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UnitedStatespresidentialelection,2016
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

TheUnitedStatespresidentialelectionof2016wasthe58thandmostrecentquadrennialAmerican
presidentialelection,heldonTuesday,November8,2016.TheRepublicanPartynominee,businessman
DonaldTrumpfromNewYork,andhisrunningmate,GovernorMikePenceofIndiana,defeatedthe
DemocraticPartynominee,formerSecretaryofStateandformerSenatorHillaryClintonfromNew
York,andherrunningmate,SenatorTimKaineofVirginia.TheUSElectionsProjectestimatesthat
131.7millionAmericanscastaballotin2016,outof231millioneligiblevotersaturnoutrateof56.9
percent.[5][6]
2016wasthefifthelectionsince1820inwhichtherecipientofapluralityofthepopularvotedidnot
becomepresident,after1824,1876,1888,and2000.[a][3]Votersselectedpresidentialelectors,whoin
turnwillvote,basedontheresultsoftheirjurisdiction,foranewpresidentandvicepresidentthrough
theElectoralCollegeonDecember19,2016.[10]Clintonwasthefirstwomaninthehistoryofthe
UnitedStatestowinthenominationofamajorpartyandapluralityofthepopularvote,with47.8%of
ballotscastwhileTrumpreceived47.3%.Trumpisexpectedtotakeofficeasthe45thPresidenton
January20,2017Penceisexpectedtotakeofficeasthe48thVicePresident.
TheseriesofpresidentialprimaryelectionsandcaucusestookplacebetweenFebruaryandJune2016,
staggeredamongthe50states,theDistrictofColumbiaandU.S.territories.Thisnominatingprocess
wasalsoanindirectelection,wherevoterscastballotsforaslateofdelegatestoapoliticalparty's
nominatingconvention,whointurnelectedtheirparty'spresidentialnominee.Businessmanandreality
televisionpersonalityDonaldTrumpbecametheRepublicanParty'spresidentialnomineeonJuly19,
2016,afterdefeatingU.S.SenatorTedCruzofTexas,and15othermajorcandidatesintheRepublican
primaryelections.[11]FormerSecretaryofStateandU.S.SenatorfromNewYorkHillaryClinton
becametheDemocraticParty'spresidentialnomineeonJuly26,2016,afterdefeatingU.S.Senator
BernieSandersofVermont.[12]
Atotalof29thirdpartyandindependentpresidentialcandidatesappearedontheballotinatleastone
state.FormerGovernorofNewMexicoGaryJohnsonandphysicianJillSteinrepeatedtheir2012roles
asthenomineesfortheLibertarianPartyandGreenParty,respectively.[13]Withballotaccesstothe
entireelectoralcollege,Johnsonwon4.1millionvotes,thehighestvoteshareforathirdpartycandidate
sinceRossPerotin1996.[14]Steinwon1.2millionvotes,themostforaGreennomineesinceRalph
Naderin2000.IndependentEvanMcMullinobtained20percentofthetotalvotesinhishomestateof
Utah.

UnitedStatespresidentialelection,2016

November8,2016
538membersoftheElectoralCollege
270electoralvotesneededtowin

Turnout

TBD

Nominee

DonaldTrump

HillaryClinton

Party

Republican

Democratic

Homestate

NewYork

NewYork

Runningmate

MikePence

TimKaine

Projected
electoralvote

306[1][2][3]

232[1][2][3]

Statescarried

30+ME02

20+D.C.

Popularvote

60,350,241[4]

60,981,118[4]

47.30%

47.79%

Percentage

ByearlymorningNovember9,2016,initialvotecountsindicatedthatDonaldTrumpwasprojectedto
obtainover270electoralvotes,amajorityofthe538electorsintheelectoralcollegerequiredtomake
himthepresidentelectoftheUnitedStates.[15][16]Thevictory,consideredunlikelybymostpre
electionforecasts,[17][18]wascharacterizedbythemediaasan"upset"andthemost"shocking"since
1948.[19][20]ThemainstatesthatsecuredthevictoryofTrumparesituatedintheGreatLakes/RustBelt
region,whereworkingclasswhitesshiftedtheirtraditionalalliancefromtheDemocraticParty
WisconsinwentRepublicanforthefirsttimesince1984,whilePennsylvaniaandMichiganwent
Republicanforthefirsttimesince1988.[21][22][23]Mainesplititselectoralvotesforthefirsttimesince
1828.[24]

Contents
1 Background
1.1 2008presidentialelection
1.2 2010midtermelections
1.3 2012presidentialelection
1.4 2014midtermelections
2 RepublicanParty
2.1 Primaries
2.2 Nominees
2.3 Othermajorcandidates
2.4 Vicepresidentialselection
3 DemocraticParty
3.1 Primaries
3.2 Nominees
3.3 Othermajorcandidates
3.4 Vicepresidentialselection
4 Majorthirdpartiesandindependents
4.1 LibertarianParty
4.1.1 Nominees
4.2 GreenParty
4.2.1 Nominees
4.3 EvanMcMullin
4.4 ConstitutionParty
4.4.1 Nominees
4.5 Ballotaccess
5 Otherthirdpartiesandindependents
6 Swingstates
7 Partyconventions
8 Campaignfinance
9 Debates
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Presidentialelectionresultsmap.
ReddenotesstatesprojectedforTrump/Pence
BluedenotesthoseprojectedforClinton/Kaine
Numbersindicateelectoralvotesallottedtothewinnerofeach
state.TheelectoralcollegewillvoteonDecember19,2016.
Presidentbeforeelection
BarackObama
Democratic

(Projected)ElectedPresident
DonaldTrump
Republican

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10
11
12
13

14
15
16
17

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9.1 Primaryelectiondebates
9.2 Generalelectiondebates
Newspaperendorsements
Forecasting
Maps
Results
13.1 Resultsbystate
13.2 Closeraces
13.3 Reactions
Voterdemographics
Seealso
References
Externallinks

Background
ArticleTwooftheUnitedStatesConstitutionprovidesthatthePresidentandVicePresidentoftheUnitedStatesmustbe
naturalborncitizensoftheUnitedStates,atleast35yearsold,andaresidentoftheUnitedStatesforaperiodofatleast14
years.CandidatesforthepresidencytypicallyseekthenominationofoneofthepoliticalpartiesoftheUnitedStates,inwhich
caseeachpartydevisesamethod(suchasaprimaryelection)tochoosethecandidatethepartydeemsbestsuitedtorunforthe
position.Traditionally,theprimaryelectionsareindirectelectionswherevoterscastballotsforaslateofpartydelegates
pledgedtoaparticularcandidate.Theparty'sdelegatesthenofficiallynominateacandidatetorunontheparty'sbehalf.The
generalelectioninNovemberisalsoanindirectelection,wherevoterscastballotsforaslateofmembersoftheElectoral
CollegetheseelectorsinturndirectlyelectthePresidentandVicePresident.
PresidentBarackObama,aDemocratandformerU.S.SenatorfromIllinois,isineligibletoseekreelectiontoathirdtermdue
torestrictionsoftheTwentysecondAmendmentinaccordancewithSectionIoftheTwentiethAmendment,histermexpiresat
12noononJanuary20,2017.

