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Lab Report

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You are on page 1of 21

0BJECTIVE

To investigate the relationships between load, horizontal deflection and vertical deflection

for a curved davit, an angled davit, a semicircle structure and quarter-circle structure

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Figure 1 shows the Curved Bars and Davits experiment. It consists of a back plate, a pair

of dial indicators arranged at 90, and one of four test structures.

The two indicators are on a magnetic base. You can move the base to any position on the

back plate. One of the indicators measures horizontal deflection, the other vertical

deflection. The four structures are a quarter circles, a semicircle, a curved davit and an

angled davit. Each structure has a boss fitted to the free end. This allows you to apply

loads and measure deflections in both the horizontal and vertical directions.

Printed on the back plate of the equipment is some useful information. Make a note of

this - you will need it to analyze your results after you have completed the experiment.

Davits and curved bars are simple and common structures. Examples of where you can

see them include the structures used on ships to suspend lifeboats and along railway

1

tracks to suspend electricity cable. A limiting factor in the design of these structures is the

deflection caused by the load they will suspend. In this experiment we will load each of

the four structures and measure the horizontal and vertical deflection and compare this to

theory.

The following information as well as that printed on the back plate is:

type

radius

2PR3

PR3

R=150mm

EI

2EI

R=150mm

PR3

PR3

2EI

4EI

PRL (2R + L)

PR3 (4L+ R)

2EI

4EI

Semicircle deflection

R=75mm

L=150mm

L2

45o

R=105mm

L1=150mm

L1

PL1L2(0.707L1+L2) + PL23

2EI

L2=105mm

6EI

PL22 (3L1+L3)

6EI

2.0 MATERIAL

Aluminium alloys or aluminum alloys are alloys of aluminium, often with copper,

zinc, manganese, silicon, or magnesium. They are much lighter and more corrosion

resistant than plain carbon steel, but not quite as corrosion resistant as pure aluminium.

Bare aluminium alloy surfaces will keep their apparent shine in a dry environment

3.0 CURVED BARS AND DAVIT

For student to investigate two common structures and two common davit structures

Specification:

Experiment capabilities:

Investigation of the relationship between load, horizontal deflection and vertical

deflection for:

A curved davit

An angled davit

A semicircle structure

A quarter-circle structure

The equipment includes four different structures. Users attached one of the structures in

front of the hardware module, directly on to the Structures Test Frame. They then apply

loads to the structures using masses on hangers.

Two digital deflection indicators set at 90 to each other on the back-board,

contact the structure and so measure horizontal and vertical deflection. The digital

deflection indicators are on a magnetic base so user can move them to anywhere on the

back-board. As user load structure, there would be the horizontal and vertical deflections,

thus investigating the structure behavior. They then compare this behavior with

theoretical predictions.

Thus, this curved bars and davit tools allowed users to investigate into the

relationships between load, horizontal deflection and vertical deflection for a curved

davit, an angled davit, a semicircle structure and quarter-circle structure. Where the loads

be applied to the structure using masses and hangers and that horizontal and vertical

structure deflection to be measured by two digital deflection indicators set at 90 to each

other..

3.1 PROCEDURE

1. Referring to Figure 1, test the semicircle first and set up the equipment. Ensure

that the semicircle mounted with a plate each side of the end, and damped in

securely.

2. Measure and record the breadth and, depth of the section checking several places

on the structure and taking an average.

3. The weight hanger clipped onto the two lugs on the loading boss. Gently pull

down on the weight hanger and note the direction the loading boss on structure

moves.

4. Set the indicator positions so they contact the horizontally and vertically and have

the maximum amount of travel in each direction.

5. Carefully zero the indicators

6. Apply a mass of 100g to the hanger; tap the test frame to reduce the effects of

friction then take readings of both indicators.

7. Repeat with masses up to 500g in 100g increments tapping the test frame each

time.

8. From the measurements of the section calculate the second moment of area I

Enter all of your results and values into Table 1.

9. Remove the semicircle and attaching it to the side of the frame rather than the

bottom member, replace it with the quarter circle.

10. Ensure there are clamp plates each side of the structure and the indicator positions

give the amount of travel needed for the maximum loading.

11. Repeat the experiment. Similarly repeat the experiment for the curved davit and

the angle davit.

