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# Transformers (MCQs With Explanatory Answers)

## 1. A Transformer is designed to be operated on both 50 & 60 Hz frequency.For the

Same rating, which one will give more out put; when,
1.
Operates on 50 Hz
2.
Operates on 60 Hz

1. operates on 50 Hz
Suppose,
When Transformer operates on 50 Hz Frequency
Transformer = 100kVA, R=700, L=1.2 H, f= 50 Hz.
XL = 2fL = 2 x 3.1415 x 50 x 1.2 = 377
impedance Z = (R2+XL2) = (7002 + 3772) = 795
Power factor Cos = R/Z = 700/795 =0.88
Transformer Output (Real Power)
kVA x Cos = 100kVA x 0.88
88000 W = 88kW
Now,
When Transformer operates on 60 Hz Frequency
Transformer =100kVA, R=700, L=1.2 H, f= 60 Hz.
XL = 2fL = 2 x 3.1415 x 60 x1.2 = 452.4
impedance Z = (R2+XL2) = (7002 + 452.4 2) = 833.5
Power factor = Cos = R/Z = 700/833.5 =0.839
Transformer Output (Real Power)
kVA x Cos 100kVA x 0.839
=83900W = 83.9kW Output
Now see the difference (real power i.e., in Watts)
88kW- 83.9kW = 4100 W = 4.1kW
If we do the same (As above) for the power transformer i.e, for 500kVA
Transformer, the result may be huge, as below.
(Suppose everything is same, without frequency)
Power Transformer Output (When operates on 50 Hz)
500kVA x 0.88 = 44000 = 440kW
Power Transformer Output (When operates on 60 Hz)
500kVA x 0.839 = 419500 = 419.5kW
Difference in Real power i.e. in Watts
440kW 419.5kW = 20500 = 20kVA
2. In a Transformer , The primary flux is always _________ the secondary ( flux).
1.
Greater then
2.
Smaller then
3.
Equal
4.
Equal in both step up and Step down Transformer

## Answer: 4. Equal in both step up and Step down Transformer

Flux in Primary and Secondary Winding is always equal.
Explanation:
Given Data;

## Primary Number of Turns N1 = 524,

Secondary Number of Turns N2 = 70
Primary Input Voltage V1= 3300 Volts.
Secondary Current I2= 250 A.
Find/Calculate?
Secondary Voltage V2 =?
Primary Current I1=?
m 1 = m2
We Know that,
N2/N1 = V2/V1 ====> V2 = (N2 x V1)/N1
Putting the Values
V2 = (70 x 3300)/525 = 440 Volts Ans.
Now if Neglecting Losses,
V1I1= V2I2 ====> I1/I2 = V2/ V1 ..Or..I1 = (V2 x I2) / V1
Putting the Values,
I1 = 440 x 250/3300 = 33.3 Amp Ans.
Now turn around the Transformer equation.
E1 = 4.44 f N1 m1
m1 = E1 / 4.44 f N1
Putting the Values
m 1 = 3300 / (4.44 x 50 x 525) = 0.0283 Webers
m 1 = 28.3mWebers = Flux in Primary Windings
Same is on the other side,
E2 = 4.44 f N2 m2
m2 = E2 / 4.44 f N2
Putting the values,
m2 = 440 / (4.44 x 50 x 70) = 0.0283 Webers
m2 = 28.3mWebers = Flux in secondary Windings
So You can see the flux (m) produced in Both Primary and Secondary Winding
is same.
3. What would happen if we operate a 60 Hz Transformer on 50 Hz Source of
Supply.(and how can we do that?
1.
Current will decrease (so increase the current)
2.
Current will increase ( so decrease the current)
3.
Current will be same in both cases.
4.
No Effect ( We can do that without changing anything)
5.
We cant perform such an operation.

Explanation:

## Current will increase ( so decrease the current)

Suppose this is a 60 Hz transformer

## 4. A Step-Up Transformer which has 110/220 turns.What would happen if we

replace it with 10/20 turns? (because Turns ratio would be same in both cases)
1.
induced E.M.F wold be same
2.
Induced E.M.F would be decreased

Explanation:

## Click image to enlarge

5. The rating of transformer may be expressed in ____________.
1.
kW
2.
kVAR
3.
kVA
4.
Horse power.

Explanation:
There are two type of losses in a transformer;
1. Copper Losses
2. Iron Losses or Core Losses or Insulation Losses

## Copper losses ( IR )depends on Current which passing through transformer winding

while Iron Losses or Core Losses or Insulation Losses depends on Voltage.
Thats why the rating of Transformer is in kVA,Not in kW.
6. What will happen if the primary of a transformer is connected to D.C supply?
1.
Transformer will operate with low efficiency
2.
Transformer will operate with high efficiency
3.
No effect
4.
Transformer may start to smoke and burn

## 4. Transformer may start to smoke and burn.

Explanation:
7. What would happen if a power transformer designed for operation on 50 Hz
(frequency) were connected to a 500 Hz (frequency) source of the same voltage?
1.
Current will be too much high
2.
Transformer may start to smoke and burn
3.
Eddy Current and Hysteresis loss will be excessive
4.
No effect

3.

## 8. What would happen if a power transformer designed for operation on 50 Hz

(frequency) were connected to a 5 Hz (frequency) source of the same voltage?
1.
Current will be too much low
2.
Transformer may start to smoke
3.
Eddy Current and Hysteresis loss will be excessive
4.
No effect

2.

