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Recite with the name of your Lord Who created

[Al-Quran, Chapter 96, verse No.1]

It was narrated that Anas bin Malik RadiyAllahu Anhu said:
"Seeking knowledge is a duty upon every Muslim."
[Sunan Ibn Majah : Vol. 1 : Book 1 : Hadith 224]



Education plays a vital role in the development and progress of a nation, proper education is the
only viable mechanism to strengthen and stabilize the roots of a country. The educational system
defines the rate of growth and progress of a nation and that is why it is the most emphasized and
highlighted feature of Islamic preachings and all rapidly growing countries. People assigned the
duties regarding educational system have important responsibility on their shoulders.
But unfortunately the state of education in Pakistan is very poor. Since the inception of Pakistan,
more than half a century ago, the Government of Pakistan has been trying to improve its
educational system. According to Economic Survey 2000-2001 Government of Pakistan and
UNICEF, the present adult literacy rate in Pakistan is 58% (male 61.3%; female 36.8%); gross
primary school enrolment ratio for male and female is 84% and 62% respectively; and gross
secondary school enrolment ratio for male and female is 29% and 19% respectively. Statistically
speaking an alarmingly low number of students complete their primary education and even fewer
get to college level education.


Importance of Education

The foundation of every state is the education of its youth. Diogenes Laertius
Studies confirm that the productivity benefits of education are large, just one additional year of
education can increase productivity in wage employment by 10 percent even after controlling for
other factors. Skill development through education has been identified as a key determinant of
comparative advantage and manufacturing export performance. In Pakistan, it has been shown
that districts with a higher literacy level have a higher level of development (SPDC 2003).
Educated Human resource is the major element for the speedy growth of an economy.


Problem Definition

Education is considered as the cheapest defense of a nation. But the down trodden condition of
education in Pakistan bears a generous view of the fact that it is unable to defend its own sector.
Though 62 years have been passed and 23 policies and action plans have been introduced yet the
educational sector is waiting for an arrival of a savior. The government of Pervaiz Musharraf
invested heavily in education sector and that era saw a visible positive educational change in
Pakistani society. In April 2010, the eighteenth constitutional amendment committed Pakistan to
free and compulsory education for all children between the ages of five and sixteen. The
Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan says,

Yet, millions are still out of school, and the education system remains terrifyingly poor . Now a
day, the economic situation in Pakistan is under stress and education is the worse effected sector
in Pakistan. In Human development Report Pakistan is placed at 136th position for having just
58% educated population.[2] The primary completion rate in Pakistan, given by Data Center
of UNESCO, is 33.8% in females and 47.18% in males, which shows that people in the 6th
largest country of the world are unable to get the basic education. Hence, Poor educational policy
formulation and lack of implementation is the basic problem of our education system.


Problem of Education sector

Problems: The issues lead to the comprehension of the problems which are faced in the
development of education system and promotion of literacy. The study outlines seven major
problems such as:

Lack of Proper Planning: In Pakistan the task of policy making and planning in all

spheres of development including education is mostly carried out by the Planning Commission
(PC), which has been responsible for developing five-year development plans since its inception
in the 1950s. Since the first five year plan 1955-60 the PC has produced eight five year
development plans so far. It is interesting to note that besides each five year plan there have been
parallel education policies particularly focusing on educational improvement. [3] These policies

have mainly been prepared by the Ministry of Education (MoE). Since then subsequent
governments have introduced education policies during their tenures viz. the New Education
Policy, 1979; the Education Policy 1972-80; the National Education Policy and Implementation
Programme, 1979; the National Education Policy, 1992; and the National Education Policy: Iqra,
1998-2010.[4] Recently there have been some policies that have complemented the existing
education policy, namely: the Education Sector Reforms: Action Plan 2001-2004; the National
Plan of Action on Education for All, 2001-2015; and the Report of the Task Force on Higher
Education in Pakistan: Challenges and Opportunities (see Pakistan. Ministry of Education, 1970,
1972, 1979, 1992, 1998, 2002a, 2003). However Pakistan is a signatory to MDGs and EFA goals
but it seems that it will not be able to achieve these international commitments because of
financial management issues and constraints to achieve the MDGs and EFA goals. Due to which
most of the policies, plans and programmes so far have failed, to varying degrees, to fully
achieve their desired objectives. It has been observed that most policies and plans are inefficient
in learning from past experiences. As a result they often devise ambitious targets which
ultimately fall short of their desired outcomes (Ahsan, 2003; The World Bank, 1999).

Funds for Education: Pakistan spends 2.4% GDP on education. At national level, 89%

education expenditure comprises of current expenses such as teachers salaries, while only 11%
comprises of development expenditure which is not sufficient to raise quality of education.

Social constraints: It is important to realize that the problems which hinder the provision

of education are not just due to issues of management by government but some of them are
deeply rooted in the social and cultural orientation of the people. Overcoming the latter is
difficult and would require a change in attitude of the people, until then universal primary
education is difficult to achieve.

Cost of Education: The economic cost is higher in private schools, but these are located

in richer settlements only. The paradox is that private schools are better but not everywhere and
government schools ensure equitable access but do not provide quality education.


War on Terror: Pakistans engagement in war against terrorism also affected the

promotion of literacy campaign. The militants targeted schools and students; several educational
institutions were destroyed, teachers and students were killed in Balochistan, KPK and FATA.
December 16, attack on APS Peshawar has demoralized the students. This may have to
contribute not as much as other factors, but this remains an important factor.

Gender Gap: Major factors that hinder enrolment rates of girls include poverty, cultural

constraints, illiteracy of parents and parental concerns about safety and mobility of their
daughters. Societys emphasis on girls modesty, protection and early marriages may limit
familys willingness to send them to school. Enrolment of rural girls is 45% lower than that of
urban girls; while for boys the difference is 10% only, showing that gender gap is an important

Technical Education: Sufficient attention has not been paid to the technical and

vocational education in Pakistan. The number of technical and vocational training institutes is
not sufficient and many are deprived of infrastructure, teachers and tools for training. The
population of a state is one of the main elements of its national power. It can become an asset
once it is skilled. Unskilled population means more jobless people in the country, which affects
the national development negatively. Therefore, technical education needs priority handling by
the government.
Poverty, law and order situation, natural disasters, budgetary constraints, lack of access, poor
quality, equity, and governance have also contributed in less enrolments.