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Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers

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system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the publisher.

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Visit us at www.newagepublishers.com

To

My parents

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FOREWORD

It gives me great pleasure to write the foreword to Dr. Nazrul Islams book entitled Tensors and Their

Applications. I know the author as a research scholar who has worked with me for several years. This

book is a humble step of efforts made by him to prove him to be a dedicated and striving teacher who

has worked relentlessly in this field.

This book fills the gap as methodology has been explained in a simple manner to enable students

to understand easily. This book will prove to be a complete book for the students in this field.

Ram Nivas

Professor,

Department of Mathematics and Astronomy,

Lucknow University,

Lucknow

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PREFACE

Tensors were introduced by Professor Gregorio Ricci of University of Padua (Italy) in 1887

primarily as extension of vectors. A quantity having magnitude only is called Scalar and a quantity with

magnitude and direction both, called Vector. But certain quantities are associated with two or more

directions, such a quantity is called Tensor. The stress at a point of an elastic solid is an example of a

Tensor which depends on two directions one normal to the area and other that of the force on it.

Tensors have their applications to Riemannian Geometry, Mechanics, Elasticity, Theory of Relativity,

Electromagnetic Theory and many other disciplines of Science and Engineering.

This book has been presented in such a clear and easy way that the students will have no difficulty

in understanding it. The definitions, proofs of theorems, notes have been given in details.

The subject is taught at graduate/postgraduate level in almost all universities.

In the end, I wish to thank the publisher and the printer for their full co-operation in bringing out

the book in the present nice form.

Suggestions for further improvement of the book will be gratefully acknowledged.

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CONTENTS

Preface ................................................................................................................ ix

1.1.

1.2.

1.3.

1.4.

1.5.

1.6.

Superscript and Subscript ....................................................................................... 1

The Einstein's Summation Convention ...................................................................... 1

Dummy Index ....................................................................................................... 1

Free Index ............................................................................................................. 2

Krnecker Delta ..................................................................................................... 2

Exercises ............................................................................................................... 5

2.1.

2.2.

2.3.

2.4.

2.5.

2.6.

2.7.

2.8.

2.9.

2.10.

2.11.

2.12.

2.13.

2.14.

2.15.

Introduction .......................................................................................................... 6

Transformation of Coordinates ................................................................................ 6

Covariant and Contravariant Vectors ......................................................................... 7

Contravariant Tensor of Rank Two .......................................................................... 9

Covariant Tensor of Rank Two ................................................................................ 9

Mixed Tensor of Rank Two..................................................................................... 9

Tensor of Higher Order ......................................................................................... 14

Scalar or Invariant ................................................................................................ 15

Addition and Subtraction of Tensors ....................................................................... 15

Multiplication of Tensors (Outer Product of Tensors) ............................................... 16

Contraction of a Tensor ........................................................................................ 18

Inner Product of Two Tensors .............................................................................. 18

Symmetric Tensors .............................................................................................. 20

Skew-symmetric Tensor ....................................................................................... 20

Quotient Law ....................................................................................................... 24

xii

2.16.

2.17.

Relative Tensor .................................................................................................... 26

Examples ............................................................................................................ 26

Exercises ............................................................................................................. 29

3.1.

3.2.

3.3.

3.4.

3.5.

3.6.

3.7.

3.8.

3.9.

3.10.

3.11.

3.12.

3.13.

Conjugate Metric Tensor (Contravariant Tensor) ...................................................... 34

Length of a Curve ................................................................................................ 42

Associated Tensor ................................................................................................ 43

Magnitude of Vector ............................................................................................. 43

Scalar Product of Two Vectors .............................................................................. 44

Angle Between Two Vectors .................................................................................. 45

Angle Between Two Coordinate Curves .................................................................. 47

Hypersurface ....................................................................................................... 48

Angle Between Two Coordinate Hyper surface ........................................................ 48

n-Ply Orthogonal System of Hypersurfaces ............................................................. 49

Congruence of Curves .......................................................................................... 49

Orthogonal Ennuple .............................................................................................. 49

Examples ............................................................................................................ 52

Exercises ............................................................................................................. 54

Chapter4

4.1.

4.2.

4.3.

4.4.

4.5.

4.6.

4.7.

4.8.

Christoffels Symbol............................................................................................. 55

Transformtion of Christoffels Symbols .................................................................. 64

Covariant Differentiation of a Covariant Vector ........................................................ 67

Covariant Differentiation of a Contravariant Vector ................................................... 68

Covariant Differentiation of Tensors ....................................................................... 69

Riccis Theorem .................................................................................................. 71

Gradient, Divergence and Curl ............................................................................... 75

The Laplacian Operator ......................................................................................... 80

Exercises ............................................................................................................. 83

5.1.

5.2.

5.3.

Ricci Tensor ........................................................................................................ 88

Covariant Riemann-Christoffel Tensor .................................................................... 89

5.4.

5.5.

5.6.

5.7.

Bianchi Identity .................................................................................................... 94

Einstein Tensor .................................................................................................... 95

Riemannian Curvature of V n .................................................................................. 96

Contents

5.8.

5.9.

5.10.

5.11.

5.12.

5.13.

xiii

Curvature Tensor of V n ......................................................................................... 98

Schurs Theorem ............................................................................................... 100

Mean Curvature ................................................................................................. 101

Ricci Principal Directions .................................................................................... 102

Einstein Space ................................................................................................... 103

Weyl Tensor or Projective Curvature Tensor ......................................................... 104

Examples .......................................................................................................... 106

Exercises ........................................................................................................... 109

Chapter6 The e-systems and the Generalized Krnecker Deltas ................ 111-115

6.1.

6.2.

6.3.

6.4.

Completely Skew-symmetric ................................................................................ 111

e-system ........................................................................................................... 112

Generalized Krnecker Delta ................................................................................ 112

6.5.

Exercises ........................................................................................................... 115

7.1.

7.2.

7.3.

7.4.

7.5.

7.6.

7.7.

7.8.

7.9.

On The Meaning of Covariant Derivatives ............................................................. 127

Intrinsic Differentiation ....................................................................................... 131

Parallel Vector Fields ........................................................................................... 134

Geometry of Space Curves ................................................................................. 134

Serret-Frenet Formulae ....................................................................................... 138

Equations of A Straight Line ................................................................................ 140

Exercises ........................................................................................................... 141

8.1.

8.2.

8.3.

8.4.

8.5.

8.6.

8.7.

8.8.

8.9.

Newtonian Laws ................................................................................................ 142

Equations of Motion of Particle ............................................................................ 143

Conservative Force Field ..................................................................................... 144

Lagrangean Equation of Motion ........................................................................... 146

Applications of Lagrangean Equations ................................................................... 152

Hamiltons Principle ............................................................................................ 153

Integral Energy .................................................................................................. 155

Principle of Least Action ..................................................................................... 156

xiv

8.10.

8.11.

8.12.

8.13.

8.14.

8.15.

Lagrangean Equation of Generalized Coordinates ................................................... 158

Divergence Theorem, Greens Theorem, Laplacian Operator and Stokes

Theorem in Tensor Notation ................................................................................ 161

Gausss Theorem ............................................................................................... 164

Poissons Equation ............................................................................................. 166

Solution of Poissons Equation ............................................................................. 167

Exercises ........................................................................................................... 169

9.1.

9.2.

9.3.

9.4.

9.5.

9.6.

9.7.

9.8.

Geodesics ......................................................................................................... 171

Eulers Condition ............................................................................................... 171

Differential Equations of Geodesics ...................................................................... 173

Geodesic Coordinates ......................................................................................... 175

Riemannian Coordinates ...................................................................................... 177

Geodesic Form of a Line Element ........................................................................ 178

Geodesics in Euclidean Space .............................................................................. 181

Examples .......................................................................................................... 182

Exercises ........................................................................................................... 186

10.1.

10.2.

10.3.

10.4.

10.5.

Parallelism of a Vector of Variable Magnitude ......................................................... 191

Subspace of Riemannian Manifold ........................................................................ 193

Parallelism in a Subspace .................................................................................... 196

Fundamental Theorem of Riemannian Geometry Statement ..................................... 199

Examples .......................................................................................................... 200

Exercises ........................................................................................................... 203

Chapter11

11.1.

11.2.

11.3.

11.4.

11.5.

11.6.

11.7.

Reason for the Name Coefficients of Rotation .................................................... 206

Curvature of Congruence .................................................................................... 207

Geodesic Congruence ......................................................................................... 208

Normal Congruence ........................................................................................... 209

Curl of Congruence ............................................................................................ 211

Canonical Congruence ........................................................................................ 213

Examples .......................................................................................................... 215

Exercises ........................................................................................................... 217

Contents

xv

12.1.

12.2.

12.3.

12.4.

12.5.

12.6.

12.7.

12.8.

12.9.

12.10.

12.11.

12.12.

12.13.

12.14.

12.15.

Generalized Covariant Differentiation .................................................................... 219

Laws of Tensor Differentiation ............................................................................ 220

Gausss Formula ................................................................................................ 222

Curvature of a Curve in a Hypersurface and Normal Curvature, Meuniers Theorem,

Dupins Theorem ............................................................................................... 224

Definitions ......................................................................................................... 227

Eulers Theorem ................................................................................................ 228

Conjugate Directions and Asymptotic Directions in a Hypersurface.......................... 229

Tensor Derivative of Unit Normal......................................................................... 230

The Equation of Gauss and Codazzi ..................................................................... 233

Hypersurfaces with Indeterminate Lines of Curvature ............................................ 234

Central Quadratic Hypersurfaces .......................................................................... 235

Polar Hyperplane ................................................................................................ 236

Evolute of a Hypersurface in an Euclidean Space ................................................... 237

Hypersphere ......................................................................................................238

Exercises ........................................................................................................... 241

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CHAPTER 1

PRELIMINARIES

1.1 n-DIMENSIONAL SPACE

In three dimensional rectangular space, the coordinates of a point are (x, y, z). It is convenient to write

(x1, x2, x3) for (x, y, z). The coordinates of a point in four dimensional space are given by (x1, x2, x3, x4).

In general, the coordinates of a point in n-dimensional space are given by (x1, x2, x3,...., xn) such ndimensional space is denoted by V n.

1.2 SUPERSCRIPT AND SUBSCRIPT

In the symbol Aklij , the indices i, j written in the upper position are called superscripts and k, l written

in the lower position are called subscripts.

1.3 THE EINSTEIN'S SUMMATION CONVENTION

n

i =1

drop the sigma sign and write convention as

n

ai x i = a i x i

i =1

If a suffix occurs twice in a term, once in the lower position and once in the upper position then

that suffix implies sum over defined range.

If the range is not given, then assume that the range is from 1 to n.

1.4 DUMMY INDEX

Any index which is repeated in a given term is called a dummy index or dummy suffix. This is also called

Umbral or Dextral Index.

e.g. Consider the expression ai xi where i is dummy index; then

ai xi = a1 x1 + a 2 x 2 + + an x n

a jx j = a1x1 + a2 x2 + + an x n

and

a ix i = a j x j

So, any dummy index can be replaced by any other index ranging the same numbers.

1.5 FREE INDEX

Any index occurring only once in a given term is called a Free Index.

e.g. Consider the expression aij x i where j is free index.

1.6 KRNECKER DELTA

The symbol ij , called Krnecker Delta (a German mathematician Leopold Krnecker, 1823-91 A.D.)

is defined by

1 if i = j

ij =

0 if i j

Similarly ij and ij are defined as

1 if i = j

ij = 0 if i j

1 if i = j

ij =

0 if i j

and

Properties

1. If x1, x2, ... xn are independent coordinates, then

x i

= 0 if i j

x j

x i

= 1 if i = j

x j

This implies that

x i

= ij

x j

It is also written as

2.

x i x k

= ij .

x k x j

ii = 11 + 22 + 33 + + nn

ii

= 1 + 1+ 1 + + 1

ii = n

3.

a ij kj = a ik

Since

31 1

32 2

33 3

3n n

a 3 j 2j = a 2 + a 2 + a 2 + + a 2

Preliminaries

= a32

(as 12 = 32 = = n2 = 0 and 22 = 1)

In general,

a ij kj = a i 11k + a i 2 2k + a i 3 3k + + aik kk + + a in nk

ik

a ij kj = a (as 1k = 2k = = nk = 0 and kk = 1)

4.

j k = ik

ij kj = 1i 1k + i2 2k + i3 3k + + ii ik + + in nk

= ik (as 1i = i2 = i3 = = in = 0 and ii = 1)

EXAMPLE 1

Write

d

dx1 dx 2

dx n

+ 2

+ + n

= 1

using summation convention.

dt

x dt

x dt

x dt

Solution

d

dx 1 dx 2

dx n

+

+

+

=

dt

x 1 dt x 2 dt

x n dt

d dx i

= i

dt

x dt

EXAMPLE 2

Expand: (i) aij xixj; (ii) glm gmp

Solution

(i)

1 j

2 j

n j

aij x i x j = a1 j x x + a2 j x x + + a nj x x

aij x i x j = a11 ( x1 )2 + a22 ( x 2 ) 2 + + ann (x n )2

(as i and j are dummy indices)

(ii)

g lm g mp = g l 1 g 1 p + g l 2 g 2 p + + g ln g np , as m is dummy index.

EXAMPLE 3

If aij are constant and aij = aji, calculate:

(i) x (aij x i x j )

(ii) x x (aij xi x j )

k

k

l

Solution

(aij x i x j ) = a ij

( xi x j )

(i)

x k

xk

j

i

= a ij xi x + a ij x j x

k

k

= a ij xi jk + aij x j ik ,

as

x j

x k

= (aij jk ) xi + (aij ik ) x j

= aik xi + akj xj

= aik xi + aki xi

as aij jk = aik

as j is dummy index

(aij x i x j )

= 2aik xi

xk

(aij x i x j )

(ii)

x k

= 2aikxi

Differentiating it w.r.t. xl :

2 (aij xi x j )

xk xl

= 2 aik

xi

xl

= 2 aik il

2 (aij xi x j )

xk xl

as a ik il = alk.

= 2alk

EXAMPLE 4

If

aij xi xj= 0

where aij are constant then show that

aij + aji = 0

Solution

Given

aijx ix j= 0

almxlxm= 0

Differentiating it w.r.t. xi partially,

(alm x l x m ) = 0

xi

l m

a lm

(x x ) = 0

xi

a lm

Since

x l m

x m l

x + alm

x =0

xi

x i

x l

= li

xi

and

x m

= mi

xi

= jk

Preliminaries

alm il x m + alm im x l = 0

aim x m + ali x l = 0

as alm li = aim and alm mi = ali .

Differentiating it w.r.t. xj partially

aim

x m

x l

+ ali

x j

x j = 0

aim mj + ali lj = 0

aij + aji= 0

Proved.

EXERCISES

1. Write the following using the summation convention.

(i) (x 1 )2 + (x2 )2 + (x3 )2 + . . . + (xn )2

(ii) ds2 = g 11 (dx1 )2 + g 22 (dx2 )2 + . . . + g nn (dxn )2

(iii) a 1 x1 x3 + a 2 x2 x3 + . . . + a n xn x3

2. Expand the following:

(i) a ij xj

(ii)

( ga )

(iii) Aik Bi

3. Evaluate:

(i) x j ij

(ii) ij kj kl

(iii) ij ij

ANSWERS

1.

2.

(i) xi xj

(ii) ds2 = g ij dxi dxj

1

(i) a i1 x + a i2 x2 + a i3 x3 + . . . + a in xn

(ii)

( ga ) +

( g a ) + +

3.

(i) xi

4. Cij xi xj

(ii) il

(iii) n

(iii) a i x i x 3 .

( ga )

CHAPTER 2

TENSOR ALGEBRA

2.1 INTRODUCTION

A scalar (density, pressure, temperature, etc.) is a quantity whose specification (in any coordinate

system) requires just one number. On the other hand, a vector (displacement, acceleration, force, etc.)

is a quantity whose specification requires three numbers, namely its components with respect to some

basis. Scalers and vectors are both special cases of a more general object called a tensor of order

n whose specification in any coordinate system requires 3n numbers, called the components of tensor.

In fact, scalars are tensors of order zero with 3 = 1 component. Vectors are tensors of order one with

31 = 3 components.

2.2 TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES

In three dimensional rectangular space, the coordinates of a point are (x, y, z) where x, y, z are real

numbers. It is convenient to write (x1, x2, x3) for ( x, y , z ) or simply xi where i = 1, 2, 3. Similarly in

n- dimensional space, the coordinate of a point are n-independent variables (x1, x2,..., x n) in X-coordinate

system. Let ( x 1 , x 2 ,..., x n ) be coordinate of the same point in Y-coordinate system.

Let x 1 , x 2 , , x n be independent single valued function of x1, x2,...., xn, so that,

x 1 = x 1 (x 1 , x 2 , ...., x n )

x 2 = x 2 ( x1 , x 2 , ...., x n )

x 3 = x 3 (x 1 , x 2 , ...., x n )

M

x n = x n (x1 , x 2 , ..., x n )

or

x i = x i ( x1 , x 2 , ..., x n ) ;

i = 1, 2, , n

(1)

Tensor Algebra

xi = x i ( x1 , x 2 ,..., x n );

i = 1, 2, ..., n

The equations (1) and (2) are said to be a transformation of the coordinates from one coordinate

system to another

2.3 COVARIANT AND CONTRAVARIANT VECTORS (TENSOR OF RANK ONE)

Let (x1, x2, ..., xn) or x i be coordinates of a point in X-coordinate system and ( x 1 , x 2 ,..., x n ) or x i be

coordinates of the same point in the Y-coordinate system.

Let A i, i = 1, 2, ..., n (or A 1, A 2, ..., A n) be n functions of coordinates x 1, x2, ..., x n

in X-coordinate system. If the quantities A i are transformed to A i in Y-coordinate system then according

to the law of transformation

x i j

x j

j

A

i

or

A

=

x j

x i A

Then A i are called components of contravariant vector.

Let Ai , i = 1, 2,..., n (or A 1, A 2, , A n) be n functions of the coordinates x1, x2, ..., x n

Ai =

according to the law of transformation

x j

x i

Aj

Ai

or

Aj =

i

x

x j

Then A i are called components of covariant vector.

The contravariant (or covariant) vector is also called a contravariant (or covariant) tensor of rank

Ai =

one.

Note: A superscript is always used to indicate contravariant component and a subscript is always used to indicate

covariant component.

EXAMPLE 1

If xi be the coordinate of a point in n-dimensional space show that dxi are component of a

contravariant vector.

Solution

1

2

n

Let x1, x2, ..., xn or xi are coordinates in X-coordinate system and x , x ,..., x or x i are

coordinates in Y-coordinate system.

If

x i = x i (x1 , x 2 ,..., x n )

i

i

i

dx i = x dx 1 + x dx 2 + + x dx n

1

2

n

d xi =

x i

x j

dx j

vector.

EXAMPLE 2

Show that

x i

Solution

Let x1, x2, ..., xn or x i are coordinates in X-coordinate system and x 1 , x 2 , ..., x n or x i are

coordinates in Y-coordinate system.

Consider

( x 1 , x 2 ,..., x n ) = ( x1 , x 2 ,..., x n )

=

1 2

x + 2 x + + n x n

1

x

x

x

x1 x 2

x n

=

+

+

+

i

x

x 1 x i x 2 x i

x n x i

x j

=

x i

x j x i

x j

=

x i

x i x j

or

vector.

is component of covariant

x i

EXAMPLE 3

Show that the velocity of fluid at any point is a component of contravariant vector

or

Show that the component of tangent vector on the curve in n-dimensional space are component

of contravariant vector.

Solution

Let

dx1 dx 2

dx n

,

, ,

be the component of the tangent vector of the point ( x1 , x 2 ,..., x n ) i.e.,

dt dt

dt

dx i

be the component of the tangent vector in X-coordinate system. Let the component of tangent

dt

Tensor Algebra

dx i

. Then x 1 , x 2 , ..., x n or x i being a

dt

d xi

=

dt

x i dx1 x i dx 2

x i dx n

+

+

+

dt1 dt

dx 2 dt

dx n dt

d xi

=

dt

x i dx j

dx j dt

dx i

is component of

dt

contravariant vector.

i.e. the component of tangent vector on the curve in n-dimensional space are component of

contravariant vector.

2.4 CONTRAVARIANT TENSOR OF RANK TWO

Let A ij (i, j = 1, 2, ..., n) be n2 functions of coordinates x1, x2, ..., xn in X-coordinate system. If the

quantities A ij are transformed to A ij in Y-coordinate system having coordinates x 1 , x 2 , ..., x n . Then

according to the law of transformation

A ij =

x i x j kl

A

x k x l

ij

Then A are called components of Contravariant Tensor of rank two.

Let A ij (i, j = 1, 2, ..., n) be n 2 functions of coordinates x1, x2, ..., xn in X-coordinate system. If the

quantities Aij are transformed to Aij in Y-coordinate system having coordinates x 1 , x 2 ,...,x n , then

according to the law of transformation,

x k x l

Akl

x i x j

Then A ij called components of covariant tensor of rank two.

Aij =

Let Aij (i, j = 1, 2, ..., n) be n2 functions of coordinates x1, x2, ..., xn in X-coordinate system. If the

quantities Aij are transformed to A ji in Y-coordinate system having coordinates x 1 , x 2 ,..., x n , then

according to the law of transformation

x i x l k

Al

=

x k x

Then Aij are called components of mixed tensor of rank two.

A ji

10

Note:

(i) The rank of the tensor is defined as the total number of indices per component.

(ii) Instead of saying that A ij are the components of a tensor of rank two we shall often say Aij is a tensor

of rank two.

THEOREM 2.1 To show that the Krnecker delta is a mixed tensor of rank two.

Solution

Let X and Y be two coordinate systems. Let the component of Kronecker delta in X-coordinate

system ij and component of Krnecker delta in Y-coordinate be ij , then according to the law of

transformation

ij =

x i x i x l x k

=

x j x k x j x l

ij =

x i x l k

l

x k x j

EXAMPLE 4

If Ai is a covariant tensor, then prove that

Ai

do not form a tensor..

x j

Solution

Let X and Y be two coordinate systems. As given Ai is a covariant tensor. Then

Ai =

x k

Ak

x i

Differentiating it w.r.t. x j

Ai

j =

x

x j

Ai

x k

=

x j

x i

x k

x i Ak

Ak

2 xk

+

A

k

x j

x i x j

It is not any law of transformation of tensor due to presence of second term. So,

(1)

Ai

is not a

x j

tensor.

THEOREM 2.2 To show that ij is an invariant i.e., it has same components in every coordinate

system.

Proof: Since ij is a mixed tensor of rank two, then

ij =

x i x l k

l

x k x j

Tensor Algebra

11

x i

=

x k

x l k

x j l

x l k x k

l =

x x

x j

x j

x i

x i

i

=

= ij

ij =

,

as

j

x j

x j

=

x i x k

k

, as

So, ij is an invariant.

THEOREM 2.3 Prove that the transformation of a contravariant vector is transitive.

or

Prove that the transformation of a contravariant vector form a group.

Proof:

When coordinate x i be transformed to x i , the law of transformation of a contravariant vector is

x p q

A

... (1)

x q

When coordinate x i be transformed to x i , the law of transformation of contravariant vector is

Ap =

x i p

A

x p

x i x p q

A i = x i x q A from (1)

x i q

i =

A

A

x q

This shows that if we make direct transformation from x i to x i , we get same law of transformation.

This property is called that transformation of contravariant vectors is transitive or form a group.

Ai =

or

Prove that the transformation of a covariant vector form a group.

Proof: Let Ai be a covariant vector in a coordinate system x i (i = 1, 2, ..., n) . Let the coordinates x i be

transformed to the coordinate system x i and x i be transformed to x i .

When coordinate x i be transformed to x i , the law of transformation of a covariant vector is

x q

Aq

... (1)

x p

When coordinate x i be transformed to x i , the law of transformation of a covariant vector is

Ap =

Ai =

x p

Ap

x i

12

x p x q

Aq

x i x p

x q

Aq

Ai =

x i

This shows that if we make direct transformation from x i to x i , we get same law of transformation.

This property is called that transformation of covariant vectors is transitive or form a group.

Ai =

or

Prove that the equations of transformation a tensor (Mixed tensor) posses the group property.

Proof: Let Aij be a mixed tensor of rank two in a coordinate system x i (i = 1, 2,...,n) . Let the coordinates

x i be transformed to the coordinate system x i and x i be transformed to x i .

When coordinate x i be transformed to x i , the transformation of a mixed tensor of rank two is

x p x s r

As

... (1)

x r x q

When coordinate x i be transformed to x i , the law of transformation of a mixed tensor of rank

two is

Aqp =

A ji

x i x q p

Aq

=

x p x j

=

A ji =

x x x x

x x x x

As from (1)

x i x s r

As

x r x j

This shows that if we make direct transformation from x i to x i , we get same law of transformation.

This property is called that transformation of tensors form a group.

THEOREM 2.6 There is no distinction between contravariant and covariant vectors when we restrict

ourselves to rectangular Cartesian transformation of coordinates.

Proof: Let P(x, y) be a point with respect to the rectangular Cartesian axes X and Y. Let ( x , y ) be the

coordinate of the same point P in another rectangular cartesian axes X and Y , Let (l1, m1) and (l2, m2)

be the direction cosines of the axes X , Y respectively. Then the transformation relations are given by

x = l1 x + m1 y

...(1)

y = l2 x + m2 y

and solving these equations, we have

x = l1 x + l 2 y

y = m1 x + m2 y

put x = x1 , y = x 2 , x = x 1 , y = x 2

...(2)

Tensor Algebra

13

x i j

i =

A ; j = 1,2

A

x j

x i 1 x i 2

i =

A + 2A

A

x1

x

for i = 1, 2 .

x 1 1 x 1 2

A + 2A

=

A

x1

x

2

x 1 x 2 2

2 =

A + 2 A

A

x1

x

1

From (1)

x

2

2

= l , but x = x1 , y = x , x = x 1 , y = x

x 1

Then

x x 1

=

=l .

x x 1 1

Similarly,

2

2

y

x

y

x

= l2 = 1 ;

= m2 = 2

x

y

x

x

x

x 1

= m1 = 2 ;

y

x

...(3)

So, we have

A 1 = l1 A1 + m1 A 2

A 2 = l2 A1 + m 2 A 2

Consider the covariant transformation

..(4)

x j

A j ; j = 1,2

x i

x1

x 2

A

+

A2

Ai =

1

x i

x1

Ai =

for i = 1, 2 .

x1

x 2

A

+

A2

1

x 1

x 1

x 1

x 2

A

+

A2

A2 =

1

x 2

x 2

A1 =

From (3)

A1 = l1 A1 + m1 A2

A2 = l2 A1 + m2 A2

...(5)

14

A 1 = A1 and A 2 = A2

Hence the theorem is proved.

2.7 TENSORS OF HIGHER ORDER

(a) Contravariant tensor of rank r

i i ...i

Let Ai1i 2 ...ir be nr function of coordinates x1, x2, ..., xn in X-coordinates system. If the quantities A i 2 r

are transformed to A i1i 2 ...i r in Y-coordinate system having coordinates x 1 , x 2 , ..., x n . Then according

to the law of transformation

A

Then Ai ii 2 ...i r

i1i 2 ...i r

x i1 x i2

x i r

p1 p 2 ...p r

x p1 x p 2 x p r A

are called components of contravariant tensor of rank r.

Let A j1 j 2 ... j s be n s functions of coordinates x1, x2, ..., xn in X-coordinate system. If the quantities

A j1 j 2 ... j s are transformed to A j1 j 2 ... j s in Y- coordinate system having coordinates x 1 , x 2 ,...,x n . Then

according to the law of transformation

A j1 j 2 ... j s =

x q1 x q 2

x q s

x j1 x j 2

x j s

Aq1 ,q 2 ...,q s

(c) Mixed tensor of rank r + s

i i ...i

Let A j11 2j 2 ...rj s be nr+s functions of coordinates x1, x2, ..., xn in X-coordinate system. If the quantities

Aij11i 2j 2......i rj s are transformed to A ij11ij22......i rj s in Y-coordinate system having coordinates x 1 , x 2 , , x n . Then

according to the law of transformation

A ij11ij22......i rj s =

x i1 x i 2 x ir

x p1 x p2 x p r

x q1 x q 2

x q s

Aqp11qp22......q ps r

j1

j2

js

x x

x

i i ...i

Then A j11 2j 2 ...rj s are called component of mixed tensor of rank r + s .

2 ... j s

A tensor of type Ai1j1i 2j...

is known as tensor of type (r, s ) , In (r,s), the first component r

ir

indicates the rank of contravariant tensor and the second component s indicates the rank of covariant

tensor.

ij

Thus the tensors Aij and A are type (0, 2) and (2, 0) respectively while tensor Aij is type (1, 1).

Tensor Algebra

15

EXAMPLE

ijk

is a mixed tensor of type (3, 2) in which contravariant tensor of rank three and covariant

Alm

tensor of rank two. Then according to the law of transformation

Almijk =

x i x j x k x a x b

x x x x l x m

Aab

A function ( x1 , x 2 , ..., x n ) is called Scalar or an invariant if its original value does not change upon

transform ation of coordinates from x1, x2, ..., xn to x 1 , x 2 , ..., x n . i.e.

( x1 , x 2 ,..., x n ) = ( x 1 , x 2 ,..., x n )

Scalar is also called tensor of rank zero.

For example, Ai Bi is scalar..

2.9 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF TENSORS

THEOREM 2.7 The sum (or difference) of two tensors which have same number of covariant and the

same contravariant indices is again a tensor of the same rank and type as the given tensors.

Proof: Consider two tensors Aij11i 2j 2......i rj s and B ij11i 2j 2......i rj s of the same rank and type (i.e., covariant tensor of

rank s and contravariant tensor of rank r.). Then according to the law of transformation

x i1 x i 2

x ir x q1 x q 2

x q s

A ij11ij22......i rj s =

Aqp11qp22......q ps r

p1

p2

pr

j1

j2

js

x x

x x x

x

and

B ij11ij22......i rj s =

x i1 x i 2

x ir x q1 x q 2

x q s

Bqp11qp22......q ps r

x p1 x p2

x p r x j1 x j2

x j s

Then

A ji11 ij22......i rj s B ij11ij22......i rj s =

x i1 x i 2

x i r x q1 x q 2 x q s

x p1 x p2

x p r x j1 x j 2

x j s

(A

p1 p2 ...p r

q1q 2 ...q s

B qp11qp2 2......qps r

If

A ij11ij22......i rj s B ji11ij22......irj s = C ij11ij22......i rj s

and

Aqp11qp2 2......q ps r Bqp11qp2 2......qps r = C qp11qp2 2......qps r

So,

x i1 x i 2

x ir x q1 x q 2

x q s

,..., pr

Cqp11,,qp22,...,

qs

x p1 x p2

x p r x j1 x j 2

x j s

i , i ,..., i

This is law of transformation of a mixed tensor of rank r+s. So, C j11 , j22 ,..., jrs is a mixed tensor of

C ij11ij22......i rj s =

16

EXAMPLE 5

If Akij and Bnlm are tensors then their sum and difference are tensors of the same rank and type.

Solution

As given Akij and Bkij are tensors. Then according to the law of transformation

Akij =

x i x j x r pq

Ar

x p x q x k

and

Bkij

x i x j x r pq

Br

=

x p x q x k

then

Akij Bkij =

x i x j x r pq

Ar Brpq

p

q

k

x x x

If

Akij B kij = C kij and Arpq B rpq = C rpq

So,

x i x j x r pq

Cr

x p x q x k

The shows that C kij is a tensor of same rank and type as Akij and Bkij .

C kij =

THEOREM 2.8 The multiplication of two tensors is a tensor whose rank is the sum of the ranks of

two tensors.

i i ...i

Proof: Consider two tensors A j11 2j 2 ...rj s (which is covariant tensor of rank s and contravariant tensor of

k k2 ...km

rank r) and Bl11l 2 ...

(which is covariant tensor of rank m and contravariant tensor of rank n). Then

ln

according to the law of transformation.

A ij11ij22......i rj s =

x i1 x i 2

x ir x q1 x q 2

x q r

x p1 x p2

x p r x j1 x j 2

x j s

Aqp11qp22......q ps r

x k1 x k 2

x km x1 x 2

x n

x 1 x 2

x m x l1 x l 2

x l n

B112 2......n m

and

km

Bl1kl12k...2 ...

=

ln

A ij11ij22......i rj s Blk1l12k...2 ...l nkm =

x i1

x p1

x i r x q1

x pr x j1

x q s x k1

x km x 1

x n

x j s x 1

x m x l1

x l m

Aqp11qp22......q ps r B112 2......n m

Tensor Algebra

17

If

...km

i i ...i

k k ...k

C ij1ij2 ......i rjk1l kl 2 ...

= A j11 j22 ...rjs Bl1l12 ...2 ln n

1 2

s 1 2 ln

and

...,p r

C qp11qp2 2......qpsr 112...2...nm = Aqp11qp22...,

B112 2......n m

qs

So,

x q s x k1

x i1

x ir x q 1

x j s x 1

x p1

x p r x j1

x k m x 1

x n

l l C qp11qp2 2......q ps r1 12 2......n h

x m x 1

x n

...km

C ji11ij22......irj ksl11kl 22 ...

ln =

i i ...i

...k

This is law of transformation of a mixed tensor of rank r + m + s + n. . So, C j11 j22 ...rj ks1lk12l 2 ...lmn is a

mixed tensor of rank r + m + s + n . or of type (r + m, s + n ) . Such product is called outer product or

open proudct of two tensors.

THEOREM 2.9 If A i and B j are the components of a contravariant and covariant tensors of rank one

then prove that A iB j are components of a mixed tensor of rank two.

Proof: As Ai is contravariant tensor of rank one and B j is covariant tensor of rank one. Then

according to the law of transformation

Ai =

x i k

A

x k

...(1)

Bj =

x l

Bl

x j

...(2)

and

Ai B j =

x i x l k

A Bl

x k x j

This is law of transformation of tensor of rank two. So, Ai B j are mixed tensor of rank two.

Such product is called outer product of two tensors.

EXAMPLE 6

Show that the product of two tensors Aij and B mkl is a tensor of rank five.

Solution

As Aij and B mkl are tensors. Then by law of transformation

A ji =

x i x q p

Aq

x p x j

and

Bmkl =

x k x l x t rs

Bt

x r x s x m

18

A ji Bmkl =

x i x q x k x l x t p rs

A B

x p x j x r x s x m q t

This is law of transformation of tensor of rank five. So, Aij B mkl is a tensor of rank five.

2.11 CONTRACTION OF A TENSOR

The process of getting a tensor of lower order (reduced by 2) by putting a covariant index equal to a

contravariant index and performing the summation indicated is known as Contraction.

In other words, if in a tensor we put one contravariant and one covariant indices equal, the

process is called contraction of a tensor.

ijk

For example, consider a mixed tensor Alm

of order five. Then by law of transformation,

x i x j x k x s x t pqr

Ast

x p x q x r x l x m

Put the covariant index l = contravariant index i, so that

Almijk =

Aimijk =

x i x j x k x s x t pqr

Ast

x p x q x r x i x m

x j x k x s xt pqr

Ast

x q x r x p x m

x j x k x t s pqr

p Ast

x q x r x m

Aimijk =

Since

x s

= sp

x p

x j x k x t pqr

A pt

x q x r x m

ijk

This is law of transformation of tensor of rank 3. So, Aim

is a tensor of rank 3 and type (1, 2)

ijk

while Alm is a tensor of rank 5 and type (2, 3). It means that contraction reduces rank of tensor by

two.

l

l

Consider the tensors Akij and Bmn

if we first form their outer product Akij B mn

and contract this by

k

putting l = k then the result is Akij B mn

which is also a tensor, called the inner product of the given

tensors.

Hence the inner product of two tensors is obtained by first taking outer product and then

contracting it.

EXAMPLE 7

If A i and B i are the components of a contravariant and covariant tensors of rank are respectively

then prove that A iB i is scalar or invariant.

Tensor Algebra

19

Solution

As A i and B i are the components of a contravariant and covariant tensor of rank one respectively,

then according to the law of the transformation

x i p

x q

A

Bq

=

and

=

Bi

A

x p

x i

i

x i x q p

A Bq

=

AB

x p x i

x q p

x q

A

B

,

= qp

=

since

q

x p

x p

i

= qp A p Bq

p

A i Bi = A B p

EXAMPLE 8

If Aij is mixed tensor of rank 2 and B mkl is mixed tensor of rank 3. Prove that Aij B mjl is a mixed

tensor of rank 3.

Solution

As Aij is mixed tensor of rank 2 and B mkl is mixed tensor of rank 3. Then by law of transformation

A ji =

x i x q p

x k x l x t rs

kl

A

Bt

q and Bm =

x p x j

x r x s x m

...(1)

Put k = j then

Bmjl

x j x l x t rs

Bt

x r x s x m

...(2)

A ij B mjl =

=

A ji Bmjl

x i x q x j x l x t p rs

Aq Bt

x p x j x r x s x m

x i x l x t q p rs

r Aq Bt

x p x s x m

x i x l x t p qs

Aq B t

=

x p x s x m

since

x q x j

x q

=

= qr

x j x r

x r

since

qr Btrs = Btqs

This is the law of transformation of a mixed tensor of rank three. Hence Aij B mjl is a mixed tensor

of rank three.

20

A tensor is said to be symmetric with respect to two contravariant (or two covariant) indices if its

components remain unchanged on an interchange of the two indices.

EXAMPLE

(1) The tensor A ij is symmetric if A ij = A ji

ijk

ijk

= Almjik

(2) The tensor Alm

is symmetric if Alm

1

n(n + 1) different components in n2

dimensional space.

Proof: Let A ij be a symmetric tensor of rank two. So that Aij = A ji .

A11

21

A

The component of A ij are A31

M

A n1

A12

A 22

A32

M

An2

A13

A 23

A33

M

An3

L

L

L

L

L

A1n

A2n

A 3n

M

A nn

i.e., A ij will have n2 components. Out of these n2 components, n components A 11, A 22, A 33, ..., A nn are

different. Thus remaining components are (n2 n). In which A 12 = A 21, A 23 = A 32 etc. due to symmetry.

So, the remaining different components are

1 2

(n n) . Hence the total number of different

2

components

= n+

1 2

1

(n n) = n(n + 1)

2

2

A tensor is said to be skew-symmetric with respect to two contravariant (or two covariant) indices if

its components change sign on interchange of the two indices.

EXAMPLE

(i) The tensor A ij is Skew-symmetric of A ij = A ji

ijk

ijk

(ii) The tensor Alm

is Skew-symmetric if Alm

= Almjik

THEOREM 2.11

1

n(n 1) different non-zeroo

2

components.

Proof: Let A ij be a skew-symmetric tensor of order two. Then Aij = A ji .

