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TUGAS UJIAN AKHIR SEMESTER IV

ANALISA SISTEM TENAGA


Power Flow Analysis

oleh :
Muhammad Fajar Anshori

141321020

PRODI D3 TEKNIK LISTRIK


DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK ELEKTRO
POLITEKNIK NEGERI BANDUNG
BANDUNG
2016

Soal:

400MW

250MW

2
1
3

300MW

0.118 + j0.237

0.19 + j0.38

180MW
0.1006 + j0.2012
250MW
0.0459+ j0.1427

0.112 + j0.223

Slack Bus
V1 = 1.050o

200
MW

| V3 | = 1.04

Figure 6.12 One line diagram (impedance in pu on 100-MVA base)

75MW

Perhitungan Manual

Line impedances are converted to admittances

y12

1
0. 424 63.4 3o

y23

1
o
0.264 63 .5 3

= 3.787 -63.53o

= 1.687 j3.390

y34

1
o
0.225 63.4 3

= 4.44 -63.43o

= 1.985 j3.971

1
0.2563.5 3o

= 4 -63.53o

= 1.789 j3.577

1
0.150 72.15 o

= 6.667 -72.15o

= 2.043 j6.346

y45

y15

= 2.358 -63.43o

= 1.054 j2.108

The admittances are marked on the network shown in Figure 6.13.


The load and generation expressed in per units are :

S2

=-

(400+ j 250)
100

= -4.0 j2.5 pu

S sc3 h

=-

(300+ j180)
100

= -3.0 j1.8 pu

=-

(250+ j75)
100

sc h

S sc4 h

S sc5 h =

200
100

= 2.0 pu

= -2.5 j0.75 pu

Bus 1 is taken as reference bus (slack bus). Starting from an initial estimate of
(0)

= V3

(0)

= V4

(0)

= 1.0 + j0.0 and V 5

sc h

V (1)
2
=

V (0)
2

= 1.04 + j0.0

sc h

P2 jQ 2
+ y 12 V 1 + y 23 V (0)
3
(0)
V2
y 12+ y 23
4.0+ j2.5
+ ( 2.358 63.4 3o ) ( 1.05 ) + ( 3.787 63.4 3o ) (1.0)
1.0 j0.0
( 1.054 j 2.108 ) +(1.687 j 3.390)

= 0.540 -47.62o = 0.364 j0.399


Psc3 h jQ sc3 h
V

(1)
3

(0)
3

+ y 23 V 2+ y34 V (1)
2

y 23+ y 34
3.0+ j 1.8
o
o
o
+ ( 3.787 63.5 3 ) ( 1.0 )+ ( 4.44 63.4 3 ) (0.54 47.6 2 )
1.0 j0.0
( 1.687 j3.39 ) +(1.985 j 3.971)

= 0.540 -49.83o = 0.3486 j0.4130

V (1)
4
=

Psc4 h jQ sc4 h
+ y 34 V 3+ y 45 V (1)
3
(0)
V4
y 34+ y 45
2.5+ j 0. 75
+ ( 4.44 63.4 3o ) ( 1.0 ) + ( 4 63.4 3o ) ( 0.54049.83 o)
1.0 j 0.0
( 1.985 j3.971 ) +(1.789 j 3.577)

= 0.6277 -44.81o = 0.4453 j0.4424


Bus 3 is regulated bus where voltage magnitude and real power are specified. For the
voltage-controlled bus, for the reactive power is computed from (6.30).
(0)
(1)

Q(1)
5
= - { V 5 [ V 5 (y15 + y45) y15V1 y45 V 4 ]}
(0)

= - {1.04-j0 [1.04 (10.63-68.88o) (6.667-72.15o)(1.05) - (4-63.43o)


( 0.6277 -44.81o)]}
= 1.32285

(1)

The value of Q5

sch
is used Q5 for the computation of voltage at bus 5. The

(1)
complex voltage at bus 5, denoted by V c 5 is calculated

V (1)
c5 =

Psc5 h jQ sc5 h
+ y 15 V 1+ y 45 V (1)
4
(0)
V5
y 15+ y 45

=
2.0 j 1.32285
+ ( 6.667 7 2.1 5o ) ( 1.05 ) + ( 4 63.4 3o ) (0.6277 44.8 1o )
1.04
10.63 68.8 8o
= 1.0179 -3.46o = 1.0161 j0.0616
(1)
Since |V5| is held constant at 1.04 pu, only the imaginary part of V c 5 is retained,