FinalpollclosingtimesonElection
Day.
7p.m.EST[00:00UTC](6)
7:30p.m.EST[00:30UTC](3)
8p.m.EST[01:00UTC]

2008presidentialelection
Inthe2008election,Obamawaselectedpresident,defeatingtheRepublicannominee,SenatorJohnMcCainofArizona,with
53%ofthepopularvoteand68%oftheelectoralvote,[25][26]succeedingtwotermRepublicanPresidentGeorgeW.Bush,the
formerGovernorofTexas.Sincetheendof2009,Obama'sfirstyearinoffice,pollingcompaniessuchasGalluphavefound
Obama'sapprovalratingstobebetween4050%.[27][28]

(15+DC)
8:30p.m.EST[01:30UTC](1)
9p.m.EST[02:00UTC](15)
10p.m.EST[03:00UTC](4)
11p.m.EST[04:00UTC](5)
1a.m.EST[06:00UTC](1)

2010midtermelections

Inthe2010midtermelections,theDemocraticPartysufferedsignificantlossesinCongresstheRepublicansgained63seatsintheHouseofRepresentativestaking
backcontrolofthechamberintheprocessandsixseatsintheSenate,thoughshortofachievingamajority.AsaresultoftheRepublicans'recaptureoftheHouse
afterlosingittotheDemocratsinthe2006midtermelections,JohnBoehnerbecamethe53rdSpeakeroftheHouseofRepresentatives,makingObamathefirst
Presidentin16yearstolosetheHouseofRepresentativesinthefirsthalfofhisfirstterm,inanelectionthatwascharacterizedbytheeconomy'sslowrecovery,and
theriseoftheTeaPartymovement.[29]

2012presidentialelection
Inthe2012presidentialelection,ObamadefeatedformerGovernorofMassachusettsMittRomneywith51%ofthepopular
voteand62%oftheelectoralvote.[30]Meanwhile,despiteminorlosses,Republicansretainedtheirmajorityofseatsinthe
HouseofRepresentativeswhileDemocratsincreasedtheirmajorityintheSenate.[26]
Speculationaboutthe2016campaignbeganalmostimmediatelyfollowingthe2012campaign,withNewYorkmagazine
declaringtheracehadbeguninanarticlepublishedonNovember8,twodaysafterthe2012election.[31]Onthesameday,
Politicoreleasedanarticlepredictingthe2016generalelectionwouldbebetweenClintonandformerGovernorofFloridaJeb
Bush,whileaTheNewYorkTimesarticlenamedGovernorofNewJerseyChrisChristieandNewJerseySenatorCoryBooker
aspotentialcandidates.[32][33]
Ageneralelectionballot,listingthe
presidentialandvicepresidential
candidates

2014midtermelections
Inthe2014midtermelections,voterturnoutwasthelowestsince1942:36%ofeligiblevotersvoted.[34]TheRepublicans
retainedcontroloftheHouseofRepresentatives,increasingtheirmajoritytoitslargestsinceMarch4,1929,[35]andgaineda

majorityintheSenate.[36]

RepublicanParty
Primaries
SeventeenmajorcandidatesenteredtheracestartingMarch23,2015,whenSenatorTedCruzofTexaswasthefirsttoannouncehiscandidacy:formerGovernorJeb
BushofFlorida,retiredneurosurgeonBenCarsonofMaryland,GovernorChrisChristieofNewJersey,businesswomanCarlyFiorinaofCalifornia,formerGovernor
JimGilmoreofVirginia,SenatorLindseyGrahamofSouthCarolina,formerGovernorMikeHuckabeeofArkansas,formerGovernorBobbyJindalofLouisiana,
GovernorJohnKasichofOhio,formerGovernorGeorgePatakiofNewYork,SenatorRandPaulofKentucky,formerGovernorRickPerryofTexas,SenatorMarco
RubioofFlorida,formerSenatorRickSantorumofPennsylvania,businessmanDonaldTrumpofNewYorkandGovernorScottWalkerofWisconsin.Thiswasthe
largestpresidentialprimaryfieldforanypoliticalpartyinAmericanhistory.[37]
PriortotheIowacaucusesonFebruary1,2016,Perry,Walker,Jindal,GrahamandPatakiwithdrewduetolowpollingnumbers.DespiteleadingmanypollsinIowa,
TrumpcameinsecondtoCruz,afterwhichHuckabee,PaulandSantorumwithdrewduetopoorperformancesattheballotbox.FollowingasizablevictoryforTrump
intheNewHampshireprimary,Christie,FiorinaandGilmoreabandonedtherace.BushfollowedsuitafterscoringfourthplacetoTrump,RubioandCruzinSouth
Carolina.OnMarch1,2016,thefirstoffour"SuperTuesday"primaries,RubiowonhisfirstcontestinMinnesota,CruzwonAlaska,OklahomaandhishomeofTexas
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andTrumpwontheothersevenstatesthatvoted.Failingtogaintraction,Carsonsuspendedhiscampaignafewdayslater.[38]OnMarch15,2016,thesecondoffour
"SuperTuesday"primaries,KasichwonhisonlycontestinhishomestateofOhioandTrumpwonfiveprimariesincludingFlorida.Rubiosuspendedhiscampaign
afterlosinghishomestate,[39]butretainedalargeshareofhisdelegatesforthenationalconvention,whichhereleasedtoTrump.[39]
BetweenMarch16andMay3,2016,onlythreecandidatesremainedintherace:Trump,CruzandKasich.CruzwonmostdelegatesinfourWesterncontestsandin
Wisconsin,keepingacrediblepathtodenyingTrumpthenominationonfirstballotwith1,237delegates.Trumpthenaugmentedhisleadbyscoringlandslidevictories
inNewYorkandfiveNortheasternstatesinAprilandhegrabbedall57delegatesintheIndianaprimaryofMay3,2016.Withoutanyfurtherchancesofforcinga
contestedconvention,bothCruz[40]andKasich[41]suspendedtheircampaigns.Trumpremainedtheonlyactivecandidateandwasdeclaredthepresumptive
RepublicannomineebyRepublicanNationalCommitteechairmanReincePriebusontheeveningofMay3,2016.[42]

Nominees

RepublicanPartyticket,2016

DonaldTrump

MikePence

forPresident

forVicePresident

Chairmanof
TheTrumpOrganization

50th
GovernorofIndiana

(1971present)

(2013present)

Campaign

[43][44][45]

Othermajorcandidates
Majorcandidatesweredeterminedbythevariousmediabasedoncommonconsensus.Thefollowingwereinvitedtosanctionedteleviseddebatesbasedontheirpoll
ratings.
Trumpreceived14,010,177totalvotesintheprimary.He,Cruz,RubioandKasicheachwonatleastoneprimary.

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Candidatesinthissectionaresortedbyreversedateofwithdrawalfromtheprimaries
JohnKasich

TedCruz

MarcoRubio

BenCarson

JebBush

JimGilmore

69th
GovernorofOhio

U.S.Senator
fromTexas

U.S.Senator
fromFlorida

(2011present)

(2013present)

(2011present)

Campaign

Campaign

Campaign

Campaign

Campaign

Campaign

Campaign

Campaign

W:May4

W:May3

W:Mar15

W:Mar4

W:Feb20

W:Feb12

W:Feb10

W:Feb10

4,287,479votes

7,811,110votes

3,514,124votes

857,009votes

286,634votes

18,364votes

40,577votes

57,634votes

[46]

[47][48][49]

[50][51][52]

[53][54][55]

[56][57]

[58][59]

[60][61]

[62][63]

GeorgePataki

Lindsey
Graham

BobbyJindal

ScottWalker

RickPerry

Dir.ofPediatric
43rd
68th
Neurosurgery,
GovernorofFlorida GovernorofVirginia
JohnsHopkinsHospital
(19842013)

(19992007)

(19982002)

CarlyFiorina

ChrisChristie

CEOofHewlett
Packard

55th
GovernorofNewJersey

(19992005)

(2010present)

RandPaul

RickSantorum MikeHuckabee

U.S.Senator
fromKentucky

U.S.Senator
44th
53rd
U.S.Senator
55th
45th
fromPennsylvania GovernorofArkansas GovernorofNewYork fromSouthCarolina GovernorofLouisiana GovernorofWisconsin

47th
GovernorofTexas

(2011present)

(19952007)

(19962007)

(19952006)

(2003present)

(20082016)

(2011present)

(20002015)

Campaign

Campaign

Campaign

Campaign

Campaign

Campaign

Campaign

Campaign

W:Feb3

W:Feb3

W:Feb1

W:December29,2015

66,781votes

16,622votes

51,436votes

2,036votes

W:December21,
2015

W:November17,
2015

5,666votes

222votes

1writeinvoteinNew
Hampshire

1writeinvoteinNew
Hampshire

[64][65][66]

[67][68]

[69][70]

[71]

[72][73]

[74][75]

[76][77][78]

[78][79][80]