Tensor Algebra

21

0

21

A

ij

The components of A are A 31

M

A n1

[Since A

ii

A12

0

A 32

M

An 2

A13

A 23

0

M

L

L

L

L

An3 L

A1n

A2n

A3n

M

0

i.e., A ij will have n2 components. Out of these n2 components, n components A 11, A 22, A 33, ..., A nn

are zero. Omitting there, then the remaining components are n2 n. In which A 12 = A 21, A 13 = A 31

1 2

etc. Ignoring the sign. Their remaining the different components are (n n) .

2

1

Hence the total number of different non-zero components = n(n 1)

2

Note: Skew-symmetric tensor is also called anti-symmetric tensor.

THEOREM 2.12 A covariant or contravariant tensor of rank two say Aij can always be written as the

sum of a symmetric and skew-symmetric tensor.

Proof: Consider a covariant tensor A ij. We can write A ij as

Aij =

1

1

( A + A ji ) + ( Aij A ji )

2 ij

2

where

Sij =

1

1

( Aij + A ji ) and Tij = ( Aij A ji )

2

2

S ji =

1

( A + Aij )

2 ji

Now,

S ji = Sij

So, Sij is symmetric tensor..

and

Tij =

1

( A + A ji )

2 ij

1

( A Aij )

2 ji

1

= ( Aij A ji )

2

T ji =

T ji = Tij

or

Tij = T ji

So, Tij is Skew-symmetric Tensor..

22

EXAMPLE 9

j k

If = a jk A A . Show that we can always write = b jk A j Ak where b jk is symmetric.

Solution

As given

= a jk A j A k

Interchange the indices i and j

...(1)

= ak j A k A j

...(2)

2 = (a jk + akj ) A j A k

=

1

(a jk + akj ) A j A k

2

= b jk A j A k

where b jk =

1

(a + akj )

2 jk

Since

1

(a + akj )

2 jk

1

= (a kj + a jk )

2

1

= (a jk + akj )

2

b jk =

bkj

bkj = b jk

So, b jk is Symmetric.

EXAMPLE 10

Ti T j

If Ti be the component of a covariant vector show that j i

x

x

symmetric covariant tensor of rank two.

Solution

As Ti is covariant vector. Then by the law of transformation

Ti =

x k

Tk

x i

Tensor Algebra

23

Ti

j = x j

x

x k

x i Tk

2 x k

x k Tk

T

+

=

k

x j x i

x i x j

T j

x j

2 xk

x k x l Tk

T

+

k

x j x i

x i x j x l

...(1)

Similarly,

T j

2 xk

x k x l Tk

T

+

k

x i

x i x j

x j x i x l

Interchanging the dummy indices k & l

T j

x i

2 x k

x k x l Tl

T

+

k

x i x j

x i x j x k

...(2)

x k x l Tk Tl

Ti T j

=

x i x j x l x k

x j x i

This is law of transformation of covariant tensor of rank two. So,

Ti T j

are component of

x j x i

Ti T j

To show that

is Skew-symmetric tensor..

x j x i

Let

Ti T j

Aij =

x j x i

T j Ti

A ji =

xi x j

T

j

i

= x j x i

A ji = Aij

or

Aij = A ji

Ti T j

is Skew-symmetric.

x j x i

Ti T j

So,

are component of a Skew-symmetric covariant tensor of rank two.

x j x i

So, Aij =

24

By this law, we can test a given quantity is a tensor or not. Suppose given quantity be A and we do not

know that A is a tensor or not. To test A, we take inner product of A with an arbitrary tensor, if this

inner product is a tensor then A is also a tensor.

Statement

If the inner product of a set of functions with an atbitrary tensor is a tensor then these set of

functions are the components of a tensor.

The proof of this law is given by the following examples.

EXAMPLE 11

Show that the expression A(i,j,k) is a covariant tensor of rank three if A(i,j,k)B k is covariant

tensor of rank two and B k is contravariant vector

Solution

Let X and Y be two coordinate systems.

As given A (i, j, k)B k is covariant tensor of rank two then

A ( i, j, k ) B k =

x p x q

x i x j

A( p, q, r )B r

...(1)

x k

x r

Bk = r Br

Br = k B k

or

x

x

So, from (1)

A ( i, j, k ) B k =

A ( i, j, k ) B k =

A ( i, j , k ) =

x p x q

x i x j

A ( p , q, r )

x p x q x r

x i x j x k

x p x q x r

x r

x k

Bk

A( p, q , r )B k

A( p , q , r )

x i x i x k

As B k is arbitrary..

So, A(i , j , k ) is covariant tensor of rank three.

EXAMPLE 12

If A (i, j, k)A iB jCk is a scalar for arbitrary vectors A i, B j, Ck. Show that A(i, j, k) is a tensor of

type (1, 2).

Solution

Let X and Y be two coordinate systems. As given A(i , j, k ) A i B j C k is scalar. Then

i

A (i, j, k ) A B C k = A( p, q, r ) A B C r

...(1)

Tensor Algebra

25

x i p

A

Ai =

or

x p

x j q

B or

Bj =

x q

x k

C k = r Cr

or

x

So, from (1)

i

A (i, j , k ) A B C k = A( p, q, r)

x p i

A

x i

x q j

B

=

x j

x r k

C

=

x k

Ap =

Bq

Cr

x p xq x k

x i x j xr

Ai B jCk

As A i , B j , C k are arbitrary..

Then

x p xq x k

A( p, q, r )

A ( i, j , k ) =

xi x j xr

So, A(i, j, k) is tensor of type (1, 2).

2.16

Consider a covariant symmetric tensor Aij of rank two. Let d denote the determinant Aij with the

elements Aij i.e., d = Aij and d 0 .

Now, define A ij by

A ij =

d

A is a contravariant symmetric tensor of rank two which is called conjugate (or Reciprocal) tensor

of Aij .

ij

THEOREM 2.13 If Bij is the cofactor of Aij in the determinant d = |Aij| 0 and Aij defined as

A ij =

Bij

d

Proof: From the properties of the determinants, we have two results.

kj

(i)

ki

Aij Bij = d

Aij

Bij

d

=1

Aij Aij = 1,

given

Aij =

Bij

d

26

(ii)

Aij B kj = 0

Aij

B kj

d

= 0,

Aij Akj = 0

d 0

if i k

1 if i = k

Aij Akj = 0 if i k

Aij Akj = ik

i.e.,

2.17 RELATIVE TENSOR

i i ...i

If the components of a tensor A j11 2j 2 ...rj s transform according to the equation

2 ...k r

Alk11l 2k...

ls

x

=

x

Aij11i 2j 2......i rj s

x k1 x k2

x k r x j1 x j2

x js

x i1 x i 2

xi r x l r x l 2

x l s

x

is the Jacobian of transformation. If

x

= 1, the relative tensor is called a tensor density. If w = 0 then tensor is said to be absolute.

i i ...i

Hence A j11 2j 2 ...rj r is called a relative tensor of weight , where

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES

1. Show that there is no distinction between contravariant and covariant vectors when we

restrict ourselves to transformation of the type

i m

i

x i = am x + b ;

where a's and b's are constants such that

a ir ami = rm

Solution

Given that

or

i m

i

x i = am x + b

a im x m = x i bi

...(1)

...(2)

a ir ami x m = a ir x i bi a ir

rm x m = a ir x i bi a ir as given a ir ami = rm

i i

i i

x r = a r x b a r as rm x m = x r

or

i i

i i

xs = as x b as

x s

= a is

x i

..(3)

Tensor Algebra

27

i s

i

x i = as x + b

x i

a is

s =

x

The contravariant transformation is

...(4)

x i s

A = a is A s

=

A

x s

The covariant transformation is

...(5)

x s

As = a is As

...(6)

x i

Thus from (5) and (6), it shows that there is no distinction between contravariant and

covariant tensor law of transformation

Ai =

2. If the tensors aij and g ij are symmetric and u i , v i are components of contravariant vectors

satisfying the equations

(aij kgij )u i = 0, i, j = 1, 2,...,n

( aij k'gij )v i = 0, k k .

Prove that gij u i v j = 0, a ij u i v j = 0.

Solution

The equations are

(aij kgij )u i = 0

...(1)

(aij k gij )v i = 0

j

...(2)

j

aij u i v j aij v i u j kgij u i v j + k gij u j v i = 0

Interchanging i and j in the second and fourth terms,

a ij u i v j a ji v j u i kgij u i v j + k g ji u i v j = 0

As aij and g ij is symmetric i.e., a ij = a ji & g ij = g ji

kgij v j u i + k gij u i v j = 0

i

(k k ) g ij u v = 0

g ij u i v j = 0 since k k k k 0

Multiplying (1) by v j , we get

a ij v j u i kgij u i v j = 0

a ij u i v j = 0 as g ij u i v j = 0.

Proved.

28

i

i k

( j l + l j ) Aik = 0

Solution

Given Aij is a Skew-symmetric tensor then Aij = A ji .

Now,

i

i k

= ij Ail + il Aij

= A jl + Alj

i

i k

( j l + l j ) Aik = 0

as A jl = Alj

4. If aij is symmetric tensor and bi is a vector and a ij bk + a jk bi + a kib j = 0 then prove that

a ij = 0 or bk = 0 .

Solution

The equation is

aij bk + a jk bi + akib j = 0

aij bk + a jk bi + akib j = 0

a pq

x p x q

x r

x p x q x r

x p x q

x r

b

+

a

b

+

a

b

=0

r

pq

r

pq

r

x i x j x k

x j x k

x i

x k x i

x j

x p x q x r x p x q x r x p x q x r

+ j

+

a pq br i

j

k

x x k x i x k x i x j

x x x

= 0

a pq br = 0 a pq = 0 or br = 0

a ij = 0 or bk = 0

5. If a mn x x = bmn x x for arbitrary values of x r , show that a(mn) = b(mn) i.e.,

a mn + a nm = bmn + bnm

m n

m n

If a mn and bmn are symmetric tensors then further show the a mn = bmn .

Solution

Given

a mn x m x n = bmn x m x n

(a mn bmn )x m x n = 0

Tensor Algebra

29

(ain bin )x n + (ami bmi ) x m = 0

Differentiating again w.r.t. x j partially

(aij bij ) + (a ji b ji ) = 0

a ij + a ji = bij + b ji

or

So,

2 amn = 2bmn

a mn = bmn

EXERCISES

1. Write down the law of transformation for the tensors

(i) Aij

(ii) Bkij

ijk

(iii) Clm

2. If Arpq and Bts are tensors then prove that Arpq Bts is also a tensor..

3. If Aij is a contravariant tensor and Bi is covariant vector then prove that Aij Bk is a tensor of rank

three and Aij Bj is a tensor of rank one.

4. If Ai is an arbitrary contravariant vector and Cij Ai Aj is an invariant show that Cij + Cji is a covariant

tensor of the second order.

5. Show that every tensor can be expressed in the terms of symmetric and skew-symmetric tensor.

6. Prove that in n-dimensional space, symmetric and skew-symmetric tensor have

n

n

(n + 1) and (n 1)

2

2

7. If U ij 0 are components of a tensor of the type (0, 2) and if the equation fUij + gU

ji

= 0 holds

w.r.t to a basis then prove that either f = g and U ij is skew-symmetric or f = g and U ij is symmetric.

i k

i k

8. If Aij is skew-symmetric then ( B j Bl + B l B j ) Aik = 0 .

ij

30

10. If Arpq is a tensor of rank three. Show that Arpr is a contravariant tensor of rank one.

ij

k

k

11. If a k i j is a scalar or invariant, i , j , are vectors then akij is a mixed tensor of type (2, 1).

h i h k

12. Show that if a hijk = 0 where i and i are components of two arbitrary vectors then

13. Prove that Aij Bi C j is invariant if Bi and C j are vector and Aij is tensor of rank two.

14. If A(r, s, t) be a function of the coordinates in n-dimensional space such that for an arbitrary vector

Br of the type indicated by the index a A(r, s, t)Br is equal to the component Cst of a contravariant

tensor of order two. Prove that A(r, s, t) are the components of a tensor of the form Arst .

15. If Aij and Aij are components of symmetric relative tensors of weight w. show that

A

ij

ij

= A

x

x

w 2

and

Aij = Aij

x

x

w+ 2

16. Prove that the scalar product of a relative covariant vector of weight w and a relative contravariant

vector of weight w is a relative scalar of weight w + w .

CHAPTER 3

3.1 THE METRIC TENSOR

In rectangular cartesian coordinates, the distance between two neighbouring point are (x, y, z) and

( x + dx, y + dy, z + dz ) is given by ds 2 = dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2 .

In n-dimensional space, Riemann defined the distance ds between two neighbouring points x i

and x i + dx i (i = 1, 2,...n) by quadratic differential form

ds 2 = g11 (dx 1 ) 2 + g12 dx 1dx 2 + + g1n dx1 dx n

+ g12 (dx 2 )dx1 + g 22 (dx 2 ) 2 + + g 2 n dx 2 dx n

+

. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

+ g n1 dx n dx1 + g n 2 dx n dx 2 + + g nn (dx n )2

ds 2 = g ij dx i dx j (i, j = 1,2,...n)

...(1)

Where g ij are the functions of the coordinates x i such that

g = g ij 0

The quadratic differential form (1) is called the Riemannian Metric or Metric or line element for ndimensional space and such n-dimensional space is called Riemannian space and denoted by Vn and

g ij is called Metric Tensor or Fundamental tensor..

The geometry based on Riemannian Metric is called the Riemannian Geometry.

THEOREM 3.1 The Metric tensor g ij is a covariant symmetry tensor of rank two.

Proof: The metric is given by

i

j

ds 2 = g ij dx dx

...(1)

32

system. Then metric ds2 = gij dxidxj transforms to ds 2 = g ij d x i dx j .

Since distance being scalar quantity.

i

j

i

j

ds 2 = g ij dx dx = gij dx dx

So,

(i) To show that dxi is a contravariant vector.

x i = x i (x1, x2 ,...x n )

If

dxi =

x i 1 x i 2

x i n

dx

+

dx

+

+

dx

x i

x 2

x n

dxi =

x i k

dx

x k

(ii) To show that g ij is a covariant tensor of rank two. Since

dxi =

x i k

x j l

j

dx

x

and

d

x

=

x k

x l

x i

x k

x i

g ij dx i dx j = g ij k

x

x i

k

l

g

g kl dx dx = ij k

x

g ij dx i dx j = g ij

dxk

x j l

dx

x l

x j k l

x dx

x l

x j k l

dx dx

x l

i

j

g kl g ij x x

x k x l

or

or

g kl gij

k l

dx dx = 0

x i x j

= 0 as dx k and dx l are arbitrary..

x k x l

g kl = g ij

x j x j

x k x l

g ij = g kl

x k x l

x i x j

...(2)

33

g ij =

1

1

(g + g ji ) + ( gij g ji )

2 ij

2

g ij = Aij + Bij

1 g +g

( ij

ji ) = symmetric

2

1

Bij = (g ij g ji ) = Skew-symmetric

2

Aij =

where

Now,

(4)

Bij dxi dx j = B ji dx i dx j

Bij dxi dx j = B ij dx i dx j

Since Bij is Skew-symmetric i.e., Bij = B ji

Bij dx i dx j + Bij dx i dx j = 0

2 Bij dx i dx j = 0

Bij dxi dx j = 0

( gij Aij )dx i dx j = 0

So, g ij is symmetric since Aij is symmetric. Hence g ij is a covariant symmetric tensor of rank

two. This is called fundamental Covariant Tensor.

THEOREM 3.2 To show that g ij dx i dx j is an invariant.

Proof: Let x i be coordinates of a point in X-coordinate system and x i be coordinates of a same point

in Y-coordinate system.

Since g ij is a Covariant tensor of rank two.

Then,

g ij = g kl

x k x 1

x i x j

34

x k x l

=0

x i x j

g ij g kl

k

l

gij g kl x x

x i x j

i j

dx dx = 0

( g ij dx dx ) = g kl

x k x l i j

dx dx

x i x j

= g kl

x k i x l

dx

dx j

x i

x j

g ij dx i dx j = g kl dx k dx l

So, g ij dx i dx j is an ivariant.

3.2 CONJUGATE METRIC TENSOR: (CONTRAVARIANT TENSOR)

The conjugate Metric Tensor to g ij , which is written as g ij , is defined by

Bij

g ij = g (by Art.2.16, Chapter 2)

where Bij is the cofactor of g ij in the determinant g = g ij 0 .

By theorem on page 26

Aij Akj = ik

g ij g kj = ik

So,

Note

(i)

(ii)

g ij is called first fundamental Tensor and g ij second fundamental Tensors.

EXAMPLE 1

Find the Metric and component of first and second fundamental tensor is cylindrical coordinates.

Solution

Let (x1, x2, x3) be the Cartesian coordinates and (x1, x2 , x3 ) be the cylindrical coordinates of a

point. The cylindrical coordinates are given by

x = r cos , y = r sin , z = z

So that

x1 = x, x 2 = y, x 3 = z and x 1 = r , x 2 = , x 3 = z

...(1)

Let g ij and g ij be the metric tensors in Cartesian coordinates and cylindrical coordinates

respectively.

35

2

2

2

ds 2 = dx + dy + dz

12

2 2

3 2

ds 2 = (dx ) + (dx ) +(dx )

...(2)

i

j

ds 2 = g ij dx dx

But

+ g22(dx2)2 + g 23 dx 2 dx 3 + g 31dx 3 dx 1

+ g 32 dx 3 dx 2 + g33(dx3)3

...(3)

g11 = g 22 = g 33 = 1 and g12 = g13 = g 21 = g 23 = g31 = g 32 = 0

On transformation

g ij = g ij

x i x j

, since g ij is Covariant Tensor of rank two. (i, j = 1, 2, 3)

x i x j

for i = j = 1.

2

g11

x1

x 2

x 3

= g11 1 + g 22 1 + g 33 1

x

x

x

2

x

y

z

g11 = g11 + g 22 + g 33

r

r

r

and g11 = g 22 = g 33

x

y

z

= cos,

= sin ,

=0

r

r

r

= 1.

g11 = cos 2 + sin 2 + 0

g11 = 1

Put i = j = 2.

x 1

g 22 = g11 2

x

2

+ g 22 x

x 2

g 22

3

+ g 33 x

x 2

x

y

z

+ g 22

+ g 33

= g11

36

Since g11 = g 22 = g 33 = 1

z

x

y

=0

= r sin ,

= r cos,

g 22 = ( r sin )2 + (r cos )2 + 0

= r 2 sin 2 + r 2 cos 2

g 22 = r 2

Put i = j = 3.

2

g 33

x1

x 2

x 3

g

+

g

+

g

= 11 3

22

33

3

3

x

x

x

2

x

y

z

= g11 + g 22 + g 33

z

z

z

Since

x

y

z

= 0,

= 0,

= 1 . So, g 33 = 1 .

z

z

z

So,

g11 = 1, g 22 = r 2 , g 33 = 1

and

i

j

ds 2 = g ij dx dx i, j = 1, 2,3.

( )

1

ds 2 = g11 dx

( )

+ g 22 dx 2

( )

+ g 33 dx 3

2

2

2

2

ds 2 = dr + r (d ) + d

g ij

since

2

= g 21 g 22 g 23 = 0 r 0

g 31 g32 g 33 0 0 1

1

g = g ij = 0

0

2

g= r

0

r2

0

0

0

1

37

B11 = r 2 , B22 = 1, B33 = r 2

and

B12 = B21 = B13 = B 23 = B31 = B32 = 0

ij

The second fundamental tensor or conjugate tensor is g =

and

g 11 =

cofactor of g11 in g

g

g 11 =

B11 r 2

= 2 =1

g

r

g 22 =

B12 1

= 2

g

r

g 33 =

B33 r 2

= 2 =1

g

r

Bij

g

g 12 = g13 = g 21 = g 23 = g 31 = g 32 = 0

0 0

1

0 .

r2

0 1

EXAMPLE 2

Find the matrix and component of first and second fundamental tensors in spherical coordinates.

Solution

Let ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 ) be the cartesian coordinates and ( x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ) be the spherical coordinates of a

point. The spherical coordinates are given by

x = r sin cos , y = r sin sin , z = r cos

So that x1 = x, x 2 = y , x 3 = z and x 1 = r , x 2 = , x 3 =

Let g ij and g ij be the metric tensors in cartesian and spherical coordinates respectively..

The metric in cartesian coordinates is given by

2

2

2

ds 2 = dx + dy + dz

( ) + (dx ) + (dx )

ds 2 = dx1

But

2 2

3 2

i

j

ds 2 = g ij dx dx ; (i, j = 1, 2, 3)

38

On transformation

g ij = g ij

x i x j

x i x j

x1 x 1

x 2 x 2

x 3 x 3

+

g

+

g

22

33

x i x j

x i x j

x i x 1

since i, j are dummy indices.

Put i = j = 1

g ij = g11

g11

x 1

x 2

x 3

g

+

g

+

g

= 11 1

22

33

1

1

x

x

x

g11

x

y

z

= g11 + g 22 + g 33

r

r

r

x

z

y

= cos

= sin sin ,

= sin cos ,

r

r

r

and g11 = g 22 = g 33 = 1 .

So,

g11 = (sin cos )2 + (sin sin )2 + cos2

g11 = 1

put i = j = 2

g 22

x 1

= g11 2

x

2

+ g 22 x

x 2

3

+ g 33 x

x 2

x

y

z

g 22 = g11 + g 22 + g33

since g11 = g 22 = g 33 = 1

x

y

z

= r cos cos ,

= r cos sin ,

= r sin

g 22 = r 2

39

Put i = j = 3

2

g 33

x1

x 2

x 3

g

+

g

+

g

= 11 3

22

33

3

3

x

x

x

g 33

x

y

z

= g11 + g 22 + g33

since g11 = g 22 = g 33 = 1

x

y

z

= r sin sin ,

= r sin cos ,

=0

and

g 33 = r 2 sin 2

So, we have

g11 = 1, g 22 = r 2 , g 33 = r 2 sin 2

g12 = g13 = g 21 = g 23 = g31 = g 32 = 0

and

i

j

ds 2 = g ij dx dx ; i, j = 1, 2, 3

( )

1

ds 2 = g11 dx

( )

+ g 22 dx 2

( )

+ g 33 dx 3

ds 2 = dr 2 + r 2 d 2 + r 2 sin 2 d 2

(ii) The Metric tensor or first fundamental tensor is

g ij

and

g g g = 0 r 2

0

= 21 22 23

g 31 g32 g 33 0 0 r 2 sin 2

g = g ij

1

=0

0

0

r2

0

0

0

= r 4 sin 2

r 2 sin 2

(iii) The cofactor of g are given by B11 = 1, B22 = r 2 , B33 = r 2 sin 2 and B12 = B21 =

B31 = B13 = B23 = B32 = 0

The second fundamental tensor or conjugate tensor is g ij =

Bij

g

40

g 11 =

=

g

g

r 4 sin 2

r 4 sin 2

=1

=

g 11

g

22

B 22 r 2 sin 2

= 4 2

=

g

r sin

g 22 =

g

33

1

r2

B33

r2

=

=

g

r 4 sin 2

g 33 =

1

r sin 2

2

12

13

21

31

32

and g = g = g = g = g = 0

Hence the fundamental tensor in matrix form is

g

21

= g

g 31

11

ij

12

g 22

g 32

0

g

0

23

g =

g 33

0

0

1

r2

13

r 2 sin 2

EXAMPLE 3

If the metric is given by

( ) ( )

2

ds 2 = 5 dx 1 + 3 dx 2

( )

+ 4 dx 3

Solution

i

j

The metric is ds 2 = g ij dx dx ;

(i, j = 1, 2, 3)

( )

1

ds 2 = g11 dx

Since g ij is symmetric g ij = g ji

i.e.,

So,

41

1 2

2 2

3 2

1

2

ds 2 = g11 (dx ) + g 22 (dx ) + g33 (dx ) + 2 g12 dx dx

+ 2 g 23 dx 2 dx 3 + 2 g13 dx1 dx 3

...(1)

1 2

2 2

3 2

1

2

2

3

ds 2 = 5(dx ) + 3(dx ) + 4(dx ) 6dx dx + 4dx dx

Comparing (1) and (2) we have

2 g 23 = 4 g 23 = 2 = g 32 , g13 = 0 = g 31

5 3 0

g = g ij = g 21 g 22 g 23 = 3 3 2 = 4

g 31 g 32 g33

0 2 4

(ii) Let Bij be the cofactor of g ij in g.

Then

B11 = Cofactor of g11 =

3 2

=8

2 4

B22 = Cofactor of g 22 =

5 0

= 20

04

B33 = Cofactor of g 33 =

5 3

=6

3 3

3 2

= 12 = B 21

0 4

B13 = Cofactor of g13 =

B 23

Since

3 3

= 6 = B31

0 2

= Cofactor of g 23 =

g ij =

5 3

0

= 10 = B 32

Bij

g

We have

B

8

g 11 = 11 = = 2; g 22 = 5, g 33 = 3 , g 12 = g 21 = 3, g 13 = g 31 = 3 , g 23 = g 32 = 5

g

4

2

2

2

...(2)

42

Hence,

g ij

3

3

2

5

3

5

2

3 5

3

2 2

2

2

Consider a continuous curve in a Riemannian Vn i.e., a curve such that the coordinate x i of any

current point on it are expressible as functions of some parameter, say t.

The equation of such curve can be expressed as

x i = xi (t)

The length ds of the arc between the points whose coordinate s are x i and x i + dx i given by

i

j

ds 2 = g ij dx dx

If s be arc length of the curve between the points P1 and P2 on the curve which correspond to

the two values t1 and t 2 of the parameter t.

s =

P2

P1

ds =

t2

t1

12

i

j

gij dx dx dt

dt dt

NULL CURVE

dx i dx j

= 0 along a curve. Then s = 0. Then the points P1 and P2 are at zero distance, despite

dt dt

of the fact that they are not coincident. Such a curve is called minimal curve or null curve.

If g ij

EXAMPLE 4

A curve is in spherical coordinate xi is given by

2

1 1

3

2

x1 = t, x = sin and x = 2 t 1

t

Solution

In spherical coordinate, the metric is given by

1 2

1 2

2 2

1

2 2

3 2

ds 2 = (dx ) + ( x ) (dx ) + ( x sin x ) (dx )

43

2

1 1

, x3 = 2 t 2 1

x1 = t, x = sin

t

given

dx 2 =

dt

t t 1

2

, dx 3 =

2t

t 2 1

dt

2t

dt

1 1

+t

+ t sin sin

dt

t t 2 1

t t 2 1

ds = (dt )

1 2

1

1

2t dt

2 dt , dx 3 = 2 t 2 1

2

1 t

1

t

dx 1 = dt , dx 2 =

dt 2

4t 2

2

dt

+

+

(dt )2

=

ds

2

2

t 1 t 1

2

5t 2

2

ds 2 = t 2 1 dt

ds =

t 1

2

dt

2

t2

t1

3.4

ds =

5 t2 1

=

dt =

2 12

t2 1

1

t

15 units

ASSOCIATED TENSOR

i i ... i

A tensor obtained by the process of inner product of any tensor A j11 2j 2 ... rj s with either of the fundamental

e.g. Consider a tensor Aijk and form the following inner product

g i Aijk = Ajk ; g j Aijk = Aik ; g k Aijk = Aij

All these tensors are called Associated tensor of Aijk .

Associated Vector

Consider a covariant vector Ai . Then g ik Ai = A k is called associated vector of Ai . Consider a

contravariant vector A j . Then g jk A j = Ak is called associated vector of A j .

44

i

The magnitude or length A of contravariant vector A . Then A is defined by

A=

or

g ij Ai A j

i j

A 2 = g ij A A

i

Also, A2 = A j A j as g ij A = A j

i.e., square of the magnitude is equal to scalar product of the vector and its associate.

A=

g ij Ai A j

A 2 = g ij Ai A j

or

A vector of magnitude one is called Unit vector. A vector of magnitude zero is called zero vector

or Null vector.

3.6 rSCALAR

r r

r PRODUCT OF TWO VECTORS

Let A and B be two vectors. Their scalar product is written as A B and defined by

r r

A B = Ai Bi

r r

i

i j

j

Also,

A B = A B i = g ij A B since Bi = g ij B

r r

i

ij

i

ij

A B = Ai B = g Ai B j since B = g B j

Thus

i.e.,

r r

i

i j

2

A A = A Ai = g ij A A = A

r

A = A = g ij Ai A j

Angle

two vectors

r between

r

Let A and B be two vectors. Then

r r

r r

A B = A B cos

r r

g ij A i B j

AB

cos = r r =

AB

g ij A i A j g ij B i B j

since

r

A =

r

g ij Ai A j ; B =

g ij B i B j

Definition

r

r

The inner product of two contravariant vectors A (or A i ) and B (or Bi ) associated with a symmetric

tensor g ij is defined as g ij A i B j . It is denoted by

r r

i j

g ( A , B ) = g ij A B

45

r

r

THEOREM 3.3 The necessary and sufficient condition that the two vectors A and B at 0 be orthogonal

r r

if g ( A, B ) = 0

r

r

Proof: Let be angle between the vectors A and B then

r r

r r

A B = A B cos

r r

or

A B = AB cos

g ij A i B j = AB cos

cos =

g ij Ai B j

...(1)

AB

r

r

If A and B are orthogonal then = cos = 0 then from (1)

2

i j

g ij A B = 0

r r

r r

i j

g A, B = 0 since g A, B = g ij A B

( )

( )

i j

Conversely if g ij A B = 0 then from (1)

cos = 0 = .

2

r

r

So, two vectors A & B are orthogonal.

r

r

r

r

Note: (i) If A and B be unit vectors. Then A = B = 1. Then

Proved.

r r

cos = A B = gij A i B j

r

r

(ii) Two vectors A and B will be orthogonal if angle between them is i.e., = then

2

2

cos = cos = = 0

2

THEOREM 3.4 To show that the definition of the angle between two vectors is consistent with the

requirement cos 2 1.

OR

To justify the definition of the angle between two vectors.

OR

To show that the angle between the contravariant vectors is real when the Riemannian Metric is

positive definition.

r

r

Proof: Let be the angle between unit vectors A and B then

i j

j

ij

ij

i

cos = g ij A B = A j B = A j B Bi = g A j Bi = A Bi

46

Consider the vector lAi + mB i when l and m are scalars. The square of the magnitude of

i

i

j

j

lAi + mB i = g ij (lA + mB ) (lA + mB )

2 i j

i j

i j

2

i j

= g ij l A A + g ij lmA B + m lg ij B A + m g ij B B

= l 2 + 2lm cos + m 2

Since

i j

2

g ij A i A j = A 2 = 1; g ij B B = B = 1.

and

r

r

r

g ij A i B j = cos; as A & B are unit vector i.e., A = 1 A 2 = 1 .

So, the square of the magnitude of lAi + mB i 0.

or

l 2 + 2lm cos + m 2 0

(l + m cos )2 + m 2 m 2 cos 2

(l + m cos) 2 + m 2 (1 cos2 ) 0

This inequality holds for the real values of l & m.

if

1 cos2 0

cos 2 1

cos 1

Proved.

Proof: Let A and B be magnitudes of associate vectors A i and A i respectively. Then

i j

A 2 = g ij A A

...(1)

ij

B 2 = g Ai A j

...(2)

and

From equation (1)

A 2 = (gij Ai ) A j

A2 = Aj A j

...(3)

From equation (2)

ij

B 2 = (g Ai )A j

j

B2 = A Aj

...(4)

47

since g ij Ai = A j

from (3) and (4)

2

A2 = B

A=B

i

So, magnitude of Ai and A are equal.

Let a Vn referred to coordinate x i , (i = 1, 2, ... n) . For a coordinate curve of parameter x l, the coordinate

x l alone varies. Thus the coordinate curve of parameter x l is defined as

x i = c i , i except i = l

...(1)

i,

C

s

where

are constants.

Differentiating it, we get

dx i = 0, i , except i = l and dx l 0

Let Ai and B i be the tangent vectors to a coordinate curve of parameters x p and x q respectively..

Then

Ai = dx i = (0,...0, x p , 0...0)

...(2)

B i = dx i = (0,...0, x q , 0...0)

...(3)

cos =

cos =

g ij A i B j

g ij A i A j

g ij B i B j

g pq A p B q

g pp A p A p g qq B q B q

g pq A p B q

g pp g qq A p B q

g pq

g pp g qq

The angle wij between the coordinate curves of parameters x i and x j is given by

cos wij =

g ij

g ii g jj

...(4)

48

cos wij = cos

=0

2

g ij = 0

3.9 HYPERSURFACE

The n equations xi = xi (u1) represent a subspace of Vn . If we eliminate the parameter u1, we get

(n 1) equations in x j, s which represent one dimensional curve.

Similarly the n equations xi = xi (u1,u2) represent two dimensional subspace of V n. If we eliminating

the parameters u1, u2, we get n 2 equations in xi,s which represent two dimensional curve V n. This

two dimensional curve define a subspace, denoted by V 2 of V n.

Then n equations xi = xi (u1, u2, ... un1) represent n 1 dimensional subspace V n1 of V n. If we

eliminating the parameters u1, u2, ...un1, we get only one equation in x i, s which represent n 1

dimensional curve in V n. This particular curve is called hypersurface of V n.

i

hypersurface of V n.

3.10 ANGLE BETWEEN TWO COORDINATE HYPERSURFACE

Let

and

(x i ) = constant

...(1)

( x i ) = constant

...(2)

Differentiating equation (1), we get

i

dx = 0

x i

...(3)

is orthogonal to dx i . Hence

is normal to = constant, since dx i is

i

x

x i

tangential to hypersurface (1).

This shows that

is normal to the hypersurface (2). If is the angle between the hypersurface (1)

x i

and (2) then is also defined as the angle between their respective normals. Hence required angle

is given by

Similarly

x i x j

g ij i

g ij i

j

x x

x x j

g ij

cos =

...(4)

49

If we take

and

= x p = constant

...(5)

= x q = constant

The angle between (5) and (6) is given by

...(6)

x p x q

x i x j

q

q

x p x p

ij x x

g ij i

g

x x j

x i x j

g ij

cos =

g ij ip qj

g ij ip qj g ij qi qj

g pq

cos =

g pp g qq

...(7)

g ij

cos ij =

g ii g jj

...(8)

ij =

cos ij = 0

ij

3.11 n-PLY ORTHOGONAL SYSTEM OF HYPERSURFACES

If in a Vn there are n families of hypersurfaces such that, at every point, each hypersurface is orthogonal

to the n 1 hypersurface of the other families which pass through that point, they are said to form as

n-ply orthogonal system of hypersurfaces.

3.12 CONGRUENCE OF CURVES

A family of curves one of which passes through each point of Vn is called a congruence of curves.

3.13 ORTHOGONAL ENNUPLE

An orthogonal ennuple in a Riemannian Vn consists of n mutually orthogonal congruence of curves.

50

THEOREM 3.6 To find the fundamental tensors g ij and g ij in terms of the components of the unit

tangent e h ( h = 1, 2,... n ) to an orthogonal ennuple.

Proof: Consider n unit tangents e ih (h = 1, 2,...n) to conguence e h ( h = 1, 2,... n ) of an orthogonal ennuple

in a Riemannian Vn . The subscript h followed by an upright bar simply distinguishes one congruence

from other. It does not denote tensor suffix.

The contravariant and covariant components of eh | are denoted by eh | and eh |i respectively..

Suppose any two congruences of orthogonal ennuple are eh | and ek | so that

g ij ehi |ekj| = hk

...(1)

ehi |ek |i = hk

from (1),

g ij ehi | ekj| = 0

g ij ehi | ehj| = 1

and

We define

ehi | =

cofactorof eh |i in determinant eh |i

e h|i

n

e e

i

h| h | j

h =1

= ij

...(2)

Multiplying by e jk

n

e e

i

h| h| j

h =1

g j k = ij g jk

e e

i k

h | h|

or

h =1

= g ik

...(3)

n

e e

i

h | h | j g ik

h =1

or

i

= j g ik

g jk =

h |k eh | j

...(4)

n

g ij =

h |i

h =1

e h| j

...(5)

51

g ij =

i

h|

e hj|

...(6)

h =1

Corollary: To find the magnitude of any vector u is zero if the projections of u on eh | are all zero.

Proof: Let

n

u =

C e

i

h h|

...(7)

h =1

Then

n

u i ek |i =

C e e

i

h h | k |i

h =1

or

C

h

h

k

= Ck

h =1

C k = u i ek |i

...(8)

C k = projection of u i on ek |i

i.e.,

Using (8), equation (7) becomes

n

ui =

u e

j

i

h| j ek |

h =1

Now,

u 2 = u iu i =

C e C e

i

h h|

k k |i

from (7)

C C e e

i

k h | k| i

h ,k

C C

h

h

k

h ,k

C C

h

(C

)2

h

n

u2 =

h =1

Hence the magnitude of a vector u is zero iff all the projections of u (i.e. of ui) on n mutually

orthogonal directions ehi | are zero.

52

Miscellaneous Examples

1. If p and q are orthogonal unit vectors, show that

( g hj g ik g hk gij ) p h q i p j q k = 1

Solution

Since p and q are orthogonal unit vectors. Then

g ij pi q j = 0, p 2 = q 2 = 1 .

Now,

h

j i k

h k i j

( g hj g ik g hk gij ) p h q i p j q k = g hj g ik p p q q g hk g ij p q q p

= ( g hi p h p j ) ( gik q i q k ) (g hk p j q k ) ( gij q i p j )

= p2.q2 0.0

=1.1

= 1 (since g hi p h p j = 1 & g hk p h q k = 0 )

2. If is the inclination of two vectors A and B show that

sin =

2

(g hi g ik g hk g ij ) A h A j B i B k

g hj gik A h A j B j B k

Solution

If be the angle between the vectors A and B then

g ij A j B i

cos =

gij A i A j g ik B i B k

sin 2 = 1

( gij B i A j ) (g hk A h B k )

( g hj A h A j ) ( g ik B i B k )

(g hj g ik g hk g ij ) A h A j B i B k

g hj g ik A h A j B i B k

3. If X ij are components of a symmetric covariant tensor and u, v are unit orthogonal to w and

satisfying the relations

( X ij g ij )u i + w j = 0

( X ij g ij ) v i + w j = 0

where prove that u and v are orthogonal and that

53

X ij u i v j = 0

Solution

Suppose X ij is a symmetric tensor. Since u i , v j are orthogonal to wi then

u i wi = 0

...(1)

v i wi = 0

...(2)

( X ij gij )u i + w j = 0

...(3)

( X ij gij )vi + w j = 0

where .

...(4)

given

Multiply (3) & (4) by v j , u j respectively and using (1) and (2), we have

( X ij g ij )u iv j = 0

...(5)

( X ij g ij )v iu j = 0

...(6)

Interchanging the suffixes i & j in the equation (6) and since g ij , X ij are symmetric, we get

( X ij g ij )u iv j = 0

Subtract (6) & (7) we get

... (7)

( )g iju i v j = 0

Since and 0.

