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PROCESS CONTROL LABORATORY MANUAL

VII Semester (10ITL78)

Name of the Student :


Semester /Section

USN

Batch

DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


Accredited by National Assessment & Accreditation Council (NAAC) with A Grade

ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


SHAVIGE MALLESWARA HILLS ,KUMARASWAMY LAYOUT
BENGALURU-560078

Process Control: [2016]


(Backside of cover page)

Vision of the Institute


To impart quality technical education with a focus on
Research
and
Innovation
emphasising
on
Development of Sustainable and Inclusive Technology
for the benefit of society.

Mission of the Institute

To provide an environment that enhances


creativity and Innovation in pursuit of Excellence.
To nurture teamwork in order to transform
individuals
as
responsible
leaders
and
entrepreneurs.
To train the students to the changing technical
scenario and make them to understand the
importance of Sustainable and Inclusive
technologies.

EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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Process Control: [2016]

PROCESS CONTROL LABORATORY MANUAL


VII Semester (10ITL78)

Name of the Student :


Semester /Section

USN

Batch

DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


ELECTRONICS AND INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
SHAVIGE MALLESWARA HILLS
KUMARASWAMY LAYOUT
EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru
Page 3
BENGALURU-560078

Process Control: [2016]


DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
(AnAutonomousInstitutionaffiliatedtoVisvesvarayaTechnologicalUniversity,Belagavi)

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING ,BENGALURU560078

VISION OF THE DEPARTMENT


Imparting Sustainable and Inclusive technology based education in the field
of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering by providing learning
ambience for academics & research leading to global competence and growth
of society

MISSION OF THE DEPARTMENT


To impart quality education with thorough understanding of basic concepts
Prepare the Students to meet the demands
Instrumentation Industry & research activities.

of

Electronics

and

To nurture the students to apply the knowledge of Electronics and


Instrumentation Engineers to transform individual as responsible leader and
entrepreneur.

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES [PEOs]


PEO-1: Graduates will have successful professional carrier in Electronics and
Instrumentation Engineering
PEO-2: Graduates will be able to exhibit a fulfilling profession which may
include
employment
in
industry,
academia,
technology
based
entrepreneurship and higher studies.
PEO-3: Graduates will be able to exhibit their creative and analytical
reasoning skills to adapt to modern technology, ethically and responsibly, in
service to society.

PROGRAMME SPECIFIC OUTCOMES [PSOs]


1.

PSO-1: Graduates will be able to formulate design, development & analysis of Electronics and

Instrumentation System.
2. PSO-2: Graduates will be able to apply their knowledge & skills to become individual leader and
entrepreneur

DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


(AnAutonomousInstitutionaffiliatedtoVisvesvarayaTechnologicalUniversity,Belagavi)

EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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Process Control: [2016]


DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING, BENGALURU560078
PROCESS CONTROL LABORATORY (SYLLABUS)
VII SEMESTER B. E ( E&IE)
Sub. Code: 10ITL78
Hrs/Week: 03
Total Hrs:42

IA Marks :25
Exam Hrs:03
Exam Marks:50

Course Objectives:
1. The student will able to design the signal conditioning circuit using analog electronic
components to interface sensors (RTD, Thermocouple and Load Cell) with the given
specifications.
2. The student will able to understand PC based control system for the different control modes
(ON-OFF, P, PI and PID) to control Temperature, Level and Flow systems.
3. The student will able to understand PLC based control of
i)

Bottle filling Process Mechanism logic should be solved using Ladder Diagram
Technique.

ii)

Elevator using PLC logic should be solved using Ladder Diagram Technique.

4. The student will able to understand development of instrumentation applications based on


LABVIEW
Software
i)

Creation of CRO using VI simulated Tool

ii)

Creation of simple calculator using VI simulated Tool

iii)

Creation of Temperature indicator using VI simulated Tool

iv)

Interfacing of Thermocouple sensor with USB6009 DAQ card.

Syllabus:
EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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1. Rig up and test the circuit to display the temperature using RTD with suitable signal
conditioning circuit.
2. Rig up and test the circuit to display the temperature using Thermocouple with suitable
signal conditioning circuit
3. Rig up and test the circuit to display the load using load cell with suitable signal
conditioning circuits.
4. Using different controllers obtain the optimum response of the given temperature
controller.
5. Using different controllers obtain the optimum response of the given flow controller.
6. Using different controllers obtain the optimum response of the given level controller.
7. Sequential control experiments using PLC.The logic should be solved using ladder
diagram technique.
8. Bottle filling process using PLC.The logic should be solved using ladder diagram
technique.
9. Study of Elevator using PLC. The logic should be solved using ladder diagram technique.
10. Basic operations, simple programming structure using Lab view.
11. Creation of a CRO using VI and measurement of frequency and amplitude.
12. Creation of digital multi meter using VI and measurement of voltage and current.
13. Design variable function generator using VI (Sine, Square and Triangle)

Course Outcomes:
After completion of this course student will able to develop
1. Design the different signal conditioning circuits for any sensor output required for
industrial applications.
2. Student should able to write control algorithm and maintenance of any physical process
for accurate control the product with given specifications.
3. Student should able to write Ladder Program for any industrial instrumentation
application by using PLC.
4. Student should able to develop instrumentation projects based on LABVIEW tool.

DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


(AnAutonomousInstitutionaffiliatedtoVisvesvarayaTechnologicalUniversity,Belagavi)

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS& INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING


EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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PROCESS CONTROL LABORATORY (10ITL78)
I - CYCLE
1. Rig up and test the circuit to display the temperature using RTD with suitable signal
conditioning circuit.
2. Rig up and test the circuit to display the temperature using Thermocouple with suitable
signal conditioning circuit
3. Rig up and test the circuit to display the load using load cell with suitable signal
conditioning circuits.
4. Using different controllers obtain the optimum response of the given temperature
controller.
II - CYCLE
5. Using different controllers obtain the optimum response of the given flow controller.
6. Using different controllers obtain the optimum response of the given level controller.
7. Sequential control experiments using PLC.The logic should be solved using ladder
diagram technique.
8. Bottle filling process using PLC.The logic should be solved using ladder diagram
technique.
III CYCLE
9. Study of Elevator using PLC. The logic should be solved using ladder diagram technique.
10. Basic operations, simple programming structure using Lab view.
11. Creation of a CRO using VI and measurement of frequency and amplitude.
12. Creation of digital multi meter using VI and measurement of voltage and current.
13. Design variable function generator using VI (Sine, Square and Triangle)

DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING
BENGALURU 560078

DOs
Adhere and follow timings, proper dress code with appropriate foot wear.
Bags, and other personal items must be stored in designated place.

Come prepare with the viva, procedure, and other details of the experiment.
Secure long hair, loose clothing & know safety and emergency procedures.
Do check for the correct ranges/rating and carry one meter/instrument at a time

Inspect all equipment/meters for damage prior to use


Conduct the experiments accurately as directed by the teacher.
Immediately report any sparks/ accidents/ injuries/ any other untoward incident to the
faculty /instructor.
Handle the apparatus/meters/computers gently and with care
In case of an emergency or accident, follow the safety procedure.
Switch OFF the power supply after completion of experiment

DONTs
The use of mobile/ any other personal electronic gadgets is prohibited in the laboratory.
Do not make noise in the Laboratory & do not sit on experiment table.
Do not make loose connections and avoid overlapping of wires
Dont switch on power supply without prior permission from the concerned staff.
Never point/touch the CRO/Monitor screen with the tip of the open pen/pencil/any other
sharp object.
Never leave the experiments while in progress.
Experiment No:________

Do not insert/use pen drive/any other storage devices into the CPU.

Date:____________

Titlethe
of the
Experiment
Do not leave the Laboratory without
signature
of the concerned staff in observation book
EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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Experiment No: __________

Date: ____________

Rig up and test the circuit to display the temperature using RTD with
suitable Signal conditioning circuit for RTD.
Aim:
To design, a signal conditioning circuit for temperature measurement using RTD (Pt-100) and
calibrate for the range (25C to 75C) of given output specifications.

Apparatus/Components required:
Thermocouple sensor, Bread Board, Multimeter, Operational
Potentiometers and 5 Volts and 12 Volts Power Supplies

Amplifiers,

Resistors,

Theory:

RTD

Bridge
ckt

DC amplifier

Output

DC Excitation

Design Procedure
Relation between Temperature and RTD Resistance
-Measurement Temperature
- Reference Temperature
For platinum

Calculating RTD Resistance

EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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At 25o C
At 750 C
Bridge output
For 25 0C =______________
For 75 0C= ______________

Find out Gain for required output.


Gain for the differential amplifier =
= Amplifier output
= Bridge output
Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit without RTD
Rig up the circuit of difference amplifier and provide the supply voltage. Check
the buffers and the final output at difference amplifier. If input given was same,
the output should be zero or a few mV.
2. Connect the bridge circuit, give 5V supply, and check the voltages V1 and V2
in opposite arms. The voltages should be equal to the theoretical values
calculated.
3. Fill the water bath with water, place RTD, and thermometer at same point.
Initially note down the room temperature and output voltage which should ideally
be zero according to the design.
4. Switch on power supply and note down output voltage for every rise of 10 oC up
to high temperature limit.
5. Plot the graphs for voltage Vs temperature, resistance Vs temperature and
voltage Vs resistance. Find the parameters from graph.
6. Find out the sensitivity of RTD

Circuit Diagram:

EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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Nature of graph (if any)


The graph describes the I/O characteristics of RTD. Plot the graphs for temperatureVs Output
voltage, temperature VsRTD resistance and Find out the sensitivity of RTD

Tabular Column:

Sl.
No

Temperature
0
In C

Practical Output
voltage
(Volts)

Theoretical
Output Voltage
(Volts)

Practical RTD
Resistance
(ohms)

Theoretical
RTD Resistance
(ohms)

1
2
3
4
5
6
Results:
EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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Applications:

Remarks :

Probable viva questions:

Signature of Staff In-charge with date:

1. How will find the RTD Resistance?


2. What is the need for Bridge Circuit in this experiment?
3. How will you determine the Gain of the Amplifier?

References:
1) A.K Sawhney, A course in Electrical and Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation,
DhanpatRai& Co. New Delhi, 19th Edition 2013.

