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Chng 9

compozit

S pht trin mnh m ca cng nghip hin i dn ti cc nhu cu to ln


v loi vt liu ng thi c nhiu tnh cht m cc vt liu va hc (kim loi,
ceramic, polyme) khi ng ring r khng c c m ni bt l loi va bn li
va nh, r li c tnh chng n mn cao. Compozit (hay cn gi l vt liu kt
hp) ra i trong my chc nm gn y p ng c cc yu cu , ng
dng v pht trin ti trnh cao quy lut kt hp - mt quy lut ph bin trong
t nhin. Ngnh khoa hc v cng ngh v compozit c nhiu sn phm dng
trong mi lnh vc: t t, my bay cho n vt liu chnh hnh v hin pht trin
mnh n mc nhiu ngi cho rng th k 21 s l vn minh ca compozit.

9.1. Khi nim v compozit


9.1.1. Quy lut kt hp
T lu ngi ta bit s kt hp tnh cht ca cc pha trong vt liu a
pha. V d, bn cao cng vi do tng i tt ca thp cng tch l s kt
hp ca do, dai cao ca nn ferit vi tnh cng vng ca cc tm (ht)
xmentit nm xen trong . G, tre kh cng vng, bn, dai chnh l nh cc tnh
cht tng ng ca si xenlul (bn, dai) c phn b theo hng xc nh vi
lignin (cng vng) bao quanh. l bng cc con ng kt hp t nhin. Bng
con ng kt hp nhn to cc pha c bn cht khc nhau theo mt kin trc
nh trc s bo m to nn mt t hp cc tnh cht ph hp vi cc yu cu s
dng ra.
Vy compozit l loi vt liu nhiu pha khc nhau v mt ha hc, hu nh
khng tan vo nhau, phn cch nhau bng ranh gii pha, kt hp li nh s can
thip k thut ca con ngi theo nhng s thit k trc, nhm tn dng v
pht trin nhng tnh cht u vit ca tng pha trong compozit cn ch to.

9.1.2. c im v phn loi


a. c im
Compozit c nhng c im chnh sau.
- L vt liu nhiu pha m chng thng rt khc nhau v bn cht, khng
ha tan ln nhau v phn cch nhau bng ranh gii pha. Trong thc t, phn ln
compozit l loi hai pha gm nn l pha lin tc trong ton khi, ct l pha phn
b gin on.
- Nn v ct c t l, hnh dng, kch thc v s phn b theo thit k
nh trc.
- Tnh cht ca cc pha thnh phn c kt hp li to nn tnh cht
chung ca compozit. Tuy nhin khng phi l s cng n thun tt c cc tnh
cht ca cc pha thnh phn khi chng ng ring r m ch la chn trong
nhng tnh cht tt v pht huy thm.

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b. Phn loi
Thng thng dng cch phn loi theo cc c trng ca nn v ct, tc
cc pha c bn.
Theo bn cht ca nn c:
- compozit nn cht do (polyme),
- compozit nn kim loi,
- compozit nn ceramic,
- compozit nn hn hp nhiu pha.
Theo c im cu trc ca ct c th phn loi compozit thnh ba nhm:
compozit ct ht, compozit ct si v compozit cu trc nh trnh by hnh 9.1.
Loi ct ht v loi ct si khc nhau kch thc hnh hc ca ct: ct si c t
l chiu di trn ng knh kh ln, cn ct ht l cc phn t ng trc. Khi
nim v compozit cu trc l ch cc bn thnh phm dng tm, lp l vt liu
ng nht v compozit khc. Trong tng loi ct: ht, si nn vi kch thc khc
nhau cn c chia tip thnh cc nhm nh hn: ht th v ht mn, si lin tc
v si gin on...
COMPOZIT

Ct si

Ct ht

Compozit cu trc

Ht th Ht mn Lin tc Gin on Lp Tm ba lp T ong

C hng Ngu nhin


Hnh 9.1. S phn loi compozit

9.1.3. Lin kt nn - ct
Compozit ch thc s kt hp tt cc tnh cht ca nn v ct khi lin kt
gia chng l hon ho. Tip theo trnh by cc c im ca nn, ct v tng tc
gia chng cho compozit kt cu (chu ti).
a. Ct
Nh bit ct l pha khng lin tc, ng vai tr to nn bn cao,
mun n hi ( cng vng) cao cho compozit, do vy ct phi l loi c cc
c tnh , ng thi phi nh to nn bn ring cao. Ct c th c lm
bng tt c cc loi vt liu hc: kim loi, ceramic v polyme. T m hn v
chng c trnh by trong tng loi compozit tip theo. Nh s thy r sau ny,
hnh dng, kch thc, mt v s phn b ca si l nhng yu t c nh hng
mnh n c tnh ca compozit.
b. Nn
Nn l pha lin tc, ng vai tr ch yu cc mt sau.
- Lin kt ton b cc phn t ct thnh mt khi compozit thng nht.
- To kh nng tin hnh cc phng php gia cng compozit thnh cc

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chi tit theo thit k.


- Che ph, bo v ct trnh cc h hng do cc tc ng ha hc, c hc v
ca mi trng.
Yu cu ch yu i vi nn l phi nh v c do cao. Ph thuc vo
tnh cht ca compozit cn ch to, ngi ta chn loi nn ph hp trong bn
nhm: kim loi, ceramic, polyme v hn hp.
c. Lin kt nn - ct
Lin kt tt gia nn v ct ti vng ranh gii pha l yu t quan trng
nht bo m cho s kt hp cc c tnh tt ca hai pha trn. tng cng
gn chc nn - ct, ngi ta c th p dng cc bin php sau.
- Lin kt c hc, c thc hin nh khp ni thng qua mp m trn
b mt do lc ma st nh kiu btng ct thp c gn (t).
- Lin kt nh thm t do nng lng sc cng b mt v pha nn b nung
chy v dnh t vi ct nn c s khuch tn tuy rt nh, to nn sc cng b
mt.
- Lin kt phn ng, xut hin khi trn ranh gii pha xy ra phn ng to
hp cht ha hc, n nh lp keo dnh cht ct vi nn. y l loi lin kt tt
nht.
- Lin kt xyt, loi lin kt phn ng c trng cho nn kim loi vi ct l
xyt ca chnh kim loi .
Sau y trnh by c tnh ca tng loi compozit ht, si v cu trc.