Hence,

g ij u i v j = 0

So, u and v are orthogonal.

Using (8) in equation (5) & (6), we get

...(8)

X ij u i v i = 0

Proved.

Solution

Since g ij is a symmetric tensor of rank two. Then

g ij =

x k x l

g kl

x i x j

g ij

Since

x k

=

x i

x l

x j

g kl

x

= J (Jacobian)

x

g kl = g

&

g ij = g

54

So,

g = gJ 2

or

J=

g

g

x 1 2

n

dx 1 dx 2 ... dx n = x d x d x ... dx

= Jd x 1d x 2 ... d x n

dx 1dx 2 ... dx n =

g 1 2

d x d x ... d x n

g

g d x1d x 2... d x n

EXERCISES

1. For the Metric tensor g ij defined g kl and prove that it is a contravariant tensor.

2. Calculate the quantities g i j for a V3 whose fundamental form in coordinates u, v, w, is

2

3. Show that for an orthogonal coordinate system

g 11 =

1

1

1

, g 33 =

, g 22 =

g11

g 22

g 33

g = EG F 2 , g 11 = G g , g 12 = F g , g 22 = E g

1

n( n + 1) .

2

6. If vectors u i , vi are defined by u i = g ij u j , v i = g ij v j show that u i = g ij u j , u i vi = u i v i and u i g ij u j = u i g ij u j

7. Define magnitude of a unit vector. prove that the relation of a vector and its associate vector is

reciprocal.

5. Prove that the number of independent components of the metric g ij cannot exceed

8. If is the angle between the two vectors Ai and B i at a point, prove that

2

sin =

(g hi gik g hk gij ) A h Ai B j B k

ghi g jk Ah Ai B j B k

9. Show that the angle between two contravariant vectors is real when the Riemannian metric is positive

definite.

CHAPTER 4

DIFFERENTIATION

4.1 CHRISTOFFEL'S SYMBOLS

The German Mathematician Elwin Bruno Christoffel defined symbols

[ij, k ] =

1 gi k g j k g i j

+

k , (i, j, k = 1, 2,...n )

2 x j

x i

x

called Christoffel 3-index symbols of the first kind.

...(1)

k

= g k l [ij, l ]

i j

...(2)

and

called Christoffel 3-index symbols of second kind, where g i j are the components of the metric Tensor

or fundamental Tensor.

There are n distinct Christoffel symbols of each kind for each independent g i j . Since g i j is

1

n (n + 1) independent components. So, the number of

2

1

1

independent components of Christoffels symbols are n n(n + 1) = n 2 (n + 1) .

2

2

symmetric tensor of rank two and has

k

THEOREM 4.1 The Christoffel's symbols [ij, k ] and are symmetric with respect to the indices i

i j

and j.

Proof: By Christoffels symbols of first kind

[ij, k ] =

g ij

1 g ik g jk

j +

k

i

2 x

x

x

[ ji, k ] =

1 g jk gik g ji

+

k

2 x i

x j

x

56

1 g i k g j k g i j

+

k since g ij = g ji

2 x j

x i

x

[ ji, k ] = [ ij , k ]

Also, by Christoffel symbol of second kind

k

= g k l [ij, l ]

i j

= g k l [ ji, l ] since [ij , l ] = [ ji, l ]

k k

= j i

i j

Proved.

(i)

[ij, m] =

(ii)

[ik , j ] + [ jk , i] =

k

g km

i j

g ij

x k

g ij

i

j

= g jl g im

l

k

x

m k

Proof: (i) By Christoffels symbol of second kind

(iii)

k

= g k l [ij, l ]

i j

Multiplying this equation by g k m , we get

k

g k m = g k m g k l [ij, l ]

i j

= lm [ij , l ] as g k m g k l = lm

k

g km = [ij, m]

i j

(ii) By Christoffels symbol of first kind

and

[ik , j ] =

1 g k j g i j g i k

2 x i x k x j

...(1)

[ jk ,i ] =

1 g ki g ji g jk

2 x j x k

x i

...(2)

[ik , j ] + [ jk , i ] =

1 g i j g ji

+

g = g ji

2 x k x k since ij

[ik , j ] + [ jk , i] =

57

1 g ij g ij

2

=

2 x k x k

(iii) Since g ij g lj = li .

Differentiating it w.r.t. to x k , we get

g ij

glj

x k

+ glj

g ij

=0

x k

g ij g lm

g lj

x k

+ g lm g lj

g lm glj

mj

g ij

=0

x k

g

g ij

g ij g lm ljk

k =

x

x

g lj

g ij

ij lm

g

g

{

[

lk

,

j

]

+

[

jk

,

l

]

}

= [lk , j ] + [ jk , l ] .

=

since

x k

x k

g im

lm

ij

ij

lm

= g g [lk , j ] g g [ jk , l ]

x k

g im

i

m

= g lm g ij

k

x

l k

j k

Interchanging m and j, we get

i

j

g ij

lj

im

g

=

x k

l k

m k

or

g ij

i

j

g ij g im

as g lj = g jl

k =

x

l k

m k

Proved.

( )

i log g

THEOREM 4.3 To show that i j =

x j

Proof: The matrix form of g ik is

g ik

g

21 g 22 ... G2 n

=

M

g n1 g n 2 ... g nn

58

and

g = gik

g11

g 21

=

M

g 22 ... g 2 n

g n1

g n 2 ... gnn

But

g ik g = lk

Take

l = k.

il

g ik g ik = kk = 1

g ik = [g ik ]1 =

Gik

(Theorem 2.13 , Pg 25)

g

g = g ik Gik

g

g ik

=1

= Gik since

g ik

g ik

Now,

g

g g ik

j =

g ik x j

x

= Gik

gik

x j

But Gik = gg ik

g

ik gik

= gg

j

x j

x

g

1 g

g ik ikj

j =

g x

x

1 g

g ik

= g ik { [ jk , i] + [ij, k ] } as

= [ jk , i] + [ij, k ]

g x j

x j

ik

ik

= g [ jk , i] + g [ij , k ]

k i

= +

j k i j

...(1)

59

i i

1 g

+ as k is dummy indices

j =

g x

j i j i

i

1 g

= 2

j

g x

j i

i

1 g

=

j

2 g x

j i

log( g )

x

j i

Proved.

EXAMPLE 1

If g ij 0 show that

x j

= x j [ik , ] i k

i k

( [j, ] + [j , ] )

Solution

By Christoffels symbol of second kind

= g [ik , ]

i

k

Multiplying it by g , we get

g = g g [ik , ]

i

k

g = [ik , ] as g g = 1

i k

[ik , ]

g

=

j

x j

x

i k

g

since

g

+

x j i k

ik,

j =

i k x

x j

g

x j

= [j, ] + [j, ]

+ ([j, ] + [j , ]) =

[ik , ]

j

i

k

i

k

x

x j

60

x j

= x j [ik , ] i k ( [i, ] + [j, ] )

i k

Solved.

EXAMPLE 2

k

Show that if g ij = 0 for i j then (i) = 0 whenever i, j and k are distinct.

i j

i 1 log gii

i 1 log g ii

i

1 g jj

=

=

(ii) =

(iii)

(iv)

i

j

2 gii x i

i i 2 x

i j 2 x

j j

Solution

The Christoffels symbols of first kind

[ij, k ] =

(a) If i = j = k

The equation (1) becomes

[ii, i] =

(b) If i = j k

The equation (1) becomes

[ii, k ] =

1 g jk g ik g ij

2 x i

x j x k

1 gii

2 x i

1 g i k gi k g i i

+ i k

2 x i

x

x

Since g ik = 0 as i k (given)

1 g ii

1 g jj

or [ jj, i] =

k

2 x

2 xi

[ii, k ] =

[ij,i ] =

1 g ji g ii g ij

+ j i

2 x i

x

x

(c) i = k j

1 g ii

, as g ij = 0, i j

2 x j

(d) i j k

[ij, k ] = 0

as g ij = 0 , g j k = 0 , i j k

k

= g kl [ij, l ] since g k l = 0, k l

i j

...(1)

61

k

=0

i j

i

= g ii [ii, i ]

i i

(ii)

= g ii

=

1 gii

from (a)

2 x i

1

1 g ii

g ii =

i as

gii

2 gii x

i

1 log g ii

=

2 x i

i i

(iii)

i=k j

i

ii

= g [ij, i]

i j

1

1

ii

= g [ij, i] as g =

ii

gii

i

1 log gii

=

2 x j

i j

(iv)

j=ki

i

ii

= g [ jj, i]

j

j

1 1 g j j

=

from (b)

g ii 2 x i

1 g j j

i

= 2g

i

i i x

j j

EXAMPLE 3

If ds 2 = dr 2 + r 2 d 2 + r 2 sin 2 d 2 , find the values of

1

3

[22, 1] and [13, 3], (ii)

and

2 2

1 3

Solution

(i)

Clearly,

g11 = 1, g 22 = r 2 , g 33 = r 2 sin 2 and gi j = 0 for i j

Solved.

62

Also,

22

g 11 = 1, g =

1

1 g 33 =

,

2

r sin 2

r2

(See Ex. 2, Pg. 39, and g ij = 0, for i j. )

[ij, k ] =

1 g jk g ik g ij

+

, i, j, k = 1, 2,3

2 x i

x j x k

[22, 1] =

=

1 g 21 g 21 g 22

+ 2 1 Since g21 = 0.

2 x 2

x

x

1 0

0 r 2

2 + 2 1

2 x

x

x

1 r 2

= r

2 r

Taking i = 1, j = k = 3 in (1)

[13,3] =

=

+ 3 3

2 x1

x

x

1 r 2 sin 2

since g13 = 0

2

r

[13, 3] =

r sin 2

(ii) Christoffel symbols of the second kind are given by

k

= g kl [ij, l] = g k 1 [ij ,1] + g k 2 [ ij ,2] + g k 3 [ ij,3]

i j

Taking k = 1, i = j = 2.

1

2

2

2

2

= r

2 2

...(1)

63

and

3

31

32

33

= g [13, 1] + g [13, 2] + g [13, 3]

1

3

=

1

[13, 3] Since g 31 = g 32 = 0

2

r sin

2

3

1

1

2

= 2 2 r sin =

1

3

r

r sin

The fundamental tensors g ij and g ij are functions of coordinates x i and [ij, k ] is also function of

coordinates x i . Let g ij , g ij and [ ij , k ] in another coordinate system x i .

(i ) Law of Transformation of Christoffel's Symbol for First Kind

Let [i j , k ] is a function of coordinate x i and [ ij , k ] in another coordinate system x i . Then

[ ij , k ] =

1 gik g ik g ij

+

2 x i

x j x k

...(1)

g ij =

x p x 2

g pq

x i x j

...(2)

g ij

x k

x k

x p x q

x i x j g pq

x k

x p x q

x i x j

p

q g

pq

g pq + x x

i

j

x x x k

g i j

2 x p x q x p 2 x q

=

x k x i x j + x i x k x j

xk

p

q g

r

pq x

g pq + x x

x i x j x r x k

...(3)

g kj

x i

2 x p x q x p 2 x q

+ k

= i k

j

x x i x j

x x x

r

q g

p

rq x

g pq + x x

x k x j x p x i

...(4)

64

and interchanging j, k and also interchange q, r in the last term of equation (3)

2 x p x q x p 2 x q

g ik

+ i

= j i

i

x j

x x k x j

x x x

p

r

q g

pr

g pq + x x x

i

k

j

q

...(5)

Substituting the values of equations (3), (4) and (5) in equation (1), we get

[ij, k ] =

1 2 x p x q

x p x q x r

2 i j k g pq + i

2 x x x

x x j x k

[ij, k ] =

2 x p x q

x p x q x r 1 g rp g qr g pq

g

+

+ p

pq

x i x j x k

x i x i x k 2 x q

x

x r

g rp g qr g pq

q +

x p

x r

x

2 x p x q

x p x q x r

g

+

[ pq, r]

...(6)

pq

x i x j x k

x i x i x k

It is law of transformation of Christoffel's symbol of the first kind. But it is not the law of

transformation of any tensor due to presence of the first term of equation (6).

So, Christoffel's symbol of first kind is not a tensor.

[ij, k ] =

k

kl

kl

g

[

ij

,

l

]

=

is function of coordinates x i and g [ij, l ] =

Let

i j

i

x . Then

k

in another coordinate system

i j

2 x p x q

x p x q x r

g pq + i

[ pq, r ] from (6)

i

j

l

x x x

x x j x l

is contravariant tensor of rank two.

[ij, l ] =

kl

As g

g kl =

x k x l st

g

x s x t

Now

g kl [ij, l ] =

x k x l st 2 x p x q

x k x l st x p x q x r

g

g

+

g

[pq, r]

pq

x s x t

x i x j x l

x s x t

x i x j x l

x l x q st 2 x p

x k

g

g

+

pq

x t x l x i x j

x s

x l x r x p x q st

x t x l x i x j g [ pq, r ]

x k

x s

x k 2 st 2 x p

x k r x p x q st

x l x q

g

g

+

g

[

pq

,

r

]

= qt

as

t

pq

t

s

i j

s

i

j

t

l

x

x x

x

x x

x x

x k 2 x p sq

x k x p x q sr

g

g

+

g [ pq, r ] as rt g st = g sr

pq

x s x i x j

x s x i x j

65

x p 2 x p s x k x p x 2 s

p + s

x s x i x j

x x i x j p q

s

sr

= sp and g [ pq, r ] = p q

g kl [ij, l ] =

Since g sq g pq

k

=

i j

x k 2 x s

x k x p x q

+

x s x i x j x s x i x j

p q

....(7)

It is law of transformation of Christoffels symbol of the second kind. But it is not the law of

transformation of any tensor. So, Christoffels symbol of the second kind is not a tensor.

Also, multiply (7) by

x s

, we get

x k

x s

dx k

Since

k

x s x k 2 x s

x s x k x p x q

+

=

x k x s x i x j x k x s x i x j

i j

p q

x s x k

= ss = 1

x k x s

x s

x k

k

2 xs

x p x q

+

=

x i x j x i x j

i j

x s

2 xs

=

x k

x i x j

p q

k x p x q s

i j i

j

x x p q

...(8)

kind and first derivatives.

THEOREM 4.4 Prove that the transformation of Christoffels Symbols form a group i.e., possess the

transitive property.

Proof: Let the coordinates x i be transformed to the coordinate system x i and x j be transformed to x i .

When coordinate x i be transformed to x i , the law of transformation of Christoffels symbols of

second kind (equation (7)) is

k

x k 2 x s

x k x p x q s

+

=

x s x i x j

x s x i x j p q

i j

When coordinate x i be transformed to x i . Then

k x i x j x r

r

2 x k x r

+

=

u

v

k

x u x v x k

i j x x x

u v

...(1)

66

s x k x p x q x i x j x r

2 x s x k x i x j x r

+

= p q

x s x i x j x u x v x k x i x j x s x u x v x k

+

2 x k x r

x u x v x k

2 k

r

r s x p x q x r

x x

=

+

+

u

v

s

u

v

k

u v p q x x x

x x x

2 x s x r x i x j

x i x j x s x u x v

as

p

i

x x

...(2)

x s x i

x s

=

x i x u

x u

...(3)

x v

x s

x i

x i x s x i

x u + x i x v x u

2 s

= x

x u x v

2 x s x j x i

x s 2 x i

2 xs

+

=

x i x j x v x u

x i x u x v

x u x v

Mutiply (5) by

...(4)

x r

.

x s

2 x s x j x i x r

2 x i x s x r

2 x s x r

+

=

x i x j x v x u x s x u x v x s x s

x u x v x s

Replace dummy index i by k in second term on L.H.S.

2 x s x j x i x r

2 x k x r

2 x s x r

+

=

x i x j x v x u x s x u x v x k

x u x v x s

Using (5) in equation (2), we get

r

s x p x q x r

2 x s x r

+

=

u v

s

x u x v x s

u v

p q x x x

...(5)

...(6)

67

The equation (6) is same as the equation (1). This shows that if we make direct transformation

from x i to x i we get same law of transformation. This property is called that transformation of

Christoffel's symbols form a group.

4.3 COVARIANT DIFFERENTIATION OF A COVARIANT VECTOR

Let Ai and Ai be the components of a covariant vector in coordinate systems x i and x i respectively..

Then

x p

Ap

Ai =

x i

...(1)

Ai

2 x p

x p A p

A

+

=

p

x j

x j x i

x i x j

Ai

2 x p

x p A p x q

A

+

=

p

x j

x j x i

x i x q x j

It is not a tensor due to presence of the first term on the R.H.S. of equation (2).

Now, replace dum m y index p by s in the first term on R.H.S. of (2), we have

Ai

2 xs

x p A p x q

As + i

j =

j

i

x

x x

x x q x j

Since we know that from equation (8), page 65,

2 xs

x s

=

x i x j

x k

Substituting the value of

k x p x q s

i

j

i j x x p q

2 xs

in equation (3), we have

x i x j

x s

Ai

= k

x j

x

k x p x q s

x p A p x q

A

+

s

x i x q x j

i j x i x j p q

k x s

x p x q

= k As i

x x j

i j x

k

Ai

x p x q

A

+

=

k

x j

x i x j

i j

s

x p x q A p

As + i

x x j x q

p q

A p

s

q As

x

p q

...(2)

...(3)

68

k

x p x q

Ai

A

=

k

x i x j

x j

i j

A p

s

x q As p q

...(4)

Ai , j =

Ai

k

Ak

j

x

i j

...(5)

Ai , j =

x p x q

Ap, q

x i x j

..(6)

rank two.

So, Ai , j is called covariant derivative of Ai with respect to x j .

4.4 COVARIANT DIFFERENTIATION OF A CONTRAVARIANT VECT OR

Let Ai and A i be the component of contravariant vector in coordinate systems x i and x i respectively..

Then

x i s

A

x s

x s i

A

As =

x i

Ai =

or

A s

2 xs

x s A i

i

A

+

=

x j

x j x i

x i x j

Since from equation (8) on page 65,

...(1)

2 xs

x s k i x p x q s

=

x k i j

x i x j p q

x j x i

substituting the value of

2 xs

in the equation (1), we get

x j x i

A s

x s

=

A j

x k

A s A q

x s

=

A q x j

x k

k i x p x q s i x s A i

A i

A + i

x x j p q

x x j

i j

k i x p i x q

A i A

x

x j

i j

s x s A i

+ i

j

p q x x

69

Interchanging the dummy indices i and k in the first term on R.H.S. and put

A s x q

x s

=

x q x j

x i

x q

x j

A s

x s

p s

x q + A p q = x i

i

A i

+ Ak

j

x

k

x p i

A = A p we get

x i

i k x q p s x s A i

A j A

+ i

j

x

k j

p q x x

i

x i x q

=

j

x s x j

k A i

A + j

j

x

A s

p s

+

A

q

x

p q

...(2)

Ai

i

+ Ak

j

x

k j

Using (3), the equation (2) can be expressed as

A,i j =

...(3)

x p x q

Ap, q

...(4)

x i x j

It is law of transformation of a mixed tensor of rank two. Thus, Ai , j is a mixed tensor of rank

two. Ai , j is called covariant derivative of Ai with respect to x j .

A,ij =

Covariant derivative of a covariant tensor of rank two.

Let Ai j and Ai j be the components of a covariant tensor of rank two in coordinate system x i and x i

respectively then

Aij =

x p x q

A pq

x i x j

...(1)

Aij

A pq

x k

x p x q

x i x j

A pq

x k

Aij

x p x q Apq x r

2 x p x q

x p 2 x q

+

A

+

A pq ...(2)

=

pq

x i x j x r x k x k x i x j

x i x k x j

x k

as

x p x q A pq

+ k

i

j

k

x x x

x

A pq x r

(since A pq components in x i coordinate)

x r x k

70

A pq

2 x p x q

2 x l x q

A

=

lq

x i x k x j

x i x k x j

A pq

2 x p x q

x q

A

=

lq

x i x k x j

x j

h x l l x p x r

h

i

k

i k x

p r x x

h x l l x p x r

2 xl

h i

i

k =

k

x x

i k x

p r x x

A pq

h

x l x 2 l

x p x q x r

2 x p x q

A

lq

lq

= i k

x h x j p r

x i x j x k

x i x k x j

A pq

h

2 x p x q

l

Ahj

i

k

j =

x x x

i k

p

as Ahj = Alq

x p x q x r

Alq i

r

x x j x k

...(3)

x l x q

by equation (1)

x h x j

and

Apq

x p 2 x q

x p 2 x l

A

=

pl

x i x j x k

x i x j x k

= Apl

x p

x i

h x l l x q x r

h

j

k

j k x

q r x x

h

x p x l l x q x r x p

=

A

Apl

pl

x i x h q r x j x k x i

j k

Apq

h

x p 2 x q

l x p x q x r

A

A pl

=

i

ih

j

k

x i x j x k

j k

q r x x x

...(4)

Substituting the value of equations (3) and (4) in equation (2) we get,

A pq

h

h

l

l x p x q x r

r Alq p r A pl q r

+ Ahj +

=

Aih

i

j

k

k

x x x

x

i k

j k

x

Aij

h

h

A pq

l

l x p x q x r

ih

hj

lq

pl

r

i

j

k

x k j k

i k

p r

q r x x x

x

Aij

Aij , k =

71

Aij

h

h

Aih Ahj , then

x

j k

i k

k

Aij , k = Apq , r

x p x q x r

x i x j x k

It is law of transformation of a covariant tensor of rank three. Thus, A ij,k is a covariant tensor

of rank three.

So, Aij , k is called covariant derivative of Aij w.r.t. to x k .

Similarly we define the covariant derivation xk of a tensors A ij and Aij by the formula

A ij

i

j

+ A lj + A il

A ,k =

k

x

l k

l k

A ij

i

l

+ A lj Ali

Aij ,k =

k

x

l k

j k

ij

and

ij ... l

In general, we define the covariant deriavative xk of a mixed tensor Aab

by the formula

... c

ij ... l

Aab

... c ,k

Note:

ij ...l

Aab

pj ... l i

ip... l j

ij... p l

...c

+ Aab

=

+ Aab... c

+ + Aab... c

...c

k

x

p k

p k

p k

p

ij... l p

ij ... l p

A ijpb......l c

Aap... c

Aab ... p

a k

b k

c k

Ai , k is also written as Ai , k = k Ai .

The covariant derivative of Kronecker delta and the fundamental tensors gij and gij is zero.

Proof: The covariant derivative xp of Kronecker delta is

ij,k =

ij

i

l

+ lj il

x

l k

j k

k

i i

= 0+

j k j k

ij,k = 0 as

ij

i i

= 0; lj =

x

l k j k

k

Also, consider first the tensor gij and the covariant derivative of gij is

g ij , k =

g ij

m

m

g mj gim

x

i k

j k

k

72

g ij , k =

g ij

But

x k

g ij

m

[ik , j ] [ jk , i] as g mj = [ik , j ]

x

i k

k

= [ik , j ]+ [ jk, i]

g ij , k = g ij g ij

x k x k

g ij , k = 0

So,

im

i

g ,im

k g mj + g g mj , k = j , k

But

im

gmj,k = 0 and ij , k = 0. So, g , k = 0 as g mj 0

EXAMPLE 4

Prove that if A ij is a symmetric tensor then

Ai j, j =

g jk

1

Ai j g A jk

j

2

x i

g x

Solution

Given that A ij be a symmetric tensor. Then

A ij = A ji

...(1)

We know that

Ai j, k

Ai j

j

l

+ Ail Al j

=

k

x

l k

i k

Ai j, j

Ai j

j

l

+ Ail Al j

=

j

x

l j

i j

Put k = j, we get

log g

Ai j

+ Ail

Al j g hl [ ij, h]

j

x

x l

Ai j

Ai j g

+

A jh [ij, h] since A ij is symmetric.

x j

g x j

Ai j, j =

...(2)

1 Ai j g

A jk [ij, k ]

g

x j

...(3)

73

But

A jk [ij , k ] =

1 jk g jk g ki g ij

A i +

2

x j x k

x

A jk [ij , k ] =

g ij

1 jk g jk

jk g ki

jk

A

+

A

A

2

x i

x j

x k

g

g ki

A kj kji

j =

x

x

On Interchanging the dummy indices j & k.

A jk

A jk

...(4)

g ji

g ki

jk

A

=

since Aij = A ji

x k

x j

g

g ki

A jk ijk = 0 as g ij = g ji

j

x

x

Using (5), equation (4) becomes

A jk

A jk [ij , k ] =

...(5)

1 jk g jk

A

2

x i

Ai j, j =

g jk

1 Ai j g

1

A jk

j

2

g

x

x i

Proved.

EXAMPLE 5

k k

Prove that are components of a tensor of rank three where

i j a i j b

are the Christoffel symbols formed from the symmetric tensors aij and bij .

Solution

Since we know that from equation (8), page 65.

2 xs

x s

=

x i x j

x k

x s

x k

or

k x p x q s

i

j

i j x x p q

k

2 xs

x p x q s

+

=

x i x j x i x j p q

i j

k

2 xs

x p x q

+

= i j

x i x j

i j

x x

s x k

s

p q x

k

k

and

i j a

i j b

74

and

2 xs

k

x p x q

+

=

i

j

x i x j

x x

i j a

s x k

s

p q a x

k

2 xs

x p x q

= i j+ i

i j b

x x j

x x

s x k

s

p q b x

Subtracting, we obtain

s

k k

s x p x q x k

i

=

j

s

p q a p q b x x x

i j a i j b

Put

s

s

s

= A pq

p q a p q b

Then above equation can written as

x p x q x k

x i x j x s

It is law of transformation of tensor of rank three.

s

Aijk = Apq

k k

So, are components of a tensor of rank three.

i j a i j b

EXAMPLE 6

If a specified point, the derivatives of gij w.r.t. to xk are all zero. Prove that the components of

covariant derivatives at that point are the same as ordinary derivatives.

Solution

Given that

g ii

= 0, i , j, k at P 0

...(1)

x k

Let Aij be tensor..

Now, we have to prove that Aij , k =

Aij ,k =

Aij

x k

A ij

at P0 .

i

i

+ A j

A

x

k

j k

k

...(2)

75

g ij

k

Since and [ij,.k ] both contain terms of the type

and using equation (1) we get

x k

i j

k

= 0 = [ij, k] at P0 .

i j

So, equation (2) becomes

A ij

Aij ,k =

at P0

x k

4.7 GRADIENT, DIVERGENCE AND CURL

(a) Gradient

If be a scalar function of the coordinates, then the gradient of is denoted by

grad =

x i

(b) Divergence

The divergence of the contravariant vector Ai is defined by

div A i =

A i

i

+ Ak

i

x

k i

The divergence of the covariant vector Ai is defined by

div Ai = g ik Aik

EXAMPLE 7

i

Prove that div A =

1 g Ak

g

x k

Solution:

If Ai be components of contravariant vector then

i

div A i = A, i =

A i

i

+ Ak

i

x

k i

Since

1 g

log g =

=

k

x

g x k

k i

So,

div A i =

A i

1 g k

+

A

i

x

g x k

76

A k

1 g k

+

A

k

x

g x k

div A i =

1 g Ak

g

x k

div A i =

...(1)

Proved

(c) Curl

Let Ai be a covariant vector then

Ai

k

Ak

j

x

i j

Ai , j =

A j

k

Ak

x

j i

Aj, i =

and

So, Ai , j A j , i =

Ai A j

x j x i

Thus

curl Ai = Ai , j A j ,i

Note: curl A i is a skew-symmetric tensor.

Since

A j, i A i,j = (A i,j A j,i)

EXAMPLE 8

If Aij be a skew-symmetric tensor of rank two. Show that

Aij , k + A jk ,i + Aki, j =

Aij

x

A jk

x

Aki

x j

Solution

Since we know that

Aij , k =

A jk ,i =

Aki, j =

Aij

l

l

Alj Ail

i

k

x

j k

k

A jk

h

l

Alk A jl

x

j i

j k

i

Aki

l

Ali

j

x

k

l

Akl

j

i j

77

Aij , k + A jk ,i + Aki, j =

Aij

x k

A jk

x i

l

Aki l

A

+

A

lj

jl

x j i k

k i

l

l l

l

Ali + Ail

Akl + Alk

j k i j

j i

k j

l

Since is symmetric i.e.,

i k

l l

= etc.

i k k i

=

Aij

x

k

Since Aij is skew-symmetric. Then Alj

A jk

x

Aki l

( Alj + A jl )

x j i k

l

( Ali + Ail ) ( Akl + Alk )

j

i j

= A jl Alj + A jl = 0 . Similarly,,

So,

Aij , k + A jk ,i + Aki, j =

Aij

x

A jk

x

Aki

x j

THEOREM 4.5 A necessary and sufficient condition that the curl of a vector field vanishes is that

the vector field be gradient.

Proof: Suppose that the curl of a vector Ai vanish so that

curl Ai = Ai , j A j , i = 0

...(1)

Since from (1),

Ai , j A j ,i = 0

Ai A j

=0

x j xi

A j

Ai

=

j

x i

x

A j j

Ai

j

dx

dx

=

xi

x j

A j dx j

dAi =

x i

Integrating it we get

Ai =

A j dx j

i

x

78

A j dx j

i

x

Ai =

, where =

x i

or

Ai = .

Conversely suppose that a vector Ai is such that

=

A j dx j

Ai = , is scalar..

To prove curl Ai = 0

Now,

Ai = =

and

So,

x i

2

Ai

=

x j xi

x j

A j

2

=

x i

x i x j

Ai A j

=0

x j xi

So,

curl Ai = Ai , j A j ,i =

So,

curl Ai = 0

Ai A j

=0

x j x i

Proved.

THEOREM 4.6 Let and be scalar functions of coordinates xi. Let A be an arbitrary vector then

(i)

(ii)

() = +

(iii)

2 () = 2 + 2 + 2

(iv)

div () = 2 +

div A i =

1 g Ai

g

x i

...(1)

replace A i by A i , we get

div( A ) =

i

1 g Ai

g

x i

1

g

79

( g Ai )

+

g

A

i

x i

x

i

A +

1 ( g A )

g

= A i + div A i

Thus

div( A) = A + div A

...(2)

() =

( )

x i

+ i

i

x

x

() = +

Thus

(iii) Taking divergence of both sides in equation (3), we get

div () = div [ + ]

2 () = div () + div ()

= + div () + + div ()

2 () = div () + div () + 2

Thus,

2 () = 2 + 2 + 2

(iv) Replace A by in equation (3), we get

div () = + div ()

div () = + 2

THEOREM 4.7 Let Ai be a covariant vector and a scalar function. Then

(i)

(ii)

curl () =

curl A = curl Ai = Ai , j A j ,i

Replacing Ai by Ai , we get

( )

...(3)

80

= , jAi + Ai , j , i A j A j , i

= ( Ai , j A j , i) + ( Ai , j A j ,i )

= Ai + curl Ai

So,

curl (A) = A + curlA

...(1)

curl () = curl () +

Interchange of and , we get

Since curl ( ) = 0.

So,

curl () = curl () + .

curl () = .

Proved.

The operator 2 is called Laplacian operator read as "del square".

THEOREM 4.8 If is a scalar function of coordinates x i then

2 =

g g kr r

k

x

g x

Proof: Since

2 = div grad

...(1)

and

grad =

,

x r

But we know that any contravariant vector A k associated with Ar (covariant vector) is

A k = g kr Ar (Sec Art. 3.4, Pg 43)

Now, the contravariant vector A k associated with

A k = g kr

Since

div A i =

(Covariant vector) is

x r

x r

1 g Ak

, (Sec Ex. 7, Pg 75)

g

x k

81

1

2 = div g kr r =

x

g g kr r

k

x

Proved.

EXAMPLE 9

Show that, in the cylindrical coordinates,

2V =

1 V 1 2V 2V

r

+

+

r r r r 2 2 z 2

by Tensor method

Solution

The cylindrical coordinates are (r , , z ). If V is a scalar function of (r , , z ).

Now,

2V = V

Since

V = i

V

V

V

+j

+k

r

Let

V

V

V

, A2 =

, A3 =

...(1)

r

z

Then V = iA1i + jA2 j + kA3 k , since V is covariant tensor. The metric in cylindrical coordinates

A1 =

is

ds 2 = dr 2 + r 2 d2 + dz 2

here, x1 = r , x 2 = , x 3 = z .

Since ds 2 = g ij dx i dx j

g11 = 1, g 22 = r 2 , g 33 = 1

and others are zero.

g11 g12 g13

1 0 0

g = g ij = g 21 g 22 g 23 = 0 r 2 0 = r 2

g 31 g 32 g33 0 0 1

g =r

Now,

div (V ) = div Ai =

k

1 gA

x k

g

82

1 ( g A )

=

div (V ) =

1 ( g A )

g

( g A )

x

1 ( rA1 ) ( rA 2 ) ( rA3 )

+

+

r r

We can write

A k = g kq Aq (Associated tensor)

A k = g k1 A1 + g k 2 A2 + g k 3 A3

Put k = 1

11

12

13

A1 = g A1 + g A2 + g A3

A1 = g 11 A1 as g 12 = g 13 = 0

Similarly,

A 2 = g 22 A2

A3 = g 33 A3

and

g 11 =

Cofactor of g11 in g r 2

= 2 =1

g

r

g 22 =

Cofactor of g 22 in g

1

= 2

g

r

g 33 =

Cofactor of g 33 in g r 2

= 2 = 1 (See. Pg. 34, Ex.1)

g

r

So,

11

A1 = g A1 = A1

1

22

A 2 = g A2 = 2 A2

r

33

A3 = g A3 = A3 .

or A1 = A1, A 2 = 1 A2 , A3 = A3 .

r2

from (1), we get

V

1 V

V

2

3

A1 = r , A = r 2 , A = z

from (2),

...(2)

83

So,

1 V 1 V V

i

2V = div A = r r r r + r r 2 + z r z

div (V ) =

1 V

r

r r r

1 V

+

r

V

+ r

z z

1 V 1 2 V

2V

+

r

+

r

r r r r 2

z 2

div (V ) =

1 V 1 2V 2V

r

+

+

r r r r 2 2 z 2

2V =

1 V 1 2V 2V

r

+

+

r r r r 2 2 z 2

EXERCISES

1. Prove that the expressions are tensors

(a) Aij , l =

(b)

Air jk ,l

Aj Ai

jl

x i l

Aij

l

Air jk

x

r A

r

A Ar Ar

l jk j l i k k l ij + l ijk

2. Prove that

Ai j, j

1 ( Ai

g

g)

j

j k

Ak

i j

( g Ai jk ) is a tensor..

g xk

4. Prove that the necessary and sufficient condition that all the Christoffel symbols vanish at a point is

that g ij are constant.

5. Evaluate the Christoffel symbols in cylindrical coordinates.

6. Define covariant differentiation of a tensor w.r. to the fundamental tensor gij . Show that the covariant

differentiation of sums and products of tensors obey the same result as ordinary differentiation.

7. Let contravariant and covariant components of the same vector A be Ai and Ai respectively then

prove that

i

div A = div Ai

84

Aij ,k + A jk, i + Aki, j = 0

10. A necessary and sufficient condition that the covariant derivative vector be symmetric is that the

vector must be gradient.

11. Show that, in spherical coordinates

2

V =

by tensor method.

1 2 V

1

V

1

2V

r

+ 2

sin

+ 2 2

2

r sin 2

r r r r sin

CHAPTER 5

RIEMANN-CHRISTOFFEL TENSOR

5.1 RIEMANN-CHRISTOFFEL TENSOR

If A i is a covariant tensor then the covariant x j derivative of A i is given by

A i,j =

Ai

A

x j i j

...(1)

Ai , j

A, j

Ai ,

Ai , jk =

k

x

i k

j k

=

A A

i A

A

j

j

x

i j i k

j

A

i A

i k x

i k

x k

Ai

2

Ai , jk =

x k x

+

i k

Interchanging j and k in equation (2), we get

Ai

A

+

A

j

j k x

j k i

i k

Ai

x j x k

x j

2

Ai , kj =

A A

i j

k

k

j

x

i k x

i k x

A

A

A j k

i k x

i j x

...(2)

86

+

i j

Subtract equation (3) from (2), we get

`

Ai , jk Ai , kj

Ai

A +

k

k i x

k j

=

i k

A

i

i j

A

A

A +

k

x

j

i j k

...(3)

i k A

x j

Interchanging of and in the first and third term of above equation, we get

Ai , jk Ai , kj

i k

=

x j

i j

x k

+

i k

j i j

Ai , jk Ai , kj = A Rijk

...(4)

...(5)

where

Rijk

i k

i j

+

=

x j

xk

i k

j i j

...(6)

Since A i is an arbitrary covariant tensor of rank one and difference of two tensors A i, jk Ai, kj is

a covariant tensor of rank three. Hence it follows from quotient law that Rijk is a mixed tensor of rank

four. The tensor Rijk is called Riemann Christoffel tensor or Curvature tensor for the metric g ij dx i dx j .

The symbol Rijk is called Riemanns symbol of second kind.

Now, if the left hand side of equation (4) is to vanish i.e., if the order of covariant differentiation

is to be immaterial then

Rijk = 0

Since A is arbitrary. In general Rijk 0, so that the order of covariant differentiation is not

immaterial, It is clear from the equation (4) that a necessary and sufficient condition for the validity of

inversion of the order of covariant differentiation is that the tensor Rijk vanishes identically..

Remark

The tensor

i

Rikl

x k

= i

j k

l

x

k

+

i

j

l

j k

l

j l

...(7)

Riemann-Christoffel Tensor

87

THEOREM 5.1 Curvature tensor Rijk is anti symmetric w.r.t. indices j and k.

Proof: We know that from (7) curvature tensor

x j

j k

xk

Rijk = +

Rijk

i j

i k

i k

=

x j

i k

i j

+

x k

j

i k k

i j

R ikj

i j i k +

=

k i j j i k

x k

x j

i k

=

j

x

Rik

i j

x k

j i

k k i j

= Rijk

Theorem 5.2 To prove that

Rijk + R jk i + R ki j = 0

Proof: Since we know that

x k

Rijk

=

i j

Rijk

i k

= i k

x j

j k

i j

i j

+

x k

j

i k

i k i j

...(1)

88

Similarly

R j ki

j

i

j

k

= k i +

x

x

k j i j k i

...(2)

and

Rki

k j

=

xi

k i

+

x j

i

k j k i

...(3)

Rij k + R j k i + Rki j = 0

This is called cyclic property.

5.2 RICCI TENSOR

The curvature tensor Rijk can be contracted in three ways with respect to the index and any one of

its lower indices

Rj k , Ri k , Rij

Now, from equation (7), art. 5.1,

x j

Rjk

=

x k

k

=

x j

=

2 log g

x j x k

j

+

x k

j

k k

2 log g

xk x j

log g

Since k =

and and are free indices Rj k = 0 .

x k

Write R i j for R i j

Riemann-Christoffel Tensor

89

Rij = Rij

x

x

j

=

+

i j i i j

Rij = j

x

Rij =

2 log g

x j x i

i

j +

j i i j

x

i

j

+

x

j i i j

...(1)

R ji = i

x

R ji =

2 log g

x i x j

j

i +

i j j i

x

i

j

x

i j i j

...(2)

Comparing (1) and (2), we get

Rij = R ji

Thus Rij is a symmetric Tensor and is called Ricci Tensor..