12. Enter all results into Table 1. Calculate the I value for each structure as the

manufacturing process may change the thickness and width of the material.

13. Plot graphs for each section, with load versus the horizontal and vertical

deflection. Calculate the gradient of each line in mm/N. Compare this to values

calculated form the standard formulae for each section or those calculated from

first principles.

4.0 CALCULATION

Semicircle deflection

R = 150mm @ 0.15m

E 69GNm 2

b = 18.20mm

d = 3.20mm

I

bd 3

12

12

4.9698 x10

2 PR 3

EI

PR 3

2 EI

11

0.98

1.96

2.94

1.5153 x10 3 m

1.9290 x10 m

3.0305 x10 3 m

4.5458 x10 3 m

5.7871x10 m

3.92

6.0610 x10 3 m

7.7162 x10 m

4.90

9.6452 x10 m

Quarter circle

3

3

3

3.8580 x10 3 m

3

7.5763 x10 3 m

R=150mm

b=18.20mm

d = 3.20mm

E 69x10 9

bd 3

12

12

4.9698 x10

PR 3

2 EI

PR 3

4 EI

11

0.98

0.4823 x10 3 m

1.96

0.7576 x10 3 m

2.94

3.92

4.90

3

2.411x10 m

10

3.031x10 3 m

1.9290 x10 m

4 69 x10 9 4.9698 x10 11

3

2.273 x10 3 m

1.447 x10 m

4 69 x10 9 4.9698 x10 11

3

1.5153 x10 3 m

0.9645 x10 m

4 69 x10 9 4.9698 x10 11

3

4 69 x10 9 4.9698 x10 11

3

3.788 x10 3 m

R = 75mm

L = 150mm

b=18.20mm

d = 3.20mm

E = 69 GNm-2

PRL

(2 R L)

2 EI

PR 2

V

(4 L R )

4 EI

bd 3

I

12

H

bd 3

12

12

4.9698 x10

11

P = 0.98 N

V

11

2 69 x10 9 4.9698 x10 11

3

0.98 75 x10 3 2

= 0.4823 x10 3 m

3

= 0.33583 x10 3 m

P = 1.96 N

V

2 69 x10 9 4.9698 x10 11

3

1.96 75 x10 3 2

= 0.9645 x10 3 m

3

= 0.6717 x10 3 m

P = 2.94 N

V

2 69 x10 9 4.9698 x10 11

3

2.94 75 x10 3 2

= 1.4468 x10 3 m

3

= 1.0075 x10 3 m

P = 3.92 N

V

H

12

2 69 x10 9 4.9698 x10 11

3

3.92 75 x10 3 2

3

= 1.9290 x10 3 m

= 1.3433 x10 3 m

P = 4.90 N

V

2 69 x10 9 4.9698 x10 11

3

= 2.4113 x10 3 m

4.90 75 x10 3 2

3

= 1.6792 x10 3 m

13

R = 75mm

L1 = 150mm

L2 = 105mm

b = 19.25mm

d = 3.4mm

E = 69 GNm-2

PL1 L2 (0.707 L1 L2 ) PL23

2 EI

6 EI

2

PL

V 2 (3L1 L2 )

6 EI

bd 3

I

12

H

12

4.9698 x10

11

P = 0.98 N

V

14

0.98 0.105 2

2 69 x10 9 4.9698 x10 11

3x0.15 0.105

0.98 0.105 3

= 0.2914 x10 3 m

6 69 x10 9 4.9698 x10 11

= 0.5301x10 3 m

P = 1.96 N

V

1.96 0.105 2

2 69 x10 9 4.9698 x10 11

3x0.15 0.105

0.98 0.105 3

= 0.5829 x10 3 m

6 69 x10 9 4.9698 x10 11

= 1.0602 x10 3 m

P = 2.94 N

15

2.94 0.105 2

2 69 x10 9 4.9698 x10 11

3x0.15 0.105

0.98 0.105 3

= 0.8743 x10 3 m

6 69 x10 9 4.9698 x10 11

= 1.5903 x10 3 m

P = 3.92 N

V

3.92 0.105 2

2 69 x10 9 4.9698 x10 11

3x0.15 0.105

0.98 0.105 3

= 1.1658 x10 3 m

6 69 x10 9 4.9698 x10 11

= 2.1204 x10 3 m

16

P = 4.9 N

V

4.90 0.105 2

2 69 x10 9 4.9698 x10 11

3x0.15 0.105

0.98 0.105 3

= 1.457 x10 3 m

6 69 x10 9 4.9698 x10 11

= 2.6507 x10 3 m

5.0 DATA

17

Semicircle

deflection(x10 3

m)