Experiment No: __________


EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

Date: ____________
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Rig up and test the circuit to display the temperature using
Thermocouple with suitable signal conditioning circuit
Aim:
To design, a signal conditioning circuit for temperature measurement using given K type
Thermocouple and calibrate for the range (25C to 75C ) of given output specifications.

Apparatus/Components required:
Thermocouple sensor, Bread Board, Multi meters, Operational Amplifiers, Resistors,
Potentiometers and 5Volts and 12 Volts Power Supplies

Theory:

THERMO
COUPLE

Instrumentation amplifier

Output

DC Excitation

Design Procedure
Step1:
Calculate thermocouple output voltage at25o C and 750 C using the following
formula:
e=K (TH -TC ) Where K=40V/ o C

EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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Step2:
Calculate the required gain using instrumentation amplifier formulas for each
stage
Gain= (1+ 2R2/R1) R4/R3
Step3:
Final output voltage; Vout = (R3/R) * 1Volt
PROCEDURE:
1. Potential divider circuit with instrumentation amplifier:
a. The potential divider circuit is designed to get 2.5 mV. This is given to
instrumentation amplifier.
b. The output is verified with theoretical equations. The summing amplifier is
connected to make the 0-10V output to -5V to +5V.
2. Connecting a thermocouple to signal conditioning circuit:
a. The potential divider circuit is replaced by the thermocouple positive and ve leads
b. Water bath is filled with water. Initial room temperature and voltages are noted.
c. The water is then heated with thermocouple and thermometer and take output
voltage using DMM.
d. Plot the graph for output voltage Vs temperature and output voltage of
thermocouple Vs temperature. Find the required parameters from graph.

Circuit Diagram:

EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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Nature of graph (if any)


The graph describes the I/O characteristics of Thermocouple. Plot the graph for Temperature
Vs Amplifier output voltage and temperature Vsoutput voltage of thermocouple Find the
sensitivity form the graph

Tabular Column:
SNo Temperature in 0C

Thermocouple
(mV)

voltage

Outputvoltage
(Volts)

1
2
3
4
5
6

EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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Results:

Applications:

Remarks :

Probable viva questions:

Signature of Staff In-charge with date:

1. What is Seebackeffect ?
2. What is Petlier effect?
3. What is active transducer and Passive transducer ?
4. How will you determine the Gain of the Amplifier?

References:
1) A.K Sawhney, A course in Electrical and Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation,
DhanpatRai& Co. New Delhi, 19th Edition 2013.

EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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Process Control: [2016]


Experiment No: __________

Date: ____________

Rig up and test the circuit to display the load using load cell with
suitable signal conditioning circuits.
Aim:
To design, a signal conditioning circuit for weight measurement using strain gauge based LOAD
CELL (0 to 5Kg) to given output specifications.

Apparatus/Components required:
Load Cell, Bread Board, Multimeters, Operational Amplifiers, Resistors, Potentiometers and
5Volts and 12 Volts Power Supplies

Theory:

LOAD CELL

Bridge
Circuit

DC
amplifier

Output

DC Excitation

Design Procedure
No load voltage:
Full load voltage:
Difference amplifier gain:
Inverting amplifier gain:

EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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PROCEDURE:
1. Bridge output and Difference amplifier
a. First a unity gain amplifier is rigged up and output is checked for both inputs
at 5V.
b. Then the load cell leads are connected to the input and no load and full load
voltages are noted.
c. To get zero for no load, the gain is adjusted so that output is 0V
d. For full load condition, gain is adjusted for R2 to get 5V at output.
2. Inverting amplifier
A inverting amplifier of gain 10 is connected to get output from 0 to 5V

Circuit Diagram:

Nature of graph (if any)


The graph describes the I/O characteristics of load cell. Plot the graph for LoadVs Amplifier
output voltage and find the sensitivity form the graph

EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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Tabular Column:
SNO

Load (gm)

Voltage (v)

1
2
3
4
5
6

Results:

Applications:

Remarks :
Probable viva questions:

Signature of Staff In-charge with date:

1. What is the difference between load cell and strain gauge?


2. What is the need for bridge circuit in signal conditioning circuit?
3. How will you determine the Gain of the Amplifier?
4. What do you mean by sensitivity?