9.2. Compozit ht
Compozit ht l loi c ct l cc ht ng trc, cng, bn (xyt, nitrit,
cacbit, borit) (i khi l cc ht mm nh grafit, mica thuc loi chng ma st,
khng thuc loi (compozit) kt cu, trng tm ca chng ny).
Trong loi ny nh phn loi (hnh 9.1) li c ht th v ht mn.

9.2.1. Compozit ht th
Compozit ht th rt a dng v c s dng ph bin trong cc lnh vc
cng nghip, xy dng.
a. c im
Khi nim "th" c dng ch tng tc gia nn v ct khng xy ra
mc nguyn t, phn t, lc ny s ha bn c c l nh s cn tr bin
dng ca nn vng ln cn vi ht ct do s chn p theo quan im ca c hc
mi trng lin tc.
Ty theo c tnh phn b ca ht trong nn m quy tc kt hp (hn hp)
cho mun n hi Ec ca compozit ph thuc vo t l th tch, mun n hi
ca nn (matrice): Vm, Em v ca ct ht (particle): Vp, Ep nm trong phm vi gia
hai ng biu th hnh 9.2 bi hai biu thc ton hc sau:
(ng thng trn)

E c = E m .Vm + E p .Vp

(ng cong di)

Ec =

E m .E p
Vm .E p + Vp .E m

(9.1)
(9.2)

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Hnh 9.2. S ph
thuc ca mun
n hi vo hm
lng
ct
trong
compozit nn Cu ct
ht W

S ha bn tt nht (gii hn trn) th hin phng ht b tr dy c


hn, cn km nht (gii hn di) phng ht sp xp tha hn c. Vy
compozit loi ny c tnh cht ph thuc thnh phn (hm lng ct) nm trong
khong gia hai ng gii hn trn v di ny.
b. Cc compozit ht th thng dng.
Hp kim cng trnh by chng 6 (mc 6.4.2a) to ra bng phng
php luyn kim bt cng c th coi l compozit ht th, trong cc phn t cng
l cacbit: WC, TiC, TaC c lin kt bng Co (nn). Hp kim cng l vt liu ct
rt thng dng vi hiu qu kinh t cao.
Cc hp kim lm tip im c s kt hp tt ca cc kim loi kh chy
(W, Mo) vi cc kim loi c tnh dn nhit cao (Cu, Ag) cng l loi compozit ht
th nn kim loi, trong mt tnh cht (E) ca loi nn Cu ct W c trnh
by hnh 9.2.
Btng l compozit ht th nn ceramic c dng rng ri nht. Trong
btng, ct chnh l cc ht rn kh ln (, si) hay nh (ct vng) c lin kt
vi nhau bi nn cng l ximng. Tnh cht ca btng c trnh by
chng 7 (mc 7.4.3).
Ngi ta c th a cc ht vi vai tr cht n vo polyme ci thin
bn, tnh chng mi mn, n nh kch thc, chu nhit, lc sn phm polyme
thu c nh l compozit ht th nn polyme [hay cht do tng cng ( bn)].
Cc ht n thng l thch anh, thy tinh, xyt nhm, t st, vi.

9.2.2. Compozit ht mn (ha bn phn tn)


Compozit ht mn l loi c tnh nng c bit: bn nng v n nh nng.
a. c im
Nn cc compozit ny thng l kim loi v hp kim. Cc phn t ct c
kch thc nh n mc di 0,1m, thng l loi bn, cng v c tnh n nh
nhit cao: xyt, cacbit, borit, nitrit. Tng tc nn - ct y xy ra mc vi
m ng vi kch thc nguyn t, phn t. C ch ha bn tng t nh c ch tit

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pha phn tn, bin cng khi phn ha dung dch rn qu bo ha. Khi lc tc dng
ln compozit, nn s hng chu hu nh ton b ti, cc phn t ct nh mn phn
tn ng vai tr hm lch, lm tng bn cng ca vt liu.
b. Cc compozit ht mn
SAP, SAAP (CA, CAC) nghin cu chng 6 (mc 6.4.3a), vi cc
t l 5 - 20%Al2O3 trn nn nhm, hp kim nhm (gia nn - ct c lin kt xyt
kh bn) c sn xut quy m cng nghip, cung cp di dng bn thnh
phm tm, ng, dy... lm cc chi tit c bn ring ln, lm vic 300
500oC v chu tc dng ca mi trng n mn.
T - D Nickel (Thoria Dispersed Nickel) l loi compozit nn l niken (Ni),
ct l cc phn t xyt tri ThO2. Ch vi 2%ThO2 song dng rt nh mn, nm
phn tn v n nh nhit, c bn v kh nng lm vic lu di 1000
1100oC, khng b n mn tinh gii nh thp khng g nn l vt liu qu trong
hng khng, v tr, ch to tuabin, ng dn, bnh p lc lm vic nhit cao
di tc dng ca mi trng n mn.

9.3. Compozit ct si
Compozit ct si l loi compozit kt cu quan trng nht v n c bn
ring v mun n hi ring cao. Chnh v t c yu cu ny m c nn ln
ct si u phi c khi lng ring nh. Tnh cht ca compozit ct si ph thuc
vo bn cht vt liu ct v nn, bn lin kt trn ranh gii pha, s phn b v
nh hng si cng nh kch thc v hnh dng ca n... y vi quy c rng
lin kt trn ranh gii pha nn - ct c coi l hon ho nn s ln lt kho st
cc yu t cn li.

9.3.1. nh hng ca yu t hnh hc si


a. S phn b v nh hng si

Hnh 9.3. S phn b v nh hng ct si:


a. mt chiu,
b. dt hai chiu vung gc trong mt mt,
c. ri ngu nhin trong mt mt,
d. an qun ba chiu vung gc.