For Rik :

Rik = Rik = R ik

5.3 COVARIANT RIEMANN-CHRISTOFFEL TENSOR

The associated tensor

Ri j k l = g i R jkl

...(1)

is known as the covariant Riemann-Christoffel tensor or the Riemann-Christoffel tensor of the first

kind.

Expression for Rijkl

Rijkl = gi Rjkl

90

= g i k j l l j k + j l k j k l

x x

(2)

Now,

g i

=

x k j l

x k

=

g i

gi j l j l x k

[ jl , i ] g i

k

x k

j l x

...(3)

Similarly,

g i

[ jk , i ] gi

=

l

l

x j k

x l

j k x

...(4)

udv duv vdu

By the formula dx = dx dx

Ri j k l =

Ri j k l =

[ jl , i] gi [ jk , i ]

k

+

x k

xl

j l x

g i

l + gi

j k x

j l

g i

k

j k

[ jl , i ] [ jk , i ] g i g i

+

l j l k + g i j l k g i j k l

k

l

j

k

x

x

x

x

[ jl , i ] [ jk , i]

+

( [il, ] + [l , i ] ) ( [ik , ] + [k , i] )

k

l

x

x

j k

j l

+ [k , i]

[l , i ]

j l

j k

Ri j k l =

[ jl , i ] [ jk , i]

+

[il, ] [ik , ]

k

l

x

x

j k

j l

...(5)

It is also written as

Ri j k l

k

k

+ j k

x

= x

[ jk , i ] [ jl, i] [ik , ]

j l

[il, ]

...(6)

[ jl, i] =

1 gli g ji g jl

+

i

2 x j x l

x

...(7)

Riemann-Christoffel Tensor

91

[ jk ,i ] =

and

1 g ki g ji g ik

+

i

2 x j x k

x

...(8)

1

Rijkl =

2 x k

g li g ji g jl

j +

xl

xi

x

1

l

2 x

g ki g ji g jk

j + k

x

x i

x

+

[il, ] [ik , ]

j k

j l

2

2

g jk

g jl

1 g il

g ik

+

= 2 j k

i

l

j

l

i

k

x x

x x x x

x x

2

Rijkl

[il , ] [ik , ]

j k

j l

...(9)

Since

= g [ jk , ] and j l = g [ jl , ]

j

k

Ri j k l =

2 g jk

2 g jl

1 2 g il

2 g ik

+

2 x j x k x i x l x j x l x i x l

+ g [ jk , ][il, ] g [ jl , ][ik , ]

...(10)

The equation (9) can also be written as

Ri j k l

2 g jk

2 g jl

1 2 gil

2 gik

+

= 2 x j x k x i x l x j x l x i x k

+ g

j k

g

i l

j l i k

(i)

R jikl = Rijkl

(ii)

Rijlk = Rijkl

(iii)

Rklij = Rijkl

(iv)

92

Rijkl =

2 g jk

2 g jl

1 2 gil

2 g ik

+

2 x j x k x i x l 2 x j x l x i x k

+

[il, ] [ik , ]

j k

j l

...(1)

R jikl

2

2 g jk

2 gik

2 gil

1 g jl

=

= i k

2 x x

x j x l x i x l x j x k

+

[ jl, ] il [ jk , ]

i k

2 g jk

2 g jl

1 2 gil

2 gik

+

2 x j x k x i x l x i x k x j x l

+ [ jl , ]

i k

[ jk , ]

i l

R jikl = Rijkl

or

Rijkl = R jikl

(iii) Interchange i and k in (1), we get

2 g ji

2 g jl

1 2 g kl

2 g ki

+

R kjil =

2 x j x i x k x l x j x l x k x i

Now interchange j and l, we get

R klij

2

2 g lj

1 g kj

2 g li

2 g ki

= l i+ k j l j k i

2 x x x x

x x

x x

For

[kj, ] = g

l i

k j

l i

=

g

k j

l i

=

[li, ]

k j

[li, ] = k j [li, ]

l i

+ [kl, ] [ki, ]

j i

j l

+ [kj, ] [ki, ]

l i

l j

Riemann-Christoffel Tensor

93

So,

R klij =

2

2 g lj

1 g kj

2 gli

2 g ki

+

2 x l xi x k x j x l x j x k x i

+

[li, ] [ki, ]

k j

l j

from equation (1)

Rijkl

2

2 g jk

2 g jk

2 g jl

1 g il

= 2 j k + i l j l j k

x x

x x x x

x x

+

[il , ] j l [ik , ]

j k

Riklj

2

2 g kj

1 g ij

2 g kl

2 g il

= k l + i j k j i l

2 x x x x

x x

x x

+ [ij, ] [il , ]

k l

k j

2

2 g lj

2 gij

2 g lk

1 g ik

+

2 x l x j x i x k x l x k x i x j

+

[ik , ] lk [ij, ]

l j

Riljk =

Rijkl + Riklj + R iljk = 0

This property of Rijkl is called cyclic property..

Theorem 5.3 Show that the number of not necessarily independent components of curvature tensor

1 2 2

n (n 1) .

does not exceed

12

Or

Show that number of distinct non-vanishing components of curvature tensor does not exceed

1 2 2

n (n 1) .

12

Proof: The distinct non-vanishing components of Rijkl of three types.

(i) Symbols with two distinct indices i.e., Rijij . In this case total number of distinct non-vanishing

1

components of Rijkl are n(n 1) .

2

(ii) Symbols with three distinct indices i.e., Rijik . In this case, total number of distinct non1

vanishing components Rijkl are n(n 1) (n 2) .

2

(iii) Symbols Rijkl with four distinct indices. In this case, total number of distinct non-vanishing

2

components of Rijkl is

n (n 1)

.

12

94

Hence the number of distinct non-vanishing components of the curvature tensor Rijkl does not

1 2 2

n (n 1) .

exceed

12

Remark

When Rijkl is of the form Riiii i.e., all indices are same

In this case, Riiii has no components.

5.5 BIANCHI IDENTITY

It states that

R ijkl, m + R ijlm, k + R ijmk ,l = 0

and

Proof: Introducing geodesic coordinate1 in which Christoffel symbols are constant with the pole at P0 .

Since we know that

R ijkl

R ijkl

R ijkl, m

i

k

l

x x

mk

+

=

ii

m

jk

jl

jk

i

jl

=

x k

i

ml

m

jl

i

jk + i m m i

x l

mk jl jk ml

i

i

2 2

j l j k

=

x m x k

x m x l

...(1)

i m

Since j k , j l etc. are constant at pole.

So, their derivatives are zero.

x l

R ijlm = i

j l

x m

i

j m

j l

j m

in curve . Geodesic.

Riemann-Christoffel Tensor

95

i

i

i

= j m j l +

l

x

xm

l

R ijlm, k

j m m

j l

i

2 i

2

j m j l

=

x k x l

x k x m

...(2)

and

R ijmk

R ijmk

R ijmk

m

k

x

x

m

+

=

i i

j m j k j m

j k

i

i

j k j m + i i

=

x m

x k

m j k k j m

i

2 i

2

j k

j m

x m x l

x k x l

...(3)

R ijkl, m + R ijlm, k + R ijmk ,l = 0

...(4)

g hi R ijkl, m = Rhjkl, m

Then equation (4) becomes

Rhjkl, m + R hjlm, k + Rhjmk ,l = 0

...(5)

Since every term of equation (4) and (5) is a tensor. So, equation (4) and (5) are tensor equations

and therefore hold in every coordinate system. Further, P0 is an arbitrary point of Vn . Thus there hold

throughout Vn . Hence equation (4) or (5) is called Bianchi identity..

5.6 EINSTEIN TENSOR

1 i

i

Theorem 5.4 To prove the tensor R j j R is divergence free.

2

Proof: We know that from equation (5)

96

Multiply it by g hl g jk , we get

g hl g jk R hjkl,m + g hl g jk R hjlm, k + g hl g jk Rhjmk, l = 0

g jk R jk, m + g hl g jk (R hjml, k ) + g hl g jk ( R jhmk, l ) = 0

Since Rhjlm = R hjml & Rhjmk = R jhmk

g jk R jk, m g jk R jm , k g hl R hm, l = 0

R , m Rmk , k R ml ,l = 0 Since g jk R jk = R

R , m R mk , k Rmk , k = 0

R , m 2 Rmk , k = 0

Rmk , k

1

R, m = 0

2

1

Rmk , k km R , k = 0

2

since R , m = km R, k

k 1 k

Rm m R = 0

2

, k

1

Rmk km R is divergence free.

2

1 i

1

i

The tensor Rmk km R = Gmk or R j j R is known as Einstein Tensor..

2

2

5.7 RIEMANN CURVATURE OF A V n

Consider two unit vectors pi and qi at a point P 0 of V n. These vectors at P 0 determine a pencil of

directions deferred by ti = pi + qi. and being parameters. One and only one geodesic will pass

through P 0 in the direction of p i . Similarly one and only one geodesic will pass through in the direction

qi. These two geodesics through P 0 determined by the orientation of the unit vectors pi and qi. Let this

surface is denoted by S.

The Gaussian curvature of S at P 0 is defined to be the Riemannian Curvature of Vn at P0 for the

orientation determined by pi and qi.

Let the coordinates y i of Vn are Riemannian coordinates with origin at P 0. The equation of

surfaces S in given by

i.e.,

y i = ( p i + q i)s

...(1)

y i = p iu 1 + q i u 2

...(2)

Riemann-Christoffel Tensor

97

u and u 2 . Here u1 and u 2 are coordinates of any current point on S.

1

b = g ij

y i y j

(, = 1, 2)

u u

k

Let and

be the Christoffel symbols corresponding to the coordinates y i and u .

i

j

R

Let and R hijk be curvature tensor corresponding to the metrices b du du and g ij dy i dy j .

Since the Greek letters , , , take values 1,2 and so that the number of independent non1

1 2 2

vanishing components of R is n2 (n 2 1) for n = 2, i.e., they are

2 2 1 = 1. Let us

12

12

transform the coordinate system u to u and suppose that the corresponding value of R1212 are

'

.

R1212

Then

'

= R

R1212

u u u u

u 1 u 2 u 1 u 2

= R1

u1 u u u

u 2 u u u

+

R

2

u 1 u 2 u 1 u 2

u 1 u 2 u 1 u 2

= R12

u 1 u 2 u u

u 2 u 1 u u

+

R

21

u1 u 2 u1 u 2

u1 u 2 u1 u 2

= R1212

u1 u 2 u1 u 2

u1 u 2 u 2 u1

+

R

1221

u 1 u 2 u 1 u 2

u 1 u 2 u 1 u 2

+ R 2112

u 2 u1 u1 u 2

u 2 u1 u 2 u 1

+

R

2121

u11 u 2 u 2 u 2

u 1 u 2 u 1 u 2

2

u 1 u 2

u1 u 2 u 2 u u 2 u1

2

+

= 2112 u1 u 2

u 1 u 2 u 2 u 2 u 1 u 2

= R1212 J 2 where J =

so,

= R1212 J 2

R1212

u1

u 1

u1

u 2

u 2

u 1

u 2

u 2

u

u

...(3)

98

Again

b = b

b = b

or

from (3) and (4), we get

u u

u u

u

u

u

u

b = bJ 2

...(4)

R1212

R

= 1212 = K (say)

b

b

...(5)

This shows that the quantity K is an invariant for transformation of coordinates. The invariant K

is defined to be the Guasian curvature of S. Hence K is the Riemannian Curvature of S at P0 .

Since Riemannian Coordinates yi with the origin at P0 . We have as geodesic coordinates with the

pole at P0 .

Therefore

Then

k

,

= 0 at P0

i j g b

and

Rhijk =

+

y k

y j

at P0 .

[, ] b [, ] b

+

at P0 .

R =

u

u

R1212 =

[21,1] b

u

[22,1] b

u1

at P0

...(6)

1 [21, 1] b [22, 1]b

+

K = b

u 2

u 1

...(7)

5.8 FORMULA FOR RIEMANNIAN CURVATURE IN THE TERMS OF COVARIANT

CURVATURE TENSOR OF V n

k

Let and be the Christoffel symbols of second kind relative to the metrices bdu du

i j g

Riemann-Christoffel Tensor

99

[, ]b

y i y j y k

[ij, k ]g

u u u

[21, 1]b

y i y j y k

[ij, k ]g

u 2 u1 u1

...(8)

Now,

[21, 1] b

u

[ij, k ]g

qi p j p k

u 2

i j k

= q p p

[ij, k ]g y h

y h u 2

i j k h

= q p p q

[ij, k ]g

y h

[21, 1] b

u 2

i k j h

= qq p p

[ij, h ]g

...(9)

y k

Similarly,

[22, 1] b

u

i k j h

= qq p p

[ij, h ]g

...(10)

y k

[ij, h ]g [ik , h]g

h i j k

R1212 = p q p q y k + y j

h i j k

R1212 = p q p q Rhijk at P0

Since

b = g ij

y i y j

u u

b11 = g ij

y i y j

= g ij p i p j

1

1

u u

b11 = g hj p h p j

at P0

...(11)

100

Similarly

b22 = g ij q i q j = g ik q i q k

b12 = g ij p i q j = g ji p j q i = g hk p h q k

b11 b12

21

22

...(12)

p h q i q k Rhijk

R1212

=

K= b

p h qi p j q k ( gik g hj g ij g hk )

...(13)

This is formula for Riemannian Curvature of Vn at P0 determined by the orientation of Unit vectors p i

and q i at P0 .

5.9 SCHURS THEOREM

If at each point, the Riemannian curvature of a space is independent of the orientation choosen then it

is constant throughout the space.

Proof: If K is the Riemannian curvature of Vn at P for the orientation determined by unit vectors p i

and q i then it is given by

p h q i p j q k R hijk

K=

(g ik g hj g ij g hk ) p h qi p j q k

Let K be independent of the orientation choosen. Then equation (1) becomes

K=

...(1)

R hijk

g ik g hj gij g hk

Rhijk = K (g ik g hj g ij g hk )

...(2)

If N = 2, the orientation is the same at every point. So, consider the case of Vn when n > 2.

Since g ij are constants with respect to covariant differentation, therefore covariant differentation

of (2) gives

Rhijk ,l = ( g ik g hj g ij g hk ) K ,l

...(3)

Taking the sum of (3) and two similar equations obtained by cyclic permutation of the suffices,

j, k and l.

Riemann-Christoffel Tensor

101

...(4)

Here n > 2 therefore three or more distinct values to indices j, k, m can be given .

Multiplying (4) by g hj and using g hj g hl = lj , we get

(ng ik ih g hk )k , l +(g il kj gik l j ) K , j +( ih g h l ngil )K , k = 0

or,

(n 1) g ik K , l + 0 + (1 n) gil K , k = 0 for ij = 0, i j

g ik K ,l g il K , k = 0

Multiplying by g ik and using

g ik ik = n, g il g ik = kl ,

we get

nK,l kl K ,k = 0 or (n 1)K ,l = 0

or

K, k = 0 as (n 1)K ,l = 0

K

= 0.

x l

integrating it, we get K = constant. This proves that the partial derivatives of K w.r.t. to xs are all zero.

or

5.10 MEAN CURVATURE

The sum of mean curvatures of a Vn for a mutually orthogonal directions at a point, is independent of

the ennuple choosen. Obtain the value of this sum.

Or

Prove that the mean curvature (or Riccian Curvature) in the direction ei at a point of a Vn is the

sum of n 1 Riemmanian curvatures along the direction pairs consisting of the direction and n 1

other directions forming with this directions an orthogonal frame.

i

Proof: Let e hi be the components of unit vector in a given direction at a point P of a Vn . Let e k be the

components of unit vector forming an orthogonal ennuple.

denoted by K hk and given by

K hk =

ehp e qk rk sk R pqrs

ehp e qk e rh eks ( g pr q qs g ps g qr )

e hp1 e qk1 e rh1 e ks1 R pqrs

= (e p e r g ) (e q e s g ) (e p e s g ) (e q e r g )

pr

ps

h h

k k qs

h k

k h qr

...(1)

102

e hp e hr g pr = 1

p s

e h eh g ps = 0 etc.

and

Using these in equation (1), then equation (1) becomes

K hk =

K hk =

n

e

k =1

11 0 0

e hp e kq ehr

e ks R pqrs

...(2)

hk

k =1

Put

e hp ekq e rh e ks R pqrs

hk

k =1

p q r s

e e e

h k h k

R pqrs

= M h . Then

n

p r

M h = eh eh

e

k =1

q s

e

k k

R pqrs

p r qs

= e h e h g R pqrs

p r qs

= e h e h g R qprs

p r

M h = eh e h R pr

...(3)

ennuple. Here M h is defined as mean curvature or Riccian curvature of Vn for the direction e hp1 .

Summing the equation (1) from h = 1 to h = n, we get

n

h =1

p r

= eh |e h| R pr

= g pr R pr

= R

n

or

M

h =1

= g pr R pr == R

This proves that the sum of mean curvatures for n mutual orthogonal directions is independent of the

directions chosen to complete an orthogonal ennuple and has the value R.

5.11 RICCIS PRINCIPAL DIRECTIONS

Let e ih1 is not a unit vector and the mean curvature M h is given by

Mh =

Rij e hi e hj

g ij e hi ehj

Riemann-Christoffel Tensor

103

( Rij + M h g ij ) e ih ehj = 0

M h

g jk ehj e hk + 2 ( Rij + Mg ij ) e hj

= 0

ehi

...(1)

M h

=0

e ih

( Rij + Mg ij )ehi = 0

These are called Ricci's Principal direction of the space as they are principal directions of Ricci

tensor Rij .

5.12 EINSTEIN SPACE

A space, which is homogeneous relative to the Ricci tensor Rij is called Einstein space.

If space is homogeneous then we have

Rij = g ij

...(1)

R = n since Rij g ij = R and g ij gij = n

1

= nR

from (1)

Rij =

R

g

n ij

R

g at every point of the space.

n ij

Proof: Let the Riemannian curvature K at P of Vn for the orientation determined by p i and q i , is

given by

p h q i p j q k R hijk

K = p hq i p j q k ( g g g g )

ik hj

ij hk

Since K is constant and independent of the orientaion.

104

Rhijk

K = (g g g g )

ik hj

ij hk

Rhijk = K (g ik g hj g ij g hk )

Multiplying by g hk

Kg hk ( g ik g hj g ij g hk ) = g hk Rhijk

K (hi g hj ng ij ) = Rij

Since g hk g ik = hi ; g hk g hk = n and g hk Rhi jk = Rij

K (g ij ng ij ) = Rij

K (1 n) g ij = Rij

...(1)

ij

Multiplying by g , we get

Kn(1 n) = R as g ij Rij = R

...(2)

Rij = (1 n) gij

R

1

= Rgij

n(1 n ) n

R

g

n ij

This is necessary and sufficient condition for the space Vn to be Einstein space.

Rij =

Weyl Tensor denoted as Whijk and defined by

Whijk = Rhijk +

1

( g R g kh g ij )

1 n ki hj

Theorem 5.6 A necessary and sufficient condition for a Riemannian V n (n > 3) to be of constant

curvature to that the Weyl tensor vanishes identically throughout Vn .

Proof: Necessary Condition:

Let K be Riemannian Curvature of Vn . Let K = constant.

We have to prove that Whijk = 0

Since we know that

K=

p h q i p j q k R hijk

(g hj g ik g ij g hk ) p h qi p j q k

= constant

Riemann-Christoffel Tensor

105

Then

K=

R hijk

g hj gik gij g hk

...(1)

Multiplying by g hk , we get

g hk Rhijk = g hk K (g hj g ik g ij g hk )

Rij = K (kj gik ng ij )

Rij = K (1 n) g ij

...(2)

g ij Rij = K (1 n) g ij g ij

R = K (1 n )n

...(3)

Rij =

R

g

n ij

...(4)

Now, the W tensor is given by

Whijk = Rhijk +

1

[ g R g hk g ij ]

1 n ik hj

Whijk = Rhijk +

1 R

R

g ik g hj g hk g ij

1n

n

n

R

= Rhijk + n(1 n) [ gik g hj g hk gij ]

= Rhijk +

Rhijk

R

n(1 n) K

Whijk = Rhijk + K

Rhijk

K

, by equation (3)

Whijk = 2 R hijk

Since K is constant. The equation (5) shows that Whijk = 0 .

This proves necessary condition.

106

Sufficient Condition

Let Whijk = 0. Then we have to prove that K is constant.

Now, Whijk = 0.

Rhijk +

1

[ g R g hk Rij ] = 0

1 n ik hj

Multiplying by g hk , we get

Rij +

1

[g hk g ik Rhj g hk g hk Rij ]

1 n

1

Rij +

[h R nRij ]

1 n i hj

R

Rij + ij (1 n)

1 n

2 R ij

=0

=0

=0

=0

Rij = 0

hk

g = 0 or Rhijk = 0

If g hk = 0 then

K=

K=

R hijk p h qi p j q k

(g hj g ik 0 g ij ) p h qi p j q k

R hijk p h q i p j q k

( p h p j g hj ) (q i q k g ik )

R hijk p h q i p j q k

p2 q 2

h i j k

K = Rhijk p q p q since p 2 = 1, q 2 = 1

K = constant as Rij = 0

This proves sufficient condition.

EXAMPLE 1

For a V2 referred to an orthogonal system of parametric curves (g 12 = 0) show that

R12 = 0, R11 g 22 = g 22 g11 = R1221

ij

R = g Rij =

Consequently

Rij =

1

Rg .

2 ij

2R1221

g11 g 22

Riemann-Christoffel Tensor

107

Solution

Given that g12 = 0 so that g 12 = 0.

Also,

g ij =

1

1

1

22

g 11 =

& g =g .

g ij

g11

22

i

j

ds 2 = g ij dx dx ; (i, j = 1, 2)

1 2

2 2

ds 2 = g11 (dx ) + g 22 (dx ) Since g12 = 0.

and

g = g ij =

g11 g12

g

0

= 11

= g11 g 22

g 21 g 22

0 g 22

hk

h1

R12 = g Rh12 k = g Rh 2 as Rh 122 = 0

R12

= g 21 R2121 as R1121 = 0

=0

R11 = g hk Rh 11k = g 2 k R 211k

R 2112

22

R11 = g R 2112 = g

22

So,

R11 =

and

R 2112

g 22

11

= g R1221 =

So,

...(1)

R22 =

R1221

g11

R1221

g11

...(2)

R 11g22 = R 1221=R 22g11

(iii) To prove

R=

2R1221

g11 g 22

ij

i1

i2

R = g Rij = g Ri 1 + g Ri 2

(3)

108

=

R 11 R 22

+

g 11 g 22

R1221

R1221

[Q by eqn. (3)]

= g g +g g

22 11

11 22

2R1221

R=

g11 g 22

(iv) To prove Rij =

1

Rg

2 ij

R=

2R1221

g11 g 22

R=

2R1221

as g = g11 g 22

g

R1221 =

1

Rg

2

R11 g 22 =

1

Rg = R 22 g11 .

2

it becomes

R11 =

Rg

Rg g

Rg

= 11 22 = 11

2 g 22

2g 22

2

Rg

Rg11 g 22 Rg22

=

=

R22 =

2 g11

2g11

2

So,

1

1

Rg11 & R22 = g 22

2

2

1

= g12 as R12 = 0 = g12

2

R11 =

R12

This prove that Rij =

1

R .

2 ij

EXAMPLE 2

The metric of the V 2 formed by the surface of a sphere of radius r is ds 2 = r 2 d 2 + r 2 sin 2 d 2

1

in spherical polar coordinates. Show that the surface of a sphere is a surface of constant curvature 2 .

r

Solution

Given that

ds 2 = r 2 d 2 + r 2 sin 2 d 2

Since r is radius of curvature then r is constant.

Riemann-Christoffel Tensor

g11 = r 2 ,

109

g 22 = r 2 sin 2 , g12 = 0,

g = g11 g 22 = r 4 sin 2 .

We can prove

R 1221 = r2 sin 2

Now, the Riemannian curvature K of V n is given by

p hq i p jq k

.

K= h i j k

p q p q ( g hj gik g hk gij )

At any point of V2 there exists only two independent vectors.

Consider two vectors whose components are (1, 0) and (0, 1) respectively in V2 . Then

K=

R 1212

R

= 1212

g11 g 22

g

K=

r 2 sin 2 1

=

= constant.

r 4 sin 2 r 2

EXERCISES

1. Show that

Rijkl =

[ jl, i] [ jk , i]

+

[

il

,

[ik , ]

xk

xl

j k

j l

2. Show that

2

g jk 2 g ik

g jl

1 g il

+

2 x j xk xi xl x j xl xi xk

2

Rijkl =

+ g ( [ jk , ][il , ] [ jl , ][ik , ] ) .

4. Show that the curvature tensor of a four dimensional Riemannian space has at the most 20 distinct

non-vanishing components.

h

5. (a) If prove that the process of contraction applied to the tensor Rijk generates only one new tensor

1

Rihhj , (h, i, j being unequal).

g hh

6. Show that when in aV3 the coordinates can be chosen so that the components of a tensor g ij are zero

when i, j, k are unequal then

(b)

(i) Rhj =

1

Rhiij

g ii

110

(ii) Rhh =

1

1

Rhiih +

Rhjjh

g ii

g jj

7. Prove that if

1 R

Ri = g Rij then Ri , = 2 i

x

and hence deduce that when n > 2 then scalar curvature of an Einstein space is constant.

8. If the Riemannian curvature K of Vn at every point of a neighbourhood U of Vn is independent of the

direction chosen, show that K is constant throughout the neighbourhood U. Provided n > 2.

9. Show that a space of constant curvature K0 is an Einstein space and that R = K 0 n (1 n ).

10. Show that the necessary and sufficient condition that Vn be locally flat in the neighbourhood of 0 is

that Riemannian Christoffel tensor is zero.

11. Show that every V2 is an Einstein space.

12. For two dimensional manifold prove that

K=

R

2

13. Show that if Riemann-Christoffel curvature tensor vanishes then order of covariant differentiation is

commutative.

CHAPTER 6

KRNECKER DELTAS

The concept of symmetry and skew-symmetry with respect to pairs of indices can be extended to

cover to pairs of indices can be extended to cover the sets of quantities that are symmetric or skewsymmetric with respect to more than two indices. Now, consider the sets of quantities A i ... i k or

Ai l ... i k depending on k indices written as subscripts or superscripts, although the quantities A may not

represent tensor.

6.1 COMPLETELY SYMMETRIC

The system of quantities A i1 ... i k (or Ai1... i k ) depending on k indices, is said to be completely symmetric

if the value of the symbol A is unchanged by any permutation of the indices.

6.2 COMPLETELY SKEW-SYMMETRIC

The systems Ai1 ... ik or ( Ai1... i k ) depending on k indices, is said to be completely skew-symmetric if the

value of the symbol A is unchanged by any even permutation of the indices and A merely changes the

sign after an odd permutation of the indices.

Any permutation of n distinct objects say a permutation of n distinct integers, can be accomplished

by a finite number of interchanges of pairs of these objects and that the number of interchanges

required to bring about a given permutation form a perscribed order is always even or always odd.

In any skew-symmetric system, the term containing two like indices is necessarily zero. Thus if

one has a skew-symmetric system of quantities Aijk where i, j, k assume value 1, 2, 3. Then

A122 = A112 = 0

A123 = A213 , A312 = A123 etc.

In general, the components Aijk of a skew-symmetric system satisfy the relations.

Aijk = Aikj = A jik

Aijk = A jki = Akij

112

6.3 e-SYSTEM

Consider a skew-symmetric system of quantities ei1 ... i n ( or ei1 ,..., i n ) in which the indices i1 ... in assume

values 1,2,...n. The system ei1 ... i n ( or ei1... i n ) is said to be the e-system if

= 1; when i1 , i2 ,..., in

EXAMPLE 1

Find the components of system eij when i, j takes the value 1,2.

Solution

The components of system eij are

e11 , e12 , e21 , e 22 .

By definition of e-system, we have

e11 = 0,

e12 = 1,

since i j has even permutation of 12

e 21 = e12 = 1

e22 = 0,

EXAMPLE 2

Find the components of the system ei jk .

Solution

By the definition of e-system,

e123 = e 231 = e321 = 1

e213 = e132 = e321 = 1

eijk = 0 if any two indices are same.

6.4 GENERALISED KRNECKER DELTA

A symbol i1j1...... ikjk depending on k superscripts and k subscripts each of which take values from 1 to n,

is called a generalised Krnecker delta provided that

(a) it is completely skew-symmetric in superscripts and subscripts

113

(b) if the superscripts are distinct from each other and the subscripts are the same set of

numbers as the superscripts.

The value of symbol

= 1; an even number of transposition is required to arrange the

i1 ... i k

j ... j = 1; where odd number of transpositions arrange the superscripts

1

k

EXAMPLE 3

Find the values of ijkl .

Solution

By definition of generalised Kronecker Delta, ijkl = 0 if i = j or k = l or if the set. ij is not the set kl.

22

23

11

pq = pq = 13 = = 0

i.e.,

= 21

= 13

= 31

= 23

= =1

12

12

21

13

31

23

i.e.,

31

21

= 13

12

= 13

21

31 = 12 = = 1

i.e.,

i i ... i

Theorem 6.1 To prove that the direct product e 1 2 n e j1 j2 ... jn of two systems e i1 ... in and e j1 j 2 ... jn is the

i i ... i n

ej

1 j2 ... jn

(ii) +1, if the difference in the number of transpositions of i1 , i2 ,...,in and j1 , j2 ,..., jn from

1,2,...n is an even number.

(iii) 1, if the difference in the number of transpositions of i1, i2,...,in and j1, j2, ...jn from 1, 2,..n

an odd number.

Thus we can write

e i 1i 2 ... i n e j1 j 2 ...

THEOREM 6.2 To prove that

(i) e i 1 i 2 ... i n = 1j1 2j 2 ... nj n

i i ... i

i i ... i

(ii) ei1i 2 ... i n = 1j12j 2 ...n jn

jn

i i ... i

= 1j1 2j 2 ... nj n

114

(i) +1; if i1 , i2 ,...,in is an even permutation of numbers 1,2,...n.

(ii) -1; if i1 , i2 ,...,in is an odd permutation of numbers 1,2,...n

(iii) 0; in all other cases

Hence by Definition of generalized krnecker delta, we can write

i i ... i

i i ... i

(1) e 1 2 n = 11 22... nn

and

1 2 ... n

(2) ei1i2 ... in = i1i 2 ... in

jk

Let us contract i

on k and . For n = 3, the result is

ij1

ij 2

ij 3

ij

ijk

= 1 + 2 + 3 =

If i = 1, and j = 2, we get 123

3.

Hence

12

+ 1; if is an even permutatio n of 12

1; if is an odd permutatio n of 12

=

0; if is not permutatio n of 12

Similarly results hold for all values of and selected from the set of numbers 1, 2, 3.

Hence

+ 1; if i j is an even permutatio n of

1; if i j is an odd permutatio n of

ij

= 0; if two of the subscripts or superscripts are equal or when the

subscripts and superscripts are not formed from the same numbers.

1

If we contract ij . To contract ij first contract it and the multiply the result by . We obtain

2

a system depending on two indices

1 ij 1 i 1

i2

i3

i = 2 j = 2 ( 1 + 2 + 3 )

1 12

1

13

It i = 1 in i then we get = 2 + 3

2

115

Similar result can be obtained by setting i = 2 or i = 3. Thus i has the values.

(i) 0 if i , (, i = 1, 2, 3, )

(ii) 1 if i = .

By counting the number of terms appearing in the sums. In general we have

1 ij

ij

i = n 1 j and ij = n(n 1)

We can also deduce that

(n k )! i1i2 ... ir i r 1... i k

i1j1i2j...2 ...i r jr = (n r )! j1 j2 ... j r j r 1... j k

...(1)

...(2)

and

i1j1i2j...2 ...i r jr = n (n 1) (n 2) (n r + 1) =

n!

n r!

...(3)

or

e i1 i 2 ... i n e i1 i 2 ... i n = n!

...(4)

e i1i 2 ... iri r+1... i n e j1 j2 ... j r jr +1 ... i n = n!

...(5)

EXERCISE

1. Expand for n = 3

i

(a) j

12 i j

(c) ij x y

ij 2 1

ij i j

ij

(c) e a a = e a .

(b) ij x x

ij

(d) ij

2. Expand for n = 2

ij 1 2

(a) e ai a j

(b) e ai a j

ijk

3. Show that ijk = 3 ! if i, j, k = 1, 2, 3.

i ... i

k

5. Prove that ijk g is a covariant tensor of rank three where where ijk is the usual permutation

symbol.

CHAPTER 7

GEOMETRY

7.1 LENGTH OF ARC

Consider the n-dimensional space R be covered by a coordinate system X and a curve C so that

i

...(1)

C : x i = x (t ), (i = 1,2..., n)

which is one-dimensional subspace of R. Where t is a real parameter varying continuously in the

interval t1 t t 2 . The one dimensional manifold C is called arc of a curve.

1

2

1 2

dx n

n dx dx

Let F x , x ,..., x , dt dt ,..., dt be a continuous function in the interval t1 t t 2 . Wee

i

dx

assume that F x, > 0, unless every dx = 0 and that for every positive number k

dt

dt

1

2

1

2

n

1 2

dx

dx

dx n

x , x ,..., x n , dx , dx ,... dx .

F x1 , x 2 ,..., x n , k

,k

,..., k

kF

=

dt

dt

dt

dt dt

dt

The integral

dx

F x, dt

t1

dt

is called the length of C and the space R is said to be metrized by equation (2).

s=

t2

...(2)

dx

Different choices of functions F x, lead to different metric geometrices.

dt

If one chooses to define the length of arc by the formula

dx p dx q

dt, (p,q = 1, 2, ..., n)

...(3)

t1

dt dt

dx p

dx p dxq

, then the resulting

where g pq ( x)

is a positive definite quadratic form in the variable

dt dt

dt

geometry is the Riemannian geometry and space R metrized in this way is the Riemannian n-dimensional

space R n.

s=

t2

g pq ( x)

Geometry

117

Consider the coordinate transformation T : x i = x i ( x1 ,..., x n ) such that the square of the element

of arc ds,

p

q

ds 2 = g pq dx dx

...(4)

ds 2 = dx i dx i

...(5)

Then the Riemannian manifold R n is said to reduce to an n-dimensional Euclidean manifold E n.

The Y-coordinate system in which the element of arc of C in E n is given by the equation (5) is

called an orthogonal cartesian coordinate system. Obviously, E n is a generalization of the Euclidean

plane determined by the totality of pairs of real values ( x 1 , x 2 ). If these values ( x 1 , x 2 ) are associated

with the points of the plane referred to a pair of orthogonal Cartesian axes then the square of the

element of arc ds assumes the familiar form

ds 2 = (d x1)2 + (d x 2 )2 .

dx

dx

dx

THEOREM 7.1 A function F x, satisfying the condition F x, k = kF x , for every

dt

dt

dt

k > 0. This condition is both necessary and sufficient to ensure independence of the value of the

t2

dx

integral s = t F x, dt of a particular mode of parametrization of C. Thus if t in C : x i = xi (t)

1

dt

is replaced by some function t = (s ) and we denote x i [(s )] by i () . so that x i (t ) i (s ) we have

equality

t2

t1

dx

F x , dt =

dt

s2

s1

F (, ) ds

ds i

and t1 = (s1 ) and t2 = (s 2 ).

ds

Proof: Suppose that k is an arbitary positive number and put t = ks so that t1=ks 1 and t2=ks 2. Then

i

C : x i = x (t ) becomes

i

where =

C : x i (ks) = i (t )

and

or

dx i (ks )

dx i (ks)

=k

ds

dt

t2

dx

s=

F x , dt we get

t1

dt

i (s ) =

s=

s=

s2

s1

s2

s1

dx (ks )

F x (ks),

kds

dt

dx

dx

We must have the relation F (, ) = F x, k = kF x, . Conversely, if this relation is true

dt

dt

118

for every line element of C and each k > 0 then the equality of integrals is assumed for every choice of

parameter t = ( s), 1 (s ) > 0, s1 s s 2 with and t2 = (s 2 ).

i

Note: (i)

(ii)

dx

Here take those curves for which x i (t ) and

are continuous functions in t1 t t 2.

dt

A function F x,

dx

dx

dx

satisfying the condition F x, k = kF x, for every k > 0 is called

dt

dt

dt

i

dx

.

dt

EXAMPLE 1

What is meant, consider a sphere S of radius a, immersed in a three-dimensional Euclidean

manifold E 3 , with centre at the origin (0, 0, 0) of the set of orthogonal cartesian axes O X 1 X 2 X 3 .

Solution

Let T be a plane tangent to S at (0, 0,a) and the points of this plane be referred to a set of orthogonal

cartesian axes O Y 1Y 2 as shown in figure. If we draw from O (0, 0, 0) a radial line OP , interesting

the sphere S at P ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 ) and plane T at Q( x 1 , x 2 , a) then the points P on the lower half of the

sphere S are in one-to-one correspondence with points ( x 1 , x 2 ) of the tangent plane T..

3

X

O

P1

1

P2

C

Q2

K

Q1

Fig. 7.1

If P ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 ) is any point on the radial line OP,, then symmetric equations of this line is

x1 0

x2 0 x3 0

=

=

= 2

x1 0

x 0 a 0

or

x1 = x 1 , x 2 = x 2 , x 3 = a

Since the images Q of points P lying on S, the variables x i satisfy the equation of S,

( x1 )2 + (x 2 )2 + (x 3 ) 2 = a 2

( ) ( )

2 x 1 + x 2

or

+ a2 = a2

...(6)

Geometry

119

ax1

x =

1

and

( x 1 ) 2 + ( x 2 )2 + a 2

ax 2

, x2 =

( x 1 )2 + (x 2 )2 + (x 3 ) 2

a2

x =

3

...(7)

( x 1) 2 + ( x 2 ) 2 + ( x 3 ) 2

These are the equations giving the analytical one-to-one correspondence of the points Q on T and

points P on the portion of S under consideration.