(1)
i.e. f 5 = -0.0616, and its real part is obtained from

(1)

e5

(1.04)2(0.0616)2

= 1.0381

Thus
V (1)
5
= 1.0381 j0.0616 = 1.0399-3.39o

For the second iteration we have


sch
sch
P2 jQ 2
+ y 12 V 1+ y 23 V (1)
5
(2)
(1)
V2 =
V2
y 12 + y 23
=
4.0+ j2.5
o
o
o
+ ( 2.358 63.4 3 ) ( 1.05 ) + ( 3.787 63.4 3 ) ( 1.03993.3 9 )
o
0.540 47 .6 2
( 1.054 j 2.108 )+(1.687 j3.390)

= 0.755 196.17o = -0.7425 + j0.1420

V (2)
3
=

sch
Psch
3 jQ 3
+ y 23 V 2+ y 34 V (22 )
(1)
V3
y 23 + y 34

=
3.0+ j 1.8
+ ( 3.787 63.53 o ) (1.0 )+ ( 4.44 63.4 3 o ) (0.755 196.17 o)
o
0.540 49 .8 3
( 1.687 j 3.39 ) +(1.985 j3.971)
= 0.907 175.14o = -0.9046 + j0.0769

(2)

V4

sch
Psch
4 jQ 4
(2)
+ y 34 V 3 + y 45 V 3
(1)
V4
y 34 + y 45

=
2.5+ j 0.75
o
o
o
+ ( 4.44 63.4 3 ) ( 1.0 ) + ( 4 63.4 3 ) (0. 907 175.14 )
o
0. 6277 4 4 .8 1
( 1.985 j 3.971 ) +(1.789 j3.577)
= 0.7795 -166.22o = -0.7571 j0.1856
Bus 3 is regulated bus where voltage magnitude and real power are specified. For the
voltage-controlled bus, for the reactive power is computed from (6.30).
(2)
(1)
(2)
Q5 = - { V 5 [ V 5 (y15 + y45) y15V1 y45 V 4 ]}
(1)

= - {1.04-j0 [1.04 (10.63-68.88o) (6.667-72.15o)(1.05) - (4-63.43o)


( 0.7795 -166.22o)]}
= 6.2898

(2)
sch
The value of Q5 is used Q5 for the computation of voltage at bus 5. The

(2)
complex voltage at bus 5, denoted by V c 5 is calculated

(2)

Vc5 =

sch
Psch
5 jQ 5
+ y 15 V 1+ y 45 V (24 )
(1)
V5
y 15 + y 45

=
2.0 j 1.32285
o
o
o
+ ( 6.667 72.1 5 ) ( 1.05 ) + ( 4 63.4 3 ) (0.7795 166.22 )
1.04
10.6368.8 8 o
= 1.0179 -3.46o = 0.9725 j0.2055
(2)
Since |V5| is held constant at 1.04 pu, only the imaginary part of V c 5 is retained,

(2)
i.e. f 5 = -0.2055, and its real part is obtained from

e(1)
5

(1.04)2(0.2055)2

= 1.0194

Thus
(1)

V5

= 1.0194 j0.2055 = 1.0399-11.39

The process is continued until seven iterations as given below:


Iterasi
3

V2

V3

V4

0.7954 +

0.293 +

-0.0093 +

j0.4068

j0.445
0.2089j0.768
-0.586 +
j0.222
0.753 +
j0.2470
0.119 j0.4109

j0.491
0.5715 j0.593
-0.413 j0.168
0.449 +
j0.6967
0.3657 j0.247

0.1356- j0.458

-0.6619 +
j0.6020

0.8841 - j0.022

0.1157 - j0.281

Q5
5.669
0.551
5.115
4.346
1.761

V5
1.039 +
j0.0231
1.036 - j0.086
1.028 j0.1543
1.020 +
j0.2020
0.990 +
j0.0334

To find the line flows, first the line currents are computed. With line charging
capacitors neglected, the line currents are
I12 = y12 (V1 V2)
= 1.5788 - j1.6724
I21 = - I12 = -1.5788 + j1.6724
I23 = y23 (V2 V3)
= 0.4305 + j0.2320
I32 = - I23 = -0.4305 - j0.2320
I34 = y34 (V3 V4)
= -1.1351 + j0.6527
I43 = - I34 = 1.1351 - j0.6527
I45 = y45 (V4 V5)
= -2.2118 + j1.9065
I54 = - I45 = 2.2118 - j1.9065
I15 = y15 (V1 V5)
= -0.1905 - j0.1351
I51 = - I15 = 0.1905 + j0.1351
The line flows are
S12
S21
S23
S32
S34
S43
S45
S54
S15
S51