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C nhiu kiu phn b v nh hng si nh biu th hnh 9.3. y si


c coi nh th trong kim loi, lm cho vt liu c tnh d hng r rt. Do vt
liu lm ct bao gi cng bn, cng hn nn, nn theo phng ct si compozit
th hin bn cao hn cc phng khc.
- Khi cc si phn b song song vi nhau theo mt phng no nh
biu th hnh a, bn theo phng dc si s cao hn hn phng vung gc
vi n. Kiu ny c gi l mt chiu.
- Khi cng phn b trn mt mt song theo hai phng vung gc vi nhau
nh vi (cc si an vung gc vi nhau) biu th hnh b, th khi th theo hai
phng dc theo trc si bn nhn c l cao hn c. Kiu ny c gi l
kiu dt.
- Khi si phn b tri trn mt mt nhng khng nh hng, nhiu
phng (ri), c tnh ngu nhin nh hnh c s lm cho compozit c tnh ng
hng (theo tt c cc phng trn mt cc tnh cht u nh nhau). Kiu ny
c gi l ri ngu nhin trong mt mt (nh cu trc ca d, n).
- Cui cng khi si c phn b (an, qun) v nh hng theo ba
phng vung gc vi nhau nh hnh d th compozit c bn ln nht theo c
ba phng tng ng. Tuy nhin iu c ngi ta quan tm hn c c nh
hng n c tnh ca compozit ct si l yu t hnh hc ca si: chiu di v
ng knh hay t l gia chng.
b. nh hng ca chiu di si
iu quan trng nht i vi compozit kt cu ct si phi c cu trc sao
cho ti trng t vo phi c dn vo si l pha c bn cao, nu ch tp
trung vo nn l pha km bn hn s dn n ph hy pha ny mt cch nhanh
chng, ni khc i c tnh ph thuc vo mc truyn ti trng t nn vo si.

Hnh 9.4. S bin dng nn


khi t ti vo compozit ct si
ngn, bin dng phn nn bao
quanh si chu ko.

i vi loi ct si ngn, di tc dng ca ng sut t vo s bin dng


ca nn dng li (u) mt si, mt phn nn b chy nh thy r hnh 9.4.
Nh vy khng c s truyn ti t nn vo mt si. Tuy nhin tnh hnh s c
ci thin mt khi chiu di si tng ln.
Ngi ta tnh c rng khi si di bng hay di hn mt chiu di ti
hn lc mi lm tng mt cch c hiu qu bn v cng vng ca
compozit. Chiu di ti hn lc ny ph thuc ng knh d ca si, gii hn bn
(b)f ca si (fiber) v sc bn lin kt gia si v nn (hay gii hn chy ct ca
nn m) theo biu thc:

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lc =
nu t S =

( b )f

( b )f
m

.d

th
l c = S.d
m
i vi compozit si thy tinh hay si cacbon, chiu di ti hn ny
khong 1mm v gp 20 n 150 ln ng knh si.
By gi xt trng hp ng sut ko tc dng ln compozit bng gii hn
bn ko ca si cho cc trng hp chiu di si khc nhau (hnh 9.5).
Khi chiu di si va ng lc, biu phn b ng sut trn chiu di di
si c dng nh hnh a: ti trng ln nht trn si t gi tr (b)f chnh gia
trc si. Khi chiu di si tng ln, tc dng gia cng ca si tr nn hiu qu
hn nh biu th hnh b, tc trn phn ln chiu di si chu tc dng ca mc
ng sut t vo (b)f. Cn khi l < lc tc dng gia cng khng c nh biu th
hnh c, ng sut ln nht tc dng trn si khng t n ng sut t vo (b)f.
Ngi ta quy c:
- khi l > 15lc, compozit l l loi ct lin tc hay di,
- khi l < 15lc, compozit l loi ct si khng lin tc hay ngn; trong khi
l < lc nn bao quanh si b bin dng n mc khng c s truyn ti, tc dng gia
cng ca si khng c, c coi nh compozit ht.

Hnh 9.5. Biu phn b ng sut


trn chiu di si khi:
a. l = lc,
b. l >>lc,
c. l < lc
(vi compozit ct si chu ng sut
ko bng gii hn bn ko ca si).

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Trn hnh 9.6 trnh by s cu trc ca loi compozit ct si trong


loi ct si lin tc thng hng (thng ch gi ngn gn l lin tc) nh hnh a
l loi quan trng hn c s c kho st di y.

Hnh 9.6. S cu trc


ca compozit ct si:
a. lin tc (lin tc thng
hng),
b. gin on thng hng,
c. gin on hn n

9.3.2. Compozit ct si lin tc thng hng


a. Khi ko dc
y si di sp xp song song, thng hng l loi c bn cao nhng
gin, c t l th tch Vf c phn b trong nn c t l th tch l Vm = 1 - Vf.
Mt compozit b ko theo phng dc trc si nh biu th hnh 9.7, do lin kt
nn - ct hon ho, s truyn ti tt nn bin dng ca nn v ct nh nhau:

Hnh 9.7. S ko mu
compozit ct si lin tc thng
hng theo phng dc trc si
c = f = m
(9.3)
Trong cc iu kin ny ti trng tng tc dng ln compozit Fc bng tng
cc ti trng tc dng ln nn Fm v si Ff:
(9.4)
F c = Ff + Fm
T iu kin F = . A (trong A l tit din ngang), biu thc (9.4) c
th c vit thnh
c. Ac = f. Af + m. Am
(9.5)
nu chia c hai v cho Ac c:
A
A
c = f . f + m . m
(9.6)
Ac
Ac
trong Af/Ac v Am/Ac l t l tit din ca pha si v pha nn. V chiu di ca
cc pha ny nh nhau (do si l di v lin tc) nn Af/Ac = Vf v Am/Ac = Vm,
biu thc (9.6) tr thnh

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c = Vf. f + (1 - Vf) m
(9.7) Nh ni trn compozit b ph hy l do ti trng tp trung vo ct,
ng sut tc dng ln ct t n gii hn bn (b)f ca n nn gii hn bn (b)c
ca compozit c tnh theo biu thc
(b)c = Vf.( b)f + (1 - Vf) m
(9.8)
trong m l ng sut trong nn ti thi im ct si b t (c th thy gi tr
tng i vi nhau ca ba ng sut trn hnh 9.9). Nh vy gii hn bn ca
compozit t l bc nht vi th tch ct si Vf c biu din bng ng thng
dc ln trn hnh 9.8.