References:
1) A.K Sawhney, A course in Electrical and Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation,
DhanpatRai& Co. New Delhi, 19th Edition 2013.
EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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Experiment No: __________

Date: ____________

Using different controllers obtain the optimum response of the given


temperature controller.
Aim:
To obtain the Optimum response of Temperature controller Using different modes controllers
(On-off, P, PI and PID)

Apparatus/Components required:
Universal Process Control Trainer

Theory:

EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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ExecutePrograms |Wonderware| InTouchandopen UPCTPart
IVbydoubleclickingonitinIntouch- applicationmanagerwindow
InWindows toopen,selectHomeandclickOK
InIntouchWindomakerscreen clickRuntime
InIntouch-Windowviewer selectExperimentTemperature Control loop(Directheating)

Setuppreparation
Patch boardconnection:

Connect TT1toControllerAnalogInputNo. 4
ConnectControllerAnalogOutputno.3toSSR
ConnectcontrollerAnalogOutputno.1toI/P1
Connectcontrollerdigitaloutputno.3toSV2
ConnectFL1tocontrollerdigital inputNo.1
ConnectFL2tocontrollerdigital inputNo.2
EnsurePUMP1andCOMPis short.

Setupconfiguration
Ensurefreshwatersupplyis availableatsupplytank inletvalve(V11) Ensuredrain
Water pipeisconnected toHeatingTank(HTK)outlet
PROCEDURE:
1. ClickNextto runtheexperiment
2. OpenthecontrolvalveCV1byincreasingtheoutputOPCV
SwitchonPump1fromcontrol panel

to100%.

3. OpenthebypassvalveV10fully
4. AdjustOPCV tosetRotameter flowat50-60lph
5. TurnrotaryswitchHEATERon WSP module toONposition.
6. NotedefaultvaluesforPID modeSP=45,PB=50%,IT=25sec,DT=0sec
7. TurnrotaryswitchHEATER onWSP module toOFFposition

Nature of graph (if any)


Plot the response of different controllers (Time Vs Temperature) using Excel
Observations:

i) observe the response for different set points.

EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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ii) Select the parameter Kp, Ki &Kd for tuning

Results:

Applications:

Remarks :
Probable viva questions:

Signature of Staff In-charge with date:

1. What is the difference between load cell and strain gauge?


2. What is the need for bridge circuit in signal conditioning circuit?
3. How will you determine the Gain of the Amplifier?
4. What do you mean by sensitivity?

References:
1. Curtis Johnson, D., Process Control Instrumentation Technology , Prentice Hall Of India,2003.

EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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Experiment No: __________

Date: ____________

Using different controllers obtain the optimum response of the given


flow controller
Aim:
To obtain the Optimum responses of Flow controllers using different modes of controllers (Onoff, P, PI and PID).

Apparatus/Components required:
Flow Process Station

Theory:
The process Setup Consists of supply tank fitted with pump for Water circulation. The flow
sensor is fitted orifice meter. The water flow to the process is controlled by Pneumatic control
valve. The process parameter is controlled through computer by manipulating water flow to the
process

Process Flow Diagram:

Specifications: I -Process Module

DP Transmitter

: Range 0-200 mm of water, Output 4-20 mA

EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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Orifice meter

: Material SS304

Rotameter

: Range 100 LPH

Control Valve : SS 304, Size BSP, Range 0-2.5 BAR

E/P Coverter

: Input 4-20 mA, Output 0.2-1 BAR

II-Computer Controlled System (DDC):

Control panel

ADC/DAC Card: 12 bit resolution

: Analog Input, Switches, Power Supply, and Indicator

Software : For Experimentation, PID Control, Data logging, Trend plot,


analysis & printing
III- Control Module:

off line

Controller : PID setting, auto tuning

Procedure:
1. Start the system and run the software.
2. Select closed loop P mode of the controller keeping I & D effect to minimum.
3. Introduce a disturbance such that oscillation occurs( change the set point and vary Kp
simultaneously such that oscillation occurs with fixed frequency and amplitude)
P=Kpep+ KpkI e p dt+ kpkDd /dt(ep(t)) + pI(0)
4. If output is uncontrollable increase PB else decrease PB done until sustained oscillation
are obtained.
5. Save the graph, from the graph Tc and note down value of Kc with caused oscillations.
6. Applying Ziegler Nicholas method we find the parameter for PID mode (Kp, KI and KD).
Now choosing the PID controller apply the parameter values Kp, KI and KD obtained for
CALCULATIONS:

1) Kp= 0.6 Kc
2) TI=Tc/2 *100
EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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3) KI=1/ TI
4) KD=Tc/8

Nature of graph
Plot the response of different controllers (Time Vs Temperature) using Excel

Observations:
1. Observe the response for different set points.
2. Select the parameter Kp, Ki & Kd for tuning

Results:

Applications:

Remarks :

Probable viva questions:

Signature of Staff In-charge with date:

1. Name few flow measuring instruments.


2. Which controller is suitable for flow process?
3. What do you mean by proportional band?

References:
1. Curtis Johnson, D., Process Control Instrumentation Technology , Prentice Hall Of
India,2003.

EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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Experiment No: __________

Date: ____________

Using different controllers obtain the optimum response of the given


Level controller
Aim:
To obtain the Optimum responses of Level controllers using different modes of controllers (Onoff, P, PI and PID).

Apparatus/Components required:
Level Process Station

Theory:
The process Setup Consists of supply tank fitted with pump for Water circulation. The flow
sensor is fitted orifice meter. The water flow to the process is controlled by Pneumatic control
valve. The process parameter is controlled through computer by manipulating water flow to the
process

Process Flow Diagram:

I/P Converter

DAC
ADC

Level
Transmitter

Reservoir Tank

Pump

Control Valve

EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

Level Tank

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Component Identification
1. Process Tank
2. Electro-pneumatic Converter (E/P)
3. Level Transmitter
4. Pneumatic Valve
5. Pressure regulator
6. Water Reservoir
7. Centrifugal Pump
8. ADC/DAC interface card
Specifications:

Control Valve: Size 1/2 , Equal % characteristic, Air-to-open type

E/P Converter: Input air 20 PSI, Current Signal 4 to 20 mA at +24 V DC, Outputpneumatic signal 3 to 15 PSI

Process Tank- 25 liters capacity

Level Transmitter: Range 0 to 300 mm WC, 4-20 mA output- 2 wire system

Procedure:
1. Start the system and run the software.
2. Select closed loop P mode of the controller keeping I & D effect to minimum.
3. Introduce a disturbance such that oscillation occurs( change the set point and vary Kp
simultaneously such that oscillation occurs with fixed frequency and amplitude)
P=Kpep+ KpkI e p dt+ kpkDd /dt(ep(t)) + pI(0)
4. If output is uncontrollable increase PB else decrease PB done until sustained oscillation
are obtained.
5. Save the graph, from the graph Tc and note down value of Kc with caused oscillations.
6. Applying Ziegler Nicholas method we find the parameter for PID mode (Kp, KI and KD).
Now choosing the PID controller apply the parameter values Kp, KI and KD obtained for

EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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Process Control: [2016]


CALCULATIONS:

Kp= 0.6 Kc
TI=Tc/2 *100
KI=1/ TI
KD=Tc/8

Nature of graph
Plot the response of different controllers (Time Vs Temperature) using Excel

Observations:
1. Observe the response for different set points.
2. Select the parameter Kp, Ki & Kd for tuning

Results:

Applications:

Remarks :

Probable viva questions:

Signature of Staff In-charge with date:

1. Name few flow Level measuring instruments.


2. Which controller is suitable for Level process?
3. What do you mean by reset windup?

References:
1. Curtis Johnson, D., Process Control Instrumentation Technology , Prentice Hall Of
India,2003.
EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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Experiment No: __________

Aim:

Date: ____________

Automatic Bottle filling process using PLC

To write a ladder logic sequence for bottle filling process using PLC

Apparatus/Components required:
PLC: ABB, PC, Software: AC 3 GRAF, Picosoft simulation software

Theory:

EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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24V DC POWER
SUPPLY

DELTA PLC

PROXIMITY
SENSOR

2 CHANNEL RELAY
MODULE

DELTA HMI

DELTA HMI
BOTTLE SET
UP

DC
MOTOR

SOLENOID
VALVE

LOGIC:

The bottle to be filled is placed on a circular platform which is moved with the help
of a motor.

A Proximity sensor detects the presence of the bottle below the top, sensed by metal
object below the bottle holders.

When the bottle is just under the top, proximity switch is activated, motor is stopped
and Solenoid is turned on for fluid flow.

EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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Once the fluid is reached up to the selected quantity of the bottle the relay activated to
turns off Solenoid and motor starts moving the circular platform for next sequence.

Also take into account the level of fluid in the overhead tank which is connected to
tap.

Using Master stop switch the entire process can be frozen irrespective of their stage
operations.

Procedure:
1. Switch on Main Electric Supply of the setup.
2. HMI display the Bottle Filling Process Using Delta PLC & HMI
3. Set the Value in station 0, 1,2 & 3 by using functional key Fo on HMI
For Ex: Set 100 ml in station 0 using Right arrow key then press Enter key & Pg
Dn key to select station 1,2 &3. Set the same quantity in each station by using same
procedure.
4. Set the on delay time to the Motor using F0 key. For Ex-50 seconds. Then press Enter
key & Pg Dn key on HMI.
5. Set the Filling Value time. Ex 50 seconds using FO key, Enter key & PgDn key.
6. After completing above procedure Press START switch from the front panel of the setup.
7. Filling starts each station (Bottles) & repeats the sequence continuously. The Green &
Orange lights indicate the filling sequence of operation.
8. Press Stopswitch to stop the process.
9. Repeat the steps 3 to 8 for new set quantity of liquid.
Note: Since the PLC operation is continuous & sequential, the bottle goes on filling
continuously for each rotation, the user should take care to avoid overflow of liquid by
stopping the process by using Stop button on front panel of the setup.

EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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Results:

Applications:

Remarks :

Probable viva questions:

Signature of Staff In-charge with date:

1. Name few input devices used in PLC.


2. Name few output devices controlled by PLC.
3. What do you mean by on delay and off delay timer?
4. How will differentiate time and counter?

References:
1. John Webb, W, Ronald Reis, A.,: Programmable logic controllers principles andapplications,
3/e, Prentice hall Inc., New Jersey, 2003.

EIE Dept., Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Bengaluru

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Experiment No: __________

Date: ____________

SIMULATION OF BOTTLE FILLING MODULE USING PICOSOFT


Aim:
To simulate bottle filling process using PLC ladder logic

Apparatus/Components required:
Picosoft simulation software
THEORY:The PLC consists of input module, processor, programming device and output
module. The modern solution for the problem of how to provide discrete state control is to use a
computer based device called a programmable controller (PC) or programmable controller (PLC)
Processor: The processor is a computer that executes a perform the operations specific in a
ladder diagram or a set of Boolean equations. The processor performs arithmetic and logic
operations an input variable data and determines the proper state of the output variables.
The processor being a computer can only perform one operation at a time. Thus it must
sequentially sample each of the inputs, evaluate the ladder diagram program, provide each
output, and then repeat the whole process. The heart of a PLC is a microprocessor, much like the
ones used in modern personal computers.
Input Modules: The input modules examine the state of physical switches and other input devices
and put their state into a form suitable for the processor.
Output Modules: The output modules supply are power to external devices such as motors, light,
solenoids and soon just as received in a ladder diagram.

Procedure:
1. Open the Picosoft software from the start menu.
2. Select a new file.
3. Go to any block and press enter. A window will pop up. Select input, output and timer
clicking on I, O, T and c respectively and also choose the members for naming the inputs
and outputs.
4. Using this method, implement the ladder logic for the given problem and save the file.
5. Compile and Run the program.
6. An input and output window will pop up. Now change the inputs as required to see the
desired output.

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Inputs
I1

System On

I2

System Off

I3

Proximity Sensor (To Detect the bottle


position)

Outputs
Q1

System Pilot light

Q2

Motor (to Move the Bottles)

Q3

Solenoid Valve (to fill water in the Bottle)

Timer/Counter
T1

Timer 1 (filling time)

T2

Timer2 (delay to move the bottle after filling)

C1

Counter (count the number of bottles)

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Ladder Logic for Bottle Filling Process

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Results:

Applications:

Remarks :

Probable viva questions:

Signature of Staff In-charge with date:

1. What do you mean by Normally Closed and Normally Opened Contact?


2. Implement the Logic Gate operations using PLC Ladder Logic.
3. What do you mean Push Button and ON/OFF switch?
4. Develop a Ladder logic using a push button to turn on/off a light?

References:
1. John Webb, W, Ronald Reis, A.,: Programmable logic controllers principles andapplications,
3/e, Prentice hall Inc., New Jersey, 2003.

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Experiment No: __________

Date: ____________

PLC PROGRAM FOR ELEVATOR

Aim:

To simulate elevator using PLC ladder logic

Apparatus/Components required:
Picosoft simulation software
THEORY:
The PLC consists of input module, processor, programming device and output module. The
modern solution for the problem of how to provide discrete state control is to use a computer
based device called a programmable controller (PC) or programmable controller (PLC)
Processor: The processor is a computer that executes a perform the operations specific in a
ladder diagram or a set of Boolean equations. The processor performs arithmetic and logic
operations an input variable data and determines the proper state of the output variables.
The processor being a computer can only perform one operation at a time. Thus it must
sequentially sample each of the inputs, evaluate the ladder diagram program, provide each
output, and then repeat the whole process. The heart of a PLC is a microprocessor, much like the
ones used in modern personal computers.
Input Modules: The input modules examine the state of physical switches and other input devices
and put their state into a form suitable for the processor.
Output Modules: The output modules supply are power to external devices such as motors, light,
solenoids and soon just as received in a ladder diagram.

Procedure:
1. Open the Picosoft software from the start menu.
2. Select a new file.
3. Go to any block and press enter. A window will pop up. Select input, output and timer
clicking on I, O, T and c respectively and also choose the members for naming the inputs
and outputs.
4. Using this method, implement the ladder logic for the given problem and save the file.
5. Compile and Run the program.
6. An input and output window will pop up. Now change the inputs as required to see the
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desired output.