W:September21,2015 W:September11,2015

Vicepresidentialselection
DonaldTrumpturnedhisattentiontowardsselectingarunningmateafterhebecamethepresumptivenomineeonMay4,2016.[81]InmidJune,EliStokolsand
BurgessEverettofPoliticoreportedthattheTrumpcampaignwasconsideringNewJerseyGovernorChrisChristie,formerSpeakeroftheHouseNewtGingrichof
Georgia,AlabamaSenatorJeffSessions,andOklahomaGovernorMaryFallin.[82]AJune30WashingtonPostreportalsoincludedSenatorsBobCorkerofTennessee,
RichardBurrofNorthCarolina,TomCottonofArkansas,JoniErnstofIowa,andIndianaGovernorMikePenceasindividualsstillbeingconsideredfortheticket.[83]
Trumpalsostatedthathewasconsideringtwomilitarygeneralsfortheposition,includingretiredLieutenantGeneralMichaelFlynn.[84]
InJuly2016,itwasreportedthatTrumphadnarrowedhislistofpossiblerunningmatesdowntothree:Christie,Gingrich,andPence.[85]
OnJuly14,2016,severalmajormediaoutletsreportedthatTrumphadselectedPenceashisrunningmate.TrumpconfirmedthesereportsinamessageonTwitteron
July15,2016,andformallymadetheannouncementthefollowingdayinNewYork.[86][87]OnJuly19,thesecondnightofthe2016RepublicanNationalConvention,
PencewontheRepublicanvicepresidentialnominationbyacclamation.[88]

DemocraticParty
Primaries
FormerSecretaryofStateHillaryClinton,whoalsoservedintheU.S.SenateandwastheFirstLadyoftheUnitedStates,becamethefirstDemocrattoformally
launchamajorcandidacyforthepresidency.ClintonmadetheannouncementonApril12,2015,viaavideomessage.[89]WhileNationwideopinionpollsin2015
indicatedthatClintonwasthefrontrunnerforthe2016Democraticpresidentialnomination,shefacedchallengesfromIndependentVermontSenatorBernie
Sanders,[90]whobecamethesecondmajorcandidatewhenheformallyannouncedonApril30,2015,thathewasrunningfortheDemocraticnomination.[91]
September2015pollingnumbersindicatedanarrowinggapbetweenClintonandSanders.[90][92][93]OnMay30,2015,formerGovernorofMarylandMartinO'Malley
wasthethirdmajorcandidatetoentertheDemocraticprimaryrace.[94]OnJune3,2015,LincolnChafee,formerIndependentGovernorandRepublicanSenatorof
RhodeIsland,becamethefourthmajorcandidatetoannouncehiscandidacyfortheDemocraticnomination.[95][96]OnJuly2,2015,formerVirginiaSenatorJimWebb
becamethefifthmajorDemocraticcandidatetoannouncehisbidforthepresidency.[97]OnSeptember6,2015,formerHarvardlawprofessorLawrenceLessigbecame
thesixthandfinalmajorDemocraticcandidatetoentertherace.[98]
OnOctober20,2015,WebbannouncedhiswithdrawalfromtheDemocraticprimaries,andexploredapotentialIndependentrun.[99]ThenextdayVicePresidentJoe
Bidendecidednottorun,endingmonthsofspeculation,stating,"WhileIwillnotbeacandidate,Iwillnotbesilent."[100][101]OnOctober23,Chafeewithdrew,stating
thathehopedfor"anendtotheendlesswarsandthebeginningofanewerafortheUnitedStatesandhumanity".[102]OnNovember2,afterfailingtoqualifyforthe
secondDNCsanctioneddebateafteradoptionofarulechangenegatedpollswhichbeforemighthavenecessitatedhisinclusioninthedebate,Lessigwithdrewaswell,
narrowingthefieldtoClinton,O'Malley,andSanders.[103]
OnFebruary1,2016,inanextremelyclosecontest,ClintonwontheIowacaucusesbyamarginof0.2pointsoverSanders.AfterwinningnodelegatesinIowa,
O'Malleywithdrewfromthepresidentialracethatday.OnFebruary9,SandersbouncedbacktowintheNewHampshireprimarywith60%ofthevote.Inthe
remainingtwoFebruarycontests,ClintonwontheNevadacaucuseswith53%ofthevoteandscoredadecisivevictoryintheSouthCarolinaprimarywith73%ofthe
vote.[104][105]OnMarch1,11statesparticipatedinthefirstoffour"SuperTuesday"primaries.ClintonwonAlabama,Arkansas,Georgia,Massachusetts,Tennessee,
Texas,andVirginiaand504pledgeddelegates,whileSanderswonColorado,Minnesota,OklahomaandhishomestateofVermontand340delegates.Thefollowing
weekend,SanderswonvictoriesinKansas,NebraskaandMainewith1530pointmargins,whileClintonwontheLouisianaprimarywith71%ofthevote.OnMarch
8,despiteneverhavingaleadintheMichiganprimary,Sanderswonbyasmallmarginof1.5pointsandoutperformingpollsbyover19points,whileClintonwon
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83%ofthevoteinMississippi.[106]OnMarch15,thesecondoffour"SuperTuesday"primaries,ClintonwoninFlorida,Illinois,Missouri,NorthCarolinaandOhio.
BetweenMarch22andApril9,2016,SanderswonsixcaucusesinIdaho,Utah,Alaska,Hawaii,WashingtonandWyoming,aswellastheWisconsinprimary,while
ClintonwontheArizonaprimary.OnApril19,ClintonwontheNewYorkprimarywith58%ofthevote.OnApril26,inthethirdoffour"SuperTuesday"primaries
dubbedthe"Acelaprimary",shewoncontestsinConnecticut,Delaware,MarylandandPennsylvania,whileSanderswoninRhodeIsland.OverthecourseofMay,
SandersaccomplishedanothersurprisewinintheIndianaprimary[107]andalsowoninWestVirginiaandOregon,whileClintonwontheGuamcaucusandKentucky
primary.
OnJune4and5,ClintonwontwovictoriesintheVirginIslandscaucusandPuertoRicoprimary.OnJune6,2016,theAssociatedPressandNBCNewsreportedthat
Clintonhadbecomethepresumptivenomineeafterreachingtherequirednumberofdelegates,includingpledgeddelegatesandsuperdelegates,tosecurethe
nomination,becomingthefirstwomantoeverclinchthepresidentialnominationofamajorUnitedStatespoliticalparty.[108]OnJune7,Clintonsecuredamajorityof
pledgeddelegatesafterwinningprimariesinCalifornia,NewJersey,NewMexicoandSouthDakota,whileSandersonlywoninMontanaandNorthDakota.Clinton
alsowonthefinalprimaryinWashington,D.C.onJune14.Attheconclusionoftheprimaryprocess,Clintonhadwon2,204pledgeddelegates(54%ofthetotal)
awardedbytheprimaryelectionsandcaucuses,whileSandershadwon1,847(46%).Outofthe714unpledgeddelegatesor"superdelegates"whoweresettovotein
theconventioninJuly,Clintonreceivedendorsementsfrom560(78%),whileSandersreceived47(7%).[109]
AlthoughSandershadnotformallydroppedoutoftherace,heannouncedonJune16,2016,thathismaingoalinthecomingmonthswouldbetoworkwithClintonto
defeatTrumpinthegeneralelection.[110]OnJuly8,appointeesfromtheClintoncampaign,theSanderscampaign,andtheDemocraticNationalCommitteenegotiated
adraftoftheparty'splatform.[111]OnJuly12,SandersformallyendorsedClintonatarallyinNewHampshireinwhichheappearedwithClinton.[112]OnJuly22,
threedaysbeforethestartoftheDemocraticNationalConvention,theClintoncampaignannouncedthatVirginiaSenatorTimKainehadbeenselectedasherrunning
mate.Clintonisthefirstfemalepresidentialcandidatenominatedbyamajorpoliticalparty.

Nominees

DemocraticPartyticket,2016

HillaryClinton

TimKaine

forPresident

forVicePresident

67th
U.S.SecretaryofState

U.S.SenatorfromVirginia
(2013present)

(20092013)

Campaign

[113][114][115]

Othermajorcandidates
Thefollowingcandidateswerefrequentlyinterviewedbymajorbroadcastnetworksandcablenewschannels,orwerelistedinpubliclypublishednationalpolls.Lessig
wasinvitedtooneforum,butwithdrewwhenruleswerechangedwhichpreventedhimfromparticipatinginofficiallysanctioneddebates.
Clintonreceived16,849,779votesintheprimary.