Hnh 9.8. S ph thuc ca bn


compozit ct si lin tc vo hm lng ct

Nh trn ni, compozit b ph hy do ng sut trn ct si t n gi


tr (b)f ng vi bin dng f khi t ca si, ti ta c
c = f = m = f
bit = / E, ct l vt lu bn nhng gin, hu nh khng c bin
dng do nn b t trong vng n hi (hnh 9.9 v 9.10) nn
( )
f = b f
Ef
( )
Thay m = f = b f vo biu thc m = m. Em ta c
Ef
( )
m = b f .E m = f .E m
(9.9)
Ef
Tng t, ta c biu thc v cng vng hay mun n hi ca
compozit Ec khi bit mun n hi Ef ca si l
d
(9.10)
E c = Vf .E f + (1 Vf ) m
d m
trong dm / dm l dc ca ng cong trn biu ko ca nn ti gi tr
ng sut m tc dng ln nn; ring khi gi tr ca ng sut ny trong vng n
hi, t s dm / dm chnh l Em - mun n hi ca nn. Vy trong vng thun
ty n hi ca nn biu thc (9.10) trn c dng
(9.11)
E c = Vf .E f + Vm .E m

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Biu thc ny chnh l biu thc (9.1), chnh l gii hn trn ca mun n
hi ca cc compozit ht mn.
Nh vy trong compozit ct si lin tc (thng hng) lc tc dng trn nn
v ct si nh sau:
V
Ff = A f .( b )f = f .E f . c
Vc
V
Fm = A m . m = m .E m . c
Vc
Ff
V .E
= f f
(9.12)
nn
Fm Vm .E m
b. Khi ko ngang
Khi compozit b ko ngang tc theo phng vung gc vi trc si th ng
sut tc dng ln cc pha l nh nhau v bng ng sut tc dng ln compozit
c = f = m =
nn bin dng ca ton th thanh compozit bng tng bin dng ca cc pha
c = f. Vf + m. Vm

v = nn
E

=
.Vf +
.Vm
Ec Ef
Em
Chia c hai v cho , c
V
V
1
= f + m
Ec Ef Em
hay
Ec =

E m .E f
E m .E f
=
Vm .E f + Vf .E m (1 Vf ).E f + Vf .E m

(9.13)

biu thc ny ging (9.2), l gii hn di ca mun n hi ca


compozit ht th.
c. nh hng ca hm lng si
Trong thc t nu t l th tch Vf (hay cn gi l hm lng) ca si qu
nh, si khng c tc dng gia cng cho compozit. i vi compozit thng
thng vi nn do hn ct bao gi cng tn ti mt gi tr Vfmin m ng vi cc
gi tr Vf < Vfmin s ph hy cc si ct cha dn ti s ph hy tc khc compozit.
Khi ct qu t nh vy, ton b ti s tc dng ln nn v lm mu bin dng. Qu
trnh bin dng ng thi ca ct si v nn xy ra cho tn n khi gin di ca
mu bng gin di khi ph hy f ca si. Lc ny nu lc vn tip tc tc dng
th ton b s ct si t i s b t ht. Ngay c n lc ny mu vn tip tc bin

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dng v s ph hy cui cng xy ra khi bin dng mu t n gin di khi


ph hy m ca nn. Nh vy gii hn bn ca compozit ng vi Vf < Vfmin bng
gii hn bn ko (b)m ca nn nhn vi t l th tch Vm ca n chim, tc l
(b)c = Vm. (b)m = (1 - Vf) (b)m
(9.14)
biu thc ny c biu din bng ng thng dc xung trn hnh 9.8.
Xc nh gi tr va Vfmin ng vi giao im ca hai ng thng biu din
bng cc biu thc (9.8) v (9.14), nn ta c
Vf. (b)f + (1 - Vf). m = (1 - Vf) (b)m
gi tr Vf tm c chnh Vfmin, sau khi bin i ta c
Vfmin =

( b )m m
( b )f + ( b )m m

Hnh 9.9. ng cong bin dng

Hnh 9.10. ng cong bin dng

ko ca compozit ct si lin tc nn
do vi Vf > Vf*.

ko ca compozit ct si lin tc nn
gin vi Vf > Vf*.

Nu hiu s (b)m - m qu nh so vi (b)f (trng hp nn l polyme c


bn thp) th
Vfmin =

( b )m m
( b )f

Song ngay c vi hm lng ct c gi tr Vfmin nh vy gii hn bn ca


compozit vn thp hn gii hn bn ca pha thp nht l pha nn. Tc dng gia
cng ca ct ch thc s bt u khi Vf Vf* v lc gii hn bn ca compozit
mi cao hn gii hn bn ca nn. C th d dng tnh c gi tr Vf*
khi (b)c = (b)m nn
Vf. (b)f + (1 - Vf). m = (b)m
gi tr Vf tm c chnh l Vf*, sau khi bin i ta c
( ) m
Vf* = b m
( b )f m

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Trn hnh 9.8 ng gy khc c t m chnh l ng biu din s


ph thuc ca gii hn bn ca compozit vo hm lng th tch ct si lin tc
thng hng nn do. Nh vy compozit ct si lin tc phi tha mn hai iu
kin: si di l > 15lc v lng si phi ln Vf > Vf*.
S ph thuc vo hm lng th tch si ca gii hn bn ko ca compozit
ct si lin tc khi nn l vt liu do c trnh by hnh 9.9; cn khi nn l vt
liu gin (ch b bin dng n hi) c trnh by hnh 9.10.

9.3.3. Compozit ct si gin on thng hng


S cu trc ca compozit ct si gin on thng hng c trnh by
hnh 9.6b. Tt nhin l do chiu di si ngn (l < 15lc) hiu qu gia cng ca si
compozit khng th cao nh loi ct si lin tc thng hng. Vi loi si ngn nh
vy mun n hi v gii hn bn ch tng ng bng khong 90 v 50% so vi
loi ct si lin tc (di). Tuy nhin loi compozit gin on thng hng ny cng
ngy cng c v tr quan trng hn trn th trng. C tnh ca loi ny, ngoi hm
lng th tch ca si ra cn ph thuc vo chiu di hay yu t hnh hc ca si S
= l / d, c tnh ton ring r cho hai trng hp sau.
- Khi l > lc (nhng nh hn 15lc), gii hn bn ko (b)c theo phng dc
si ca compozit c tnh bng biu thc
( b )c = ( b )f .Vf 1 l c + m (1 Vf )
2l
- Khi l < lc
( b )c = 1 c .Vf + m (1 Vm )
d
trong :
m - ng sut tc dng vo nn khi compozit b ph hng,
c - gii hn chy ct ca nn,
l, d - chiu di, ng knh si.