= 1.6578 + j1.7560 pu
= 165.78 MW + j175.60 Mvar
= -0.6541 + j0.2514 pu
= -65.41 MW + j25.14 Mvar
= -0.0156 - j0.1482 pu
= -1.56 MW + j14.82 Mvar
= 0.0437 + 0.2048i pu
= 4.37 MW + j20.48 Mvar
= -0.4043 + j0.3882 pu
= -40.43 MW + 38.82 Mvar
= 0.5770 - j0.0428 pu
= 57.70 MW j4.28 Mvar
= -1.2817 - j0.1488 pu
= -128.17 MW - j14.88 Mvar
= 2.2354 + j2.0556 pu
= 223.54 MW + j205.56 Mvar
= -0.2000 + j0.1419 pu
= -200 MW + j14.19 Mvar
= 0.2025 - j0.1341 pu
= 20.25 MW j13.41 Mvar

And the line losses are

SL12 = S12 + S21 = 100.37MW + j200.75Mvar


SL23 = S23 + S32 = 2.81MW + j5.66Mvar
SL34 = S34 + S43 = 17.27 + j34.54 Mvar
SL45 = S45 + S54 = 95.37 + j190.68Mvar
SL15 = S15 + S51 = 0.25MW + j0.78Mvar

The power flow diagram with power wolrd simulation is shown in Figure 6.14 , where
real power direction is indicated by (
indicated by (
loses in the line.

) and the reactive power direction is

). The values within parentheses are the real and the reactive

Figure 6.14 Power flow diagram with power world simulation (powers in MW and Mvar).

Perhitungan Menggunakan MATLAB 7.8.0


y12=1.054-j*2.108;
y23=1.687-j*3.390;
y34=1.985-j*3.971;
y45=1.789-j*3.577;
y15=2.043-j*6.346;
y55=y15+y45;
V1=1.05+j*0;
format long
iter =0;
S2=-4.0-j*2.5;
S3=-3.0-j*1.8;
S4=-2.5-j*0.75;
P5 = 2;
V2=1+j*0;
V3=1+j*0;

V4=1+j*0;
Vm5=1.04;
V5=1.04+j*0;
for I=1:7;
iter=iter+1
E2 = V2;
E3 = V3;
E4 = V4;
E5 = V5;
V2 = (conj(S2)/conj(V2)+y12*V1+y23*V3)/(y12+y23)
DV2 = V2-E2
V3 = (conj(S3)/conj(V3)+y23*V2+y34*V3)/(y23+y34)
DV3 = V3-E3
V4 = (conj(S4)/conj(V4)+y34*V3+y45*V4)/(y34+y45)
DV4 = V4-E4
Q5 = -imag(conj(V5)*(y55*V5-y15*V1-y45*V4))
S5 = P5 +j*Q5;
Vc5 = (conj(S5)/conj(V5)+y15*V1+y45*V4)/(y15+y45)
Vi5 = imag(Vc5);
Vr5= sqrt(Vm5^2 - Vi5^2);
V5 = Vr5 + j*Vi5
DV5=V5-E5
end
format short
I12=y12*(V1-V2); I21=-I12;
I23=y23*(V2-V3); I32=-I23;
I34=y34*(V3-V4); I43=-I34;
I45=y45*(V4-V5); I54=-I45;

I15=y15*(V1-V5); I51=-I15;
S12=V1*conj(I12); S21=V2*conj(I21);
S23=V2*conj(I23); S32=V3*conj(I32);
S34=V3*conj(I34); S43=V4*conj(I43);
S45=V4*conj(I45); S54=V5*conj(I54);
S15=V1*conj(I15); S51=V5*conj(I51);
I1221=[I12,I21]
I2332=[I23,I32]
I3443=[I34,I43]
I4554=[I45,I54]
I1551=[I15,I51]
S1221=[S12, S21 (S12+S15) S12+S21]
S2332=[S23, S32 (S23+S21) S23+S32]
S3443=[S34, S43 (S34+S32) S34+S43]
S4554=[S45, S54 (S45+S43) S45+S54]
S1551=[S15, S51 (S15+S12) S15+S51]

iter =1
V2 =0.364484086771750 - 0.401118748970783i
DV2 =-0.635515913228250 - 0.401118748970783i
V3 =0.348683825314291 - 0.413024712835361i
DV3 =-0.651316174685709 - 0.413024712835361i
V4 =0.445361489622795 - 0.442471913521036i
DV4 =-0.554638510377205 - 0.442471913521036i
Q5 =1.322858886263335
Vc5 =1.016191055664830 - 0.061653485030764i
V5 =1.038170914533614 - 0.061653485030764i
DV5 =-0.001829085466386 - 0.061653485030764i

