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Experiment No.


Protocooperation: Crocodile Bird & Crocodile

Commensalism: Remora & Shark

Protocooperation: Egret & Cattle

Mutualism: Yucca & Yucca Moth

Mutualism: Rhizobium & Plant Roots

Predator: Lion on Zebra

Endoparasite: Ascaris in Human

Ectoparasite: Mosquito on Human

Experiment No. IV


To study inter specific relationships.

Interspecific Ecological Relations are the interactions which occur
between individuals belonging to different species. These are primarily of
two types beneficial (positive) or harmful (negative). Beneficial
interactions can be useful to one or both of the species; while harmful
interactions can be detrimental to one of the species. As the organisms
have some functional role within community of the ecosystem; therefore,
these Interspecific relationships????
Types of Interspecific Relationships
relationships/interactions between organisms belonging to two different
species. It includes both Positive and Negative Interactions.
Positive Interactions (+/+ or +/0):
Mutualism (+/+): A kind of beneficial Interspecific interaction where both
the species are benefitted and cant survive without each other. It is an
obligatory relationship. Examples: Yucca Moth and Yucca Plant; Lichens (with
Fungal & Algal Partners), Trichonympha in gut of Termite.
Cheating in Mutualisms:
Some flowers mimic the form and smell of female insects and are pollinated
when males attempt to copulate with them.
Some bees bite holes in the base of flowers and eat the nectar without
pollinating the flower.
Proto-cooperation (+/+): A kind of beneficial Interspecific interaction
where both the species are benefitted but it is not an obligatory relationship
(rather is facultative). They can survive separately but together have
advantage. Flowers & Insects, Ants & Aphids, Cattle Egrets on Cattles,
Crocodile Bird and Crocodiles.
Commensalism (+/+; sharing Table): A kind of beneficial Interspecific
relationship where only individuals of one of the species, called
Commensal (small sized)are benefitted while individuals of other species,
called host (large sized)are negligibly effected. Examples: Clown Fish in
Tentacles of Anemone, Epiphytes on Trees, Carcase Eaters follow Hunting
Animals, Sucker Fish Remora attach Shark
Negative Interaction (+/- or (-/0) or -/-):
Predation (+/-): A negative interaction where a larger animal called
Predator captures kills and eats on other smaller animal called Prey.
Examples: Lion feeding on Antelope, Wolves eating Deer. Insectivorous
Plants also belong to this category.
Parasitism (+/-): A smaller organism called parasite drives nourishment
from the body of other larger organism called host which is also harmed.
Parasite never kills the host. The parasite can be an Ectoparasite (e.g.,
Leech on Cattle) or Endoparasite (e.g., Tapeworm in Intestine of Human ).
Parasitoid (+/-): A kind of parasite which kills the host by feeding on its
internal parts. Some Dipterans and Hymenopterans lay their eggs in
Caterpillar Larvae of Lepidopterans. The Larvae emerging from eggs feed on
larval organs and metamorphose into adults.

Competition (-/-): A kind of interaction where the individuals belonging to

same (Intraspecific Competition) or different (Interspecific Competition)
species compete for the limiting resources.
Exploitation Competition: A kind of competition where individuals
belonging to two species use the same limiting resource thus depleting the
amount available to them.
Interference Competition: A kind of competition where individuals
belonging to different species either interfere with foraging, survival or
reproduction of other species or directly prevent their establishment in a
portion of the shared habitat.
Amensalism (-/0): one species is harmed while the other is unaffected;
generally an accidental relationship. Example: A herd of elephants that
crush plants and insects while moving through a forest.
Antibiosis (-/0): One organism produces a metabolite/antibiotic
which inhibits other organism. Example: Streptomyces produces
streptomycin to inhibit fungi and bacteria in soil.