Candidatesinthissectionaresortedbydateofwithdrawalfromtheprimaries
BernieSanders

RockyDeLaFuente

MartinO'Malley

LawrenceLessig

LincolnChafee

JimWebb

U.S.SenatorfromVermont

Entrepreneur
(1984topresent)

61st
GovernorofMaryland

HarvardLawProfessor

(2007present)

74th
GovernorofRhodeIsland

U.S.Senator
fromVirginia

(20112015)

(20072013)

Campaign

Campaign

Campaign

Campaign

LN:July26,2016

(20072015)

Campaign

(20092016)

Campaign
W:November2,2015

13,167,848primaryvotesand1,846
delegates

LN:July26th2016

W:February1,2016

67,457primaryvotesand0delegates

110,423votes

4writeinvotesinNew
Hampshire

[116]

[117]

[118][119]

[103]

W:October23,2015

W:October20,2015

0votes

2writeinvotesinNewHampshire

[120]

[121]

Vicepresidentialselection

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InApril2016,theClintoncampaignbegantoputtogetheralistof15to20individualstovetforthepositionofrunningmate,eventhoughSanderscontinuedto
challengeClintonintheDemocraticprimaries.[122]InmidJune,theTheWallStreetJournalreportedthatClinton'sshortlistincludedRepresentativeXavierBecerraof
California,SenatorCoryBookerofNewJersey,SenatorSherrodBrownofOhio,HousingandUrbanDevelopmentSecretaryJulinCastroofTexas,MayorofLos
AngelesEricGarcettiofCalifornia,SenatorTimKaineofVirginia,LaborSecretaryTomPerezofMaryland,RepresentativeTimRyanofOhio,andSenatorElizabeth
WarrenofMassachusetts.[123]SubsequentreportsstatedthatClintonwasalsoconsideringSecretaryofAgricultureTomVilsack,retiredAdmiralJamesStavridis,and
GovernorJohnHickenlooperofColorado.[124]Indiscussingherpotentialvicepresidentialchoice,Clintonstatedthatthemostimportantattributeshelookedforwas
theabilityandexperiencetoimmediatelystepintotheroleofpresident.[124]
OnJuly22,ClintonannouncedthatshehadchosenSenatorTimKaineofVirginiaasherrunningmate.[125]Thedelegatesatthe2016DemocraticNational
Convention,whichtookplaceJuly2528,formallynominatedtheDemocraticticket.

Majorthirdpartiesandindependents
Partiesinthissectionhaveobtainedmorethan100,000votesnationallyandonepercentofthevoteinatleastonestate.

LibertarianParty
AdditionalPartyEndorsements:IndependencePartyofNewYork
Ballotaccesstoall538electoralvotes
Nominees

LibertarianPartyticket,2016

GaryJohnson

WilliamWeld

forPresident

forVicePresident

29th
GovernorofNewMexico

68th
GovernorofMassachusetts

(19952003)

(19911997)

Campaign

[126][127]

GreenParty
Ballotaccessto480electoralvotes(522withwritein):[128]
Aswritein:Georgia,Indiana,NorthCarolina[129][130]
Ballotaccesslawsuitpending:Oklahoma[131]
Noballotaccess:Nevada,SouthDakota[129][132]
Nominees

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GreenPartyticket,2016

JillStein

AjamuBaraka

forPresident

forVicePresident

Physician
fromLexington,Massachusetts

Activist
fromWashington,D.C.

Campaign

[133][134]

EvanMcMullin
AdditionalPartyEndorsement:IndependencePartyofMinnesota
Ballotaccessto84electoralvotes(451withwritein):[135]
Aswritein:Alabama,Alaska,Arizona,California,Connecticut,Delaware,Georgia,Illinois,Kansas,Maine,Maryland,Massachusetts,Michigan,Missouri,Montana,Nebraska,New
Hampshire,NewJersey,NewYork,NorthDakota,Ohio,Oregon,Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,Tennessee,Texas,Vermont,Washington,WestVirginia,Wisconsin[135][136][137][138][139][140][141]
Noballotaccess:DistrictofColumbia,Florida,Hawaii,Indiana,Mississippi,Nevada,NorthCarolina,Oklahoma,SouthDakota,Wyoming

NathanJohnsonislistedontheballotasEvanMcMullin'srunningmatewiththeintentionofservingasaplaceholderforMindyFinn.

Independentticket,2016

EvanMcMullin

MindyFinn

forPresident

forVicePresident

Chiefpolicydirectorforthe
HouseRepublicanConference

Presidentof
EmpoweredWomen

(20152016)[142]

Campaign

[142]

ConstitutionParty
Ballotaccessto207electoralvotes(451withwritein):[143][144]
Aswritein:Alabama,Arizona,Connecticut,Delaware,Georgia,Illinois,Indiana,Kansas,Kentucky,Maine,Maryland,Montana,Nebraska,NewHampshire,NewYork,Ohio,Oregon,
RhodeIsland,Tennessee,Texas,Vermont,Virginia[143][145][146][147][148]
Noballotaccess:California,DistrictofColumbia,Massachusetts,NorthCarolina,Oklahoma[143]

Nominees

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ConstitutionPartyticket,2016

DarrellCastle

ScottBradley

forPresident

forVicePresident

Attorney
fromMemphis,Tennessee

Businessman
fromUtah

Campaign

[149]

Ballotaccess
Presidentialticket

Party

Ballotaccess
States Electors %ofvoters

Votes

Percentage

Trump/Pence

Republican 50+DC 538

100%

60,261,924 47.30%

Clinton/Kaine

Democratic 50+DC 538

100%

60,828,358 47.75%

Johnson/Weld

Libertarian 50+DC 538

100%

4,151,138 3.26%

Stein/Baraka

Green

97.0%

1,249,970 0.98%

McMullin/Finn

Independent 41

451

83.83%

437,783

0.34%

Castle/Bradley

Constitution 46

451

83.8%

180,632

0.14%

47+DC 522

Candidatesinboldwereonballotsrepresenting270electoralvotes,withoutneedingwriteinstates.
Allothercandidateswereontheballotsoffewerthan25states,buthadwriteinaccessgreaterthan270.

Otherthirdpartiesandindependents

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Party

UnitedStatespresidentialelection,2016Wikipedia

Presidential
nominee

Vice
presidential
nominee

American
Michael
RockyDeLaFuente
DeltaParty
Steinberg
Businessmanfrom
Reform
Lawyerfrom
California
Party
Florida
Partyfor
Socialism
and
Liberation

GloriaLaRiva
Newspaperprinter
Peaceand
andactivistfrom
Freedom[164]
California
Liberty
Union
Party[165]
Socialist
Workers
Party

AlysonKennedy
Mineworkerand
LaborLeaderfrom
Illinois

Electors
(write
in)

147
(305)
map

Stateswithballotaccess
(writein)
Alaska,Colorado,Florida,Idaho,Iowa,Kentucky,Minnesota,Mississippi,Montana,Nevada,NewHampshire,New
Jersey,NewMexico,NorthDakota,RhodeIsland,Tennessee,Utah,Vermont,Wisconsin,
Wyoming[144][150][151][152][153][154][155]
(Alabama,Arizona,Connecticut,Delaware,Indiana,Kansas,Maryland,Missouri,Nebraska,NewYork,Oregon,
Pennsylvania,Virginia,Washington,WestVirginia) [136][137][138][140][145][147][156][157][158][159][160][161][148][162][163]

California,Colorado,Iowa,Louisiana,NewJersey,NewMexico,Vermont,Washington[166][167]

Eugene
Puryear
Activistfrom
Washington,
D.C.

112
(226)
map

OsborneHart
of
Pennsylvania

70
(123)
map

(Alabama,Connecticut,Delaware,Kansas,Maryland,Minnesota,NewHampshire,NewYork,Oregon,Pennsylvania,
RhodeIsland,WestVirginia) [137][138][140][147][156][157][161][163][168]

Colorado,Louisiana,Minnesota,NewJersey,Tennessee,Utah,Washington[166]
(Alabama,Iowa,NewHampshire,Oregon,Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,Vermont) [156][161]
NewJersey,Utah,Wisconsin[166]

MonicaMoorehead
perennialcandidate
Workers
WorldParty andpoliticalactivist
fromAlabama[169]

LamontLilly
ofNorth
Carolina[170]

30
(235)
map

Socialist
MimiSoltysik
PartyUSA formerNationalCo
ChairoftheSocialist AngelaNicole
Walker
NaturalLaw
PartyUSAfrom
ofWisconsin
California[178]
Party[177]

25
(209)
map

(Alabama,Indiana,Idaho,Iowa,Kansas,Massachusetts,Michigan,Montana,NewHampshire,New,York,Ohio,
Oregon,Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,Texas,Vermont,Washington,West
Virginia) [138][140][156][158][162][163][171][172][173][174][175][176]
Colorado,Michigan,Guam[166][167][179]
(Alabama,Indiana,Iowa,Maryland,Minnesota,Montana,NewHampshire,NewJersey,NewYork,Oregon,
Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,Texas,Utah,Vermont,Wisconsin) [140][147][156][158][161][162][168][174][176][180][181]

