cost (Capital cost + Energy cost for pumping water throughout the system)

Subject to:

(i)

Hydraulic constraints

(ii)

M8L2

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