Inputs
I1

System On

I2

System Off

I3

Up Switch

I3

Down Switch

Outputs
Q1

System ON

Q2

Up Motor

Q3

Down Motor

Ladder Logic for Elevator

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Results:

Applications:

Remarks :

Probable viva questions:

Signature of Staff In-charge with date:

1. What do you mean by Interlocks?


2. What is the need for PLC in Automation Industry?
3. What are Skip and MCR Functions?
4. What do you mean by scan time of the PLC?

References:
1. John Webb, W, Ronald Reis, A.,: Programmable logic controllers principles andapplications,
3/e, Prentice hall Inc., New Jersey, 2003.

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Experiment No: __________

Date: ____________

Simple Calculator Using Case Structure in LabVIEW


Aim:
To develop a simple calculator using case structure in LabVIEW and to develop temperature
indicatingsystem using LabVIEW

Software required:
LabVIEW software
THEORY:
LabVIEW stands for Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench. It is a graphical
programming language from National Instruments. LabVIEW programs are called virtual
instruments (VIs). Each VI has 2 representations: a block diagram and a front panel. Each VI in
turn can contain sub-VIs and other structures. Controls and indicators on the front panel allow an
operator to input data into or extract data from a running virtual instrument. The graphical code
is compiled, rather than interpreted. Compilation is done on-the-fly, as the graphical code of a VI
is being edited. The generated code is somewhat slower than equivalent compiled C code.
However, this is considered a small price to pay for the increased productivity offered by the
unique patented graphical code design system.

SOFTWARE SET UP --

Initial procedure

1. LabVIEW7.1 can get launched by double clicking on the National Instruments LabVIEW
7.1 Embedded Edition (Start->All Programs-> National Instruments LabVIEW 7.1
Embedded Edition)
2. The next step is to choose Execution Target as LabVIEW for Windows.
3. To create a new VI, click New and then select Blank VI
4. As a result, two blank windows will appear which form the basic elements of a LabVIEW
application also called Virtual Instrument (VI) as shown in Fig.1. The gray color window
is called the Front Panel. It is the place where the Graphical User Interface (GUI) is built.

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The white color window is called the Block Diagram. It is where the functionality of the
program is defined. You can toggle between the two windows by pressing Ctrl+E.
5. To insert objects in the Block Diagram window, right-click anywhere on the white color
window. By doing that, the Functions Palette will appear as shown in Fig. 1. It contains
all functions (VIs) that you may need to insert in the Block Diagram to develop an
application. You can also click on the thumbtack

(upper left corner) to tack down

the palette.
6. After completing the block diagram a structure should be added to make the program run
continuously. Generally a While Loop is added to the VI by going to the Structures subpalette

and selecting While Loop

The other structures available in

LabVIEW are discussed below. The While Loop is placed around the blocks which
require continuous execution. After placing the While loop, a Stop button should appear
wired to the conditional terminal of the loop. It will also appear on the front panel. This
button is used to abort execution of the VI while it is running.
7. To run the VI, click on the run button

in the upper left corner of the Block

Diagram.
8. Stop running the program by clicking the stop button in the Front Panel window.

Figure 1: Front Panel (Dark window) and Block Diagram (White window) in LabVIEW
And Using Function Palette to insert objects in the Block Diagram Window
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Procedure:
It Has one or more sub diagrams, or cases, exactly one of which executes when the
structure executes. The value wired to the selector terminal determines which case to execute and
can be Boolean, string, integer, or enumerated type. Right-click the structure border to add or
delete cases. Use the Labeling tool to enter value(s) in the case selector label and configure the
value(s) handled by each case.

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Results:

Applications:

Remarks :

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Probable viva questions:

Signature of Staff In-charge with date:

1. Name few applications of LabVIEW?


2. How to acquire the data from the process using LabVIEW?
3. Name the few Loop structures available in LabVIEW

References:
1. Thomas Bress Effective LabVIEW Programming, NTS Press. 2013.

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Experiment No: __________

Date: ____________

Temperature Indicator Using LabVIEW


Aim:
To develop a simple calculator using case structure in LabVIEW and to develop temperature
indicatingsystem using LabVIEW

Software required:
LabVIEW software

Procedure:

Not Or

Computes the logical NOR of the inputs. Both inputs must be


Boolean or numeric values. If both inputs are FALSE, the
function returns TRUE. Otherwise, it returns FALSE.
Note This function performs bit-wise operations on numeric
inputs.

Greater Or Equal?
Returns TRUE if x is greater than or equal to y. Otherwise, this function returns FALSE. You can
compare an array or cluster of a data type to a scalar of the same data type and produce an
array or cluster of Boolean values. The connector pane displays the default data types for this
polymorphic function.
Greater Or Equal?
x and y must be of the same type.
x >= y? returns the Boolean result of the operation.

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Results:

Applications:

Remarks :
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Probable viva questions:

Signature of Staff In-charge with date:

1. Name few target devices which are supported by LabVIEW?


2. How will you develop an embedded controller LabVIEW?
3. Name the different types of Tools available in the LabVIEW.

References:
1. Thomas BressEffective LabVIEW Programming, NTS Press.2013.