Campaign

JamesHedges
formerTaxAssessor
BillBayes
forThompson
Prohibition
of
Township,Fulton
Party
[182]
Mississippi
County,
Pennsylvania[182][183]

Arkansas,Colorado,Mississippi[166]

21
(116)
map

(Alabama,Idaho,Iowa,Kansas,Maryland,Montana,NewHampshire,NewJersey,Oregon,Pennsylvania,Rhode
Island,Vermont,WestVirginia) [138][147][156][161][163][171][174]

Colorado,Tennessee[166]

Independent

MikeSmith
Lawyer,Colorado

DanielWhite

20
(222)

(Alabama,Alaska,Arizona,Connecticut,Delaware,Georgia,Idaho,Iowa,Kansas,Kentucky,Maryland,Minnesota,
Montana,NewHampshire,NewJersey,Ohio,Oregon,Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,Utah,Vermont,Virginia,
Washington.WestVirginia) [137][138][145][147][148][156][157][161][162][163][168][171][174][175][180][184][185]
Ohio[186]

Independent

RichardDuncan
ofOhio

RickyJohnson

18
(173)

(Alabama,Alaska,Delaware,Florida,Idaho,Indiana,Iowa,Kentucky,Maryland,Minnesota,Montana,Nebraska,
NewHampshire,NewJersey,Oregon,Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,Vermont,West
Virginia) [147][156][157][158][160][161][163][167][168][171][174][184][185]
Colorado,Louisiana[166]

LaurenceKotlikoff
EconomicsProfessor
Independent
atBostonUniversity,
Massachusetts

EdwardE.
Leamer
Economics
Professorat
UCLA,
California

17
(428)
map

(Alabama,Alaska,Arizona,California,Connecticut,Florida,Georgia,Idaho,Illinois,Indiana,Iowa,Kentucky,
Maine,Maryland,Massachusetts,Michigan,Minnesota,Missouri,Montana,NewHampshire,NewJersey,North
Dakota,Ohio,Oregon,Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,Tennessee,Texas,Utah,Vermont,Virginia,Washington,West
Virginia,Wisconsin)
[136][137][139][141][145][147][148][156][158][161][162][163][167][168][171][172][173][174][175][176][180][181][184][185][187][188][189][190]

Colorado,Louisiana[166][192]

America's
Party

TomHoefling
activistfrom
Iowa[191]

SteveSchulin
ofSouth
Carolina

17
(369)
map

(Alabama,Alaska,Arizona,Connecticut,Delaware,Georgia,Idaho,Illinois,Indiana,Iowa,Kansas,Kentucky,
Maryland,Michigan,Minnesota,Missouri,Montana,Nebraska,NewHampshire,NewJersey,NewYork,Ohio,
Oregon,Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,Tennessee,Texas,Utah,Vermont,Virginia,Washington,WestVirginia,
Wisconsin)
[137][138][139][140][145][146][147][148][156][157][158][160][161][162][163][168][171][173][174][175][176][180][181][184][185][188][190]

Colorado,Louisiana[166]

Veterans
Partyof
America

ChrisKeniston
reliabilityengineer
fromTexas[193]

DeaconTaylor
ofNevada[194]

17
(196)
map

(Alabama,Alaska,Idaho,Iowa,Kentucky,Minnesota,Nebraska,NewHampshire,NewJersey,NewYork,Ohio,
Oregon,Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,Vermont,Virginia,Washington,

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Wisconsin) [140][148][156][160][161][162][168][171][175][181][184][185]

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Party

UnitedStatespresidentialelection,2016Wikipedia

Presidential
nominee

Legal
Marijuana
NowParty

DanVacek
ofMinnesota

Independent

LynnKahn
DoctorofClinical
Psychologyfrom
Maryland

Vice
presidential
nominee
MarkElworth
Jr.
ofNebraska

Electors
(write
in)

Stateswithballotaccess
(writein)
Iowa,Minnesota[166]

16
(77)

(Alabama,NewHampshire,NewJersey,Oregon,Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,Vermont) [156][161]
Arkansas,Iowa[153][166]

Kathleen
Monahan
ofFlorida

12
(160)

(Alabama,Delaware,Idaho,Kansas,Maryland,Minnesota,Montana,Nebraska,NewHampshire,NewJersey,New
York,Oregon,Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,Vermont,Washington,West
Virginia) [138][140][147][156][157][160][161][162][163][168][171][174]
Colorado[195]

American
Solidarity
Party

MikeMaturen
salesprofessional
andmagicianfrom
Michigan

JuanMuoz
ofTexas

9
(332)
map

(Alabama,Alaska,California,Georgia,Idaho,Iowa,Kansas,Kentucky,Maryland,Michigan,Minnesota,Nebraska,
NewHampshire,NewJersey,NewYork,NorthDakota,Ohio,Oregon,Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,Texas,Vermont,
Virginia,Washington,Wisconsin)[136][138][140][141][146][147][148][156][160][161][162][168][171][173][175][176][181][184][185]
Colorado[195]

Independent

JosephAllen
Maldonado
ofOklahoma

DouglasK.
Terranova

9
(212)

(Alabama,Alaska,Arizona,Connecticut,Delaware,Illinois,Indiana,Iowa,Kentucky,Maryland,Minnesota,
Montana,Nebraska,NewHampshire,NewJersey,Ohio,Oregon,Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,Vermont,Washington,
WestVirginia,Wisconsin) [137][145][147][156][157][158][160][161][162][163][168][174][175][181][184][185][188]
Colorado[195]

Independent

RyanAlanScott

BruceKendall
Barnard

9
(108)

(Alabama,Delaware,Iowa,NewHampshire,NewJersey,NewYork,Oregon,Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,
Vermont) [140][156][157][161]
SouthCarolina[196]

PeterSkewes
American
AnimalScience
Party(South ProfessoratClemson MichaelLacy
Carolina)
University,South
Carolina

9
(83)

Approval
VotingParty

BlakeHuber
ofColorado

9
(76)

NarthanR.
Sorenson

9
(76)

RichardSilva

9
(76)

9
(76)

(Alabama,Connecticut,Iowa,NewHampshire,NewJersey,Oregon,Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,
Vermont) [137][156][161]
Colorado[195]

FrankAtwood
ofColorado

Independent
KyleKenleKopitke
American
ofMichigan
Party

(Alabama,Iowa,NewHampshire,NewJersey,Oregon,Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,Vermont) [156][161]
Colorado[195]
(Alabama,Iowa,NewHampshire,NewJersey,Oregon,Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,Vermont) [156][161]
Colorado[195]

Nutrition
Party

RodSilva
restaurateurfrom
NewJersey[197][198]

United
States
Pacifist
Party

BradfordLyttle
peaceactivistfrom
Illinois

HannahWalsh

Socialist
Equality
Party

JerryWhite
peaceactivistfrom
Michigan

NilesNiemuth
journalistfrom
Wisconsin

8
(166)

Independent

PrincessKhadijah
JacobFambro
ofCalifornia

MiltonFambro
ofCalifornia

8
(75)

Independent
American
Party

RockyGiordani
fromCalifornia

Farley
Anderson
activistfrom
Utah

6
(79)

Constitution
Partyof
Idaho

ScottCopeland
ofTexas

J.R.Meyers

4
(71)

(Alabama,Iowa,NewHampshire,NewJersey,Oregon,Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,Vermont) [156][161]
Colorado[195]
(Alabama,Iowa,NewHampshire,NewJersey,Oregon,Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,Vermont) [156][161]
Louisiana[199]
(Alabama,California,Delaware,Iowa,Kentucky,Maryland,Minnesota,NewHampshire,NewJersey,Oregon,
Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,Vermont,WestVirginia) [136][147][156][157][161][163][168][185]
Louisiana[199]
(Alabama,Iowa,NewHampshire,NewJersey,Oregon,Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,Vermont) [156][161]
Utah[180]
(Alabama,Iowa,Kansas,NewHampshire,NewJersey,Oregon,Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,Vermont) [138][156][161]
Idaho[200]
(Alabama,Iowa,NewHampshire,NewJersey,Oregon,Pennsylvania,RhodeIsland,Vermont) [156][161]

Swingstates
Presidentialcampaignsfocustheirresourcesonarelativelysmallnumberofcompetitivestates,referredtoasswingorbattlegroundstates.[201]Somepotentialswing
statesare:Florida,Iowa,Nevada,NorthCarolina,andOhio.[202][203]Floridaisthelargestswingstateandhasbeenwonbytheoverallwinnereveryelectionsince
1996.Ohioisanotherlargeswingstateandhashadaperfectbellwetherrecordsince1964.Thestatesregardedascompetitivecanfluctuate,asthepollsfluctuate.