Let P1 ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 ) and P2 ( x1 + dx1 , x 2 + dx 2 , x 3 + dx 3 ) be two close points on some curve C lying

on S. The Euclidean distance P1 P2 along C, is given by the formula

ds 2 = dx i dx i , (i = 1, 2, 3)

...(8)

Since

x i

p

dx = x p d x , (P =1, 2)

i

ds 2 =

xi xi

d x pd x q

p

q

x x

= g pq ( x )d x pd x q , (p,q = 1, 2)

xi x i .

x p x q

If the image K of C on T is given by the equations

where g pq (x ) are functions of x i and g pq =

x 1 = x 1 ( t )

K:

x 2 = x 2 (t ), t1 t t2

s=

t2

t1

g pq

dx p dxq

dt

dt dt

1 1 2

(x d x x 2 d x 1)2

a2

2

1

1 2

2 2

1

+

(

x

)

+

(

x

)

a 2

(d x 1)2 + (d x 2) 2 +

ds2 =

and

...(9)

120

2

2

1

d x1 d x 2

+

+ 12 x1 d x x 2 d x

t 2 dt

dt

dt

a

dt

dt

s= t

1

1 2

2 2

1

1 + 2 (x ) + ( x )

a

So, the resulting formulas refer to a two-dimensional manifold determined by the variables ( x 1 , x 2 ) in

the cartesian plane T and that the geometry of the surface of the sphere imbeded in a three-dimensional

Euclidean manifold can be visualized on a two-dimensional manifold R 2 with metric given by equation (9).

1

If the radius of S is very large then in equation (9) the terms involving 2 can be neglected. Then

a

equation (9) becomes

1 2

2 2

...(10)

ds 2 = (d x ) + (d x ) .

Thus for large values of a, metric properties of the sphere S are indistinguishable from those of

the Euclidean plane.

The chief point of this example is to indicate that the geometry of sphere imbedded in a Euclidean

3-space, with the element of arc in the form equation (8), is indistinguishable from the Riemannian

geometry of a two-dimensional manifold R 2 with metric (9). the latter manifold, although referred to

a cartesian coordinate system Y, is not Euclidean since equation (9) cannot be reduced by an admissible

transformation to equation (10).

Let P (x ) be the point, in an Euclidean 3-space E 3 , referred to a set of orthogonal Cartesian coordinates Y..

Consider a coordinate transformation

T : x i = x i (x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ), (i = 1, 2, 3)

xi

Such that J = x j 0 in some region R of E 3 . The inverse coordinate transformation

i 1

2

3

T 1 : x i = x ( x , x , x ), (i = 1, 2, 3)

will be single values and the transformations T and T 1 establish one-to-one correspondence

between the sets of values ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 ) and ( x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ).

1

2

3

If one of the coordinates x , x , x is held fixed and the other two allowed to vary then the point

P traces out a surface, called coordinate surface.

If we set x1 = constant in T then

...(1)

x1 ( x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ) = constant

defines a surface. If constant is allowed to assume different values, we get a one-parameter family of

surfaces. Similarly, x 2 (x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ) = constant and x 3 ( x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ) = constant define two families of

surfaces.

The surfaces

Geometry

121

2

3

x1 = c1 , x = c2 , x = c3

3

Y

(2)

3

2

X

1

X

2

Y

1

Y

Fig. 7.2

intersect in one and only one point. The surfaces defined by equation (2) the coordinate surfaces

and intersection of coordinate surface pair-by pair are the coordinate lines. Thus the line of intersection

of x1 = c1 and x 2 = c2 is the x 3 coordinate line because along this the line the variable x 3 is the only

one that is changing.

EXAMPLE 2

Consider a coordinate system defined by the transformation

3

X2

O

X

Y1

Fig. 7.3

x 1 = x1 sin x 2 cos x 3

...(3)

x 2 = x1 sin x 2 sin x 3

...(4)

x 3 = x1 cos x 2

...(5)

122

The surfaces x1 = constant are spheres, x 2 = constant are circluar cones and x3 = constant are

planes passing through the Y 3-axis (Fig. 7.3).

The squaring and adding equations (3), (4) and (5) we get,

( x 1 )2 + (x 2 )2 + (x 3 ) 2 = ( x1 sin x 2 cos x 3 ) 2 + (x1 sin x 2 sin x 3 )2 + (x 1 cos x 2 ) 2

On solving

( x 1 )2 + (x 2 )2 + (x 3 ) 2 = (x1 )2

x1 =

(x 1 ) 2 + ( x 2 ) 2 + ( x 3 )2

...(6)

( x 1 )2 + (x 2 )2 = ( x1 sin x 2 sin x 3 )2 + (x1 sin x 2 sin x 3 )2

( x 1 )2 + (x 2 )2 = ( x1 )2 (sin x 2 ) 2

x1 sin x 2 =

(x 1 ) 2 + ( x 2 ) 2

...(7)

tan x 2 =

or

(x1 )2 + (x 2 )2

x3

1 2

2 2

1 ( x ) + ( x )

tan

x =

x3

...(8)

x2

tan x 3

1 =

x

2

1 x

x 3 = tan 1

x

...(9)

So, the inverse transformation is given by the equations (6), (8) and (9).

If x1 > 0, 0 < x 2 < , 0 x 3 < 2. This is the familiar spherical coordinate system.

7.3 RECIPROCAL BASE SYSTEMS

Covariant and Contravariant Vectors

r r r

Let a cartesian coordinate system be determined by a set of orthogonal base vectors b1 , b2 ,b3 then the

position vector rr of any point P (x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ) can be expressed as

r

r

...(1)

r = bi x i (i = 1, 2, 3)

Geometry

123

r

Since the base vectors bi are independent of the position of the point P (x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ) . Then from (1),

r

r

dr = bi dx i

...(2)

If P (x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ) and Q (x 1 + dx 1 , x 2 + d x 2, x 3 + d x 3 ) be two closed point. The square of the

element of arc ds between two points is

r r

ds 2 = dr dr

from equation (2),

r i r

j

ds 2 = bi dx b j dx

r r

= bi b j d x id x j

r r

i

j

ds 2 = ij d x d x ; since bi b j = ij

3

Y

X

a3

3

2

X

a2

a1

1

X

P

b3

r

O

b2

b1

2

Y

1

Y

Fig. 7.4.

r r r

r r

r r

(b1 , b2 , b3 areorthogonal base vector i.e.,b1 b1 = 1 & b1 b2 = 0) .

ds 2 = d x id x i;

as ij = 1, i = j

= 0, i j

a familiar expression for the square of element of arc in orthogonal cartesian coordinates.

Consider the coordinate transformation

i

1

2

3

x i = x (x , x , x ), (i = 1, 2, 3)

r

define a curvilinear coordinate system X. The position vector r is a function of coordinates x i .

i.e.,

r

r

r = r (x i ), (i = 1, 2, 3)

Then

r

r

r i

dr =

dx

...(3)

x i

124

and

ds 2 = d rr d rr

r

r

r r

d x id x j

=

xi x j

ds 2 = g ij dx i dx j

where

g ij

r

r

r r

=

xi x j

r

r

The vector

is a base vector directed tangentially to X i - coordinate curve.

x i

Put

r

r

r

= ai

i

x

Then from (3) and (4)

r r

r

r

dr = ai d x i and g ij = a i a j

...(4)

...(5)

...(6)

r

r

a j dx j = bi d x i

r x i j

r

dx

a j dx j = bi

x j

r xi

r

, as d x j are arbitrary

a j = bi

x j

r

So, the base vectors a j transform according to the law for transformation of components of

covariant vectors.

r

The components of base vectors a i , when referred to X-coordinate system, are

r

r

r

a1 : (a1 , 0,0), a 2 : (0, a2 , 0), a3 : (0,0, a3 ).

...(7)

and they are not necessarily unit vectors.

In general,

r r

r r

g11 = ar1 ar1 1, g 22 = a 2 a2 1, g 33 = a3 a3 1.

If the curvilinear coordinate system X is orthogonal. Then

r r

r r

g ij = a i a j = ai a j cos ij = 0, if i j.

r

r

Any vector A are can be written in the form A = k d rr where k is a scalar..

...(8)

...(9)

Geometry

125

r

r r i

d

r

=

d x we have

Since

xi

r

r

r

i

A = x i (kdx )

r

r i

A = ai A

r

where Ai = kdxi . The numbers Ai are the contravariant components of the vector A

Consider three non-coplanar vectors

r r

r r

r r

a 2 a3 ar 2 = a3 a1 , ar 3 = a1 a2

r1

...(10)

a = rr r ,

[ar1ar2 ar3 ]

[ar1ar2ar3 ]

[a1a 2a3 ]

r r

r

r

rr r

where a 2 a3 , etc. denote the vector product of a 2 and a3 and [a1 a2 a3 ] is the triple scalar

r r r

prduct a1 a2 a3 .

Now,

r r r

rr r

a2 a3 a1 [a1 a2 a3 ]

r1 r

=

= 1.

a a1 = [ar ar ar ]

[ar1ar2ar3 ]

1 2 3

r r r

r r r

a2 a3 a2 [a2 a2 a3 ]

r1 r

=

= 0.

a a 2 = [ar ar ar ]

[ar1ar2 ar3 ]

1 2 3

r r r

Since [a2 a2 a3 ] = 0.

Similarly,

r r

r r

a 1 a3 = a 2 a1 = = 0

r r

r r

a 2 a2 = 1, a 3 a 3 = 1

r r

a i a j = ij

EXAMPLE 3

rr r

To show that [a1 a2 a3 ] =

Solution

g

r

r

r

a1 : (a1 , 0,0), a 2 : (0, a2 , 0) and a3 : (0, 0, a3 )

Then

a1 0 0

rr r

[a1a2a3 ] = 0 a2 0 = a1a2a3

0 0 a3

...(11)

126

and

g= g ij

= g 21 g 22 g 23

g 31 g 32 g33

g11 = ar1 ar1 a12 = g11

Similarly

a22 = g 22 , a 32 = g 33

and

g12 = ar1 ar2 = 0, g13 = ar1 ar3 = 0 etc.

So,

a12 0

g= 0

0

a22

a32

g = a1 a2 a3

from eqn. (11) and (12), we have

[ar1ar2ar3 ] = g

...(12)

r r r

1

Since the triple products [a 1 a 2 a 3 ] =

. Moreover,,

g

r r

r r

r r

a2 a3

r

a 3 a1 r

a1 a 2

r

,

a

=

,

a

=

a1 = r1 r 2 r 3

r r r

r r r

2

3

[a a a ]

[a1 a 2 a 3 ]

[a1 a 2 a 3 ]

The system of vectors ar1 , ar 2 , ar3 is called the reciprocal base system.

r r r

Hence if the vectors a 1 , a 2 , a 3 are unit vectors associated with an orthogonal cartesian coordinates

then the reciprocal system of vector defines the same system of coordinates.

Solved.

r

r ri

The differential of a vector r in the reciprocal base system is d r = a d xi .

where dxi are the components of drr. Then

r r

ds 2 = dr dr

r

r

= (a i dxi ) (a j dx j )

r r

= a i a j dxi dx j

where

ij

ds 2 = g dxi dx j

r r

g ij = a i a j = g ji

...(13)

Geometry

127

The system of base vectors determined by equation (10) can be used to represent an arbitrary

r r

r

vector A in the form A = a i Ai , where Ai are the covariant components of A.

r

r

Taking scalar product of vector Ai a i with the base vector a j , we get

r r

r r

Ai a i a j = Ai ij = A j as a i a j = ij .

7.4 ON THE MEANING OF COVARIANT DERIVATIVES

r

r

A

r

THEOREM 7.2 If A is a vector along the curve in E 3 . Prove that

= A,j a

j

x

i

r

A

Also, prove that A,i j = j . Where Ai are component of A.

x

r

r

Proof: A vector A can be expressed in the terms of base vectors ai as

r

r

A = Ai ai

r

r

r

r

where a i = i and Ai are components of A.

x

r

The partial derivative of A with respect to x j is

r

r

A

Ai r

i ai

a

+

A

=

i

x j

x j

x j

r r

Since g ij = a i a j .

Differentiating partially it w.r.t. x k , we have

r

r

g ij

a j

a i r

a j + k

=

x k

x k

x

Similarly,

r

r

g jk

a j r

ak

a

+

=

k

x i

xri

xri

g ik

ai r

a

ak + kj

and

j =

j

x

x

x

r

Since A can be written as

r

r i ri

A = a i A = a Ai

r

Taking scalar product with a j , we have

r r

r r

a i a j A i = a i a j Ai

...(1)

r

ai

r

aj

r

ai

g ij A i = ij Ai = A j

r r

r r

As ai a j = g ij , a i a j = ij and ij Ai = A j .

We see that the vector obtained by lowering the index in Ai is precisely the covariant vector Ai .

128

r

The two sets of quantities Ai and Ai are represent the same vector A referred to two different

base systems.

EXAMPLE 4

Show that g i g j = ij .

Solution

Since we know that

Then

g i = ari ar and g j = ar j ar

r r r r

g i g j = (ai a ) (a j a )

r r

r r

= (ai a j ) (a a )

r r

= ij as ai a j = ij

g i g j = ij as = 1.

But

r

r

r

ai =

x i

r

r

r

r

a j

ai

2r

2r

=

=

=

x j

x j dx i x i x j xi

So,

r

r

a j

ai

=

x j

x i

Now,

[ij, k ] =

Substituting the value of

or

Hence

1 g ik g jk g ij

+

k

2 x j

x i

x

g

g ik g jk

, i and ijk , we get

j

x

x

x

r

1 a i r

[ij,k] = 2 j a k

2 x

r

ai r

ak

[ij,k] =

x j

r

ai

rk

1 rk

j = [ ij, k ]a , as r = a

x

ak

r

a i r

r r

a = [ij, k ]a k a

x j

, Christoffels symbol

Geometry

129

r r

= [ij, k ]g k , Since g k = a k a

r

ai r

[ i j , k ] g k =

,

.

a

=

as

i j

x j

i j

r

r

ai

= a

i j

x j

r

ai

Substituting the values of

in equation (1), we get

x j

...(2)

r

Ai r i r

A

ai + A a

=

x j

x j

i j

A r

r

a + A i a

=

j

x

i j

r

A i r

A

=

j + A a

x j

i j

x

r

A

A i

r

=

A

,

a

since

A

=

+ A

j

,j

x j

x j i j

Thus, the covariant derivative A,j of the vector A is a vector whose components are the

r

A

r

components of

j referred to the base system ai .

x

r

ai

=

0

If the Christoffel symbols vanish identically i.e.,

the

= 0, from (2).

x j

i j

Substituting this value in equation (1), we get

r

A

Ai r

ai

=

x j

x j

But

Ai i

+

A

x j j

i

Ai

= 0.

A,i j =

as

x j

j

A,i j =

Proved.

r

r

THEOREM 7.3 If A is a vector along the curve in E 3 . Prove that A j , k a j wheree A j are components

r

of A. .

r

Proof: If A can be expressed in the form

r

r

A = Ai a i

130

r

where Ai are components of A.

r

The partial derivative of A with respect to x k is

r

r

A

Ai ri

a i

a + Ai k

=

x k

x k

x

r r

Since a i a j = ij , we have,

...(1)

r

r

a i r

r i a j

a

+

a

=0

j

x k

x k

r

r

r i a j

a i r

a j = a k

x

x k

r r

But a i a = i . Then

r r

= ai a

,

j k

r

a i

x k

r

a i

x k

Since

r

a j

r

= a

x

j k

k

r

a j = i

j k

r

i

a j =

j k

r

i r

a i

a j ,

=

x k

j k

1 rj

as ar = a

j

r

a i

substituting the value of

in equation (1), we get

x k

r

Ai ri

i r j

A

a Ai

a

k = x k

x

j k

=

Ai r j

i rj

a Ai

a

k

x

j k

r

Ai

i r

A

Ai a j

k =

k

x

j k

x

r

A j

i

A

rj

A

=

Ai

=

A

a

,

Since

j,

k

k

k

j, k

x

x

j k

Proved.

Geometry

131

r

Let a vector field A(x ) and

i

C : x i = x (t ), t1 t t 2

r

be a curve in some region of E 3 . The vector A(x ) depend on the parameter t and if A(x ) is a

differentiable vector then

r

r

dA

A dx j

=

dt

x j dt

r

j

dA

r dx

= A, j a

dt

dt

Since we know

r

A r

r

A

A

,

a

=

j + a

j

=

x

i j

x j

So,

r

A i r dx j

dA

= j + i j A a dt

dt

x

r

dA i dx j r

dA

+ A

=

a

dt

dt

i j

dt

dA i dx j

+ A

is called the absolute or Intrinsic derivative of A with respect

dt

i

j

dt

A

.

to parameter t and denoted by

t

The formula

A dA i dx j

A A

=

.

So, t = dt + i j A dt is contravariant vector. If A is a scalar then, obviously,

t

t

Some Results

(i) If Ai be covariant vector

dAi dx

Ai

= dt i A dt

t

(ii)

(iii)

A ij Aij i j dx j i dx

=

+

+

A

A

t

dt

dt

dt

A ij

t

A ij

i dx i dx

+

A

A

dt j dt i dt

132

(iv)

A ijk

t

A ijk

i dx i dx i dx

+

A jk

A

A

dt

dt j k dt k j dt

EXAMPLE 5

If g ij be components of metric tensor, show that

g ij

t

= 0.

Solution

The intrinsic derivative of g ij is

g ij

t

dx

dx

g j

g i

dt i

dt j

dt

dg ij

g ij dx

dx

dx

j

i

dt j

dt

x dt i

g ij

dx

g i

j

= x

i

j dt

g ij

t

as

g ij

dx

= [i, j ] [j, i]

x

dt

gj = [ i , j ] and

g i = [ j , i ] .

j

i

g ij

But

x

g ij

So,

= [i, j ] + [ j, i].

= 0.

EXAMPLE 6

Prove that

d ( g ij A i A j )

dt

= 2 g ij A i

A i

t

Solution

Since g ij Ai a j is scalar..

Then

d ( g ij A i A j )

dt

(g ij A i A j )

t

Geometry

133

( A i A j )

, since g ij is independent of t.

t

A i j

A j

A + Ai

= g ij

t

t

Interchange i and j in first term, we get

= g ij

d ( g ij A i A j )

dt

d ( g ij A i A j )

dt

i A j

A j

+ Ai

= g ij A

as g ij is symmetric.

t

t

= 2 g ij Ai

A j

t

Proved.

EXAMPLE 7

Prove that if A is the magnitude of Ai then

A, j =

Ai , j Ai

A

Solution

Given that A is magnitude of Ai . Then

Since

g ik A i A k = Ai A i

g ik A i A k = A 2

Taking covariant derivative w.r. to x j , we get

g ik A,i j A k + g ik A i A,kj = 2 AA, j

Interchange the dummy index in first term, we get

g ki A,kj A i + g ik A i A,kj = 2 AA, j

2 g ik Ai A,kj = 2 AA, j

g ik A i A,kj = AA, j

Ai g ik A,kj = AA, j

Ai Ai , j = AA, j since g ik A,kj = Ai , j

A, j =

Ai , j Ai

A

Proved.

134

Consider a curve

i

C : x i = x (t ), t1 t t 2 , (i = 1, 2, 3)

r

in some region of E 3 and a vector A localized at point P of C. If we construct at every point of C a

vector equal to A in magnitude and parallel to it in direction, we obtain a parallel field of vector along the

curve C.

3

X

3

Y

2

X

C

1

X

2

Y

1

Y

r

r

if A is a parallel field along C then the vector A do not change along the curve and we can write

r

r

dA

= 0. It follows that the components Ai of A satisfy a set of simultaneous differential equations

dt

A i

= 0 or

t

dAi i dx

+

=0

A

dt

dt

This is required condition for the vector field Ai is parallel.

7.7 GEOMETRY OF SPACE CURVES

Let the parametric equations of the curve C in E 3 be

C : x i = x i (t ), t1 t t 2

(i = 1, 2, 3).

i

j

ds 2 = g ij dx dx

and the length of arc s of C is defined by the integral

s=

t2

t1

gij

dxi dx j

dt

dt dt

...(1)

...(2)

g ij

dx i dx j

=1

ds ds

...(3)

Geometry

Put

135

dx i

= i . Then equation (3) becomes

ds

g ij i j = 1

...(4)

r

r

The vector , with components i , is a unit vector. Moreover,, is tangent to C, since its

dx i

components i , when the curve C is referred to a rectangular Cartesian coordinate Y,, becomes i =

.

ds

These are precisely the direction cosines

tangent vector to the curve C.

r of the

r

Consider

a

pair

of

unit

vectors

and

(with

components i and i respectively) at any point

r

P of C. Let is tangent to C at P Fig. (7.6).

+ d

P(x)

(Q(x + dx)

C

r + dr

O

Fig. 7.6

r

r

The cosine of the angle between and is given by the formula

i j

cos = g ij

r

r

and if and are orthogonal, then equation (5) becomes

g ij i j = 0

...(6)

i j

j i

+ gij

=0

s

s

(7)

r

Any vector satisfying equation (6) is said to be normal to C at P..

Now, differentiating intrinsically, with respect to the are parameter s, equation (4), we get

g ij

Interchange indices i and j in second term of equation (7) we get

g ij

...(5)

i j

i j

+ gij

=0

s

s

2 g ij i

j

=0

s

136

g ij i

j

=0

s

j

either vanishes or is normal to C and if does not vanish

s

j

we denote the unit vector co-directional with

by j and write

s

we see that the vector

j =

j

1 j K =

,

s

K s

...(8)

The vector j is called the Principal normal vector to the curve C at the point P and K is the

curvature of C.

r

r

The plane determined by the tangent vector and the principal normal vector is called the

osculating plane to the curve C at P.

r

Since is unit vector

g ij i j = 1

...(9)

g ij

j j

j

+ g ij i

=0

s

s

or

g ij i

j

i j

= gij

s

s

= Kg ij i j Since

g ij i

g ij i

i

= K i

s

j

= K , since g ij i j = 1.

s

j

+K =0

s

j

+ g ij i j K = 0 as g ij i j = 1

s

j

g ij i

+ K j = 0

s

g ij i

j

+ K j is orthogonal to i .

s

Geometry

137

r

Now, we define a unit vector v , with components v j , by the formula

1 j

j

v i = s + K

...(10)

r

r

i

r

+ Ki the vector v will be orthogonal to both and .

s

To choose the sign of in such a way that

where =

g eijk i j v k = 1

r r

so that the triad of unit vectors , and r forms a right handed system of axes.

Since eijk

xi

g

=

is a relative tensor of weight 1 and

xj

...(11)

obsolute tensor and hence left hand side of equation (11) is an invariant v k in equation (11) is determined

by the formula

ijk

v k = i j

...(12)

1 ijk

e is an absolute tensor..

g

The number appearing in equation (10) is called the torsion of C at P and the vector vr is the

binormal.

We have already proved that in Theorem 7.2, Pg. 127.

r

A

r

= A,i a

x i

r

if the vector field A is defined along C, we can write

r

i

A x i

x r

A

a

=

...(13)

,

i

s

x i s

Using definition of intrinsic derivative,

i

A

dx

= A,i

s

ds

Then equation (13) becomes

r

r

r

dA

A r

A dx i dA

a ; as

=

=

...(14)

ds

s

ds

x i ds

r

r

Let r be the position vector of the point P on C then the tangent vector is determined by

r

dr

r r

= i ai =

ds

from equation (14), we get

r

r

d r

r

d 2r

=

a = c

...(15)

2 = ds

s

ds

138

where

r

r

c is a vector perpendicular to .

With each point P of C we can associate a constant K , such that c K = is a unit vector..

Since

r

c

r

=

K

1 r

r

a , from (15)

=

K s

r

r

= a , since = 1

K s

The serret-frenet formulas are given by

1 i

i

i

or

= K , K > 0 whereK =

K s

s

s

i

1

i

i

i

i

+

K

i

i

i

(ii) = s

= K where = s + K

or

s

(iii)

= k

s

First two formulas have already been derived in article (7.7), equation (8) and (10).

Proof of (iii)

From equation (12), article (7.7), we have

i

(i)

i =

ijk i j = k

where i , i , k are mutually orthogonal.

Taking intrinsic derivative with respect to s, we get

j

i

k

j + ijk i

=

s

s

s

From formulas (i) and (ii), we get

ijk

ijk K i j + ijk i ( j K j ) =

ijk i ( j K j ) =

ijk i j K ijk j i =

k

s

k

,

s

k

s

Since ijk i j = 0

Geometry

139

ijk i j = 0

Since

k

s

ijk i j =

Then

ijk i j = k

So,

k =

k

s

k

k

=

s

or

i

= i

s

This is the proof of third Serret-Frenet Formula

Expanded form of Serret-Frenet Formula.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

di i j dx k

i

+

ds j k ds = K

or

d 2 xi i dx j dx k

+

= K i

ds 2 j k ds ds

di i j dx k

+

i

i

ds jk

ds = K

dv i i j dx k

i

+

ds jk

ds =

EXAMPLE 8

Consider a curve defined in cylindrical coordinates by equation

x1 = a

2

x = ( s )

x3 = 0

The square of the element of arc in cylindrical coordinates is

1 2

1 2

2 2

3 2

ds 2 = (dx ) + ( x ) (dx ) + (dx )

so that g11 = 1,

g22 = (x1 )2 ,

g33 = 1,

gij = 0,

i j

It is easy to verify that the non-vanishing Christoffel symbols are (see Example 3, Page 61)

1

2

2

1

= x1 , = = 1 .

22

12

21

x

140

d

dx i

The components of the tangent vector to the circle C are i =

so that 1 = 0, 2 =

,

ds

ds

3 = 0.

Since is a unit vector, gijij= 1 at all points of C and this requires that

(x1 )2 dds

2 d

= a =1

ds

d

1

So, = 2 and by Serret-Frenet first formula (expanded form), we get

ds

a

1 2 dx 2

d1 1 j dx k

1

+

K = ds j k ds = 2 2 ds =

a

2 2 dx1

d2 2 j dx k

K2 = ds + j k ds = 2 1 ds = 0

d3 3 j dx k

K = ds + j k ds = 0

1

, 1 = 1, 2 = 0, 3 = 0

a

7.9 EQUATIONS OF A STRAIGHT LINE

Let Ai be a vector field defined along a curve C in E 3 such that

i

C : x i = x (s ) .

s1 s s 2,

(i = 1, 2, 3).

If the vector field Ai is parallel then from article 7.6 we have

A i

=0

s

or

dAi i dx

+

A

ds

ds = 0

(1)

We shall make use of equation (1) to obtain the equations of a straight line in general curvilinear

r

coordinates. The characteristic property of straight lines is the tangent vector to a straight line is

r

directed along the straight line. So that the totality of the tangent vectors forms a parallel vector field.

Geometry

141

i

Thus the field of tangent vector =

dxi

must satisfy equation (1), we have

ds

d 2 xi i dx dx

i

+

=

= 0

s

ds 2 ds ds

The equation

d 2 xi i d x d x

+

ds 2 ds d s

EXERCISE

1. Show that

d (gij AiB j )

dt

2. Show that Ai , j A j , i =

= g ij

A i j

B i

B + g ij A i

t

t

Ai A j

x j xi

4. Show that

d ( gij Ai B j )

dxk

i

i

= Ai,k B + Bi,k A

5. Show that

2 i

dK i

K ( i Ki )

=

ds

ds 2

2i

s2

2i

d i

dK i

( K 2 + 2 )i

ds

ds

d

= ( K v )

ds

s2

i

6. Find the curvature and tension at any point of the circular helix C whose equations in cylindrical

coordinates are

C : x1 = a, x2 = , x 3 =

Show that the tangent vector at every point of C makes a constant angle with the direction of X 3 axis. Consider C also in the form y1 = a cos, y2 = a sin, y3 = . Where the coordinates yi are

rectangular Cartesion.

CHAPTER 8

ANALYTICAL MECHANICS

8.1 INTRODUCTION

Analytical mechanics is concerned with a mathematical description of motion of material bodies subjected

to the action of forces. A material body is assumed to consist of a large number of minute bits of matter

connected in some way with one another. The attention is first focused on a single particle, which is

assumed to be free of constraints and its behaviour is analyzed when it is subjected to the action of

external forces. The resulting body of knowledge constitutes the mechanics of a particle. To pass from

mechanics of a single particle to mechanics of aggregates of particles composing a material body, one

introduces the principle of superposition of effects and makes specific assumptions concerning the

nature of constraining forces, depending on whether the body under consideration is rigid, elastic,

plastic, fluid and so on.

8.2 NEWTONIAN LAWS

1. Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line, except in so

far as it is compelled by impressed forces to change that state.

2. The change of motion is proportional to the impressed motive force and takes place in the

direction of the straight line in which that force is impressed.

3. To every action there is always an equal and contrary reaction; or the mutual actions of two

bodies are always and oppositely directed along the same straight line.

The first law depends for its meaning upon the dynamical concept of force and on the kinematical

idea of uniform rectilinear motion.

The second law of motion intorduces the kinematical concept of motion and the dynamical idea

of force. To understand its meaning it should be noted that Newton uses the term motion in the sense

of momentum, i.e., the product of mass by velocity, this, "change of motion" means the time of change

of momentum.

In vector notation, the second law can be stated as

r

d (mv )

r

(1)

F = dt

Analytical Mechanics

143

r

r

(2)

F = ma

r

d (mv )

r

from (1) if

= 0.

F = 0 then dt

So that

r

m v = constant.

hence vr is constant vector..

Thus the first law is a consequence of the second.

The third law of motion states that accelerations always occur in pairs. In term of force we may

say that if a force acts on a given body, the body itself exerts an equal and oppositely directed force on

some other body. Newton called the two aspects of the force of action and reaction.

8.3 EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF A PARTICLE

THEOREM 8.1 The work done in displacing a particle along its trajectory is equal to the change in

the kinetic energy of particle.

Proof: Let the equation of path C of the particle in E 3 be

i

C : x i = x (t )

(1)

and the curve C the trajectory of the particle. Let at time t, particle is at P {x i (t )}.

If v i be the component of velocity of moving particle then

dx i

dt

and if ai be the component of acceleration of moving particle then

vi =

ai

v i dv i i j d x k

= t = dt + j k v d t

ai

d 2 x i i dx j dx k

+

=

dt 2 j k dt dt

(2)

(3)

v i

i

is the intrinsic derivative and the are the Christoffel symbols calculated from the

t

jk

metric tensor gij

If m be the mass of particle. Then by Newtons second law of motion

where

Fi = m

v i

= ma i

t

(4)

r

We define the element of work done by the force F in producing a displacement drr by invariant

r

dW = F .drr .

r

Since the components of F and drr are F i and dxi respectively..

144

Then

dW = gij F i dxj

(5)

j

i

= F j dx where F j = gij F

The work done in displacing a particle along the trajectory C, joining a pair of points P 1 and P 2, is

line integral

W=

P2

P1

Fi dx i

(6)

W=

W=

m g ij

v i

dx j

t

m g ij

v i dx j

dt

t dt

P2

P1

P2

P1

P2

P1

v i j

v dt

t

m g ij

(7)

(g ij vi v j )

d

( g v iv j )

dt ij

t

d

vi j

( g ij v i v j ) = 2 g ij

v

or

dt

t

vi j 1 d

(g ij v i v j )

g ij

v =

2 dt

t

using this result in equation (7), we get

W=

P2 m

P1

d

( g v i v j ) dt

2 dt ij

m

[g v i v j ]PP12

2 ij

Let T2 and T1 is kinetic energy at P 2 and P 1 respectively.

W = T2 T1

W=

m

m v2

gij v i v j =

is kinetic energy of particle.

2

2

We have the result that the work done by force F i in displacing the particle from the point P 1 to

1

the point P 2 is equal to the difference of the values of the quantity T =

mv 2 at the end and the

2

beginning of the displacement.

where T =

The force field F i is such that the integral W =

P2

P1

dW = F i dxi

(8)

Analytical Mechanics

145

of the work function W. The negative of the work function W is called the force potential or

potential energy.

We conclude from equation (8) that

V

Fi = i

(9)

x

i

where potential energy V is a function of coordinates x . Hence, the fields of force are called conservative

V

.

x i

THEOREM 8.2 A necessary and sufficient condition that a force field Fi, defined in a simply

connected region, be conservative is that Fi,j = Fj,i.

if F i =

V

x i

Now,

Fi k

Fk

x j i j

V

i

x k F

F i,j =

k

x j

i j

F i,j =

k

2V

Fk

j

i

x x j i

(1)

and

F j,i =

F j

k

Fk

x j i

i

Similarly,

F j,i =

2V

k

Fk

i

j

x x

ji

F i,j = F j,i

conversely, suppose that F i,j = F j,i

Then

F j k

Fi k

Fk =

Fk

j

x

x i j i

i j

F j k

Fi

as due to symmetry..

j =

x i i j

x

(2)

146

Take F i =

V

x i

Then

Fi

2V

j i

j =

x

x x

2V

= i j

x x

V

=

x i x j

F j

Fi

j =

x

x i

Fi =

V

.

x i

Hence, F i is conservative.

8.5 LAGRANGEAN EQUATIONS OF MOTION

Consider a particle moving on the curve

C : x i = x i (t )

At time t, let particle is at point P (xi).

The kinetic energy T =

Since x& i = v i.

1

mv 2 can be written as

2

1

i j

T = m g ij x& x&

2

1

m g jk x& j x& k

2

Differentiating it with respect to x& i , we get

or

T=

(1)

x& j k

&k

1

T

j x

&

&

m

g

x

+

x

jk

= 2

x& i

i

&

x

x& i

1

m g jk ij x& k + ki x& j

2

1

1

m g jk ij x& k + m g jk ki x& j

2

2

1

m gik x& k + g ji x& j

2

1

j

j

= m (gij x& + gij x& )

2

)

as

gij = g ji

Analytical Mechanics

147

T

= m g ij x& j

x& i

T

= m g ik x& k

x& i

or

(2)

d T

d

g x& k

= m

dt x& i

dt ik

d

k

k

= m g ik x& + g ik &x&

dt

g ik dx j k

k

m

= x j dt x& + g ik &x&

d T

g

j k

k

= m ikj x& x& + m g ik &x&

dt x& i

x

1

m g jk x& j x&k

2

Differentiating it with respect to xi, we get

T

1 g jk j k

m

x& x&

i =

x

2 x i

Now,

(3)

Since T =

d T

dt x& i

(4)

T

g

1 g

i = m ikj x& j x&k + m g ik&x&k m jki x& j x& k

x

2 x

x

k

= m g ik &x& +

1 gik j k 1

1 g

m j x& x& + m g ik x& j x& k m jki x& j x& k

2 x

2

2 x

k

= m g ik &x& +

1 g ik j k 1 g ij k j 1 g jk j k

m

x& x& + m k x& x& m i x& x&

2 x j

2 x

2 x

1 gik g ij g jk j k

k

x& x&

= m g ik &x& + 2 m j + k

x

x i

x

= m g ik &x&k + m [ jk , i ] x& j x& k

= m g ik &x&k + m g il gil [ jk , i ]x& j x& k

= m g il &x&l + m g il gil [ jk , i]x& j x& k

148

l

= m g il &x&l + x& j x& k ,

jk

d T T

= m g il a l ,

dt x& i x i

where al is component of acceleration

or

l

as g il [ jk , i] =

j k

l j k

l

l

Since a = x&& + j k x& x&

d T T

= m ai

dt x& i x i

d T T

= Fi

(5)

dt x& i x i

where F i = m ai, component of force field. The equation (5) is Lagrangean equation of Motion.

For a conservative system, F i =

d T

dt x& i

V

. Then equation (5) becomes

x i

V

T

i = i

x

x

d T (T V )

=0

(6)

dt x& i

x i

Since the potential V is a function of the coordinates xi alone. If we introduce the Lagrangean

function

L=TV

Then equation (6) becomes

or

d L L

=0

dt x& i x i

(7)

EXAMPLE 1

Show that the covariant components of the acceleration vector in a spherical coordinate system

with

ds 2 = (dx1 ) 2 + ( x1 dx 2 )2 + (x1 ) 2 sin 2 x 2 (dx 3 ) 2 are

a1 = &x&1 x1 (x& 2 )2 x1 (x& 3 sin x 2 ) 2

and

a2 =

d

( x1 )2 x& 2 (x1 ) 2 sin x 2 cos x 2 ( x& 3 )2

dt

a3 =

d

(x1 sin x 2 ) 2 x& 3

dt

Analytical Mechanics

149

Solution

In spherical coordinate system, the metric is given by

ds2 = (dx1 ) 2 + ( x1 dx 2 )2 + (x1 ) 2 sin 2 x 2 (dx 3 ) 2

If v is velocity of the paiticle then

2

2

2

3

ds dx1

1 2 dx

1

2 2 dx

2

=

+

(

x

)

+

(

x

sin

x

)

v =

dt

dt

dt dt

If T be kinetic energy then

1 2

mv

2

1

1 2

1 2

2 2

1

2 2

3 2

T = m (x& ) + ( x ) (x& ) + ( x sin x ) (x& )

2

By Lagrangean equation of motion

d T T

= F i and m ai = F i

dt x& i x i

where F i and ai are covariant component of force field and acceleration vector respectively.

So,

T=

d T T

= m ai

dt x& i x i

(2)

Take i = 1,

m a1 =

d T T

dt x&1 x 1

m a1 =

1 d

m

m (2x&1 ) 2x 1 ( x& 2 )2 + 2 x1 (sin x 2 ) 2 ( x& 3 )2

2 dt

2

a1 =

dx&1

x1 ( x& 2 )2 + x1 (sin x 2 ) 2 ( x& 3 )2

dt

Take i = 2,

m a2 =

d T

dt x& 2

m a2 =

1 d 1 2 2 1

m ( x ) 2 x& m 2( x1 )2 sin x 2 cos x 2 (x&3 ) 2

2 dt

2

a2 =

(1)

T

2

x

d

( x1 )2 x& 2 (x1 ) 2 sin x 2 cos x 2 ( x& 3 )2

dt

150

Take i = 3

m a3 =

d T T

dt x&3 x 3

m a3 =

1 d

m 2( x& 3 ) ( x1 sin x 2 )2 0

2 dt

a3 =

d 3 1 2

x& ( x ) (sin x 2 ) 2

dt

EXAMPLE 2

Use Lagrangean equations to show that, if a particle is not subjected to the action of forces then

its trajectory is given by yi = ait + bi where ai and bi are constants and the yi are orthogonal cartesian

coordinates.

Solution

If v is the velocity of particle. Then we know that,

v 2 = g ij y& i y& j

where yi are orthogonal cartesian coordinates.

Since

gij = 0, i j

gij = 1, i = j

So,

v 2 = ( y& i ) 2

But,

1 2

mv , T is kinetic energy..

2

1

i 2

T = m( y& )

2

The Lagrangean equation of motion is

T=

d T T

= Fi

dt y& i yi

Since particle is not subjected to the action of forces.

So, F i = 0

Then

d 1

m 2 y& i 0 = 0

dt 2

dy& i

=0

dt

Analytical Mechanics

151

dy& i

=0

dt

or

y& i = ai

yi = ait + bi

i

i

where a and b are constant.

EXAMPLE 3

Prove that if a particle moves so that its velocity is constant in magnitude then its acceleration

vector is either orthogonal to the velocity or it is zero.