9.3.4. Compozit ct si gin on hn n


Bng 9.1. Gi tr ca thng s k ng vi nh hng
khc nhau gia si v ng sut

nh hng si
Tt c cc si song song

Phng ng sut

dc theo trc si

ngang vi trc si

Phn b si ngu nhin, ng nht theo phng bt k trong mt


trong mt
cha si

3
8

Phn b si ngu nhin, ng nht theo phng bt k


theo ba chiu khng gian

1
8

341

S cu trc ca compozit ct si gin on hn n c trnh by


hnh 9.6c. Lc ny biu thc ca quy tc kt hp i vi mun n hi c biu
th nh sau
Ec = k. Ef. Vf + Em. Vm
trong k - thng s biu th hiu qu ha bn m ln ph thuc vo hm
lng th tch Vf ca si v t l Ef/Em, k dao ng trong khong 0,1 0,6. Bng
9.1 trnh by gi tr ca thng s k ca compozit si gin on cho cc trng hp
nh hng khc nhau gia si v ng sut.

9.3.5. Kch thc v vt liu lm ct si


a. Kch thc si
Bng 9.2.
Vt liu

Tnh cht ca mt s loi ct si

Khi lng
ring, g/cm3

Gii hn bn,
MPa

Mun n
hi, GPa

Nhit
lm vic,
max, 0C

Ru n tinh th
Grafit

2,20

20000

690

2500

SiC

3,20

20000

480

1600

Si3Ni4

3,20

14000

380

Al2O3

3,90

14000-18000

415-550

Si
Kelva 49

1,40

3500

124

200

Kelva 29

1,40

3700

60

200

Thy tinh E

2,54

3500

72

550

Thy tinh R

2,50

4400

80

650

Thy tinh S

2,48

4800

84

650

Cacbon

1,80

1500-5500

150-500

2000-2500

Al2O3

3,20

2100

170

800

SiC

3,00

3900

425

900

B (bo)

2,65

3700

300-420

500-700

Dy (kim loi)
Thp cacbon cao

7,80

4100

210

Mo

10,2

1400

360

19,3

4300

400

342

Trc khi ni v vn ny cn nhn mnh rng bn ca si ct khng


nhng ch ph thuc vo bn cht ca vt liu lm si m cn ph thuc rt mnh
vo kch thc hnh hc m c th l ng knh ca n. Vi cng vt liu, do xc
sut c mt cc khuyt tt (v d cc vt nt nh) trn b mt si nh s thp hn
si to, v vy si cng nh c bn cng cao. y l c im rt quan trng
cc nh cng ngh quan tm trc ht khi la chn si ct. Da vo ng knh v
c tnh ngi ta phn ct si thnh ba loi: ru, si v dy nh.
Ru (ru n tinh th)
Ru (whiskers) l sn phm c ng knh rt nh (c 1 2m), t l
chiu di trn ng knh rt ln (khong trn nghn ln), nhn c bng k thut
nui n tinh th. Do kch thc nh, cc n tinh th (ru) ny c mc hon
thin tinh th rt cao (hu nh ch c mt lch xon) v khng c nt, rng nn c
bn rt cao (gn bng bn l thuyt). Tuy nhin ru vn cha c dng
rng ri v qu t v rt kh gn kt vo nn. Vt liu ch to ru c th l
grafit, SiC, Si3N, Al2O3.. (bng 9.2)
Si
Si c sn xut bng cng ngh ko, chut. Chng c th l a tinh th
hoc v nh hnh vi ng knh tng i nh (khong vi chc n vi trm
m) v t l chiu di/ng knh rt khc nhau. Vt liu ch to ct si c th l
polyme nh polyamit, l ceramic nh thy tinh, xyt nhm, cacbit silic hoc bo,
cacbon (bng 9.2).
Dy
Dy l loi c ng knh nh, thng l bng kim loi: thp cacbon cao,
vonfram, mlipen, berili, titan. Loi ct ny c dng gia bn lp t, khung
tn la, ng dn cao p...
b. Vt liu lm si
Trong loi kch thc k trn loi c dng ph bin nht l si, nn y
ch kho st loi ny, khng cp n dng nh hn (ru) v ln hn (dy). C
cc nhm vt liu lm si cho compozit l thy tinh, cacbon, polyme, bo v
ceramic.
Thy tinh
Thnh phn ha hc ca thy tinh c nghin cu chng 7 (mc
7.3.2 v 7.3.3), chng gm cc xyt SiO2, Al2O3, BO3. CaO, MgO... S d si thy
tinh c s dng rng ri lm ct v d ch to n t trng thi mm lng v c
bn cao. Trong qu trnh ko, b mt si b c st vi b mt cng khc nh
lm mt i cc vt nt v nh l c bc bi lp o mi, bm dnh tt vi nn.
Cacbon
Cu trc c bn ca si cacbon c trnh by hnh 1.12c. Chnh nh
s nh hng ch yu ca cc mt y lc gic (ch vi lin kt ng ha tr)
song song vi trc si nn c bn rt cao. Trong qu trnh ch to si cacbon
( c trnh by mc 7.5.1), s grafit ha c th xy ra khng hon ton nn
vn cn cc vng v nh hnh (ch trong ru grafit mi t mc tinh th hon
ton) nn bn c th thay i trong gii hn (bng 9.2) ty thuc vo t k ny.

343

Nu nh si thy tinh ch s dng c ti 500 700oC th si cacbon ti trn


2000oC.
Polyme
Ni chung cc polyme c mun n hi nh. Hin ch dng loi polyamit thm
c cng thc tng qut nh sau
O

[ N

C ]n

dng thng phm vt liu ny c hai loi kelva 49 v kelva 29. Nhc
im ca cht ny l nhit lm vic thp (< 200oC).
B, SiC, Al2O3
Bn cht v cch ch to cc si ny c trnh by mc 7.5.2.