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Someconsensusamongpoliticalpunditsdevelopedthroughouttheprimaryelectionseasonregardingswingstates.[204]Fromtheresultsofpresidentialelectionsfrom
2004throughto2012,generallytheDemocraticandRepublicanpartiesstartwithasafeelectoralvotecountofabout150to200.[205][206]Themarginsrequiredto
constituteaswingstatearevague,however,andlocalfactorscancomeintoplay.[207][208]ItwasthoughtthatleftleaningstatesintheRustBeltcouldbecomemore
conservative,asTrumpmostlyappealstobluecollarworkers.[209]TheyrepresentalargeportionoftheAmericanpopulaceandwereamajorfactorinTrump's
eventualnomination.Trump'sprimarycampaignwaspropelledbyvictoriesinDemocraticstates,andhissupportersoftendidnotidentifyasRepublican.
InMaineandNebraska,twoelectorsaregiventowhoeverhasthemostoverallvotes,andthewinnerofeachcongressionaldistrictreceivesoneelectoralvote.[210]
Everyotherstateawardsallofitselectoralvotestothecandidatewiththehighestvotepercentage.[211]Mediareportsindicatedthatbothcandidatesplannedto
concentrateonFlorida,Pennsylvania,Wisconsin,OhioandNorthCarolina.[212][213]
AmongtheRepublicanleaningstates,potentialDemocratictargetsincludedNebraska'ssecondcongressionaldistrict,Georgia,andArizona.[214]Trump'srelatively
poorpollinginsometraditionallyRepublicanstates,suchasUtah,raisedthepossibilitytheycouldvoteforClinton,despiteeasywinstherebyrecentRepublican
nominees.[215]ManyanalystsassertedthatUtahisnotaviableDemocraticdestination.[216][217]
Sitesandindividualspublishelectoralpredictions.Thesegenerallyratetheracebytheprobabilityeitherofthetwomainpartieswinseachstate."Tossup"isgenerally
usedtoindicatethatneitherpartyhasanadvantage,"lean"toindicateapartyhasaslightedge,"likely"toindicateapartyhasaclearadvantage,and"safe"toindicate
apartyisheavilyfavored.RatingsfromtheCookPoliticalReport,Sabato'sCrystalBall,ortheRothenbergGonzalesPoliticalReportareincludedinthetablebelow.
Thestate's2014CookPVIandthelatestswingforeachstatearealsolisted.

State

Electoral
votes

2012
margin

Cook
PVI

Cook

RCP

Roth.

Sabato

Nov.7
2016[218]

Nov.6
2016[219]

Nov.7
2016[220]

Nov.7
2016[221]

Last
swing

2016
margin

Arizona

11

9.1R

R+7

LeanR

Tossup

TiltR

LeanR

2000

4.4R

Colorado

5.4D

D+1

LeanD

Tossup

LikelyD

LikelyD

2008

2.1D

Florida

29

0.9D

R+2

Tossup

Tossup

TiltD

LeanD

2008

1.3R

Georgia

16

7.8R

R+6

LeanR

Tossup

LeanR

LikelyR

1996

5.7R

Iowa

5.8D

D+1

LeanR

Tossup

TiltR

LeanR

2008

9.6R

Maine(statewide)

15.3D

D+6

LikelyD

Tossup

LikelyD

LikelyD

1988

2.7D

Maine(CD2)

8.6D

D+2

Tossup

Tossup

Norating

LeanR

1992

TBD

Michigan

16

9.5D

D+4

LeanD

Tossup

LeanD

LeanD

1992

0.3R

LeanD

LikelyD

LikelyD

1972

1.4D

LeanR

2012

TBD

Minnesota

10

7.7D

D+2

LikelyD

NebraskaCD2

7.2R

R+4

Tossup

NewMexico

10.2D

D+4

LikelyD

Tossup

SafeD

LikelyD

2004

8.3D

Nevada

6.7D

D+2

LeanD

Tossup

TiltD

LeanD

2008

2.4D

NewHampshire

5.6D

D+1

LeanD

Tossup

LeanD

LeanD

2004

0.2D

NorthCarolina

15

2.0R

R+3

Tossup

Tossup

TiltD

LeanD

2012

3.8R

Ohio

18

3.0D

R+1

LeanR

Tossup

Tossup

LeanR

2008

8.6R

Pennsylvania

20

5.4D

D+1

LeanD

Tossup

LeanD

LeanD

1992

1.2R

Virginia

13

3.9D

EVEN

LikelyD

Tossup

LikelyD

LikelyD

2004

4.9D

Wisconsin

10

6.9D

D+2

LeanD

LeanD

TiltD

LikelyD

1988

1.0R

LikelyR Norating[b]

a.Inearlyelections,beginningwiththeelectionofGeorgeWashington,manyelectorswerechosenbystatelegislaturesinsteadofpublicballotingand,inthosestateswhichpracticed
publicballoting,voteswerecastforundifferentiatedlistsofcandidates,leavingnooronlypartialvotetotals.Somestatescontinuedtoallocateelectorsbylegislativevoteaslateas
1860.[7][8][9]
b.StatewideNebraskaraceratedasLikelyR

Partyconventions
DemocraticParty
July2528,2016:DemocraticNationalConventionwasheldinPhiladelphia,
Pennsylvania.[222]
RepublicanParty

Cleveland

SaltLakeCity

Philadelphia

July1821,2016:RepublicanNationalConventionwasheldinCleveland,Ohio.[223][224]
LibertarianParty
Houston

May2630,2016:LibertarianNationalConventionwasheldinOrlando,Florida.[225][226]

Orlando

GreenParty
August47,2016:GreenNationalConventionwasheldinHouston,Texas.[227][228]
ConstitutionParty
April1316,2016:ConstitutionPartyNationalConventionwasheldinSaltLakeCity,
Utah.[229]

DemocraticParty
RepublicanParty
LibertarianParty
GreenParty
ConstitutionParty

Campaignfinance
ThisisanoverviewofthemoneyusedinthecampaignasitisreportedtoFederalElectionCommission(FEC)andreleasedinSeptember2016.Outsidegroupsare
independentexpenditureonlycommitteesalsocalledPACsandSuperPACs.ThesourcesofthenumbersaretheFECandCenterforResponsivePolitics.[230]Some
spendingtotalsarenotavailable,duetowithdrawalsbeforetheFECdeadline.AsofSeptember2016,tencandidateswithballotaccesshavefiledfinancialreportswith
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theFEC.
Campaigncommittee(asofSeptember30)

Candidate

Moneyraised

Moneyspent

Cashonhand

Outsidegroups(asofOctober16)
Debt

Moneyraised

Moneyspent

Cashonhand

Totalspent

HillaryClinton[231][232]

$460,168,401

$400,504,099

$59,664,302

$626,094

$171,240,103

$148,604,471

$22,635,633

$534,352,332

DonaldTrump[233][234]

$224,449,710

$189,673,422

$34,776,287

$0

$214,496,514

$183,418,431

$31,078,083

$367,405,384

GaryJohnson[235][236]

$10,573,731

$9,463,272

$1,217,539

$1,538,118

$1,378,510

$917,521

$460,988

$10,349,663

RockyDeLaFuente[237]

$7,351,270

$7,354,663

$3,392

$7,334,250

$0

$0

$0

$7,354,663

JillStein[238][239]

$3,218,525

$3,144,843

$73,681

$87,740

$0

$0

$0

$3,144,843

EvanMcMullin[240]

$501,093

$496,776

$4,316

$0

$0

$0

$0

$496,776

[241]

DarrellCastle

$52,234

$51,365

$869

$2,500

$0

$0

$0

$51,365

GloriaLaRiva[242]

$29,243

$24,207

$5,034

$0

$0

$0

$0

$24,207

MonicaMoorehead[243]

$11,547

$9,127

$2,419

$4,500

$0

$0

$0

$9,127

PeterSkewes[244]