Solution

If v i be the component of velocity of moving particle then

vi

dx i

=

dt

or

v i = x& i

Since

g ij vi v j = | v |2 = constant

Taking intrinsic derivative with respect to t, we get

(g v i v j ) = 0

t ij

v i j

v j

g ij

v + vi

t

t

=0

g ij

v i j

v j

v + g ij v i

=0

t

t

g ij

v i j

v i

v + g ji v j

= 0, (Interchange dummy index i and j in second term)

t

t

2 g ij

g ij

v i j

v = 0 as gij = gji

t

vi j

v =0

t

v i

v i

= 0.

is either orthogonal to v i or zero i.e.,

t

t

152

(i) Free-Moving Particle

If a particle is not subjected to the action of forces, the right hand side of equation (5), 148, vanishes.

Then we have

d T T

=0

dt x& i x i

(1)

1

m y& i y& i .

2

Hence, the equation (1) becomes m &y&i = 0. Integrating it we get yi = ait + bi, which represents

a straight line.

(ii) Simple Pendulum

Let a pendulum bob of mass m be supported by an extensible string. In spherical coordinates, the

metric is given by

If xi be rectangular coordinate system, then T =

ds2 = dr 2 + r 2 d 2 + r 2 sin 2 d 2

If T be the kinetic energy, then

T=

1 2 1

mv = m (r&2 + r 2 & 2 + r 2 sin 2 & 2 )

2

2

Y2

r

R

mg cos

Y1

mg sin

Y3

P

mg

Fig. 8.1.

d T T

= Fi

dt x& i x i

x1 = r , x 2 = , x 3 = .

So, take

x1 = r

i = 1, 2, 3

(1)

Analytical Mechanics

153

d T T

= mg cos R

dt r& r

from (1), we have

R

&r& r&2 r sin 2 &2 = g cos

m

(2)

Take x2 = , we have

r && + 2r&& r sin cos & 2 = g sin

(3)

d 2& 2

(r sin ) = 0

dt

(4)

If the motion is in one plane, we obtain from equations (2), (3), and (4), by taking & = 0.

R

r&& r & 2 = g cos m

r && + 2r&& = g sin

g

If r& = 0, we get, && = sin which is equation of simple pendulum supported by an

r

inextensible string. For small angles of oscillation the vibration is simple harmonic. For large vibration

the solution is given in the term of elliptic functions.

8.7 HAMILTONS PRINCIPLE

If a particle is at the point P 1 at the time t1 and at the point P 2 at the time t2, then the motion of the

particle takes place in such a away that

t2

t1

(T + Fi xi ) dt = 0

where xi = xi (t) are the coordinates of the particle along the trajectory and xi + x i are the coordinates

along a varied path beginning at P 1 at time t1 and ending at P 2 at time t2.

Proof: Consider a particle moving on the curve

t1 t t 2

C : x i = x (t ),

At time t, let particle is at P(xi). If T is kinetic energy. Then

i

T=

1

m g ij x& i x& j

2

or T = T ( x i , x& i ) i.e, T is a function of xi and x& i . Let C ' be another curve, joining t1 and t2 close

to be C is

C' : x i (, t ) = x i (t ) + x i (t)

154

At t1 and t2

xi = x i = x i + x i

x i (t1 ) = 0 and x i (t 2 ) = 0

But T = T ( x i , x& i ).

If T be small variation in T.. Then

T i T i

T = x&i x& + x i x

Now,

{(T + F )x }dt =

t2

t1

t1

T i

x dt +

x i

t2

t1

t2

t1

T i

x& dt +

x&i

t2

t1

T i

x dt +

x i

T i 2

x& i x

t1

t2

t1

T i 2

then & i x = 0.

x

t1

So,

(T + F x )dt =

(T + F x )dt =

t1

t1

+

t2

t2

t1

t2

t1

x dt

t2

1

d

dt

T

i

x&

i

x dt

Fi x i dt

t2 T

t1

i

d T

i i + Fi x dt

x dt x&

d T T

= Fi

dt x& i x i

or

t1

Fi x i dt

d T i

x dt +

dt x&i

Since x i (t1 ) = 0, x i (t 2 ) = 0.

t2

t2

T

as 1st term

x& i

T

T

i x i + i x& i + Fi x i dt

x&

x

t2

T d T

= Fi

x i dt x& i

t2

t1

Fi xi dt

Analytical Mechanics

155

So,

t2

t1

t2

t1

(T + Fi x i ) dt =

t2

t1

[Fi + Fi ] xi dt

(T + Fi x i ) dt = 0

Proved.

THEOREM 8.3 The motion of a particle in a conservative field of force is such that the sum of its

kinetic and potential energies is a constant.

Proof: Consider a particle moving on the curve

C : x i = x i (t ),

t1 t t 2

i

At time t, let particle is at P (x ). If T is kinetic energy. Then

or

T=

1

m g ij x& i x& j

2

T=

1

m g ij v i v j

2

As T is invariant. Then

Taking intrinsic derivative with respect to t, we get

dT

T

=

dt

t

=

m gij v i v j

t 2

v i j

1

v j

m g ij

v + vi

2

t

t

1 v i j

v j i

m gij

v + g ij

v

2

t

t

1 vi j

vi j

= 2 m gij t v + g ji t v , Since i and j are dummy indices.

1

v i j

m

2

g

v

=

ij

2

t

dT

v i j

v

= m gij

dt

t

or

dT

v j i

m

g

v

=

ij

dt

t

as g ij = g ji

156

j i

= m g ij a v as

dT

= m ai v i,

dt

v j

= aj

t

since gij aj = ai

dT

= F i v i,

dt

Since F i = m ai is a covariant component of force field.

But given F i is conservative, then

V

, where V is potential energy..

x i

Fi =

So,

dT

V i

v

=

dt

x i

V dx i

x i dt

dT

dV

=

dt

dt

dT dV

d

+

= 0 (T + V ) = 0

dt

dt

dt

T + V = h, where h is constant.

Proved.

Let us consider the integral

A=

P2

mv.ds

(1)

p1

i

C : x i = x (t ), t1 t t 2

where C is the trajectory of the particle of mass m moving in a conservative field of force.

In the three dimensional space with curvilinear coordinates, the integral (1) can be written as

A=

P2

p1

m g ij

t ( P2 )

t ( P1 )

dx i

dx j

dt

m gij

dx i dx j

dt

dt dt

Analytical Mechanics

Since T =

157

1

dx i dx j

m g ij

, we have

2

dt dt

A=

t ( P2 )

2T dt

t ( P1 )

This integral has a physical meaning only when evaluated over the trajectory C, but its value can

be computed along any varied path joining the points P 1 and P 2.

Let us consider a particular set of admissible paths C' along which the function T + V, for each

value of parameter t, has the same constant value h. The integral A is called the action integral.

The principle of least action stated as of all curves C' passing through P 1 and P 2 in the

neighbourhood of the trajectory C, which are traversed at a rate such that, for each C', for every value

of t, T + V = h, that one for which the action integral A is stationary is the trajectory of the particle.

8.10 GENERALIZED COORDINATES

In the solution of most of the mechanical problems it is more convenient to use some other set of

coordinates instead of cartesian coordinates. For example, in the case of a particle moving on the

surface of a sphere, the correct coordinates are spherical coordinates r, , where and are only

two variable quantities.

Let there be a particle or system of n particles moving under possible constraints. For example, a

point mass of the simple pendulum or a rigid body moving along an inclined plane. Then there will be

a minimum number of independent coordinates required to specify the motion of particle or system of

particles. The set of independent coordinates sufficient in number to specify unambiguously the system

configuration is called generalized coordinates and are denoted by q 1 , q 2 , ... q n where n is the total

number of generalized coordinates or degree of freedom.

Let there be N particles composing a system and let x(i ) , (i = 1, 2,3), ( = 1, 2,...N ) be the positional

coordinates of these particles referred to some convenient reference frame in E 3. The system of N free

particles is described by 3N parameters. If the particles are constrained in some way, there will be

certain relations among the coordinates x(i ) and suppose that there are r such independent relations,

f i ( x1(1) , x(21) , x 3(1 ) ; x1( 2 ) , x(22 ) , x(32 ) ;...x1( N ) x(2N ) x(3N ) ) = 0, (i = 1, 2, ..., r)

(1)

By using these r equations of constraints (1), we can solve for some r coordinates in terms of the

remaining 3N r coordinates and regard the latter as the independent generalized coordinates qi. It is

more convenient to assume that each of the 3N coordinates is expressed in terms of 3N r = n

independent variables qi and write 3N equations.

x(i ) = x(i ) (q1 , q 2 ,...,q n , t )

(2)

where we introduced the time parameter t which may enter in the problem explicitly if one deals with

moving constraints. If t does not enter explicitly in equation (2), the dynamical system is called a

natural system.

The velocity of the particles are given by differentiating equations (2) with respect to time. Thus

x&(i ) =

x i( )

q j

q& j +

x i( )

t

(3)

158

For symmetry reasons, it is desirable to introduced a number of superfluous coordinates qi and

describe the system with the aid of k > n coordinates q1, q2,..., qk. In this event there will exist certain

relations of the form

f j (q1 ....,q k , t ) = 0

(4)

Differentiating it we get

f j i f j

q& +

(5)

t = 0

q i

It is clear that they are integrable, so that one can deduce from them equations (4) and use them

to eliminate the superfluous coordinates .

In some problems, functional relations of the type

(6)

F j (q1 , q 2 ,...,q k ; q&1 ,...,q& k , t ) = 0, ( j = 1, 2, 3, ..., m)

arise which are non-integrable. If non-integrable relations (6) occurs in the problems we shall say that

the given system has k m degrees of freedom, where m is the number or independent non-integrable

relations (6) and k is the number of independent coordinates. The dynamical systems involving nonintegrable relations (6) are called non-holonomic to distinguish them from holonomic systems in which

the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent generalized coordinates.

In other words, a holonomic system is one in which there are no non-integrable relations involving

the generalized velocities.

8.11 LAGRANGEAN EQUATIONS IN GENERALIZED COORDINATES

Let there be a system of particle which requires n independent generalized coordinates or degree of

freedom to specify the states of its particle.

The position vectors xr are expressed as the function of generalized coordinates q i , (i = 1, 2,...,n)

and the time t i.e.,

1

2

n

(r = 1, 2, 3, )

xr = xr (q , q ,...,q , t );

The velocity x& r of any point of the body is given by

x r dq j x r

x& = q j dt + t

r

x r j x r

q& +

,

t ( j = 1, 2, ..., n)

q j

Consider the relation, with n degree of freedom,

1

2

n

xr = xr (q , q ,...,q )

(1)

involve n independent parameters qi. The velocities x& r in this case are given by

x r j

q& ,

=

x&

q j

r

(r = 1, 2, 3; j = 1, 2, ..., n)

(2)

Analytical Mechanics

159

q k = q k (q1 ,...,q n ),

(k = 1, 2, ..., n)

(3)

The kinetic energy of the system is given by the expression of the form

T=

1

m g rs x& r x& s ,

2

(r,s = 1,2,3,)

(4)

where m is the mass of the particle located at the point xr. The grs are the components of the metric

tensor.

Substituting the value of x& r from equation (2), then equation (4) becomes

1

x r x s i j

q& q&

T = 2 m g rs i

q q j

T=

1

a q&i q& j

2 ij

aij = m g rs

where

x r r s

,

q i q j

(5)

(r, s = 1, 2, 3), (i, j = 1, ..., n)

1

a q&i q& j is an invariant and the quantities aij are symmetric, we conclude that the aij

2 ij

are components of a covariant tensor of rank two with respect to the transformations (3) of generalized

coordinates.

Since T =

Since the kinetic energy T is a positive definite form in the velocities q& i , | aij |> 0. Then we

construct the reciprocal tensor aij .

Now, from art. 8.5, Pg. 146, by using the expression for the kinetic energy in the form (5), we

obtain the formula,

d T

dt q& i

T

l l j k

(6)

l

where the Christoffel symbol are constructed from the tensor akl.

jk

Put

l

q&&l + q& j q& k = Q l

jk

so, the equation (6), becomes

d T

dt q& i

T

l

qi = ail Q

= Qi (i = 1, 2, ..., n)

(7)

160

x& r x r x& r

2 xr j

x&r

d x r

&

=

,

=

q

=

Now, from the realtions & j

and qi dt q i and using equations

q

q j qi x i q j

(2) and (4).

Then by straightforward calculation, left hand member of equation (7) becomes

d T

dt q& i

T

x r

m

a

=

r

qi

q i

Also, Newton's second law gives

m ar = F r

(8)

(9)

Fr's

where

are the components of force F acting on the particle located at the point P..

From the equation (9), we have

m ar

x r

=

q i

Fr

x r

q i

Fr

x r

q i

d T

dt q& i

qi =

(10)

Qi =

Fr

x r

q i

The equations

d T

dt q& i

qi = Qi

(11)

They give a system of n second order ordinary differential equations for the generalized coordinates qi.

The solutions of these equations in the form

C : q i = qi (t)

Represent the dynamical trajectory of the system.

If there exists a functions V (q1 , q 2 ,...,q" ) such that the system is said to be conservative and for

such systems, equation (11) assume the form

d L

dt q& i

qi = 0

(12)

Analytical Mechanics

161

Since L (q, q& ) is a function of both the generalized coordinates and velocities.

L i L i

dL

= & i q&& + i q&

dt

q

q

from (12), we have

L

d L

i =

q

dt q& i

(13)

L i d L

dL

q&& + i

=

dt

dt q&

q& i

=

i

q&

d L i

q&

dt q& i

(14)

L i

T i

q& =

q& = 2T

i

&

q

q& i

since

T=

1

a q& i q& j .

2 ij

d ( L 2T )

d (T + V )

=0

=

dt

dt

which implies that T + V = h (constant).

Thus, along the dynamical trajectory, the sum of the kinetic and potential energies is a constant.

8.12 DIVERGENCE THEOREM, GREEN'S THEOREM, LAPLACIAN OPERATOR AND

STOKE'S THEOREM IN TENSOR NOTATION

(i) Divergence Theorem

r

Let F be a vector point function in a closed region V bounded by the regular surface S. Then

r

r

div F = F n ds

(1)

Briefly the theorem states that the integral with subscript V is evaluated over the volume V while

r

the integral in the right hand side of (1) measures the flux of the vector quantity F over the surface S.

r

In orthogonal cartesian coordinates, the divergence of F is given by the formula

F 1 F 2 F 3

r

+

+

div F =

x 1 x 2 x 3

(2)

162

r

If the components of F relative to an arbitrary curvilinear coordinate system X are denoted by

F i then the covariant derivative of F i is

F ,ij =

F i i k

+ F

x j k j

r

The invariant F, ij in cartesian coordinates represents the divergence of the vector field F .

Also,

r

i j

i

j

F n = g ij F n = F ni since g ij n = ni

Hence we can rewrite equation (1) in the form

F dV

i

,i

F n dS

i

(3)

Let ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) and (x1 , x 2 , x3 ) be two scalar function in V.. Let i and i be the gradients of

and respectively, so that

and

xi

Put F i = i and from the divergence of we get

= i =

= i =

x i

F,i j = g ij Fi , j = g ij (i , j + i j )

Substituting this in equation (3), we get

ij

(i , j + i j )dV

n dS

i

(4)

Since = i , then

g ij i , j = 2

(5)

g ij i j = .

where denote the gradient and 2 denote the Laplacian operator..

Hence the formula (4) can be written in the form

(g

ij

i , j + g ij i . J ) dV

n dS

S

( + ) dV = n dS

2

dV = n dV

2

V

i

where n = i n =

.

n

(6)

Analytical Mechanics

163

dV

2

n dV

S

(7)

( ) dV

2

n n dS

(8)

(iii ) Expansion form of the Laplacian Operator

The Laplacian of is given by

ij

2 = g i , j from (5)

when written in the terms of the christoffel symbols associated with the curvilinear coordinates

i

x covering E 3,

2

k

ij

2 = g i j k

i j x

x x

i

and the divergence of the vector F is

F,ii =

F i i

+ F

x i j i

(9)

(10)

log g

=

j

i

xj

The equation (10) becomes

But we know that

F,ii

or

ij

If putting F i = g

F,ii

F i

+ j log g F j

=

i

x

x

1 ( g F i )

x i

g

x j

g g ij j

1

x

g ij j , i =

i

x

g

ij

2 = g j, i

(11)

(12)

164

g g ij j

1

x

2 = g ij j ,i =

i

g

x

It is expansion form of Laplacian operator.

(iv) Stoke's Theorem

r

Let a portion of regular surface S be bounded by a closed regular curve C and let F be any vector point

function defined on S and on C. The theorem of Stokes states that

r

r

n. curl F ds = F . ds

(13)

r

where is the unit tangent vector to C and curl F is the vector whose components in orthogonal

cartesian coordinates are determined from

e1

r

curl F = x1

F1

e2

x 2

F2

e3

r

x 3 = F

F3

(14)

We consider the covariant derivative F i,j of the vector F i and form a contravariant vector

Gi = ijk F j , k

(15)

r

we define the vector G to be the curl of F .

dx i

r

i

ijk

Since n . curl F = ni G = F j ,k ni and the components of the unit tangent vector and

.

ds

Then equation (13) may be written as

ijk F j , k ni ds

S

The integral

F dx

i

C

i

Fi

dx i

ds

ds

(16)

r

is called the circulation of F along the contour C.

The integral of the normal component of the gravitational flux computed over a regular surface S

containing gravitating masses within it is equal to 4 m where m is the total mass enclosed by S.

Proof: According to Newton's Law of gravitation, a particle P of mass m exerts on a particle Q of unit

m

mass located at a distancer r from P. Then a force of magnitude F = 2 .

r

Consider a closed regular surface S drawn around the point P and let be the angle between the

unit outward normal to n to S and the axis of a cone with its vertex at P.. This cone subtends an

element of surface dS.

Analytical Mechanics

165

r

F .n dS =

m cos r 2 dw

r 2 cos

r dw

and dw is the solid angle subtended by dS.

cos

Thus, we have,

r

F .n dS

m dw = 4 m

=

where dS =

(1)

dS

r

d

P

m

S

Fig. 8.2.

r

F .n =

i =1

mi cos i

ri 2

r

F .n dS = 4

(2)

i =1

The result (2) can be easily generalized to continuous distributions of matter whenever such

distribution no where melt the surface S.

The contribution to the flux integration from the mass element dV contained within V, is

cos dV

r

dS

F .n dS =

r2

S

r

F .n dS =

cos dV

r2

V

dS

(3)

166

where

denotes the volume integral over all bodies interior to S. Since all masses are assumed to be

interior to S,r never vanishes. So that the integrand in equation (3) is continuous and one can interchange

to order of integration to obtain

r

F .n dS =

cos dS

dV

s

r2

(4)

cos dS

= 4. Since it represents the flux due to a unit mass contained within S.

r2

S

Hence

But

F.n dS

4 dV = 4 m

(5)

Proved.

Gauss's theorem may be extended to cases where the regular surface S cuts the masses, provided

that the density S is piecewise continuous.

Let S cut some masses. Let S' and S" be two nearby surfaces, the first of which lies wholly within

S and the other envelopes S. Now apply Gauss's theorem to calculate the total flux over S" produced by

the distribution of masses enclosed by S since S" does not intersect them.

We have

r

( F .n )i dS = 4 m

S"

r

where the subscript i on F n refers to the flux due to the masses located inside S and m is the total

mass within S. On the other hand, the net flux over S' due to the masses outside S, by Gauss's theorem

is

r

( F n)o ds = 0

S'

r

where the subscript o on F n refers to the flux due to the masses located outside S.

Now if we S' and S" approach S, we obtain the same formula (5) because the contribution to the

r

total flux from the integral (F n)o dS is zero.

S'

By divergence theorem, we have

r

F .n ds =

r

div F dV

F.n ds = 4 dV

from these, we have

Analytical Mechanics

167

r

(div F 4 ) dV = 0

Since this relation is true for an arbitrary V and the integrand is piecewise continuous, then

r

div F = 4

By the definition of potential function V, we have

r

F = V

and

div V = 2V

So,

r

div F = 4

div ( V ) = 4

2V = 4

If the point P is not occupied by the mass, then = 0. Hence at all points of space free of matter

the potential function V satisfies Laplace's equation

2V = 0

8.15 SOLUTION OF POISSONS EQUATION

We find the solution of Poissons Equation by using Greens symmetrical formula. We know that

Green's symmetrical formula

( 2 2 ) dV = n n dS

(1)

S

1

where r is the distance between the points P ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) and Q ( y1 , y 2 , y 3 ) and V is

r

the gravitational potential.

Put =

Q (y )

r

P(x)

n

Fig. 8.3.

168

1

has a discontinuity at x i = y i , delete the point P(x) from region of integration by

r

surrounding it with a sphere of radius and volume V'. Apply Greens symmetrical formula to the

1

region V V' within which

and V possess the desired properties of continuity..

r

2

2 1

= 0.

In region V V', =

r

Then equation (1) becomes

Since

1 2

dV =

r

V V'

1

1r

dS +

r n

n

S'

1

1r

ds

r n

n

(2)

where n is the unit outward normal to the surface S + S' bounding V V' . S' being the surface of the

= .

sphere of radius and

n

r

Now

S'

1

1r

dS =

r n

S'

1

1r

r r

r

dS

2

r dw

2

r r r

S'

r r + dw

S'

S'

1

( 1r )

dw 4

r n

n

r r =

S'

(3)

where is the mean value of V over the sphere S' and w denote the solid angle.

1

2

3

Let ( x , x , x ) = (P ) as r 0 then as 0 from (3), we have

S'

1

1r

r n

n = 4 (P )

Since 0 then

1 2

dV =

r

r dV

V'

= 0.

1

1r

dS 4 (P )

r n

n

Analytical Mechanics

169

1r

1 1 2

1 1

1

dV

+

dS

dS

(P ) = 4 r

4 S r n

4 S n

V

(4)

If is regular at infinity, i.e., for sufficiently large value of r, is such that

()

m

m

and

r r 2

r

(5)

where m is constant.

If integration in equation (4) is extended over all space, so that r . Then, using equation (5),

equation (4) becomes

(P ) =

1 2

dV

4 r

(6)

Hence, from (6), we get

(P ) =

dV

r

EXERCISES

1. Find, with aid of Lagrangian equations, the trajectory of a particle moving in a uniform gravitational

field.

2. A particle is constrained to move under gravity along the line yi = ci s (i = 1, 2, 3). Discuss the motion.

3. Deduce from Newtonian equations the equation of energy T + V = h, where h is constant.

4. Prove that

n dS

i

dV

2

where i =

.

x i

CHAPTER 9

9.1 CURVATURE OF CURVE: PRINCIPAL NORMAL

Let C be a curve in a given Vn and let the coordinates x i of the current point on the curve expressed

as functions of the arc length s. Then the unit tangent t to the curve the contravariant components

dxi

t i = ds

...(1)

The intrinsic derivative (or desired vector) of t i along the curve C is called the first curvaturee

r

r

vector of curve C relative to Vn and is denoted by p . The magnitude of curvature vector p is called

first curvature of C relative Vn and is denoted by K:

So,

K=

g ij p i p j

dx j

i

P = t , j ds

t i

i

i dx

+

t

= j

j ds

x

j

t i dx j

dx i

+

t

ds

x j ds

dx dx j i

dt i

= ds + ds ds j

d 2 xi

ds

dx j dx k i

ds ds k

j

171

d 2 xi

dx j dx k i

pi = ds 2 + ds ds j k as j k = k j

r

p = k n

The vector n is called the Unit principal normal.

9.2 GEODESICS

Geodesics on a surface in Euclidean three dimensional space may be defined as the curve along which

lies the shortest distance measured along the surface between any two points in its plane.

But when the problem of find the shortest distance between any two given points on a surface is

treated properly, it becomes very complicated and therefore we define the geodesics in V3 as follows:

(i) Geodesic in a surface is defined as the curve of stationary length on a surface between any

two points in its plane.

(ii) In V3 geodesic is also defined as the curve whose curvature relative to the surface is

everywhere zero.

By generalising these definitions we can define geodesic in Riemannian Vn as

(i) Geodesic in a Riemannian Vn is defined as the curve of minimum (or maximum) length

joining two points on it.

(ii) Geodesic is the curve whose first curvature relative to Vn is zero at all points.

9.3 EULER'S CONDITION

THEOREM 9.1 The Euler condition for the integral

t1

to

f (x i , x&i ) dt

to be staionary are

f

x

d f

=0

dt x& i

dxi

x& = dt i = 1, 2, 3,...

Proof: Let C be a curve in a Vn and A, B two fixed points on it. The coordinates x i of the current point

P on C are functions of a single parameter t. Let t0 and t1 be the values of the parameter for the points

A and B respectively.

To find the condition for the integral

where

t1

t0

f (x i , x&i ) dt

...(1)

to be stationary.

Let the curve suffer an infinitesimal deformation to C , the points A and B remaining fixed while

the current points P(xi) is displaced to P' (xi + i) such that i = 0 at A and B both.

172

P'

Fig. 9.1

So,

I =

F (x

t1

t0

& i dt

+ i , x& i +

By Taylor's theorem

f

f

+ k +

y

x

F ( x + h , y + k ) = f ( x, y ) + h

Then

I =

I =

t1

F i F i

i

i

F ( x , x& ) + i + i & + dt

x

x

t0

t1

t0

F ( x i , x& i ) dt +

t1 F

t 0 x i

i +

F i

& dt

x& i

I = I +

F

f

i i + i & i dt

t0 x

x&

t1

I = I I =

t1

t0 x i

i +

F i

& dt

x&i

...(2)

zi & j

& i =

x

x j

where

Now,

F i 1

&

dt

= x&i

t0 x

&i

t0

t1 F

t1

t0

t1

t0

d F i

dt

dt x&i

d F i

dt

dt x&i

...(3)

173

t

F

1

since i i (t ) = 0, i (t1 ) = i (t0 ) = 0

x&

t0

I =

ti F

t0 x i

i.e., if

t1 F

t0 x i

d F i

dt

dt x&i

...(4)

d F i

dt = 0

dt x&i

Since i are arbitrary and hence the integrand of the last integral vanishes, so that

F d F

= 0, (i = 1, 2,..., n)

xi dt x&i

Hence the necessary and sufficient condition for the integral (1) to be stationary are

(5)

F d F

= 0,

(i = 1, 2, , n)

x i dt dx i

These are called Euler's conditions for the integral I to be stationary.

9.4 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF GEODESICS

To obtain the differential equations of a geodesic in a Vn , using the property that it is a path of minimum

(or maximum) length joining two points A and B on it.

Proof: Consider a curve C in Vn joining two fixed points A and B on it and x i (t ) be the coordinates of

point P on it.

The length of curve C is

s=

ds

=

dt

gij

gij

dxi d x j

dt

dt dt

...(1)

dxi d x j

dt dt

Put

ds

=

dt

or

gij

d xi d x j

= F (say)

dt dt

...(2)

g ij x& i x& j = F

s& =

s=

B

A

F dt

...(3)

174

Since curve C is geodesic, then the integral (3) should be stationary, we have from Euler's

condition

F

x

d F

=0

dt x& i

...(4)

F

x

and

1 g ij i j

x& x&

2 s& x k

F

1

1

2 gik x& i = g ik x&i

k =

x&

2s&

s&

d F

1

1 g ik j i 1

i

x& x& + g ik &x& i

= 2 &s& g ik x& +

dt x& k

s& x j

s&

s&

1 g ij i j 1

1 g ik j i 1

x& x& + g ik &x&i = 0

j

&

&

2 s& x k

s

s

s

g

&s&

1 g ij i j

x& x& = 0

g ik x& i + ikj

s&

2 x k

x

g ik &x&i

g ik &x&i

&s&

g x& i + [k , ij ] x&i x& j = 0

&s ik

multiplying it by g km , we get

g km gik &x&i

&s& km

g g ik x&i + g km [k , ij ] x& i x& j = 0

s&

m

km

g km gik = im and g [k , ij] = i j

But

x&&m

d 2xm

dt

&s& m m i j

x& + x& x& = 0

s&

i j

&s& dx m m dx j dxk

Replacing dummy

+

= 0 index i by k

s& dt j k dt dt

Taking s = t , s& = 1, &s& = 0. Then equation (5) becomes

d 2xm

ds 2

m dx j dx k

+

= 0 ...(6)

j k ds ds

...(5)

175

dx k

ds

dx m

ds

=0

,k

Then the intrinsic derivative (or derived vector) of the unit tangent to a geodesic in the direction of the

curve is everywhere zero. In otherwords, a geodesic of Vn is a line whose first curvature relative to

Vn is identically zero.

THEOREM 9.2 To prove that one and only one geodesic passes through two specified points lying in

a neighbourhood of a point O of a Vn .

OR

To prove that one and only one geodesic passes through a specified point O of Vn in a prescribed

direction.

Proof: The differential equations of a geodesic curve in a Vn are

d 2xm

ds 2

m dx j dx k

+

=0

j k ds ds

These equations are n differential equations of the second order. Their complete integral involves 2n

arbitrary constants. These may be determined by the n coordinates of a point P on the curve and the n

components of the unit vector in the direction of the curve at P. Thus, in general, one and only one

geodesic passes through a given point in a given direction.

9.5 GEODESIC COORDINATES

A cartesian coordinate system is one relative to which the coefficients of the fundamental form are

constants. Coordinates of this nature do not exists for an arbitrary Riemannian V n.. It is, however,

possible to choose a coordinate system relative to which the quantities gij are locally constant in the

neighbourhood of an arbitrary point P 0 of V n. Such a cartesian coordinate system is known as geodesic

coordinate system with the pole at P 0.

The quantities g ij are said to be locally constants in the neighbourhood of a point P0 if

g ij

= 0 at P0

xk

and

g ij

xk

0 elsewhere

Since the covariant derivative of A ij with respect to xk is written as

h

Aij h

Aih A h j , see pg. 71

Aij , k = x k

j k

i k

176

The covariant derivative of Aij at P0 with respect to x k reduces to the corresponding ordinary

derivatives. Hence

Aij , k =

Aij

x k

at P0

THEOREM 9.3 The necessary and sufficient condition that a system of coordintes be geodesic with

pole at P0 are that their second covariant derivatives with respect to the metric of the space all vanish

at P0.

Proof: We know that (equation 8, Pg. 65)

2xs

x j x j

x s

x j x i

or

x s k x p x q s

x k i j x i x j p q

x s k x p x q s

=

x k i j x i x j p q

...(1)

x s

x j x i

x s

=

x k

x p x q s

=

i

j

x x p q

x j

=

k x p x q s

i

j

i j x x p q

x s

x i

x s

x k

(x ) x

s

,i

= ( x ,is ), j

k

x s

s

since k = x, k at P0

i

j

x

k

since i j = 0 at P0

s

,k

Thus,

x,sij

x p x q

x i x j

p q

Necessary Condition

Let x s be a geodesic coordinate system with the pole at P0 so that

s

= 0 at P0

p q

x,sij = 0 at P0

Sufficient Condition

Conversely suppose that x,sij = 0 at P0 .

...(2)

177

s x p x q

i

j = 0

p q x x

s

x p

x q

0

0 at P0

= 0 at P0 , as

and

x i

x j

p q

9.6 RIEMANNIAN COORDINATES

A particular type of geodesic coordinates introduced by Riemann and known as Riemannian coordinates.

Let C be any geodesic through a given point P0 , s the length of the curve measured from P0 and i the

quantities defined by

dxi

= ds

...(1)

the subscript zero indicating as usual that the function is to be evaluated at P0 . The quantities i

represents that only one geodesic will pass through P 0 in the direction of i in V n. Let yi be the

coordinates of a point P on the geodesic C such that

yi = si

...(2)

where s is the arc length of the curve from P0 to P . The coordinates y i are called Riemannian

coordinates.

The differential equation of geodesic C in terms of coordinates y i relative to Vn is given by

d 2 y i i dy i dy j

+

=0

ds 2 j k ds ds

...(3)

i

is a christoffel symbol relative to the coordinates y i .

j k

where

i i j

i

0+

= 0 since dy = i

j k

ds

or

i i j

= 0

j k

...(4)

i yi y j

yi

= i

=

0

as

s

j k s s

or

i i j

y y = 0

j k

...(5)

178

i

= 0 at P0

j k

Hence the Riemannian coordinates are geodesic coordinate with the pole at P0 .

THEOREM 9.4 The necessary and sufficient condition that the coordinates y i be Riemannian coordinates

i i j

y y = 0 hold throughout the Riemannian Vn .

j k

is that

i i j

y y = 0 (from equation 5) throughout

Proof: If y are Riemannian coordinates then the condition

j k

i

the Riemannian Vn .

d 2 y i dy i dy j

i i j

= 0 are saitsfied by y i = s i .

j k ds ds

9.7 GEODESIC FORM OF A LINE ELEMENT

Let be a scalar invariant whose gradiant is not zero. Let the hypersurface = 0 be taken as coordinates

hypersurface x1 = 0 and the geodesics which cut this hypersurface orthogonally as the coordinate

lines of parameter x1 , this parameter measuring the length of arc along a geodesic from the hypersurface

x1 = 0 .

Since dx1 is the length of the vector i is given by

i

j

u 2 = g ij u u

i.e.,

(dx )

1 2

1 1

= g11dx dx

g 11 = 1

...(1)

2

3

n

v i = ( 0, dx , dx ,..., dx )

Then,

g ij u i v j = 0

g 1 j u 1 v j = 0, [u i = 0, i = 2, 3, ..., n ]

g 1 j v j = 0, as u 1 0.

g1 j = 0, for j = 2, 3, , n.

If ti is unit tangent vector to a geodesic at any point then

t1 = 1 and t i = 0, for i = 2, 3, , n.

...(2)

179

Now,

ti =

and

dx1

dx1

d 2xi

ds 2

d xi d x i

= 1

ds

dx

= 1 and

=

d 2xi

dxi

dx1

= 0 for i 1

= 0 for i = 1, 2,..., n

dx12

d 2 x i i dx j dx k

+

=0

ds 2 j k ds ds

using above results, we have

i dx 1 dx1

=0

11 ds ds

i

=0

1 1

g ij [11, j ] = 0

[11, j ] = 0

1 2 g 1 j g 11

2 x i

x j

ij

as g 0

= 0, since g 11 = i g 11 = 0

x j

So,

g 1 j

x1

= 0 for j 1

...(3)

g 11 = 1, g1j = 0; ( j = 2, 3, , n),

g1 j

x1

= 0, ( j = 2, 3, , n)

i

ds 2 = gij dx dx

1 1

j

k

ds 2 = g 11dx dx + g jk dx dx

1 2

j

k

ds 2 = ( dx ) + g jk dx dx ; ( j = 2, 3, , n, k = 2, 3, , n)

...(4)

The line element (4) is called geodesic form of the line element.

We note that the coordinate curves with parameter x 1 are orthogonal to the coordinate curve

x i = c i (i = 1, 2, ..., n) at all points and hence to the hypersurfaces x 1 = c at each point.

Note 2: The existence of geodesic form of the line element proves that the hypersurfaces = x1 = constant form a

system of parallels i.e., the hypersurfaces = x 1 = constant are geodesically parallel hypersurfaces.

Note 1:

180

THEOREM 9.5 The necessary and sufficient condition that the hypersurfaces = constant form a

system of parallel is that ()2 = 1.

Proof: Necessary Condition

Suppose that hypersurface = constant form a system of parallels then prove that ( 2) = 1.

Let us take the hypersurface = 0 as the coordinate hypersurface x1 = 0. Let the geodesics

cutting this hypersurface orthogonally, be taken as coordinate lines of parameter x1. Then the parameters

x1 measures are length along these geodesics from the hypersurface x1 = 0. This implies the existence

of geodesic form of the line element namely

1 2

i

j

ds 2 = ( dx ) + g ij dx dx

...(1)

where i, j = 2, 3,..., n.

From (1), we have

g 11 = 1, g 1i = 0 for i 1.

g11 = 1, g1 i = 0, for i 1

Now,

ij

()2 = = g

ij

= g

x i dx j

x1 x1

= g ij 1i 1j

i

j

x x

()2 = g11 = 1

so

()2 = 1

Sufficient Condition

Suppose that ()2 = 1 then prove that the hypersurface = constant from a system of parallels.

Let us taken = x1 and orthogonal trajectories of the hypersurfaces = x1 constant as the

coordinate lines of parameter x1. Then the hypersurfaces

x1 = constant

xi = constant (i 1) are orthogonal to each other. The condition for this g1i = 0 for i 1 .

Now, given that ()2 = 1

g ij

=1

x i x j

g ij

x1 x1

=1

x i x j

g ij 1i 1j = 1

g11 = 1

181

Thus

g11 = 1 and g1 i = 0 for i 1.

Consequently

g 11 = 1, g = 0 , for i 1.

1i

i

j

ds 2 = g ij dx dx

is given by

ds 2 = (dx1 ) 2 + g ik dx i dx k ; (i, k = 2, 3, , n)

which is geodesic form of the line element. It means that the hypersurfaces = x1 = constant

form a system of parallels.

9.8 GEODESICS IN EUCLIDEAN SPACE

Consider an Euclidean space S n for n-dimensions. Let y i be the Euclidean coordinates. The differential

equation of geodesics in Euclidean space is given by

d 2 y i i dy j dy k

+

=0

ds 2 j k ds ds

...(1)

g ij = a ij = ij = 1, if i = j

0, if i j

g ij

x

a ij

x k

=0

k

This implies that = 0, [ij, k ] = 0 relative to S n .

i

j

Then equation (1) becomes

d 2 yi

ds 2

=0

dyi

= ai, where ai is constant of integration.

ds

y i = ais + bi, where bi is constant of integration

...(2)

Hence equation (2) represents a straight line. Since equation (2) is a solution of equation (1) and

therefore the geodesic relative to S n are given by equation (2). Hence geodesic curves in Euclidean

space S n are straight lines.

182

THEOREM 9.6 Prove that the distance l between two points P (y i) and Q (y' i ) in Sn is given by

(y y )

n

i 2

l=

i =1

Proof: We know that geodesics in S n are straight line. Then equation of straight line in S n may be

taken as

yi = ais + bi

...(1)

Let P ( y i ) and Q ( y' i) lie on equation (1). Then

yi = ais + bi, y i = a i s + bi

y i y i = a i (s s )

Then equation (2) becomes

y i y i = a i l

n

l2

i =1

(ai ) 2 =

( y

y i )2

i =1

n

(a )

i 2

=1

i =1

So,

n

( y

y i )2

i =1

l=

( y

y i )2

i =1

EXAMPLE 1

Prove that Pythagoras theorem holds in S n .

Solution

Consider a triangle ABC right angled at A i.e., BAC = 90 o .