9.3.6. Vt liu lm nn
Vt liu lm nn cho compozit ct si thng l polyme v kim loi v
chng c tnh do tt. Kim loi dng lm pha nn thng l nhm v ng. Tuy
nhin polyme l pha nn c dng ph bin hn vi chng loi c nhit rn
ln nhit do: polyeste, nylon, epoxy, nha fenol, polyamit, melamin. Hin cn t
dng nn l ceramic tr btng ct thp l loi ph bin nht hin nay.

9.3.7. Cc loi compozit ct si ph bin


a. Compozit polyme - si thy tinh
L loi c sn xut vi khi lng nhiu nht v chng kh r, nh, c
bn ring cao v s gn kt tt gia hai pha nn - ct, vi c hai loi ct si lin
tc cng nh gin on. Loi ph bin nht l polyeste - si thy tinh, tip n l
nylon - si thy tinh. Tuy nhin loi ny c nhc im l khng cng
vng trong mt s trng hp yu cu (nh khi lm kt cu ca my bay, cu...),
nhit lm vic thp, di 200oC (trn polyme b chy v hy hoi).
Hin compozit polyme - si thy tinh c dng ngy cng nhiu trong
cc phng tin vn ti c bit l v (thn) xe hi, tu bin, ng dn, container
cha hng, tm lt sn cng nghip. c bit trong cng nghip t n c sc
cnh tranh cao nh gim c khi lng v do l tiu hao nhin liu.
b. Compozit polyme - si khc
Compozit polyme - si cacbon c mun n hi ring cao hn, tnh chu
nhit v bn ha hc cao hn nhng t hn v ch c loi si gin on. Loi
compozit ny c sc cnh tranh ln trong my bay do gim nh c khi lng
(gim 20 30% so vi dng kim loi).
Compozit epoxy - si bo c dng trong my bay ln thng (lm cnh
rto), cn loi polyme - si aramit bt u c dng trong hng khng, tu bin
v dng th thao.
c. Compozit kim loi - si
Trong loi ny nn kim loi c th l: nhm, ng (ph bin nht), magi,
titan vi ct si: cacbon, bo, cacbit silic, dy kim loi. T l th tch si khong 20

344

50%. Mt trong cc compozit c trin vng nht l loi nn nhm - si bo c


ph cacbit silic lm chm phn ng khng mong mun gia nhm v bo.
Compozit nn kim loi c nhit lm vic cao hn nn polyme. Chu nhit
cao hn c l loi nn hp kim trn c s Ni hoc Co vi ct si l dy vonfram
dng trong tuabin.
d. Compozit cacbon - cacbon
Trong loi ny tt c u bng cacbon: ct l si cacbon cn nn bao
quanh l cc ht (tinh th) cacbon nhit phn c phn ha v to thnh trng
thi nng trn si cacbon. Nn cacbon c to thnh cng trn nguyn l nh
dng ch to si cacbon: cacbon ha mt cht hu c nhit cao (trong cht
lng p sut trung bnh v cao, cn trong cht kh p sut nh hn p sut kh
quyn), trong cc iu kin nh th cc tinh th grafit s hnh thnh v pht trin.
e. Compozit ct si pha
y l loi compozit trong ngi ta dng hai (hay nhiu hn) loi si
trong cng mt nn, c s kt hp cc tnh cht tt hn loi ch c mt loi ct si.
Trong loi ny hin nay ph bin hn c l dng hai loi ct si cacbon v thy
tinh trong nn polyme (trong si cacbon bn, cng vng, nh hn song t hn
si thy tinh). Khi compozit si pha b ng sut ko, s ph hy xy ra khng tc
thi: si cacbon b t trc sau ti trng c truyn sang si thy tinh, ri
cui cng compozit b ph hy hon ton khi nn b hng do ti trng tc dng
vo.

9.4. Compozit cu trc


Compozit cu trc l loi bn thnh phm dng tm nhiu ( 3) lp c
to thnh bng cch kt hp cc vt liu ng nht vi compozit theo nhng
phng n cu trc khc nhau. Do tnh cht khng nhng ph thuc vo tnh
cht cc vt liu thnh phn m cn c vo thit k hnh hc ca chng trong kt
cu. Thng dng hai loi: dng lp v panel sandwich.

9.4.1. Compozit cu trc dng lp

Hnh 9.11. S to compozit


cu trc dng lp

345

C th d dng hnh dung dng compozit ny qua g dn, ct p. Chng


gm bi cc lp (tm) c bn d hng cao (nh g, compozit ct si lin tc
thng hng), c sp xp sao cho cc phng bn cao nht ca cc lp, tm k
nhau c i hng lin tc (trn hnh 9.11 l tm gm nm lp vung gc vi
nhau) v c p kt dnh vi nhau. Nh loi ny c bn cao theo cc
phng song song vi mt tm, nhng rt km theo phng vung gc vi tm.

9.4.2. Panel sandwich

Hnh 9.12. S ca panel sandwich


Loi ny gm ba lp (hnh 9.12) trong hai lp mt c ch to t vt
liu c bn hay cng vng cao (nh hp kim nhm, titan, thp v compozit
dng lp) c chc nng chu ton b ti trng tc dng theo cc phng song song
vi mt tm. Lp gia (li) c hai chc nng: ngn cch hai lp trn, chng bin
dng theo phng vung gc v to cng vng trnh cong vnh. Vt liu lm
li c th l polyme xp, caosu nhn to, cht dnh v c, g nh hoc c cu trc
t ong, trong vch mng lin kt nh hng cc lc gic vung gc vi mt
nh biu din hnh v (vch ny thng c lm bng cng vt liu nh hai lp
mt). Cu trc ny hao hao ging sandwich - bnh m kp (tht, dmbng...), khc
vi loi trn gia khng phi l tm song song.