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Experiment No: __________

Date: ____________

Generating and Viewing the Different Waveforms on The PC using


LabVIEW
Aim:
To display and analyse different waveforms on the PC using LabVIEW

Software required:
LabVIEW software

Procedure:
In order to be able to see the shape of the input signal in time, one will have to use waveform
graphs. To set up a basic time-domain display using a Waveform Chart, go to the Front Panel
and right-click on it to bring up the Controls palette.
From the Graph sub-palette

, choose Waveform Graph

Place the Waveform Graph on

the Front Panel. Double-click on it and change the label If you go to the Block Diagram window,
you should notice that there should be icons corresponding to the Waveform Graphs inserted in
the Front Panel window.
Next in the Block Diagram window, place an EMB Sine Waveform

Express VI located on

the Functions Embedded Signal Generation palette as shown in Fig. 1


Connect 2 control knobs to the amplitude and frequency nodes of the EMB Sine Waveform
block. The knobs can be obtained using Controls -> Numeric on the front panel window.
Make sure to let the Frequency knob vary from 0 to 10000. Similarly let the amplitude knob vary
from 0 to 10.
Wire the right Output of the EMB Sine Waveform block to Waveform graph as shown in Fig.2.
Observe the sinewave on the graph while varying the Amplitude (knob2) and Frequency (Knob)
knobs as shown in Fig 3.

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Fig. 1 Embedded Signal Generation

Fig 2. Choosing Control Knobs and Final Block diagram

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Fig. 3 Resulting Front panel and wave form observation


Structures in LabVIEW: While Loop, For Loop, Case
In LabVIEW, structures are represented by graphical enclosures. The graphical code
enclosed by a structure is repeated or executed conditionally. There are three main structures:
While Loop, For Loop, and Case.

While Loop executes a sub-diagram until a condition is met or stop button is pressed. One can
connect a conditional input. The While Loop executes the sub-diagram until the conditional
terminal, an input terminal, receives a specific value. The iteration terminal

(an output

terminal) contains the number of completed iterations. The iteration count always starts at zero.
For Loop executes a sub-diagram a set number of times. The value in the count terminal
(input terminal) represented by

, indicates how many times to repeat the sub-diagram. The

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iteration terminal

(output terminal) contains the number of completed iterations. The

iteration count always starts at zero.


Case structure executes a sub-diagram depending on the value it receives in its selector terminal
. The case selector

shows the status being executed. Experiment illustrates

the use of a case structure in implementing a simple calculator.

Results:

Applications:

Remarks :

Probable viva questions:

Signature of Staff In-charge with date:

1. What are the different windows available in LabVIEW?


2. How to develop an equation with LabVIEW?
3. In which window logic and Algorithms will be developed?

References:
1. Thomas Bress Effective LabVIEW Programming, NTS Press. 2013.

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Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering
Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering Department
Bengaluru-560078
PROCESS CONTROL LABORATORY (10ITL78)

PROBABLE/SUGGESTED QUESTION BANK

1) Write the operational equation for Proportional Element


2) Write the operational equation for Capacitance Element
3) Write the operational equation for Time Constant Element
4) Define dead Time
5) What is degrees of Freedom?
6) What is Time Constant in first order system?
7) Define Controlled Variable
8) Define Manipulated Variable
9) Define load Variable

10) What is self regulation?


11) Write the equation for floating control Mode
12) Write the equation for Proportional control Mode
13) Write the equation for Proportional + Integral control Mode
14) Write the equation for Proportional + Integral + derivative control Mode
15) What is proportional Band?
16) What is offset?
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17) What is integral windup?
18) Which type of controller providing rate action?
19) How to reduce the offset in proportional controller?
20) What type of controller is preferred for the level process?
21) Name one measuring element for the temperature process
22) Name one measuring element for the flow process
23) Give one example for final control element
24) What type of controller is preferred for the system with fast response?
25) What type of controller is preferred for the system with slow response?
26) What type of controller is preferred for a simple flow process?
27) Name one measuring element for the pressure process
28) Name one measuring element for the level process
29) What are the different types of control valve?
30) What is the range of input pressure needed to open/close the control valve?
31) What is the purpose of valve positioner?
32) What type of control action is required for the system with fast response?
33) What type of control method is preferred in composition control of distillation column,
when the feed composition is changing continuously?
34) Write any three PLC Auxiliary functions
35) Draw the ladder logic for the following (Question numbers 2-5)
OR Gate
NAND Gate
Not Gate
XOR Gate
36) What is the use of Proximity Devices in PLC
37) Draw a ladder diagram to turn ON/OFF a device using push buttons
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38) Draw a ladder diagram to turn ON/OFF a device using single ON/OFF switch
39) Draw a ladder diagram to turn ON a device after Seven Seconds
40) Draw a ladder diagram to turn OFF a device after Seven count is reached

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