Mass(g) Load(N) V

0

0

0

100

0.98

0.66

200

1.96

1.73

300

2.94

2.80

400

3.92

3.84

500

4.90

5.01

Table 1(data from experiment)

Quarter circle

deflection(x10 3

m)

Curve Davit

deflection(x10 3

m)

Angle Davit

deflection(x10 3

m)

0

0.52

1.93

3.31

4.64

6.18

0

0.25

1.00

1.65

2.31

2.86

0

0.17

0.68

1.15

1.60

1.98

0

0.10

0.31

0.59

0.98

1.35

0

0.11

0.39

0.83

1.47

2.07

0

0.13

0.34

0.55

1.47

2.07

0

0.2

0.52

0.89

1.39

1.87

18

Semicircle

deflection(x10 3

m)

Mass(g) Load(N) V

0

0

0

100

0.98

1.5153

200

1.96

3.0305

300

2.94

4.5458

400

3.92

6.0610

500

4.90

7.5763

Quarter circle

deflection(x10 3

m)

Curve Davit

deflection(x10 3

m)

Angle Davit

deflection(x10 3

m)

0

1.9290

3.8580

5.7871

7.7162

9.6452

0

0.7576

1.5153

2.273

3.031

3.788

0

0.4823

0.9645

1.447

1.9290

2.411

0

0.3358

0.6717

1.0075

1.3433

1.6792

0

0.4823

0.9645

1.4468

1.9290

2.4113

0

0.2914

0.5829

0.8743

1.1658

1.457

0

0.5301

1.0602

1.5903

2.1204

2.6507

6.0 OBSERVATION

From the experiments that have been done, we found that there was a deflection at the

horizontal and vertical axis. When the load had been applied to the structure; the indicator

gave a value for both of the axis.

The graph plotted is linear, when the more load applied to the structure using hangers

and mass, there are more deflection happened. From collected data, found that there is a

little bit different between theory and experiment. The most deflection was from

semicircle structure and the lowest deflections value came from angle davit structure.

Experiment value has a different from calculation value. The differences percentage is

38.23% for the vertical axis and 21.8% for the horizontal axis for semicircle deflection.

For quarter circle deflection is 28% is for vertical axis and 24% for the horizontal axis.

Meanwhile for curved davit deflection for the vertical axis is 33% and for horizontal axis

19

is 15%. For the angle davit deflection, the result for differential between calculation value

and experiment value is 23% for vertical axis and 38.7% for horizontal axis.

The percent is quite different because the apparatus already fatigue and the experiment

should do 3 times and take the average value, so the result will quite near.

6.1 RECOMMENDATION

The valued from the experiment and calculation have a bit differences. This is because of

some error had happened when the experiment been done.

Value of table 1 has got from experiment shown the bit different compared to value of

table 2. This was happen because of some rectification factor.

The factors are:

i)

ii)

iii)

It should be that the two digital deflection indicators is not really set at

90 to each other on the back-board

The experiment equipment place on the Jared table, and this influence

the reading of digital deflection indicators.

The experiment equipment not complete.

Solution:

i. It should have the gadget to make sure the indicator is set in 90.

20

ii.

jar.

iii.

CONCLUSION

From the experiment, our objectives are successful. There have the differences of

deflection between for a curved davit, an angled davit, a semicircle structure and quartercircle structure.

Even though there is a little bit difference between theoretical and experimental result.

This is because there are some errors occur as we mention in recommendation.

REFERENCES

Engineering Mechanic( si unit), S.C Mathur, Fourth Edition, S.K. KATARIA & SON.

Engineering Mechanic, static and dynamic, third edition McGraw-Hill book company,

Singapore.

Mechanic of material, sixth Edition SI unit, R.C Hibbeler.

www.tqstructure.com

21

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