$7,966

$4,238

$7,454

$8,000

$0

$0

$0

$4,238

Debates
Primaryelectiondebates
Generalelectiondebates
TheCommissiononPresidentialDebates(CPD),anonprofitorganization,hosteddebatesbetweenqualifying
presidentialandvicepresidentialcandidates.Accordingtothecommission'swebsite,tobeeligibletooptto
participateintheanticipateddebates,"...inadditiontobeingConstitutionallyeligible,candidatesmustappear
onasufficientnumberofstateballotstohaveamathematicalchanceofwinningamajorityvoteintheElectoral
College,andhavealevelofsupportofatleast15percentofthenationalelectorateasdeterminedbyfive
selectednationalpublicopinionpollingorganizations,usingtheaverageofthoseorganizations'mostrecently
publiclyreportedresultsatthetimeofthedetermination."[245]
Thethreelocationschosentohostthepresidentialdebates,andtheonelocationselectedtohostthevice
presidentialdebate,wereannouncedonSeptember23,2015.Thesiteofthefirstdebatewasoriginally
designatedasWrightStateUniversityinDayton,Ohiohowever,duetorisingcostsandsecurityconcerns,the
debatewasmovedtoHofstraUniversityinHempstead,NewYork.[246]

University
ofColorado
Boulder

Universityof
Nevada
LasVegas

Washington
University
St.Louis,MO

Hofstra
University
Hempstead,NY

Longwood
University
Farmville,VA

Sitesofthe2016generalelectiondebates

OnAugust19,Trump'scampaignmanagerconfirmedthathewouldparticipateinaseriesofthree
debates.[247][248][249][250]Trumphadcomplainedthattwoofthescheduleddebates,oneonSeptember26andtheotherOctober9,willhavetocompeteforviewers
withNationalFootballLeaguegames,referencingthesimilarcomplaintsmaderegardingthedateswithlowexpectedratingsduringtheDemocraticPartypresidential
debates.[251]AccordingtoasurveybyRasmussenReports,themajorityofAmericanvotersbelievethatthedebatemoderatorsatthepresidentialdebateswillbe
helpingHillaryClinton.[252]
TheFree&EqualElectionsFoundationannouncedplanstohostanopendebateamongallpresidentialcandidateswhohadballotaccesssufficienttorepresenta
majorityofelectoralvotes.[253]InOctober2016FreeandEqualextendedtheinvitationtoallcandidateswithballotlinesrepresentingatleast15%oftheelectoral
vote.ThenomineesoftheDemocratic,Republican,Libertarian,Green,Constitution,Reform,andSocialismandLiberationparties,aswellasindependentcandidate
EvanMcMullin,wereinvitedtoparticipate.[254]ThedebatewasheldattheUniversityofColoradoBoulder'sMackyAuditoriumonOctober25,2016.Itwas
moderatedbyEdAsnerandChristinaTobin,withDarrellCastle,RockyDeLaFuente,andGloriaLaRivaparticipating.[255]
No.

Date

Time

Debatesamongcandidatesforthe2016U.S.presidentialelection
Host
City
Moderator(s)

P1 September26,2016 9p.m.EDT

Participants

HofstraUniversity

Hempstead,NewYork

LesterHolt

HillaryClinton
DonaldTrump

LongwoodUniversity

Farmville,Virginia

ElaineQuijano

TimKaine
MikePence

VP

October4,2016

9p.m.EDT

P2

October9,2016

8p.m.CDT WashingtonUniversityinSt.Louis

St.Louis,Missouri

AndersonCooper
MarthaRaddatz

HillaryClinton
DonaldTrump

P3

October19,2016

6p.m.PDT

UniversityofNevada,LasVegas

LasVegas,Nevada

ChrisWallace

HillaryClinton
DonaldTrump

P4

October25,2016 7p.m.MDT

UniversityofColoradoBoulder

Boulder,Colorado

DarrellCastle
EdAsner
RockyDeLaFuente
ChristinaTobin
GloriaLaRiva

=SponsoredbytheCPD=SponsoredbyFree&Equal

Newspaperendorsements
ClintonwasendorsedbyTheNewYorkTimes,[256]LosAngelesTimes,[257]HoustonChronicle,[258]SanJoseMercuryNews,[259]ChicagoSunTimes[260]andtheNew
YorkDailyNews[261]editorialboards.Trump,whohasfrequentlycriticizedthemainstreammedia,wasnotendorsedbyamajornewspaper,[262][263]withtheLas
VegasReviewJournalhishighestprofilesupporter.[264]SeveralpaperswhichendorsedClinton,suchastheHoustonChronicle,[258]TheDallasMorningNews,[265]
TheSanDiegoUnionTribune[266]TheColumbusDispatch[267]andtheTheArizonaRepublic,[268]endorsedtheirfirstDemocraticcandidateformanydecades.USA
Today,whichhadnotendorsedanycandidatesinceitwasfounded34yearsago,broketraditionbygivinganantiendorsementagainstTrump,declaringhim"unfitfor
thepresidency".[269][270]TheAtlantic,whichhasbeenincirculationsince1857,gaveClintonitsthirdeverendorsement(afterAbrahamLincolnandLyndon
Johnson).[271]
OthertraditionallyRepublicanpapers,includingTheNewHampshireUnionLeader,whichhadendorsedtheRepublicanineveryelectionforthelast100years,[272]
theDetroitNews,whichhadnotendorsedanonRepublicaninits143years,[273]andtheChicagoTribune,[274]endorsedGaryJohnson.Trumpreceivedfavorable
coverage,butnoexplicitendorsement,fromBreitbart,analtrightnewsandopinionwebsite.[275]
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Forecasting
Thereweremanywaystotrytopredicttheoutcomeofthe2016(oranyother)election.[276]Sincetheadventofscientificpollingin1936,opinionpollshavebeena
nearlyuniversallyacceptedmethodtopredicttheoutcomeofelectionsthroughouttheworld.Morerecently,predictionmarketshavebeenformed,startingin1988
withIowaElectronicMarkets.
Academicscholarshaveconstructedmodelsofvotingbehaviortoforecasttheoutcomesofelections.AnearlysuccessfulmodelwhichisstillbeingusedisTheKeysto
theWhiteHousebyAllanLichtman.[277]PollyVotetakesasimpleaverageofsixtypesofinputs:Predictionmarkets,indexmodels,expertjudgment,citizenforecasts,
pollaggregatorsandeconometricmodels.
Forthe2016election,thereweremanycompetingelectionforecastapproachesincludingNateSilver'sFiveThirtyEight,TheUpshotatTheNewYorkTimes,Daily
Kos,PrincetonElectionConsortium,CookPoliticalReport,RothenbergandGonzales,PollyVote,SabatoandElectoralVote.[278]
ThesemodelsmostlyshowedaDemocraticadvantagesincethenomineeswereconfirmed.Pollsterswerepuzzledbythefailureofmainstreamforecastingmodelsto
predictthe2016electionoutcome.[279][280]FurtherconfusionwasattributedtoTheNewYorkTimes'livepresidentialelectionforecastwebsiteformisleadinggraphing
afteranalystAlpTokeridentifiedtheuseofpseudorandomjittertogivetheimpressionoflivefluctuationsinitsoutcomepredictions.[281][282]

Maps

Resultsbystate,shadedaccordingto
winningcandidate'spercentageofthevote

Electoralvotecartogram

ResultsbyVoteDistributionAmongStates.
Eachstate'spiechartisproportionaltothe
numberofelectoralvotestheyhave.

Resultsbycounty.Reddenotescounties
thatwenttoTrumpbluedenotescounties
thatwenttoClinton.

Resultsbycounty,shadedaccordingto
winningcandidate'spercentageofthevote.