## Transformer may start to smock

Explanation:
9. A Step Up transformer _____________.
1.
Step Up the level of Voltage
2.
Step down the level of current
3.
Step up level the power
4.
Step up the level of Frequency
5.
1 and 2 only

## Answer: 5. 1 and 2 only.

Explanation:
A Step up transformer only step up the level of voltage and step down the level of

current.
because the input power is same.
So according to P=VI I = P/V. We can see that, when Voltage increases, current
decreases.
So in Step up transformer, input power is same, therefore, when voltage increases, then
current decreases.
10. Under what condition is D.C supply applied safely to the primary of a
transformer?
1.
We can connect directly to DC. No condition required
2.
We cant connect to DC Supply
3.
A High resistance should be connect in series with primary, but circuit will be
useless.
4.
The above statement is wrong

## Answer: 3. A High resistance should be connect in series with primary, but

circuit will be useless.

Explanation:

11. An Auto-transformer (which has only one winding) may be used as a ______?
1.
Step-Up Transformer
2.
Step-Down Transformer
3.
Both Step-Up and Step-Down transformer
4.
None of the above

3.

## Both Step-Up and Step-Down transformer

Explanation:
12. E.M.F Equation of the Transformer is _________.
1.
E1 = 4.44 f N1 m
, E2=4.44 f N2 m
2.
E1= 4.44 f N1 Bm A , E2 = 4.44 f N2 BmA
3.
E1= 4.44 N1 m/T , E2=4.44 N2 m/T
4.
All of the above
5.
None of the above

4.
All of the above
Explanation:
Take the basic Equation of the transformer (Option 1) E1 = 4.44 f N 1 m
, E2=4.44
f N2 m ,
and then, first put the value of m = Bm A. So the equation becomes as in Option 2.
Now put the value of Frequency ( f = 1/T ) in Equation on Option (1). So the equation
becomes as in Option 3.
13. The friction losses in Real Transformers are _________?
1.
0%

2.
3.
4.

5%
25%
50%

1.
0%
Explanation: Transformer is a Static Devise. So, no rotation, No Friction losses.
14. In Three Phase Transformer, The load Current is 139.1A, and Secondary
Voltage is 415V. The Rating of the Transformer would be ___________.
1.
50kVA
2.
57.72kVA
3.
100kVA
4.
173kVA

3.
100kVA
Explanation:
Rating of a Three Phase Transformer:
P = 3. V x I
Rating of a Three phase transformer in kVA
kVA = (3. V x I) /1000
Now
P = 3 x V x I (Secondary voltages x Secondary Current)
P= 3 x 415V x 139.1A = 1.732 x 415V x 139.1A= 99,985 VA = 99.98kVA=100kVA
For more Detail
How to Calculate/Find the Rating of Transformer (Single Phase and Three Phase)?
15 In Single Phase Transformer, The Primary Current and Primary Voltage is 4.55
and 11kV respectively. The Rating of the transformer would be________?
1.
50kVA
2.
86kVA
3.
100kVA
4.
150kVA

1.
50kVA
Explanation:
Rating of a Single Phase Transformer:
P= VxI
Rating of a Single phase transformer in kVA
kVA = (V x I) /1000
Now
P = V x I (Primary voltages x Primary Current)
P = 11000V x 4.55A = 50,050VA = 50 kVA
For more Detail .. Read the rating of transformer post in MCQs No 14 explanatory

section titled as
How to Calculate/Find the Rating of Transformer (Single Phase and Three Phase)?
16. An Isolation Transformer Has Primary to Secondary turns ratio of
__________.
1.
1:2
2.
2:1
3.
1:1
4.
Can be any ratio

Explanation: Isolation Transformer is used for isolation purpose only. Isolation
transformer transfer electrical power from the source circuit to another circuit with
connecting electrically (but magnetically) for preventing electric shock and also used in
sensitive devices (like medical equipment etc). Thus, isolation between two electrical
circuit can be done by Isolation transformer with turns ratio of 1:1.
17. In an Auto Transformer, The Primary and Secondary are__________Coupled.
1.
Only Magnetically
2.
Only Electrically
3.
Magnetically as well as Electrically
4.
None of the above

## Answer: 3. Magnetically as well as Electrically

Explanation: As we know that in a Transformer, Primary and Secondary winding are
magnetically coupled. But in case of Auto transformer, there is only one winding (which
is used both as a Primary and Secondary). Thus, in an In an Auto Transformer, The
Primary and Secondary are Magnetically as well as Electrically Coupled.
for More detail: Check MCQs No 11 with diagram.
18. A Transformer______________.
1.
Changes ac to DC
2.
Changes dc to AC
3.
Steps up or down DC Voltages & Current
4.
Steps up or down AC Voltages & Current

4. Step up or Step down AC Voltage & Current
Explanation: A Transformer does not work on DC and operates only and only on AC,
therefore it Step up of Step down the level of AC Voltage or Current.
For More detail: Check MCQs No 9
19. Transformer is a device which:________________.
1.
Transfer Electrical power from one electrical circuit to another Electrical circuit
2.
Its working without changing the frequency
3.
Work through on electric induction.

4.
5.
6.
7.

## When, both circuits take effect of mutual induction

Can step up or step down the level of voltage.
Its Working without changing the Power.
All of the above