C (y i3)

A ( y1i )

B ( y2i )

Fig. 9.2

...(2)

183

AB AC = 0

a ij ( y i2 y1i ) ( y i3 y1i ) = 0

or

or

(y

i =1

i

2

y1i ) ( y 3i y1i ) = 0

...(1)

n

(AB) =

(y

i

2

y1i ) 2

...(2)

i

3

y1i )2

...(3)

i

3

y i2 )2

...(4)

i =1

n

(AC) =

(y

i =1

n

(BC) =

(y

i =1

n

(BC) =

[( y

i

3

i =1

n

[( y

i

3

i =1

n

( y i3 y1i )2 +

i =1

n

(y

i

1

y i2 ) 2 + 2 0, [from (1)]

i =1

( y i3 y1i )2 +

i =1

( y

i

1

y2i )2

i =1

Hence Pythagoras theorem holds in S n .

EXAMPLE 2

Prove that if is any solution of the differential equation ()2 = f () then the hypersurfaces =

constant constitute a system of parallels.

Solution

Given that

()2 = f ()

...(1)

184

Suppose

=

or

d

=

d

Now,

f ( )

d

f ()

, Then, d =

1

f ( )

=

i =

x i

x

()2 =

f ( )

1

f ( )

1

1

( ) 2 =

f (); from (1)

f ( )

f ( )

()2 = 1

This proves that the hypersurfaces = constant form a system of parallels and therefore the

hypersurfaces = constant.

EXAMPLE 3

Show that it is always possible to choose a geodesic coordinates system for any Vn with an

arbitrary pole P 0.

Solution

Let P0 be an arbitrary pole in a Vn . Let us consider general coordinate system x i . suppose the

value of x i and P0 are denoted by x0i . Now consider a new coordinate system x j defined by the

equation.

x

1

2

h i

l

m

m

( x x0 ) ( x x0 )

l

m

j

m

m

j

= a m ( x x0 ) + a h

...(1)

The coefficients amj being constants and as such that their determinant do not vanish.

Now we shall prove that this new system of coordinated x j defined by equation (1) is a geodesic

coordinate system with pole at P0 i.e., second covariant derivative of x j vanishes at P..

Differentiating equation (1) with respect to x m , we get

x j

x

x j

x m

1

2

= a j at P

m

0

h

i

l

2 ( x x0 )

l

m

j

j

= a m + ah

...(2)

...(3)

185

x j

m = a j 0

x

m

0

and therefore the transformation given by equation (1) is permissible in the neighbourhood of P0 .

Differentiating equation (2) with respect to x j , we get

2 x j

j m = a j h

x x

h

0

l m 0

...(4)

(x )

j

,lm 0

2x

= l

x x 0 l m 0

j

x j

x h

h h j

a h , (from (3) and (4))

l m 0 lm

j

= ah

(x , )

j

lm 0

=0

EXAMPLE 4

If the coordinates xi of points on a geodesic are functions of arc lengths s and is any scalar

function of the x's show that

d p

ds p

= , ij... l

d xi d x j

dxl

ds ds

ds

...(1)

Solution

Since the coordinates x i lie on a geodesic. Then

d 2 xi

ds 2

i dx j dx k

+

=0

j k ds ds

...(2)

We shall prove the theorem by mathematical induction method.

Since xs are functions of s and is a scalar function of x s , we have

d

dxi

=

ds

x i ds

d 2

ds2

or

d

dx i

= , i

ds

ds

, i dx j

d 2xi

+

,i

x j ds

ds 2

,i dx i dx j

= x j ds ds ,i

i d x j d x k

, from (2)

j k ds ds

...(3)

186

,i dx i dx j

= x i ds ds , m

=

m dx j dx k

j k ds ds

, i dx i dx j

m dxi dx j

,

m

x j ds ds

i j ds ds

, i

m dx i dx j

,m

= j

i j ds ds

x

Equations (3) and (4) imply that the equation (1) holds for p = 1 and p = 2.

Suppose that the equation (1) holds for p indices r1 , r2 ,...,r p so that

d p

dx r1 dx r1

dx p

ds p

ds ds

ds

Differentiating the equation (5) with respect to s, we get

d p +1

ds p +1

= , r1 , r2 , ...,

rp

...(5)

r

r

r

, r1 r2 ... r p dx r1

dx p dx p +1

d 2 x r1 dx r2

dx p

+

r

r1 r2 ... rp

ds

ds

ds

ds

x p +1

ds 2 ds

+ , r1 r2 ... rp

substituting value of

...(4)

dx r1

d 2x p

ds

ds 2

...(6)

d 2 x r1

etc. from (2) in (6) and adjusting dummy indices, we have

ds 2

, r r ... r

m

m

1 2

p

d p +1

,

m

r

...

r

,

r

r

...

m

r

2

p

1 2

p +1 = x p +1

r

r

r

r

ds

1 p +1

p p +1

dx r1 dx r2

dx p +1

ds ds

ds

r

d x r1 d x r2

d x p +1

ds ds

ds

This shows that the equation (1) holds for next values of p. But equation (1) holds for p = 1, 2,

... Hence equation (1) holds for all values of p.

= ,r1 r2 .. r p rp +1

EXERCISES

1. Prove that at the pole of a geodesic coordinate system, the components of first covariant derivatives

are ordinary derivatives.

2. If x i are geodesic coordinates in the neighbourhood of a point if they are subjected to the

transformation

i

xi = x +

1 i

c x j xk xl

6 jkl

187

where Cs are constants then show that xi are geodesic coordinates in the neighbourhood of O.

3. Show that the principal normal vector vanishes identically when the given curve is geodesic.

4. Show that the coordinate system x i defined by

1 i j k

i

x i = x + 2 j k x x

5. Obtain the equations of geodesics for the metric

ds2 = e2 kt ( dx2 + dy2 + dz2 ) + dt 2

6. Obtain the differential equations of geodesics for the metric

1

2

2

2

2

ds2 = f ( x) dx + dy + dz + f ( x) dt

2

d2x 1 d

dx

1 d

dt

d2y

d2z

d 2t d (log f ) dx dt

Ans : 2

(log f ) +

(log

f

)

=

0

;

=

0

;

=

0

;

=

0

2 dx

ds

dx

ds ds

ds

ds 2 f 2 dx

ds2

ds2

ds2

7. Find the differential equations for the geodesics in a cylindrical and spherical coordinates.

8. Find the rate of divergence of a given curve C from the geodesic which touches it at a given point.

CHAPTER 10

PARALLELISM OF VECTORS

CONCEPT)

Consider a vector field whose direction at any point is that of the Unit Vector ti. In ordinary space, the

field is said to be parallel if the derivative of ti vanishes for all directions ui (say) and at every point of

the field i.e.,

t i j

u =0

x j

Similarly in a Riemannian V n the field is said to be parallel if the derived vector of ti vanishes at

each point for every direction ui at each point of V n. i.e.,

t,i j = u j = 0

It can be shown that it is not possible for an arbitrary V n. Consequently we define parallelism of

vectors with respect to a given curve C in a V n.

A vector ui of constant magnitude is parallel with respect to V n along the curve C if its derived

vector in the direction of the curve is zero at all points of C i.e.,

dx j i

u =0

(1)

ds , j

where s is arc-length of curve C.

The equation (1) can be written in expansion form as

j

ui

m i dx

j + u m j

=0

ds

x

j

ui d x j

m i dx

+

u

=0

x j ds

m j ds

du i

i

+ um

ds

m

dx j

j ds = 0

(2)

Parallelism of Vectors

189

This concept of parallelism is due to Levi-Civita. The vector ui is satisfying the equation (1) is

said to a parallel displacement along the curve

Now, multiplying equation (1) by gil, we get

dx j

g il u,i j

ds = 0

or

( gil u,i j )

dx j

=0

ds

( g il u i ) , j

dx j

=0

ds

ul , j

dx j

ds = 0

u i, j

dx j

=0

ds

ui

m dx j

u

j

m

=0

i j ds

x

dui

m dx j

um

=0

ds

i j ds

The equation (2) and (3) can be also written as

m i

j

dui = u m j d x

(3)

(4)

m

j

dui = um i j d x

(5)

The equation (4) and (5) give the increment in the components ui and ui respectively due to

displacement dxj along C.

and

THEOREM 10.1 If two vectors of constant magnitudes undergo parallel displacements along a given

curve then they are inclined at a constant angle.

Proof: Let the vectors ui and v i be of constant magnitudes and undergo parallel displacement along a

curve C, we have (from equation (1), Pg. 188.)

dx j

= 0

ds

j

d

x

vi, j

= 0

ds

u,i j

at each point of C.

Multiplying (1) by gil, we get

dx j

( g il u,i j )

=0

ds

(1)

190

or

ul , j

dx j

=0

ds

u i, j

dx j

=0

ds

(2)

vi , j

dx j

=0

ds

(3)

Similarly,

ui.v i = uv cos

Differentiating it with respect to arc length s, we get

d

d (u i vi )

(uv cos ) =

ds

ds

i

= (u v i ), j

uv sin

dx j

ds

j

d

dx j

i dx

vi + u i vi , j

= u, j

ds

ds

ds

d

uv sin

=0

ds

d

sin

= 0, as u 0, v 0

ds

d

Either sin = 0 or

=0

ds

Either = 0

or

= constant.

THEOREM 10.2 A geodesic is an auto-parallel curve.

Proof: The differential equation of the geodesic is given by (See Pg. 174, eqn. 6)

d 2 x m m dx j dx k

+

ds 2

j k ds ds

=0

d d x m m d x j d x k

+

ds ds j k ds ds = 0

x j

dx m

ds

d x j m d x j d xk

ds + j k ds ds = 0

(4)

Parallelism of Vectors

j

x

dx m

ds

191

m dx k dx j

+

=0

j k ds ds

d xm dx j

ds ds = 0

, j

or

t,mj

dx j

=0

ds

dx m

suffer a parallel displacement along a geodesic curve.This

ds

confirms that geodesic is an auto-parallel curve.

Proved.

This shows that the unit tangent vector

Two vectors at a point are said to be parallel or to have the same direction if their corresponding

components are proportional. Consequently the vector v i will be parallel to ui at each point of curve C

provided

v i = ui

(1)

where is a function of arc length s.

If ui is parallel with respect to Riemannian V n along the curve C. Then,

u ,ij

dx j

=0

ds

(2)

The equation (1) shows that v i is of variable constant and parallel with respect to Riemannian V n

so that

v ,ij

dx j

dxj

i

= ( u ), j

ds

ds

i

i

= (, j u + u, j )

dx j

ds

= , j

dx j i

dxj

u + u,i j

ds

ds

= , j

dx j i

u Since

ds

d x j i

u

=

x j ds

v,i j

d i

dx j

u

=

ds

ds

d vi

= ds

from (1)

u,i j

dx j

=0

ds

192

i

= v

d (log )

ds

dx j

d (log )

= v i f (s) where f (s) =

(3)

ds

ds

Hence a vector v i of variable magnitude will be parallel with respect to V n if equation (3) is satisfied.

Conversely suppose that a vector v i of variable magnitude such that

dx j

= v i f (s )

v,ij =

ds

to show that v i is parallel, with respect to V n .

Take

v,i j

ui = v i (s)

(5)

Then

dx j

dx j

i

= (v ), j

ds

ds

j

dx j i

i dx

+ , j

v

= v, j

ds

ds

dx j i

i

v

f

(

s

)

+

v

=

x j ds

d

dx j

i

u,i j

= v f (s ) +

(6)

ds

ds

d

= 0.

Select such that f ( s ) +

ds

Then equation (6) becomes

dx j

u,i j

=0

ds

This equation shows that the vector u i is of constant magnitude and suffers a parallel displacement

along curve C. The equation (5) shows that v i is parallel along C.

Hence necessary and sufficient condition that a vector v i of variable magnitude suffers a parallel

displacement along a curve C is that

u ,ij

v,i j

dx j

= v i f (s ).

ds

EXAMPLE 1

Show that the vector v i of variable magnitude suffers a parallel displacement along a curve C if

and only if

dx k

(v i v i,k v i v l,k )

= 0,

i = 1, 2, ..., n.

ds

Solution

From equation (4), we have

dx j

v ,ij

= v i f (s )

(1)

ds

Parallelism of Vectors

193

Multiplying by v l, we get

dx j

= v l v i f (s )

ds

Interchange the indices l and i, we get

v l v,i j

dx j

= v i v l f (s)

ds

Subtract (1) and (2), we get

v i v,l j

(v l u,ik v i v l,k )

(2)

dx k

= 0 by interchanging dummy indices j and k.

ds

Let V n be Riemannian space of n dimensions referred to coordinates xi and having the metric

ds2 = gij dxi dxj. Let V m be Riemannian space of m dimensions referred to coordinates y and having

the metric ds2 = ax dy dy, where m > n. Let Greek letters , , take the values 1, 2, ..., m and Latin

indices i, j, k ... take the values 1, 2, n.

If the n independent variables xi are such that the coordinates ( y ) of points in V m are expressed

as a function of xi then V n is immersed in V m i.e. V n is a subspace of V m. Also V m is called enveloping

space of V n.

Since the length ds of the element of arc connecting the two points is the same with respect to V n

or V m. it follows that

gij dxi dxj = a dy dy

y

x i

y

a

gij = i

x

y i j

dx dx

x j

y

x j

(1)

This gives relation between gij and a .

THEOREM 10.3 To show that the angle between any two vectors is the same whether it is calculated

with respect to Vm or Vn.

Proof: Consider two vectors dx i and x j defined at any point of V n and suppose that the same vectors

in V m are represented by dy and y respectively. If is the angle between dxi and x i then

cos =

g ij dx i x j

g ij dx i dx j g ij x i x j

cos =

a dy y

a dy dy a y y

(1)

194

y i y

dx

dx j

x i

x j

y i y j

y i y j

d

x

d

x

a

x

x .

x i

x j

xi

x j

a

=

a

y y i j

dx dx

x i x j

y y i j

y y i j

dx

dx

a

x x .

xi x j

x i x j

a

=

a

cos =

Since g ij = a

gij dx i dx j

g ij dx i dx j g ij x i x j

(2)

y y

(from equation (1), art. 10.3)

x i x j

cos = cos = .

Proved.

THEOREM 10.4 If U and ui denote the components of the same vector in Riemannian Vm and Vn

respectively then to show that

i y

= u

U

x i

Proof: Let the given vector be unit vector at any point P of V n. Let the component of the same vector

x's and y's be a i and A respectively. Let C be curve passing through s in the direction of the given

vector then

y y dx i y i

= i

= i a

=

(1)

A

s

x ds

x

But the components of a vector of magnitude a are a times the corresponding components of the

Unit vector in the same direction. Then

i

i

(2)

U = aA , u = aa

Multiplying (1) by a, we get

y

(aa i )

=

aA

x i

y i

=

u , using (2)

U

x i

Or

Proved.

THEOREM 10.5 To show that there are m-n linearly vector fields normal to a surface V n immersed in

a Riemannian V m.

Proof: Since V n is immersed in V m, the coordinates y of points in V m are expressible as functions of

coordinates xi in V n.

Parallelism of Vectors

195

Now,

dy

y dx i

=

ds

x i ds

i

for the curve x = s, we have

...(1)

dy

y

=

ds

x i

...(2)

dy

y

is a vector tangential to the curve in V m. Then from equation (2) it follows that

ds

xi

i

normal to each of the above vector fields of V n then

Since

y

N =0

xi

y

(a N ) i = 0

x

y

N i = 0,

x

a

a N y ,i = 0

...(3)

i = 1, 2, , n & = 1, 2, , m

y

(m > n). The coefficient matrix i

x

is

It means that there will be only m n linearly independent solution of N . This shows that there

are m n linearly independent normals to V n to V m.

EXAMPLE 2

Show that

[ij, k] = [, ]

y y y

2 y x

+

a

x i x j x k

xi x j x k

where [, ] and [i j, k ] are the Christoffels symbols of first kind relative to metrics a dy a dy and

g ij dx i dx j .

Solution

Since relation between a and g ij is given by

y y

x i x j

Differentiating it with respect to xk, we get

g ij = a

g ij

x k

a y y y

2 y y

y 2 y

+

a

+

a

=

x x i x j x k

x i x k x j

x i x j x k

(1)

196

Similarly

g jk

x i

a y y y

2 y y

y 2 y

+

a

+

a

=

y x i x j x k

x j x i x k

x j x k x i

(2)

and

a y y y

g ki

2 y y

y 2 y

+

a

+

a

=

x j

x x i x j x k

x k x j x i

x k x i x j

But we know that

[ij, k ] =

and,

1 g jk g ki g ij

2 x i

x j x k

1 g g g

[, ] = 2 +

y

y

y

(3)

(4)

(5)

Substituting the value of (1), (2), (3) in equation (4) and using (5) we get,

[ij, k ] = [, ]

y y y

2 y y

+

a

.

x i x j x k

xi x j x k

THEOREM 10.6 Let T and t i be the components of the same vector t relative to Vm and Vn

respectively. Let the vector t be defined along a curve C in V n. If p i and q are derived vectors of t

along C relative to Vn and Vm respectively. Then

y

= pi

xi

Proof: Since from equation (1), theorem, (10.4), Pg. 194 we have

q

dT

ds

y

x i

2

dt i y

dx j

i y

+

t

=

ds x i

x i x j ds

i

= t

(1)

(2)

Now,

dx j

ds

dy

= T,

ds

T

dy

+

T

=

ds

x

T dy

dy

+

T

=

x ds

ds

i

p i = t, j

dT

dy

+

T

= ds

ds

(3)

(4)

Parallelism of Vectors

197

dT

and T from (2) and (1) in equation (4), we get

ds

2

dt i y

dx j

i y

i y dy

+

t

+

t

q =

ds x i

x i x j ds

dx i ds

t i y dx j

dx j

i y

i y dy

+

t

+

t

x j x i ds

x i x j ds

x i ds

j

t i y dx j

dx j

i y

i y y dx

+

t

+

t

x j x i ds

x i x j ds

x i x. j ds

t i y d x j i d x j 2 y

y y

+

t

+

+

ds x i x j x j x i

x j x i ds

(5)

[ij, k ] = [, ]

y y y

2 y y

+

a

x i x j x k

x i x j x k

[ ji, k ] = [, ]

y y y

2 y y

+

a

x j x i x k

x i x j x k

y y y

2 y y

a

+

a

= j

x x i x k

x i x j x k

y

a

= x k

Multiplying (5) by a

(6)

y

, we get, using (6),

x k

Or

2

y y

j i + iy j

x x

x x

j

y

t i dx j y

y

i dx

q

a

+

t

[ij, k ]

=

ds

x k

x j ds x i

x k

dx j t i

p

y

g + t i g pk ,

j ik

k =

ds x

x

i j

dx j

= ds

t i

i

j gik + t a g ik

x

a j

= g ik

dx j i

t,

ds j

since g ij = a

y y

x i x j

198

i

= ( gik t ), j

= tk, j

dx j

ds

dx j

ds

y

dx j

t

=

k, j

ds

x k

y

q k = pk

x

q

or

(7)

Proved.

Properties of Vm

(i) If a curve C lies in a subspace V n of V m and a vector field in V n is parallel along the curve C

with regard to V m, then to show that it is also a parallel with regard to V n.

Proof: If a vector field t is a parallel along C with respect to V m. then its derived vector q

vanishes i.e.,

q = 0, = 1, 2,... m.

Hence equation (7) becomes pk = 0, k = 1, 2, ..., n. This shows that the vector field t is also

parallel along C with respect to V n.

(ii) To show that if a curve C is a geodesic in a V n it is a geodesic in any subspace V n of V m.

y

Proff : Science, q

= pi

x i

Let t be unit tangent vector to the curve C them T is unit tangent vector to C relative to V m

and ti is unit tangent vector to C relative to V n.

Now,

pi = 0

curve C is a geodesic in V n

q =0

curve C is a geodesic in V m

Also,

q = 0, pi = 0, i

This shows that if a curve C in V n is a geodesic relative to V m then the same curve is also a geodesic

relative to V n.

(iii) A necessary and sufficient condition that a vector of constant magnitude be parallel with

respect to V n along C in that subspace, is that its derived vector relative to V m for the

direction of the curve be normal to V n.

Proof: Let t be a vector of constant magnitude. This vector t is parallel along C relative to Vn iff pi =

0, i

iff q

But q

For

y

=0

x i

y

= 0 implies that q is normal to V n.

x i

y

= y,i lying in V m is tangential to a coordinate curve of parameter xi in V n.

xi

Parallelism of Vectors

199

These statements prove that a necessary and sufficient condition that a vector of constant

magnitude be parallel along C relative to V n is that its derived vector i.e., q along C relative

to V m be normal to V n.

(iv) A necessary and sufficient condition that a curve be a geodesic in V n is that its principal

subnormal relative to V m the enveloping space be normal to V n at all points of the curve.

Proof: In particular let the vector t be unit tangent vector to the curve C. In this case q is

called principal normal the curve C. Also pi = 0, i implies that the curve C is a geodesic

relative to V n.

Using result (iii), we get at once the result (iv).

(v) To prove that the tendency of a vector is the same whether it is calculated with respect to

V m.

Proof: Since, we have

y

q i = pi

x

q

y dx i

dxi

p

=

i

ds

x i ds

dy

dxi

= pi

ds

ds

dy dy

dx j dx i

T,

= ti, j

ds ds

ds ds

i.e., tendency of T along C = tendency of ti along C.

i.e., tendency of t along C relative to V m = tendency of t along C relative to V n.

q

STATEMENT

With a given Riemannian metric (or fundamental tensor) of a Riemannian manifold there is associated

a symmetric affine connection with the property that parallel displacement (or transport) preserves

scalar product.

Proof: Let C be a curve in V n. Let pi and qi be two unit vectors defined along C. Suppose that the unit

vectors pi and qi suffer parallel displacement along the curve C in V n, then we have

dx j

=0

(1)

ds

dx j

q ,ij

and

=0

(2)

ds

Let gij be the given fundamental tensor of a Riemannian manifold. Hence, the scalar product of

vectors p i and q i is g ij p i q j.

Now,

p,i j

( gij p i q j ),k

dx k

=0

ds

200

k

dx k j

dx k i j

i j dx

g ij p,ik

q

+

g

p

q

+

g

ij

,k ds ij ,k ds P q = 0

ds

(3)

k

gij , k dx p i q j = 0

ds

gij, k = 0

dx k

0)

(Since and are unit vectors and

ds

g ij

m

m

g mj gim = 0

k

x

i k

j k

g ij

[ik , j ] [ jk , i ] = 0

x k

g ij

= [ik , j] + [ jk , i ]

x k

Now, using equation (4), we have

g jk g ki g ij

+

x i

x j x k

since [ij, k ] = [ ji, k ].

So,

g jk g ki g ij

+

= 2[ij, k ]

x i

x j x k

pi

qi

[ij,k] =

k

lk

But we know that i j = g [ij, l ]

from (5), we have

1 g jk g ki g ij

2 x i

x j x k

k

1 lk g jl g li gij

= g i + j l

2

x

x

i j

x

(4)

(5)

Proved.

EXAMPLE 3

If t i and T are contravariant components in x's and y's respectively, of n vector field in V n

immersed in V m. Show that

T, j = y,ij t i + y ,i t,i j

Solution

Since we know that

T

i

= t

y

x i

Parallelism of Vectors

201

i

T = t y, j .

Taking covariant differentiation of both sides, we get

T, j = (t i y ,i ), j

= t,i j y,i + t i ( y ,i ), j

T, j = t i y ,ij + t,i j y ,i

EXAMPLE 4

Show that g ij

dx i dx j

remains constant along a geodesic.

ds ds

Solution

i

Let t =

dx i

. Then

ds

dx i dx j

= g ij t i t j = t 2

ds ds

Since we know that geodesics are autoparallel curves. Then

gij

t,i j

dx j

=0

ds

t,i j t j = 0

or

(1)

Now,

dt 2

d

d

( g ij t i t j ) = (ti t i )

=

ds

ds

ds

dx j

i

= (t i t i ), j t j

= ( ti t ) , j

ds

dt 2

= (ti , j t i )t i + (t ,i j t i )ti = 0,

ds

from (1)

Integrating it we get

t2 = constant.

So, g ij

dx i dx j

remains constant along a geodesic.

ds ds

EXAMPLE 5

If ti are the contravariant components of the unit tangent vector to a congruence of geodesics.

Show that

t i (ti , j + t j ,i ) = 0

and also show that | ti , j + t j ,i |= 0.

202

Solution

Let t i denote unit tangent vector to a congruence of geodesic so that

t,i j t j = 0

Since geodesics are auto-parallel curves. Then to prove that

(i)

(1)

t i (ti , j + t j ,i ) = 0

(ii) | ti , j + t j ,i |= 0

Since

t i ti = t 2 = 1

t i ti = 1

Taking covariant derivative of both sides, we get

(t i t i ), j = 0

or

t,i j t i + t i ti , j = 0

t,i j t i + ti , j t i = 0

2t i, j t i = 0

ti , j t i = 0

(2)

from (1)

g ik t,i j t j = 0

or

tk, j t j = 0

t k ,i t i = 0

Thus

t i t j, i = 0

t j ,i t i = 0

t i t j, i = 0

(3)

t i (ti , j + t j ,i ) = 0

Also, since ti 0, i.

Taking determinants of both sides we get

| t i (ti , j + t j , i ) | = 0

| ti , j + t j ,i | = 0

Solved.

EXAMPLE 6

When the coordinates of a V 2 are chosen so that the fundamental forms is

(dx&' ) + 2 g12dx1 dx 2 + (dx 2 )2 , prove that the tangent to either family of coordinate curves suffers a

parallel displacement along a curve of the other family.

Parallelism of Vectors

203

Solution

The metric is given by

i

j

ds 2 = g ij dx dx

i,j = 1,2.

Comparing it with

1 2

1

2

2 2

ds 2 = (dx ) + 2 g12 dx dx + (dx )

(1)

We have,

g11 = 1, g22 = 1.

In this case, we have coordinate curves of parameters x1 and x2 respectively. The coordinate x1

curve is defined by

xi = ci, i, except i = 1.

(2)

2

and the coordinate x curve is defined by

x i = d i, i, except i = 2

(3)

i

i

where c and d are constants.

Let p i and q i be the components of tangents vectors to the curves (2) and (3) respectively. Then

we have

pi = dxi = 0, i, except i = 1

and

qi = dxi = 0, i, except i = 2

So,

pi = (dx i, 0) and qi = (0,dx i)

Let t be the unit tangent vector to the curve (2).

Hence

pi

dx i

i

t

=

= (1,0)

=

p

ds

where

p = dxi

So, we have

dx j

=0

ds

Hence the tangent to the family of coordinates curves (2) suffers a parallel displacement along a

curve of the family of curves (3).

p,i j

EXERCISES

1. Explain Levi-Civita's concept of parallelism of vectors and prove that any vector which undergoes a

parallel displacement along a geodesic is inclined at a constant angle to the curve.

2. Show that the geodesics is a Riemannian space are given by

d 2 x m m dx i dx k

+

=0

ds 2

i k ds ds

Hence prove that geodesics are auto-parallel curves.

204

(i) It is an autoparallel curve.

(ii) It is a line whose first curvature relative to Vn identically zero.

(iii) It is the path extremum length between two points on it.

4. If u and v are orthogonal vector fields in a V n , prove that the projection on of the desired vector of

u in its own direction is equal to minus the tendency of v in the direction of u.

5. If the derived vector of a vector u i is zero then to show that vector u i has a constant magnitude along

curve.

6. Prove that any vector which undergoes a parallel displacement along a geodesic is inclined at a

constant angle to the curve.

7. Prove that there are m n linearly independent vector fields normal to a surface Vn immersed in a

Riemannian Vm and they may be chosen in a multiply infinite number of ways. But there is only one

vector field normal to the hyperface.

8. Show that the principal normal vector vanishes identically when the given curve in geodesic.

9. Show that if a curve is a geodesic of a space it is a geodesic of any subspace in which it lies.

10. Define parallelism in a subspace of Riemannian manifold. If a curve C lies in a subspace Vn of Vm and

a vector field in Vn is parallel along C with respect to V m . Then show that it is also parallel with

respect to V n .

CHAPTER 11

CONGRUENCE

11.1 RICCI'S COEFFICIENTS OF ROTATION

Let e ih| (h=1, 2, n) be the unit tangents to the n congruences eh , of an orthogonal ennuple in a

e

Riemannian V n, . The desired vector of el|i in the direction of e k | has components el|i , j ekj| and the

lhk = el|i, j eih|ekj|

(1)

Since i being a dummy index, has freedom of movement. Then equation (1) may be written as

lhk = el |i , j eh|i ekj|

(2)

The indices l, h and k are not tensor indices. But these indices in lhk are arranged in proper way,

the first index l indicates the congruence whose unit tangent is considered, the second h indicates the

direction of projection and the third k is used for differentiation.

THEOREM 11.1 To prove thast the Riccie's coefficients of rotation are skew-symmetric in the first

two indices i.e.,

lhk = lhk

Proof: If e ih| (h = 1, 2, , n) be n unit tangents to n congruences e h| of an orthgonal ennuple in a Vn

then

eh|i eli| = 0

convariant differentiation with respect to xj, we get

eh|i eli| ,j = 0

eh |i , j eli| + eli|, j eh|i = 0

206

eh |i , j eli|eki | + eii|, j eh|i e kj| = 0

hlk + lhk = 0

hlk = lhk

or

(1)

llk = llk

2llk = 0

llk = 0

or

or

lhk eh|i

h

= el|i , j ekj|

lhk = el|i, j eih|ekj|

Multiplying by eh|m and summing for h.

h

h

j

= el |i , j e k|

(e e )

i

h|

h| m

= el |i , j ekj|im since

ehi | eh|m =

h

i

m

= (e l |i , j m ) e kj |

i

lhk eh |m

= el |m , j ekj |

Replacing m by i, we get

lhkei|m

h

= el |i , j e kj|

Let Cm be a definite curve of the congruence whose unit tangent is emi | and P 0 a fidxed point on it. Let

u1 be a unit vector which coincides with the vector eli| at P 0 and undergoes a parallel displayment along

the curve Cm.

Thus

u i = eli| at P 0

and

u,ij ehj| = 0

(1)

(2)

207

cos = ui eh|i

Differentiating it with respect to arc length sm along Cm, we get

sin

d

i

j

ds m = (u e h|i ), j em |

= (u i e h|i , j + u i, j eh |i ) emj |

sin

at the point P 0, =

d

u i e h |i , j e mj | + u ,i j e mj |

ds m =

(3)

, we have

2

d

u i eh|i , j emj |

ds m =

= u i eh|i , j emj |

= eli|eh|i, j emj | ;

from (1)

d

ds m = hlm

d

ds m = hlm

(4)

d

In Eucliden space of three dimensions, ds is the arc-rate of rotation of the vector e ih| about the

m

curve Cm. Hence the quantities hlmare called coefficients of rotation of the ennuple. Since it was

discovered by Ricci and hence it is called Ricci's coefficient of rotation.

11.3 CURVATURE OF CONGRUENCE

The first curvature vector pl| of curve of the congruence is the derived vector of e ih| in its own

direction. Where e ih| (h = 1, 2, , n) be unit tangents to n congruence eh| of an orthogonal ennuple in

a Vn .

If phi | be the contravariant component of first curvature vector pl|. Then by definition, we have

phi | = ehi , j ehj|

from theorem (11.2), we have

phi | =

hlh eil|

l

(1)

208

The magnitude of p ih| is called curvature of the curve of congruence e h| and denoted by K h | .

Now,

K h2| = g ij phi | p hj|

= g ij

i

hlh e l |

i

hmh em |

hmh hmh

l

m hlm

hmh , Since g ei e i = l

m

ij l| m|

K h2| =

hmh )

11.4 GEODESIC CONGRUENCE

If all the curves of a congruence are geodesics then the congruence is called a geodesic congruence.

THEOREM 11.3 A necessary and sufficient condition that congruence C of an orthogonal ennuple

be a geodesic congruence is that the tendencies of all the other congruences of the ennuple in the

direction of C vanish indentically.

Or

To obtain necessary and sufficient conditions that a congruence be a geodesic congruence.

Proof: From equation (1), Pg. 207, we have

phi | =

hlh eil|

l

Since

eli|

0 , h and hence

phi |

congruence.

Hence C is a geodesic congruence iff hlh = 0, h .

But

hlh = lhh

So, C is a geodesic congruence iff lhh = 0, h .

or C is a geodesic congruence iff lhh = 0.

Hence lhh = 0 are the necessary and sufficient conditions that congruence with unit tangents ehi |

be geodesic congruence. Again lhh is the tendency of the vector eli| in the direction vector e ih| .

209

Thus a congruence C of an orthogonal ennuple is a geodesic congruence iff the tendency of all

other congruences in the direction of C vanish identically.

11.5 NORMAL CONGRUENCE

A normal congruence is one which intersects orthogonally a family of hypersurfaces.

THEOREM 11.4 Necessary and sufficient conditions that the congruence eh | of an orthogonal ennuple

be normal is that

nqp = npq

Proof: Consider a congruence C of curves in a V n. Let ( x1 , x 2 , , x n ) = constant be a family of

hypersurfaces. To determines a normal congruence whose tangent vector is grad or .

Let ti be the convariant components of unit tangent vector to C. The congruence C is a normal

congruence to a family of hypersurface ( x1 , x 2 , , x n ) = constant if

,

,1

, 2

= n = y (say)

=

(1)

t1

t2

tn

In order that (n 1) differential equations given by equation (1) admit a solution which is not

constant, these must constitute a complete system.

From (1)

,i

= y or , i = yti

ti

yti =

x i

y

x j

ti + y

t i

x j

x i x j

Interchanging indices i and j, we get

t j

y

2

t

+

y

=

j

x i

x i

x j x i

Subtracting (2) and (3) we get

t y

t

y

j ti + y i j i t j + y i j = 0

x x

dx

dx

t j y

t

y

y ij i + t i j t j i = 0

x x

x

x

(2)

(3)

210

Multiplying by tk,

ti t j

y

y

ik ti i = 0

ytk j i + ti tk

j

x

x

dx

dx

By cyclic permutation of i, j, k in (4), we get

t j t

yti k kj

x

x

(4)

y

y

+ t j t i k i k ti

=0

x

x j

(5)

and

t

t

y

y

yti ki ik + t k t j i ti t j k = 0

x x

x

x

(6)

t

t j

t j t

y t k ij i + ti k kj

x

x

x

x

+ t j tk ti

x i x k

t k (ti , j t j ,i ) + ti (t j , k t k , j ) + t j (t k , i ti ,k ) = 0

or

= 0

(7)

as y 0 , where i, j, k = 1, 2, , n.

These are the necessary and sufficient conditions that the given congruence be a normal congruence.

Now suppose that the congruence is one of an orthogonal ennuple in V n. Let en|i be the unit

tangents of given congruence C so that ti = en|i

Then equation (7) becomes

en|k (en| i,j en| j,i) + en| i (en| j,k en| k,j) + en| j (en|k,i en|i,k) = 0

(8)

Now, multiplying equation (8) by e ip| eqR| , we get

e n|k (en |i , j en | j ,i ) e ip| eqk| + en |i (en | j , k en| k , j ) e ip| eqk + en | j (en |k ,i en |i , k ) e ip |eqk|

where p and q are two new indices chosen from 1, 2, , n 1. i.e., p,q and n are unequal.

e n |k eqk| = q = 0, q n

h

But

en |i e kp| = hp = 0, p n

so, we have

e n| j (en |k ,i en | j , k ) eip | eqk| = 0

e n| j (en |k , i e iq |e kp | en | j , k eip |e kq| ) = 0

en|j (nqp npq) = 0

Since

211

npq = nqp,

(9)

Conversely if equation (9) in true then we get equation (8). Which implies that equation (7) are

satisfied bty en|i Hence en| is a normal congruence.

Thus necessary and sufficient conditions that the congruence en| of an orthogonal ennuple be a

normal congruence are that

nqp = npq (p, q = 1, 2, , n 1 such that p q)

THEOREM 11.5 Necessary and sufficient conditions that all the congruences of an orthogonal ennuple

be normal.

Proof: If all the congruences of a orthogonal ennuple are normal. Then

nqp = npq (p, q = 1, 2, , n 1 such that p q)

If the indices h, k, l and unequal then

hkl = hlk

(1)

But due to skew-symmetric property i.e., hlk = lhk.

So,

hkl = hlk = lhk = lkh, from (1)

= klh (skew-symmetric property).

= khl, from (1)

hkl = hkl , (skew-symmetric property).

hkl + hkl = 0

2 hkl = 0

hkl = 0

11.6 CURL OF CONGRUENCE

The curl of the unit tangent to a congruence of curves is called the curl of congruence.

If en| is a given congruence of curves then

Curl en|i = en|i, j en| j,i

If curl en| i = 0 then congruence is irrotational.

THEOREM 11.6 If a congruence of curves satisfy two of the following conditions it will also satisfy

the third

(a) that it be a satisfy the third

(b) that it be a geodesic congruence

(c) that it be irrotational.

Proof: Consider an orthogonal ennuple and e ih| (h = 1, 2, , n) be n unit tangent to n congruences of

this orthogonal ennnuple.

From theorem (11.2), we have

h

212

n

nhk eh |i

h =1

m

= e n |i , m e k |

n

h,k =1

= en |i ,m mj

h, k =1

nhk eh|i e k | j

= e n|i, j

(2)

curl en|i = en| i, j en| j,i

=

h,k =1

n ,k =1

n

curl en| i =

from (2)

nhk eh |i ek | j

h ,k =1

h , k =1

nkh ek | j e h|i

curl en|i =

h ,k =1

(3)

(i) Let h and k take the values 1, 2, , n 1.

(ii) Either h = n or k = n or h = k = n.

Now, the equation (3) becomes

n 1

curl en| i =

h ,k =1

n 1

( nhk nkh ) eh |i ek | j +

h =1

k =1

So,

n 1

curl en|i

h , k =1

n1

curl en|i

( nhk nkh ) e h |i e k | j +

h ,k

n 1

nhn e h|i en | j

h =1

n1

nkn en |i

ek| j

k =1

n1

h =1

nhn ( eh |i en | j

en |i ek | j )

(4)

213

if

nhk nkh = 0

i.e.,

if

nhk = nkh.

i.e., if the congruence e n| is normal.

Again the second term of R.H.S of equation (4) vanishes

nhn = 0

if

i.e., if hnn = 0

i.e., if the congruence e n| is a geodesic congruence. Further, if first and second term on right

hand side of equation (4) both vanishes then

curl en|i = 0

Hence we have proved that if the congruence e n| satisfies any two of the following conditions

then it will also satisfy the third.

(a) e n| is a normal congruence

(b)

e n| is irrotational

(c)

e n| is a geodesic congruence

It has been shown that given a congruence of curves, it is possible to choose, in a multiply infinite

number of ways, n 1 other congruences forming with the given congruence an orthogonal ennuple.

Consider the system of n 1 congruence discovered by Ricci, and known as the system canonical with

respect to the given congruence.

THEOREM 11.7 Necessary and sufficient conditions that the n 1 congruences eh| of an orthogonal

ennuple be canonical with respect to en| are

nhk + nkh = 0; (h, k = 1, 2, , n 1, h k ).