346

Ti liu tham kho

1. L cng Dng (ch bin). Vt liu hc. Nh xb KH&KT, 1997


2. Nghim Hng. Kim loi hc v nhit luyn. Nh xb i hc & THCN, 1979
3. Nghim Hng. Sch tra cu thp, gang thng dng. Trng i hc Bch Khoa H
Ni, 1997
4. Nghim Hng. Nhit luyn ph tng t - my ko. Nh xb KH&KT, 1985
5. William D. Callister, Jr. Materials Science and Engineering An Introduction. John
Wiley & Sons, Inc (second edition)
6. William F Smith. Materials Science and Engineering (second edition)
7. Jean-Marie Dorlot, Jean-Paul Bailon, Jaques Masounave. Des Matiaux (deuxime
dition revue et augmente). dition de L'cole Polytechnique de Montral
8. Wilfried Kurz, Jean P. Mercier, Grald Zambelli. Introduction la science des
matriaux (deuxime dition revue et augmente). Presses Polytechniques et
universitaires romandes
9.
. 1980

10. S M ng (i Hc Cng Nghip Thng Hi) ch bin. Vt Liu Kim Loi v


Nhit Luyn. Nh xut bn KH-KT Thng Hi (in ln th 20 nm 1996) (bn ting
Trung Quc)
11. Hc Vin Cng Nghip i Lin. Kim Loi Hc v Nhit Luyn. Nh xut bn
Khoa Hc, 1975 (bn ting Trung Quc)

347

Mc lc
Bng k cc k hiu vit tt c dng trong sch
Li ni u
M u
0.1. Khi nim v vt liu
0.2. Vai tr ca vt liu
0.3. i tng ca Vt Liu Hc cho ngnh C kh
0.4. Cc tiu chun vt liu
Phn I.

cu trc v c tnh

3
3
4
5
6
8

Cu trc tinh th v s hnh thnh


Chng 1.
1.1. Cu to v lin kt nguyn t
1.1.1. Khi nim c bn v cu to nguyn t
1.1.2. Cc dng lin kt nguyn t trong cht rn
1.2. Sp xp nguyn t trong vt cht
1.2.1. Cht kh
1.2.2. Cht rn tinh th
1.2.3. Cht lng, cht rn v nh hnh v vi tinh th
1.3. Khi nim v mng tinh th
1.3.1. Tnh i xng
1.3.2. c s- k hiu phng, mt
1.3.3. Mt nguyn t
1.4. Cu trc tinh th in hnh ca cht rn
1.4.1. Cht rn c lin kt kim loi (kim loi nguyn cht)
1.4.2. Cht rn c lin kt ng ha tr
1.4.3. Cht rn c lin kt ion
1.4.4. Cu trc ca polyme
1.4.5. Dng th hnh
1.5. Sai lch mng tinh th
1.5.1. Sai lch im
1.5.2. Sai lch ng - Lch
1.5.3. Sai lch mt
1.6. n tinh th v a tinh th
1.6.1. n tinh th
1.6.2. a tinh th
1.6.3. Textua
1.7. S kt tinh v hnh thnh t chc ca kim loi
1.7.1. iu kin xy ra kt tinh
1.7.2. Hai qu trnh ca s kt tinh
1.7.3. S hnh thnh ht
1.7.4. Cc phng php to ht nh khi c
1.7.5. Cu to tinh th ca thi c

8
8
8
8
11
12
12
12
14
14
14
18
18
19
22
24
25
25
26
26
27
29
29
29
29
31
32
32
33
35
36
38

Bin dng do v C tnh


Chng 2.
2.1. Bin dng do v ph hy
2.1.1. Khi nim
2.1.2. Trt n tinh th
2.1.3. Trt a tinh th
2.1.4. Ph hy
2.2. Cc c trng c tnh thng thng v ngha
2.2.1. bn (tnh)
2.2.2. do
2.2.3. dai va p
2.2.4. dai ph hy bin dng phng
2.2.5. cng

31
31
31
42
46
49
54
52
55
58
61
63

348
2.3. Nung kim loi qua bin dng do - Thi bn - Bin dng nng
2.3.1. Trng thi kim loi qua bin dng do
2.3.2. Cc giai on chuyn bin khi nung nng
2.3.3. Bin dng nng
Phn II. Hp kim v bin i t chc

66
66
67
68
71

Hp kim v Gin d pha


Chng 3
3.1. Cu trc tinh th ca hp kim
3.1.1. Khi nim v hp kim
3.1.2. Dung dch rn
3.1.3. Pha trung gian
3.2. Gin pha ca h hai cu t
3.2.1. Quy tc pha v ng dng
3.2.2. Gin pha v cng dng
3.2.3. Gin loi I
3.2.4. Gin loi II
3.2.5. Gin loi III
3.2.6. Gin loi IV
3.2.7. Cc gin pha vi cc phn ng khc
3.2.8. Quan h gia dng gin pha v tnh cht ca hp kim
3.3. Gin pha Fe - C (Fe - Fe3C)
3.3.1. Tng tc gia Fe v C
3.3.2. Gin pha Fe -Fe3C v cc t chc
3.3.3. Phn loi

71
71
71
74
77
79
79
80
82
84
86
88
88
89
92
92
93
98

Nhit luyn thp


Chng 4
4.1. Khi nim v nhit luyn thp
4.1.1. S lc v nhit luyn
4.1.2. Tc dng ca nhit luyn i vi sn xut c kh
4.2. Cc t chc t c khi nung nng v lm ngui thp
4.2.1. Cc chuyn bin xy ra khi nung nng thp - S to thnh austenit
4.2.2. Cc chuyn bin xy ra khi gi nhit
4.2.3. Cc chuyn bin ca austenit khi lm ngui chm
4.2.4. Chuyn bin ca austenit khi lm ngui nhanh - Chuyn bin mactenxit
4.2.5. Chuyn bin khi nung nng thp ti
4.3. v thng ha thp
4.3.1. thp
4.3.2. Thng ha thp
4.4. Ti thp
4.4.1. nh ngha v mc ch
4.4.2. Chn nhit ti thp
4.4.3. Tc ti ti hn v thm ti
4.4.4. Cc phng php ti th tch v cng dng. Cc mi trng ti
4.4.5. C - nhit luyn thp
4.5. Ram thp
4.5.1. Mc ch v nh ngha
4.5.2. Cc phng php ram
4.6. Cc khuyt tt xy ra khi nhit luyn thp
4.6.1. Bin dng v nt
4.6.2. xy ha v thot cacbon
4.6.3. cng khng t
4.6.4. Tnh gin cao
4.6.5. nh hng ca nhit v tm quan trng ca kim nhit
4.7. Ha bn b mt
4.7.1. Ti b mt nh nung nng bng cm ng in (ti cm ng)
4.7.2. Ha nhit luyn