iter =2
V2 =-0.742584214180443 + 0.142008237708993i
DV2 =-1.107068300952193 + 0.543126986679777i
V3 =-0.904613898114645 + 0.076987351472522i
DV3 =-1.253297723428936 + 0.490012064307883i
V4 =-0.757179856307195 - 0.185651668424502i
DV4 =-1.202541345929990 + 0.256820245096533i
Q5 =6.289877542919883
Vc5 =0.972570737048334 - 0.205507751187541i
V5 =1.019493287963113 - 0.205507751187541i
DV5 =-0.018677626570501 - 0.143854266156777i

iter =3
V2 =0.795481082112989 + 0.406809645760586i
DV2 =1.538065296293432 + 0.264801408051593i
V3 =0.293030639370879 + 0.445519801262318i
DV3 =1.197644537485523 + 0.368532449789796i
V4 =-0.009375232885680 + 0.491669044550710i
DV4 =0.747804623421515 + 0.677320712975212i
Q5 =5.669282865047878
Vc5 =1.165240735262343 + 0.023163325985962i
V5 =1.039742016237330 + 0.023163325985962i
DV5 =0.020248728274217 + 0.228671077173504i

iter = 4
V2 =0.135654396292978 - 0.458428608594210i
DV2 =-0.659826685820011 - 0.865238254354796i

V3 =0.208913220607559 - 0.768000683299319i
DV3 =-0.084117418763320 - 1.213520484561638i
V4 =0.571528202133325 - 0.593269517031820i
DV4 =0.580903435019006 - 1.084938561582530i
Q5 =0.551243880585595
Vc5 =1.000353764554807 - 0.086008417360239i
V5 =1.036437432816466 - 0.086008417360239i
DV5 =-0.003304583420864 - 0.109171743346201i

iter = 5
V2 =-0.661918927543463 + 0.602071609059017i
DV2 =-0.797573323836441 + 1.060500217653227i
V3 =-0.586826596546300 + 0.222394736426278i
DV3 =-0.795739817153858 + 0.990395419725597i
V4 =-0.413235193539741 - 0.168475729011631i
DV4 =-0.984763395673066 + 0.424793788020189i
Q5 =5.115324750778895
Vc5 =1.003307761695989 - 0.154360587936050i
V5 =1.028480825728918 - 0.154360587936050i
DV5 =-0.007956607087548 - 0.068352170575812i

iter =6
V2 =0.884146625315197 - 0.022881332835452i
DV2 =1.546065552858660 - 0.624952941894469i
V3 =0.753643528373400 + 0.247062721676694i
DV3 =1.340470124919699 + 0.024667985250417i
V4 =0.449969430172926 + 0.696742418605005i
DV4 =0.863204623712667 + 0.865218147616636i

Q5 =4.346322533696647
Vc5 =1.231384493353549 + 0.202077863674621i
V5 =1.020178678963985 + 0.202077863674621i
DV5 =-0.008302146764933 + 0.356438451610671i

iter =7
V2 =0.115723022344949 - 0.281836721233991i
DV2 =-0.768423602970248 - 0.258955388398540i
V3 =0.119929998032288 - 0.410934561371952i
DV3 =-0.633713530341111 - 0.657997283048646i
V4 =0.365744973275573 - 0.247973250211803i
DV4 =-0.084224456897353 - 0.944715668816808i
Q5 =1.761248054691949
Vc5 =0.990708328081360 + 0.033412909715324i
V5 =1.039463119819244 + 0.033412909715324i
DV5 =0.019284440855259 - 0.168664953959297i

I1221 =1.5788 - 1.6724i -1.5788 + 1.6724i


I2332 =0.4305 + 0.2320i -0.4305 - 0.2320i
I3443 =-1.1351 + 0.6527i 1.1351 - 0.6527i
I4554 =-2.2118 + 1.9065i 2.2118 - 1.9065i
I1551 =-0.1905 - 0.1351i 0.1905 + 0.1351i

S1221 =1.6578 + 1.7560i -0.6541 + 0.2514i 1.4577 + 1.8979i 1.0037 +


2.0075i
S2332 =-0.0156 - 0.1482i 0.0437 + 0.2048i -0.6696 + 0.1032i 0.0281 +
0.0566i
S3443 =-0.4043 + 0.3882i 0.5770 - 0.0428i -0.3606 + 0.5929i 0.1727 +
0.3454i

S4554 =-1.2817 - 0.1488i 2.2354 + 2.0556i -0.7047 - 0.1916i 0.9537 +


1.9068i
S1551 =-0.2000 + 0.1419i 0.2025 - 0.1341i 1.4577 + 1.8979i 0.0025 +
0.0078i