Proof: Let the given congruence en| be regarded as nth of the required ennuple. Let en|i be unit tangent

to given congruence.

X ij = (en| i, j + en| j,i)

(1)

e n|i ei = 0

i, j = 1, 2, , n

( X ij gij e i + E n| j = 0

(2)

Writing equation (2) in expansion form, we have

e n|1e1 + en |2 e 2 + + en| n e n = 0

and

( X 1 j g1 j ) ei + ( X 2 j g 2 j ) e 2 + ( X nj g nj ) e n + e n| j = 0

(3)

214

for j = 1, 2, , n.

1

( X 11 g11 ) e + ( X 21 g 21 ) e + + ( X n1 g n 1 ) e + en |1 = 0

( X 12 g12 ) e1 + ( X 22 g 22 ) e 2 + + ( X n 2 g n 2 )e n + en |2 = 0

M

( X 1n g1 n ) e1 + ( X 2 n g 2 n ) e 2 + + ( X nn g nn ) e n + en |n = 0

from (3)

e n|1 e1 + en |2 e 2 + en |n e n + .0 = 0

eliminating and the quantities e1, e2, en, we have the equation

(X 11 g11 ) (X 21 g 21 )

( X12 g12 ) ( X 22 g 22 )

(X n1 g n1 )

( X n2 g n2 )

(X 2n g 2n )

(X nn g nn )

M

( X1n g1n )

en |1

en |2

en| n

en |1

e n|2

en |n

0

n 1. All roots are real. Let h be one of these roots and let the corresponding values of and ei be

denoted by h and e ih| respectively. Then h and e ih| will satisfy the equation (2), we have

en |i e ih| = 0

and

( X ij g ij ) eih | + h en | j = 0

Similarly k be another root of these roots, we have

(4)

(5)

en |i e ik| = 0

(6)

( X ij g ij ) eik | + h en | j = 0

(7)

Multiplying (5) by e kj| and (7) ehj| and using (4) and (6), we get

( X ij h g ij ) ehi |ekj| = 0

(8)

( X ij k g ij ) eki |e hj| = 0

(9)

Since X ij and g ij are symmetric tensor in i and j. Now, interchanging i and j in equation (9), we

get

( X ij k g ij ) ehi |e kj| = 0

Subtracting (10) and (8), we get

(10)

(h k ) g ij e ih| ekj | = 0

(11)

Since k k 0 as h h.

g ij eih| ekj| = 0

(12)

215

This shows that e ih| and e kj| unit vectors are orthogonal to each other and hence the congruence

e h| and e k| (h k) are orthogonal to each other. Hence the n 1 congruence eh| (h = 1, 2, , n) thus

determined form an orthogonal ennuple with en|.

Using equation (12), equation (10) becomes

X ij e ih| ekj| = 0

Since from (1), X ij =

1

e

+ e n| j , i . Then we have,

2 n |i , j

1

e

+ en | j ,i ehi |ekj| = 0

2 n |i , j

en |i , j ehi | ekj| + en| j ,i eik ehj = 0

nhk + nkh = 0; (h, k = 1, 2, , n 1 such that h k )

(13)

Conversely if equation (13) is true then (n 1) congruences eh| of the orthogonal ennuple and

canonical with respect to e n| . Hence necessary and sufficient condition that the n 1 congruences e h|

of an orthogonal ennuple be canonical with respect to en| are

nhk + nkh = 0; (h, k = 1, 2, , n such that h k )

THEOREM 11.8 Necessary and sufficient conditions that n 1 mutually orthogonal congruences e h|

orthogonal to a normal congruence e n| , be canconical with respect to the later are nhk = 0 where k, h

= 1, 2,, n 1 such that h k.

Proof: By theorem (11.7), Necessary and sufficient conditions that (n 1) congruences e h| of an

orthogonal ennuple be canonical with respect to en| are

nhk + nkh = 0 (h, k = 1, 2, , n 1 such that h k).

If the congruence en| is normal. Then

nhk = nkh

The given condition nhk + nkh = 0 becomes

nhk + nhk = 0

2nhk = 0

nhk = 0

Proved.

EXAMPLE 1

1

If en| are the congruences canonical with respect to en| prove that (i) h = nhk (ii) h = hnn,

2

(iii) If en| is a geodesic congruence, the congruences canonical with respect to it are given by

( X ij g ij )ei = 0 = 0

Solution

Suppose (n 1) congruences eh| of an orthogonal ennable in a V n are canonical with respect to

the cougruence eh| then

en |iehi | = 0

(1)

216

and

where

( X ij h g ij ) ehi | + h en | j = 0

X ij =

(2)

1

(e

+ en| j,i)

2 n| i,j

(3)

g ij ehi |ehj| = 0

(4)

( X ij h g ij ) ehi | ehj| + h e n| j e hj| = 0

X ij eih| ehj| h g ij eih |ehj| = 0

(from (1))

1

(e n|i , j + en| j , i ) e ih|e hj| h = 0;

2

from (3)

1

(e e i e j + en | j ,i eih| ehj | ) h = 0

2 n|i , j h | h|

1 ( + ) = 0

nhh

nhh

h

2

h = nhh

(ii) Multiplying (2) by enj| , we get

( X ij h g ij ) ehi | enj| + h e n| j e nj| = 0

X ij eih| enj| h g ij ehi |enj| + h 1 = 0

1

(e n|i , j + en| j , i ) e ih|e hj| + h = 0,

2

from (1)

since e ih| e hj| = 0

1

(e ei e j + en | j ,i ehi | ehj | ) + h = 0

2 n|i , j h | n|

1

( + nnh) + h = 0

2 nhn

h =

or

h =

1

, since nnh = 0

2 nhn

2 hnn

(iii) If en| is a geodesic congruence, then hnn = 0 from the result (ii), we have

1

h = 0

2

h = 0

217

( X ij h g ij ) e ih| = 0

this gives ( X ij g ij ) e i = 0 .

EXAMPLE 2

Prove that when a manifold admits an orthogonal systyem of n normal congruences then any of

these in canonical with respect to each other congruence of the system.

solution

Let e ih| (h = 1, 2, , n) be unit tangents to n normal congruences of an orthogonal ennuple in a

V n. So that

lhk = 0, where l, h, k = 1, 2,...n such that l, h, k being unequal.

It is required to show that a congruence eh| is canonical with respect to the congruence ek| (h, k = 1, 2,

, h k). We know that the n 1 congruence en| of an orthogonal ennuple be canonical to en| iff

nhk + nkh = 0

This condition is satisfied by virtue of equation (1). Hence (n 1) congruences eh| of an orthogonal

ennuple are canonical to en|.

Similarly we can show that any n 1 congruences are canonical to the remaining congruence.

It follows from the above results that any one congruence is canonical with respect to each other

congruence of the system.

EXERCISE

1. If is a scalar invariant

n

,ij eih|ehi | =

2

h =1

3. If eh| are the unit tangents to n mutually orthogonal normal congruences and e11 + be21 is also a

normal congruence then ae11 be21 is a normal congruence.

4. Show that

Q

Q

( lhk lkh )

=

sl

sh sk sk sh

l

where S h denotes the arc length of a curve through a point P of an ennuple and Q is a scalar invariant.

5. If the congruence eh| (h = 1, 2, n 1) of an orthogonal ennuple are normal, prove that they are

canonical with respect to other congruence eh| .

CHAPTER 12

HYPERSURFACES

12.1 INTRODUCTION

We have already studied (Art 10.3 chapter 10) that if m > n then we call V n to be a subspace of V m and

consequently V m is called enveloping space of V n. We also know that there are m n linearly independent

normals N to V n. (Art 10.3 Theorem 10.5, chapter 10). If we take m = n + 1 then V n is said to be

hypersurface of the enveloping space V n + 1

Let V n be Riemannian space of n dimensions referred to cordinates xi and having the metric ds2 =

i

gij dx dxj. Let V n be Riemannian space of m dimensions referred to coordinates y and having the metric

ds2 = a dy dy. Where m > n. Let Greek letters , , take the values 1, 2, , m and latin indices

i, j, k, take the values 1, 2, n. Then we have, the relation between a and gij

gij = a y y

xi x j

(1)

Since the function y are invariants for transformations of the coordinates xi in V n, their first

covariant derivatives with respect to the metric of V n are the same as their ordinary derivatives with

respect to the variables xi.

y, i =

i.e.,

y

xi

gij = a y,i y, j

The vector of V n

+ i

(2)

parameter xi in V n. Consequently if N are the contravariant components of the unit vector normal to

V n. Then we have

a N y,i = 0,

and

N N =

(i = 1, 2, , n)

(3)

(4)

Hypersurface

219

Let C be any curve in V n and s its arc length. The along this curve the x's and the y's may be expressed

as function of s only. Let u and be the components in the y's of two unit vector fields which are

parallel along C with respect to V m. Similarly w i the components in x's of a unit vector field which is

parallel along C with respect to V n. Now, u is parallel along C relative to V m then we have,

u,

dy

=0

ds

u

dy

u

=0

ds

y

u dy

dy

=0

y ds

ds

du

dy

u

=0

ds

ds

dy

du

= u ds

ds

(1)

dy

dv

= v ds

ds

(2)

j i dx

dwi

= w j k ds

ds

(3)

The Christoffel symbol with Greek indices being formed with respect to the a and the y's and

christoffel symbol with Latin indices with respect to the gij and the x's.

Let Ai be a tensor field, defined along C, which is mixed tenser of the second order in the y's and

a covariant vector in the x's. Then the product u v wi Ai is scalar invariant and it is a function of s

along c. Its derivative with respect to s is also a scalar invariant.

dA

d

dv

dw i

i

(u v wi Ai ) = u v w i i + du v w i A +

u

w

A

+

u v Ai

i

dt

ds

ds

ds

ds

= u v w

dAi

ds

du i dv

dw j

v w Ai +

u w i Ai +

u v Aj

ds

ds

ds

220

i

= u v w

dy

i dy

+ Ai .u v wi

Ai .u v w ds

ds

ds

dAi

i j dx

Aj u v w ik ds , by equation (1), (2) & (3).

k

i dAi

dy

dy

j dx

u

v

w

+

A

.

A

.

i

i

j

=

ds

ds

i k ds

ds

= Scalar, along C

Since the outer product uv wi is a tensor and hence from quotient law that the expression within

and this tensor is called intrinsic derivative of Ai

with respect to

s.

The expression within the bracket can also be expressed as

dxk

ds

Since

Ai

Ai

+ Ai y,k Ai y,k Aj

xk

ik

dxk

is arbitrary..

ds

So, by Quotient law the expression within the bracket is a tensor and is called tensor derivative of

with respect to xk. It is denoted by Ai;k . Then we have

Ai;k =

Ai

j

+ Ai y,k Ai y,k Aj .

dx

ik

k

with respect to xk .

12.3 LAWS OF TENSOR DIFFERENTIATION

THEOREM 12.1 Tensor differentiation of sums and products obeys the ordinary rules of differentiation.

Proof: Suppose A , B and B are tensors in V m.

(i) To prove that

( A + B ); k = A;k + B; k

Let the sum A + B be denoted by the tensor C .

Now,

C;k

+ C y, ck Ca y, ck

x

a c

c

k

Hypersurface

221

( A

B ); k

( A + B )

dx

+ ( Aa + A ) y,ck ( Aa + Ba ) y ,ck

a c

c

a c

a c

+

A

y

A

y

,

k

a

,

k

= x k

+

ac

c

B

a

+ Ba y,ck Ba y,ck

xk

ac

c

(ii) Prove that

( A + B ); k = A; k B + A B ; k

A B = D

Let

Then D

is a tensor

we have

D ; k =

( A

B ) ; k =

a

a

+ D;ak yc Da y,ck Da y,ck

ac

c

c

( A B )

dx

a

a

a

+ A

B y ,ck Aa B y,ck A B a y ,ck

ac

c

c

a

c

a c

+

A

y

A

y

B + A Ba y,ck

,

k

a

,

k

= dxk

k

ac

c

c

dx

( A B ); k = A; k B + Aa B ; k

Hence the result (ii).

Note: , , , a, c take values from 1 to m while k take values from 1 to n.

THEOREM 12.2 To show that a; j = 0

or

To prove that the metric tensor of the enveloping space is generalised covariant constant with respect

to the Christoffel symbol of the subspace.

Proof: We have (see pg. 220)

a;i =

a

dxi

a

dx i

a y,i a y,i

( [, ] + [, ] ) y,i

222

or

a;i =

or

a;i =

a

dx

a

dx

a

y,i

y

a y

a a

i =

y

dx

x i

x i

= 0

Proved.

At a point of a hypersurface V n of a Riemannian space V n + 1, the formula of Gauss are given by

y;ij = ij N

Proof: Since y is an invariant for transformation of the x's and its tensor derivative is the same as its

covariant derivative with respect to the xs, so that

y; i = y, i =

dy

(1)

dxi

y;ij

j

dx

ij

y l

y,l + y,i y, j

x j xi

ij

2 y

l

y,l + y,i y,j

x x

ij

i

(2)

y;ji

2y

l

y ,l + y , j y ,i

=

j

i

x x

ji

y;ji

2y

l

y ,l + y ,l y ,j

=

i

j

x x

ij

(3)

On comparing equation (2) and (3), we have

y;ij = y;ji

Hypersurface

223

Then

gij = a

y y

xi x j

or

gij;k = a;k y;i y;j + a y;i y;jk + a y;ik y;j

But

gij;k = 0

and

a;k = 0.

we have,

0 = a y ;i y;jk + a y;ik y;j

or

(4)

and

a y; ji y,k + a y , j y;ki = 0

(5)

(6)

subtracting equation (4) from the sum of (5) and (6), we get.

2 a y;ij y ,k = 0

a y ;ij y ,k = 0

or

(7)

This shows that y;ij is normal (orthogonal) to y,k . Since y,k is tangential to V n and hence y;ij is

normal to V n. Then we can write

y;ij = N ij

where

(8)

is unit vector normal to V n and ij is a symmetric covariant tensor of rank two. Since

From equation (8)

y;ij = ij N

y;ij a N = ij a N N

= ij N 2

224

y;ij a N = ij ,

or

ij

N=1

y;ija N .

ij dxi dx j

is called the second fundamental form for the hypersurface V n of V n + 1. The components of tenser ij

are said to be coefficient of second fundamental form.

Note: The quadratic differential form g ij dx idx j is called first fundamental form.

12.5 CURVATURE OF A CURVE IN A HYPERSURFACE AND NORMAL CURVATURE

If U and u i be the contravariant components of the vector u relative to V n and V n + 1 respectively then

we have (from chapter 10, Theorem 10.4)

y i

u = y,i ui

(1)

U

xi

Let the derived vector to vector u along C with respect to metric of V n and Vn + 1 are denoted by

p and q respectively. Then

and

pi

u,i j

dxj

ds

= U,

d y

ds

= U ;j

dx j

, (from equation 1, Art 12.4)

ds

(2)

Taking the tensor derivative of each side of equation (1) with respect to x's, we have

U ;j = y; ij u + y, i u , j

Then

U ;j = ij N u + y ,i u , j

dx j

ds

i

i

= (ij N u + y, i u, j )

or

i

i dx

u

= ij

N + y,i p

ds

where

i

pi = u, j

dx j

ds

(3)

Hypersurface

225

Now suppose that vector u is a the unit tangent t to the curve C. Then the derived vectors q and

p are the curvature vectors of a C relatively to V n + 1 and V n respectively. Then equation (3) becomes.

dx i dx j

N + y ,i p i

ds

q = ij ds

Kn = ij

Taking

dx i dx j

,

ds ds

(4)

we get

q = Kn N + y,i pi

...(5)

Kn is called Normal curvature of V n at any point P of the curve C and Kn N is called normal

curvature vector of V n + 1 in the direction of C.

Meaunier's Theorem

If Ka and Kn are the first curvature of C relative to V n + 1 and normal curvature of V n respectively

r

and w is the angle between N and C (C being the unit vector of V n + 1 then the relation between Ka, Kn

and w is given by

Kn = Ka cos

Proof: We know that

q = Kn N + p i y,i

...(1)

dxi dx j

ds ds

Let Ka and Kg be the first curvatures of C with respect V n + 1 and V n respectively then

where

Kn = ij

Ka =

r

a q q , Kg =

gij pi p j

Then

r r

N C = N C cos

= cos

r r

N .C = cos

If b is a unit vector of V n +

equation (1) becomes

as |N| = |C| = 1

...(2)

r

r

r

r

Ka C = K g b + K n N

r

Taking scalar product of equation (3) with N , we have

r r

r r

r r

K a N .C = K g N. b + K n N. N

Ka cos = Kg 0 + K n 1;

Kn = Ka cos

(3)

from (2)

(4)

Proved.

226

EXAMPLE 1

Show that the normal curvature is the difference of squares of geodesic curvatures.

Solution

We know that (from Meuriers Theorem, equation 3)

r

r

r

KaC = Kg b + Kn N

2

2

Ka2 = Kg + Kn

2

2

Kn2 = Ka K g .

or

Theorem 12.3 To show that the first curvature in Vn + 1 of a geodesic of the hypersurface Vn is the

normal curvature of the hypersurface in the direction of the geodesic.

Proof: From, example 1, we have

2

2

Ka2 = Kg + Kn

If C is a geodesic of V n then p i = 0 Kg = 0

Then we have

Ka2 = Kn2

Ka = K n.

Proved.

Dupin's Theorem

The sum of normal curvatures of a hypersurface V n for n mutually orthogonal directions is an

invariant and equal to ij g ij .

Proof: Let ehi | (h = 1, 2, , n) be unit tangents to n congruences of an orthogonal ennuple in a V n. Let

Knh be normal curvature of the hypersurface V n in the direction of the congruence eh | . Then

Knh = ij eih | ehj|

The sum of normal curvatures for n mutually orthogonal directions of an orthogonal ennuple is a

V n is

n

Knh =

h =1

ij

eih| ehj|

h =1

= ij

i

h|

ehj|

h =1

= ij g ij

= Scalar invariant

Proved.

Hypersurface

227

12.6 DEFINITIONS

(a) First curvature (or mean curvature) of the hypersurface Vn at point P.

It is defined as the sum of normal curvatures of a hypersurface V n form mutually orthogonal directions

at P and is denoted by M. Then

M = ij g ij

(b) Minimal Hypersurface

The hypersurface V n is said to be minimal if M = 0

i.e.,

ij g ij = 0

(c) Principle normal curvatures

The maximum and minimum values of Kn are said to be the principle normal curvatures of V n at P.

Since these maximum and minimum values of Kn correspond to the principal directions of the symmetric

tensor ij .

(d) Principal directions of the hypersurface at a point P.

The principal directions determined by the symmetric tensor ij at P are said to be principal directions

of the hypersurface at P.

(e) Line of curvature in V n

A line of curvature in a hypersurface V n is a curve such that its direction at any point is a principal

direction.

Hence we have n congruences of lines of curvature of a V n.

THEOREM 12.4 To show that the mean curvature of a hypersurface is equal to the negative of the

divergence of the unit normal.

or

To show that the first curvature of a hypersurface is equal to the negative of the divergence of the unit

normal.

or

To show that the normal curvature of a hypersurface for any direction is the negative of the tendency

of the unit normal in that direction.

Proof: Let N be the unit normal vector to the hypersurface V n in y's and let N be its covariant

components. Let t be the unit tangent vector to N congruences eh| (h = 1, 2, , n) of an orthogonal

ennuple in V n and let Th| be the contravariant components in V n + 1 of t. Since t is orthogonal to N,

therefore

Th| N = 0

(1)

Th| , N + Th| N , = 0

Multiplying equation (2) by Th , we get

Th| , Th| N + Th| Th| N , = 0

(2)

228

(3)

Now Th|,Th| is the first curvature of the curve eh| and N , . Th| . Th| is the tendency of N is the

direction of eh| . Hence equation (3) implies that the normal component of the first curvature of the eh|

relative to V n + 1 or the normal curvature of V n in the direction of the curve eh|

= tendency of N in the direction of the curve eh|

(4)

we have

i.e., mean curvature or first curvature of a hypersurface = divergence of the unit normal.

Corollary: To prove that

M = divn + 1N

Proof: Since N is a vector of unit magnitude i.e., constant magnitude, its tendency is zero. also by

definition, the div n + 1 N and div n N differ only by the tendency of the vector N in its direction. But the

tendency of N is zero hence it follows that

divn N = div n + 1 N

Hence

M = div n N = div n + 1 N.

12.7 EULER'S THEOREM

Statement

The normal curvature Kn of V n for any direction of ar in V n is given by

n

Kn =

Kh cos2 h

h =1

where Kh are the principal curvature and h are the angles between direction of ar and the congruence

eh|

Proof: The principal directions in V n determined by the symmetric covariant tensor teser ij are

given by

(ij K h g ij ) p ih| = 0

(1)

ij Kgij = 0

(2)

The roots of the equation (2) are the maximum and minimum values of the quality Kn defined by

ij p i p j

Kn = g p i p i

ij

(3)

Hypersurface

229

(ij K n gij ) pih| p ik| = 0

The principal directions satisfy the equation

(h k )

ij pih | pkj| = 0

(4)

Let eh| be the unit tangents to the n congruences of lines of curvature. Then the principal curvatures

are given by

Kh = ij ehi | ehi |

(h = 1, 2, , n)

r

a =

eh| cos h

h

n

or

where

ai

(5)

h=1

h|

cos h

(6)

r r

cos h| = a e h | = ai eh|i

ai being the contravariant components of a and h being the inclination of vector a to eh|. The

r

normal curvature of V n for the direction of a is given by

Kn = ij a ia j

from (6), we get

Kn = ij

h ,k =1

n

i

h|

cos h

j

k|

cos h

(ij ehi |ehj| ) cos 2 h

h =1

2

Kn = Kh cos h

h =1

(7)

12.8 CONJUGATE DIRECTIONS AND ASYMPTOTIC DIRECTIONS IN A HYPERSURFACE

r

The directions of two vector, ar and b , at a point in V n are said to be conjugate if

ij a ib j = 0

(1)

and two congruences of curves in the hypersurface are said to be conjugate if the directions of the two

curves through any point are conjugate.

230

A direction in V n which is self-conjugate is said to be asymptotic and the curves whose direction

are along asymptotic directions are called asymptotic lines.

Therefore the direction the vector ar at a point of V n be asymptotic if

ij a i a j = 0

(2)

ij dxi dx j = 0

(3)

THEOREM 12.5 If a curve C in a hypersurface V n has any two of the following properties it has the

third

(i) it is a geodesic in the hypersurface Vn

(ii) it is a geodesic in the enveloping space Vn + 1

(iii) it is an asymptotic line in the hypersurface V n.

Proof: Let C be a curve in the hypersurface V n. The normal curvature Kn of the hypersurface V n in the

direction of C is given by

2

2

Ka2 = Kg + Kn

(1)

where Ka and Kg are the first curvatures of C relative to enveloping space V n + 1 and hypersurface V n

respectively.

Suppose C is a geodesic in the hypersurface V n [i.e., (i) holds] then Kg = 0.

If C is also a geodesic in the enveloping space V n + 1 [i.e., (ii) holds] then Ka = 0.

Now, using these values in equation (1), we have

Kn2 = 0

Kn = 0

Hence we have proved that (i) and (ii) (iii)

Similarly we have proved that

(ii) and (iii) (i)

and (i) and (iii) (ii)

12.9 TENSOR DERIVATIVE OF THE UNIT NORMAL

The function y are invariants for transformations of the coordinates x i in V n their first covariant

derivatives with respect to the metric of V n are the same as their ordinary derivatives with respect to the

variables x i.

i.e.,

y;i = y,i =

y

xi

(1)

The unit Normal N be the contravariant vector in the ys whose tensor derivative with respect

to the xs is

N;i =

N

+ N y, i

x i

(2)

Hypersurface

231

aN N = 1

Since

(3)

xi

gives

aN N;i + a N;i N = 0

or

a N N ;i + a N ;i N = 0

a N N ;i + a N ;i N = 0

2 a N N ;i = 0

a N N ;i = 0

(4)

which shows that N;i is orthogonal to the normal and therefore tangential to the hypersurface.

Thus N;i can be expressed in terms to tangential vectors y,k to V n so that

N;i = Ai y,k

Since unit normal N is orthogonal to tangential vector y,i in V n. Then

aN y,i = 0

a N ;j y,i + a N y,ij = 0

or

a N ;j y ,i + a N ij N = 0

or

a N ;j y ,i + ij (a N N ) = 0

since y,ij = ij N

a N N = 1

or

a N ;j y,i + ij = 0

or

g ki A kj + ij = 0

y y

= g ki

since a y, k y, i = a

k

i

x x

g ki g im A kj + ij g im = 0

(5)

232

k

im

m

=0

k A j + ij g

Aim + ij g im = 0

im

Aim = ij g

N;i = ij g y, k = ji g

ik

N;i = ij g

jk

jk

y,k

y ,k

(6)

Theorem 12.6 The derived vector of the unit normal with respect to the enveloping space, along a

curve provided it be a line of curvature of the hypersurface.

Proof: Since the tensor derivative of N is

N;i = ij g

jk

y ,k

(1)

N;i ei = ij g

Then

jk

y,k ei

(2)

N;i ei = y,i ei ,

Then

( is scalar constant)

ij g jk y,k ei = y,i e i

Multiplying both sides of this equation by a y,l

ij g jk e i (a y ,k y,l ) = e i (a y,i y ,l )

ij g jkei gkl = ei gil

since g il = a y ,i y ,l

ijilei = ei g il

il ei ei gil = 0

( il g il ) ei = 0

(l = 1, 2, , n)

This equation implies that the direction of e i is a principal direction for the symmetric tensor il

i.e., e i is a principal direction for the hypersurface V n. Hence by definition the curve C is a line of

curvature V n.

Hypersurface

233

since we know that (pg. 86, equation 5)

p

Ai, jk Ai, kj = A p Rijk

(1)

where A i is a covariant tenser of rank one and difference of two tensers Ai, jk Ai,kj is a covariant

tenser of rank three.

It y,i are components of a covariant tensor of rank one in x 's. Then replacing A i by y,i in

equation (1), we get

p

y,ijk y,ikj = y,p Rijk

= y,p g ph Rhijk ,

p

Since Rijk

= g phRhijk

(2)

We know that

and

y,ij = ij N

(3)

N ,i = ij g ik y,k

(4)

Let R

and evaluated at points of the hypersurface

using equation (3) and (4), equation (2) becomes

y,i y , j y,k

(5)

Multiplying equation (5) by a y,l and summed with respect to . Using the relations

a y ,i y,l = 0

and

g = N y,l = 0,

we get

Rlijk = (lj ik lk ij ) + R y ,l y,i y ,j y,k

(6)

a N y ,l = 0

and

a N B = 0

we get ij ,k ik , j + R N y ,i y,j y ,k = 0

(7)

Hence, The equation (6) are generalisation of the Gauss Characteristic equation and equation

(7) of the Mainardi-Codazzi equations.

234

A point of a hypersurface at which the lines of curvature are indeterminate is called an Umbilical Point.

The lines of curvature may be indeterminate at every point of the hypersurface iff

ij = g ij

(8)

where is an invariant

The mean curvature M of such a hypersurface is given by

M = ij g ij = gij g ij = n

M

.

n

ij =

M

g ,

n ij

from (i)

hypersurface V n is called a totally geodesic hypersurface of the hypersurface V n + 1.

(9)

+ 1.

They

THEOREM 12.7 A totally geodesic hypersurface is a minimal hypersurface and its-lines of curvature

are indeterminate.

Proof: We know that

2

2

Ka2 = Kn + K g

M=0

and the lines of curvature are indeterminate if

ij =

M

g ij

n

(1)

(2)

(3)

i.e.,

Ka = 0 = k g

Now, from (1), we have

Kn = 0

But normal curvature Kn is zero for an asymptotic direction. Hence a hypersurface V n is totally

geodesic hypersurface iff the normal curvature Kn zero for all directions in V n and hence

ij = 0

M = ij g ij = 0

i.e., equation (2) is satisfied.

Hence, the totally geodesic hypersurface is minimal hypersurface.

In this case equation (3) are satisfied hence the lines of curvature are indeterminate.

Hypersurface

235

Let xi be the cartesian in Euclidean space S n, so that the components gij of the fundamental tensor are

constants. Let yi be the Riemmannian coordinates. If a fixed point O is taken as a pole and s the distance

of any point P then Riemannian coordinates y i of P with pole O are given by

y i = s i

(1)

i

is unit tangent in the direction of OP.

Let aij be the components in the x s of a symmetric tensor of the rank two and evaluated at the

pole O. Then the equation

y i aij y

=1

(2)

Substituting the value of equation (1) in equation (2), we get

si aij si = 1

iaiji =

(3)

s2

The equation (3) showing that the two values of s are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.

The positive value of s given by equation (3) is the length of the radius of the quadric (2) for the

direction i .

THEOREM 12.8 The sum of the inverse squares of the radii of the quadric for n mutually orthogonal

directions at O is an invariant equal to a ij g ij .

Proof: If e ih| , (h = 1, 2, n) are the contravariant components of the unit tangents at O to the curves

of an orthogonal ennuple in Sn. The radius Sh relative to the direction e ih| is given by

aij ehi | ehj | =

n

or

h =1

(s h )2

1

s 2h

h

h =1

= a ij

n

h =1

(s h )2

eih | e hj|

h =1

= a ij g ij

Proved.

236

THEOREM 12.9 The equation of hyperplane of contact of the tangent hypercone with vertex at the

point Q (y ) .

Proof: Given (from equation 2, pg. 235)

aij y i y j = 1

Differentiating it

aij dy i y j + aij y i dy j = 0

or

aij dy i y j + aij y j dy i = 0

2 aij dy i y j = 0

aij dy i y j = 0

This shows that dy i is tangential to the quadric. Hence yj is normal to the quadric.

The tangent hyperplane at the point P ( y j) is given by

(Y i y i ) aij y j = 0

aij Y i y j = aij y i y j

aij Y i y j = 1

since aij y i y j = 1

(4)

If the tangent hyperplane P ( y j) passes through the point Q (yi). Then we have

y i aij y j = 1

(5)

Thus all points of the hyperquadric, the tangent hyperplanes at which pass through Q lie on the

hyperplane (5) on which yi is the current point. This is the hyperplane of contact of the tangent

hypercone whose vertex is Q ( y i ) .

12.13 POLAR HYPERPLANE

The polar hyperplane of the point R (~y i ) with respect to quadric (2) is the locus of the vertices of the

hypercones which touch the hyperquadric along its intersections with hyperplanes through R. If Q ( y i )

is the vertex of such tangent hypercone, then R lies on the hyperplane of contact of Q so that

yi a ~

yj =1

ij

Consequently for all positions of the hyperplane through R, Q lies on the hyperplane

yi a ~

yj =1

ij

(6)

This is required equations of the polar hyperplane of R and R is the pole of this hyperplane.

Hypersurface

237

Consider a hypersurface V n of Euclidean space Sn + 1 and let x i (i = 1, 2, n) be coordinates of an

arbitrary point P of V n whose components relative to Sn + 1 are

y ( = 1, 2,L n + 1)

Let N be a unit normal vector at P relative to Sn + 1 so that tensor derivate N becomes covariant

derivative.

So,

N ;i = N ,i = ij g jk y,k

(1)

y;ij = y,ij = ij N

(2)

n +1

and

gij =

=1

y,i y,j

(3)

Let P ( y ) be a point on the unit normal N such that distance of P from P is in the direction

of N such that

y = y + N

(4)

Suppose P undergoes a displacement dx i in V n then the corresponding displacement d y of P is

given by

d y = ( y,i + N ,i ) dx i + N d

(5)

displacement of P ( y ) be along the normal to the hypersurface then we have

( y,i N ,i 0) dx i = 0

(6)

( y,i g jk y,k ) dx i = 0

Multiplying it by y,i and summing with respect to , we get, using equation (3), as

( gil ij g jk glk ) d xi = 0

( gil ij lj ) d xi = 0

( g il il ) dx i = 0

( gij ij ) d xi = 0

(7)

This shows that the directions dxi given by equation (7) are principal directions of the hypersurface

where the roots of the equation |gij ij| = 0 are called principal radii of normal curvature. The

locus of P ( y ) satisfying the condition (4) is called evolute of the hypersurface V n of Sn + 1 where

is a root of (7). The evolute is also a hypersurface of Sn + 1.

238

12.15 HYPERSPHERE

The locus of a point in Sn which moves in such way that it is always at a fixed distance R from a fixed

point C (b ) is called a hypersphere of radius R and centre C. Therefore the equation of such a

hypersphere is given by

n

(y

=1

b )2 = R 2

(1)

THEOREM 12.10 The Riemannian curvatrure of a hypersphere of radius R is constant and equal to

1

.

R2

Proof: Let the hypersurface be a V n of Sn + 1 and let its centre be taken as origin of Euclidean

coordinates in Sn + 1. Then the hypersphere is given by

(y

= R 2,

( = 1, 2, , n + 1)

(2)

For the point in V n the y's are functions of the coordinates xi on the hypersphere.

Differentiating equation (2) with respect to x i, we get

y y,i

=0

,j

y,i +

(3)

x j,

we get.

y,ij = 0

(4)

By Gauss formula,

y,ij = ij N

Using (5), equation (4) becomes

g ij +

y ij N

=0

(5)

(6)

From equation (3) it follows that y,i is perpendicular to y . But y,i is tangential to V m. Hence

y is normal to V n.. The equation (2) implies that the components of the unit vector N are given by

N

y

y = RN

R

g ij +

RN

or

or

g ij + R ij

N ij = 0

(N

) =0

g ij + R ij = 0

since ( N )2 = 1

(7)

240

2.

To prove that for a space Vn with positive constant Riemannian curvature K these exists sets of n + 1 real

coordinate y satisfying the condition

n +1

( y

=1

) = 1

K

where R 2 =

1

K

(y ) 2

1

K

Proved.

EXAMPLE 2

Show that the directions of two lines of curvature at a point of a hypersurface are conjugate.

Solution

The principal direction e ih| are given by

ij ehi | ehj| = 0

(1)

Thus we say that two congruences of lines of curvature are conjugate.

EXAMPLE 3

Show that the normal curvature of hyper surface V n in an asymptotic direction vanishes.

Solution

Let us consider a curve C in a V n. If C is an asymptotic line then it satisfies the differential

equation

ij dxi dx j = 0

dxi dx j

=0

(1)

ds ds

Now the normal curvature Kn of the hypersurface V n in an asymptotic direction in a V n is given

i.e.,

ij

by

Kn = ij

i.e.,

Kn = 0

dxi dx j

ds ds

from (1)

EXAMPLE 4

To prove that if the polar hyperplane of the point R passes through a point P then that of P passes

through R.

Solution

Let P( y i ) and R ( y i ) be two points. The polar hyperplane of R ( y i ) is

242

11. Prove that the necessary and sufficient condition that system of hypersurface with unit normal N be

isothermic is that

( N div N N .N ) = 0.

12. Show that the normal curvature of a subspace in an asymptotic direction is zero.

13. If straight line through a point P in S n meets a hyperquadric in A and B and the polar hyperplane of

P in Q prove that P, Q are harmonic conjugates to A, B.

14. What are evolutes of a hypersurface in an Euclidean space. Show that the varieties 1 = constant in

evolute are parallel, having the curves of parameter 1 as orthogonal geodesics of V n .

INDEX

A

Absolute 131

Addition and Subtraction of Tensors 15

Associated tensor 43

Asymptotic directions 229

B

Bianchi identity 94

Binormal 137

C

Canonical congruence 213

Christoffels symbols 55

Completely skew-symmetric 111

Completely symmetric 111

Concept 188

Congruence of curves 49

Conjugate (or Reciprocal) Symmetric Tensor 25

Conjugate directions 229

Conjugate metric tensor 34

Conservative force field 144

Contraction 18

Contravariant tensor of rank r 14

Contravariant Tensor of rank two 9

Contravariant vector 7

Covariant tensor of rank s 14

Covariant vector 7

Curl 76

Curl of congruence 211

Curvature 136

Curvature of Congruence 207

Curvature tensor 86

D

Degree of freedom 157

Dextral Index 1

Divergence 75

Divergence Theorem 161

Dummy index 1

Dupins Theorem 226

E

Einstein space 103

Einstein tensor 95

Einsteins Summation Convention 1

Eulers condition 171

Eulers Theorem 228

Evolute 237

F

First curvature 227

First curvature vector of curve 170

244

Free Index 2

Fundamental tensor 31

Fundamental theorem 199

G

Gauss Characteristic equation 233

Gausss formula 222

Gausss theorem 164

Generalised Krnecker delta 112

Generalized coordinates 157

Geodesic congruence 208

Geodesic coordinate system 175

Geodesics 171

Gradient 75

Greens Theorem 162

H

Hamiltons principle 153

Hypersphere 238

Hypersurface 48, 218

I

Inner product of two tensors 18

Integral of energy 155

Intrinsic derivative 131

K

Kinetic energy 144

Krnecker Delta 2

L

Lagrangean equation 148

Lagrangean function 148

Laplaces equation 167

Laplacian operator 80, 163

Length of a curve 42

Levi-civitas concept 188

Line element 31

Line of curvature 227

M

Magnitude of vector 44

Mainardi-Codazzi equations 233

Mean curvature 101

Meauniers Theorem 225

Metric Tensor 31

Minimal curve 42

Minimal Hypersurface 227, 234

mixed tensor of rank r + s 14

mixed tensor of rank two 9

N

Newtonian Laws 142

Normal congruence 209

n-ply orthogonal system of hypersurfaces 49

Null curve 42

O

Orthogonal Cartesian coordinates 120

Orthogonal ennuple 49

Osculating plane 136

Outer Product of Tensor 16

P

Parallel vector fields 134

Parallelism 188

Poissons equation 166

Polar hyperplane 236

Potential energy 145

Principal directions of the hypersurface 227

Principle normal vector 136

Principle normal curvatures 227

Principle of least action 156

Projective curvature tensor 104

Q

Quotient Law 24

R

Reciprocal base systems 122

Index

Relative Tensor 26

Ricci tensor 88

Riccis principal directions 102

Riccis coefficients of rotation 205

Riccis Theorem 71

Riemann curvature 96

Riemanns symbol 86

Riemann-Christoffel Tensor 85

Riemannian coordinates 177

Riemannian Geometry 31, 116

Riemannian Metric 31

Riemannian space 31

245

Straight line 140

Subscripts 1

Superscripts 1

Symmetric Tensors 20

T

Tensor density 26

Torsion 137

Totally geodesic hypersurface 234

Transformation of Coordinates 6

U

S

Scalar product of two vectors 44

Schurs theorem 100

Second fundamental tensors 34

Serret-Frenet formula 138

Simple Pendulum 152

Skew-Symmetric Tensor 20

Umbral 1

Unit principal normal 171

W

Weyl tensor 104

Work function W 145

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