102
102
102
104
105
105
109
110
115
119
121
121
124
125
125
126
128
131
135
136
136
137
139
139
140
140
141
141
141
142
144

349
Phn III. Vt liu kim loi
Thp v gang
Chng 5
5.1. Khi nim v thp cacbon v thp hp kim
5.1.1. Thp cacbon
5.1.2. Thp hp kim
5.2. Thp xy dng
5.2.1. c im chung - phn loi
5.2.2. Thp thng dng
5.2.3. Thp hp kim thp bn cao HSLA
5.2.4. Thp lm ct btng
5.2.5. Cc thp khc
5.3. Thp ch to my
5.3.1. Cc yu cu chung
5.3.2. Thp thm cacbon
5.3.3. Thp ha tt
5.3.4. Cc chi tit my in hnh bng thp
5.3.5. Thp n hi
5.3.6. Cc thp kt cu c cng dng ring
5.4. Thp dng c
5.4.1. Cc yu cu chung
5.4.2. Thp lm dng c ct
5.4.3. Thp lm dng c o
5.4.4. Thp lm dng c bin dng ngui
5.4.5. Thp lm dng c bin dng nng
5.5. Thp hp kim c bit
5.5.1. c im chung v phn loi
5.5.2. Thp khng g
5.5.3. Thp bn nng
5.5.4. Thp c tnh chng mi mn c bit cao di ti trng va p
5.5.5. Thp v hp kim st c t tnh
5.6. Gang
5.6.1. c im chung ca cc loi gang ch to my
5.6.2. Gang xm
5.6.3. Gang cu
5.6.4. Gang do
Hp kim mu v bt
Chng 6.
6.1. Hp kim nhm
6.1.1. Nhm nguyn cht v phn loi hp kim nhm
6.1.2. Hp kim nhm bin dng khng ha bn c bng nhit luyn
6.1.3. Hp kim nhm bin dng ha bn c bng nhit luyn
6.1.4. Hp kim nhm c
6.2. Hp kim ng
6.2.1. ng nguyn cht v phn loi hp kim ng
6.2.2. Latng
6.2.3. Brng
6.2.4. Hp kim Cu - Ni v Cu - Zn - Ni.
6.3. Hp kim trt
6.3.1. Yu cu i vi hp kim lm trt
6.3.2. Hp kim trt c nhit chy thp
6.3.3. Hp kim nhm
6.3.4. Cc hp kim khc
6.4. Hp kim titan
6.4.1. Titan nguyn cht
6.4.2. Hp kim titan
6.5. Hp kim bt

152
152
152
152
160
172
172
173
176
178
178
178
179
182
187
192
194
197
197
199
205
207
210
213
213
213
219
221
222
222
225
227
229
230
230
230
233
234
238
240
240
241
243
245
246
246
246
247
248

248

350
6.5.1. Khi nim chung
6.5.2. Vt liu ct v mi
6.5.3. Vt liu kt cu
6.5.4. Hp kim xp v thm

248
249
252
253

Phn IV.

Vt liu phi kim loi

255

Ceramic
Chng 7
7.1. Khi nim chung
7.1.1. Bn cht v phn loi
7.1.2. Lin kt nguyn t
7.1.3. Trng thi tinh th
7.1.4. Trng thi v nh hnh
7.1.5. C tnh
7.2. Gm v vt liu chu la
7.2.1. Bn cht v phn loi
7.2.2. Gm silicat
7.2.3. Gm xyt
7.3. Thy tinh v gm thy tinh
7.3.1. Bn cht v phn loi
7.3.2. Thy tinh thng dng
7.3.3. Cc thy tinh khc
7.3.4. Gm thy tinh
7.4. Ximng v btng
7.4.1. Bn cht
7.4.2. Ximng
7.4.3. Btng
7.4.4. Btng ct thp
7.5. Vt liu ct si cho compozit
7.5.1. Vt liu cacbon v si cacbon
7.5.2. Si bo v cc si khc
7.5.3. Ru n tinh th

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Vt liu polyme
Chng 8
8.1. Cu trc phn t polyme
8.1.1. Phn t hyrcacbon
8.1.2. Phn t polyme
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8.1.3. Cu trc mch ca polyme
8.1.4. Cu trc tinh th ca polyme
8.2. Tnh cht c - l - nhit ca polyme
8.2.1. Quan h ng sut - bin dng
8.2.2. C ch bin dng
8.2.3. Nng chy v thy tinh ha
8.2.4. Trng thi n hi - nht
8.2.5. Ph hy
8.2.6. Ha gi
8.3. ng dng v gia cng polyme
8.3.1. Phn loi
8.3.2. Cc phng php tng hp polyme
8.3.3. Phi liu ca polyme
8.3.4. Cc loi vt liu polyme v ng dng

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Compozit
Chng 9
9.1. Khi nim v compozit
9.1.1. Quy lut kt hp
9.1.2. c im v phn loi
9.1.3. Lin kt nn - ct
9.2. Compozit ht

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9.2.1. Compozit ht th
9.2.2. Compozit ht mn
9.3. Compozit ct si
9.3.1. nh hng ca yu t hnh hc si
9.3.2. Compozit ct si lin tc thng hng
9.3.3. Compozit ct si gin on thng hng
9.3.4. Compozit ct si gin on hn n
9.3.5. Kch thc v vt liu lm ct si
9.3.6. Vt liu lm nn
9.3.7. Cc compozit ct si ph bin
9.4. Compozit cu trc
9.4.1. Compozit cu trc dng lp
9.4.2. Panel sandwich

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Ti liu tham kho

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Nghim Hng

Vt liu hc
c s
gi o tr nh cho c c ng nh c kh c a c c tr ng i h c

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