Resultsbycounty,shadedaccordingto
winningcandidate'spercentageofthevote
(RedPurpleBlueview)

Resultsbycongressionaldistrict

Resultsbycounty,shadedaccordingto
winningcandidate'spercentageofthevote
forTrump

Resultsbycounty,shadedaccordingto
winningcandidate'spercentageofthevote
forClinton

Countyswingfrom2012to2016

Countyswingfrom2012to2016,relative
tonationalswing

Results
TheelectionwasheldonNovember8,2016.HillaryClintoncasthervoteintheNewYorkCitysuburbofChappaqua,whileDonaldTrumpvotedinaManhattan
publicschool.[283]Throughouttheday,theelectionprocesswentmoresmoothlythanmanyhadexpected,withonlyafewreportsoflonglines,andequipmentissues.
EarlyexitpollsfavoredthedemocraticcandidateHillaryClinton.[284]However,aspollsclosedandtheresultscameinthroughoutthenight,thoseexitpollsand
forecastsprovedinaccurateastheRepublicancandidateperformedsurprisinglywellinallbattlegroundstates,especiallyFlorida,OhioandNorthCarolina.Even
WisconsinandMichigan,statesthatwerepredictedtoswingblue,werewonbyDonaldTrump.[285]
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OnNovember9,2016,at3:00AMEasterntime,DonaldTrumpsecuredover270electoralvotes,
themajorityofthe538electorsintheelectoralcollege,enoughtomakehimthepresidentelectof
theUnitedStates.[15][16]ClintoncalledTrumpearlyonWednesdaymorning,concedingdefeat.[286]
ClintonaskedhersupporterstoaccepttheresultandhopedthatTrumpwouldbeasuccessful
presidentforallAmericans.[287]InhisvictoryspeechTrumpappealedforunitysayingitistime
forustocometogetherasoneunitedpeople"andpraisedClintonwhowasowedamajordebtof
gratitudeforherservicetoourcountry.[288]
SixstatesplusaportionofMainethatObamawonin2012switchedtoTrump.Thesestatesare
(withelectoralcollegevotesinparentheses):Florida(29),Pennsylvania(20),Ohio(18),Michigan
(16),Wisconsin(10),Iowa(6),andMaine(1).Trumpwonexactly100moreelectoralcollegevotes
thanMittRomneyin2012.
Trump'svictoryspeech,November9,2016

Presidentialcandidate

Party

Homestate

Popularvote
Count

Pct

Runningmate
Electoral
vote
Vicepresidentialcandidate
Homestate

Elect.vote

DonaldTrump

Republican NewYork

60,265,858 47.30%

306 MikePence

Indiana

306

HillaryClinton

Democratic NewYork

60,839,922 47.75%

232 TimKaine

Virginia

232

GaryJohnson

Libertarian NewMexico

4,152,009 3.26%

0 WilliamWeld

Massachusetts

JillStein

Green

1,250,391 0.98%

0 AjamuBaraka

Illinois

EvanMcMullin

Independent Utah

437,783 0.34%

0 MindyFinn

DistrictofColumbia

DarrellCastle

Constitution Tennessee

181,741 0.14%

0 ScottBradley

Utah

Massachusetts

Total

127,413,592

100%

Neededtowin

538

538

270

270

Popularvote
Clinton
Trump
Johnson
Stein
McMullin
Others

Trump
Clinton

47.75%
47.30%
3.26%
0.98%
0.34%
0.37%
Electoralvote
56.88%
43.12%

Note:electoralvotefiguresareonlyprojected.TheelectoralcollegewillvoteonDecember19,2016.[289]
TheTrumpvictory,consideredunlikelybymostpreelectionforecasts,[290]wascharacterizedasan'upset'andas'shocking'bythemedia.[291][292][293]
At70yearsofage,Trumpbecametheoldestpersonevertobeelectedtoafirsttermaspresident,surpassingRonaldReagan,whowas69yearsofageuponwinning
the1980election.
AlongwithBillClintonandGeorgeW.Bush,Trumpwasbornin1946thisisthefirsttimeasinglebirthyearhasproducedthreepresidents.(1946wasayearof
unusuallynumerousbirths,markingthefirstyearofthepostWorldWarIIbabyboom.)TrumpwillbecomethefifthpresidenttobeborninthestateofNewYork,
afterMartinVanBuren,MillardFillmore,TheodoreRoosevelt,andFranklinD.RooseveltandthesecondpresidentborninNewYorkCityafterTheodoreRoosevelt.
Trumpwillalsobecomethefourthpresident,afterJamesK.Polkin1844,WoodrowWilsonin1916andRichardNixonin1968,towinanelectiondespitelosinghis
homestate.
TrumpbecamethefirstpersonsinceDwightD.Eisenhowerin1952tobeelectedpresidentwithouthavingbeenelectedtoanyotherpreviousoffice,andtheonly
individualtobeelectedpresidentwithoutanypriorpoliticalormilitaryexperience.The27thpresident,WilliamHowardTaft,hadnomilitaryexperienceandhadbeen
electedtopoliticalofficeonlyonce,asanOhiostatejudge.HethenheldappointedfederalgovernmentofficesasCollectorofInternalRevenueforOhio'sFirst
District,SolicitorGeneraloftheUnitedStates,ajudgeoftheU.S.CourtofAppealsfortheSixthCircuit,chairoftheSecondPhilippineCommission,civilian
governorofthePhilippines,andSecretaryofWarunderPresidentTheodoreRoosevelt.The31stpresident,HerbertHoover,alsodidnothavemilitaryexperienceand
hadneverheldelectedoffice.However,hehadfederalgovernmentserviceasheadoftheU.S.FoodAdministrationduringWorldWarIanddirectorofitssuccessor
aftertheWar,theAmericanReliefAdministration.HealsoservedintheCabinetsofPresidentsWarrenG.HardingandCalvinCoolidgeasU.S.Secretaryof
Commerce.

Resultsbystate
StateswonbyClinton/Kaine
StateswonbyTrump/Pence
Electoralmethods
WTAWinnertakesall
CDCongressionaldistrict

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HillaryClinton
Democratic
Stateor
district

Electoral
method

DonaldTrump
Republican

Electoral
votes

GaryJohnson
Libertarian

Electoral
votes

JillStein
Green

Electoral
votes

EvanMcMullin
Independent

Electoral
votes

Alabama

WTA

718,084 34.55%

1,306,925 62.89%

43,869 2.11%

9,287 0.45%

Alaska

WTA

93,007 37.72%

130,415 52.89%

14,593 5.92%

4,445 1.80%

Arizona

WTA

888,374 45.32%

972,900 49.64%

11

75,082 3.83%

23,697 1.21%

Arkansas

WTA

378,632 33.65%

681,765 60.59%

29,593 2.63%

9,406 0.84%

California

WTA 5,488,261 61.46%

55 2,969,532 33.25%

308,392 3.16%

152,539 1.71%

Colorado

WTA 1,126,384 46.91%

9 1,075,770 44.80%

129,128 5.0%

29,299 1.22%

24,679 1.03%

Connecticut

WTA

823,360 53.86%

637,919 41.73%

45,999 3.01%

21,539 1.41%

Delaware

WTA

235,581 53.35%

185,103 41.92%

14,751 3.35%

5,865 1.38%

D.C.

WTA

260,223 90.54%

11,553 4.02%

4,501 1.57%

3,995 1.39%

Florida

WTA 4,487,657 47.79%

4,607,146 49.06%

29

206,007 2.20%

64,060 0.68%

Georgia

WTA 1,856,509 45.74%

2,078,064 51.20%

16

123,641 3.10%

Hawaii

WTA

266,827 60.98%

128,815 29.44%

14,854 3.70%

12,727 2.91%

Idaho

WTA

190,971 27.46%

412,525 59.32%

28,256 4.10%

8,524 1.23%

Illinois

WTA 2,982,415 55.41%

20 2,121,573 39.41%

204,491 3.80%

74,026 1.38%

Indiana

WTA 1,024,180 37.87%

1,544,609 57.12%

11

133,856 4.92%

1,829 0.07%

Iowa

WTA

650,780 41.71%

798,923 51.21%

57,322 3.77%

11,406 0.73%

12,264 0.79%

Kansas

WTA

414,572 36.13%

656,470 57.22%

53,648 4.70%

22,717 1.98%

Kentucky

WTA

628,834 32.69%

1,202,942 62.54%

53,749 2.79%

13,913 0.72%

22,780 1.18%

Louisiana

WTA

779,535 38.44%

1,178,004 58.09%

37,950 1.87%

14,018 0.69%

CD

352,156 47.84%

332,418 45.16%

37,764 5.10%

13,995 1.90%

Maryland

WTA 1,502,820 59.50%

10

878,615 34.79%

71,107 2.90%

32,019 1.27%

Massachusetts

WTA 1,967,667 60.81%

11 1,084,400 33.52%

136,784 4.22%

46,931 1.45%

Michigan

WTA 2,264,807 47.33%

2,277,914 47.60%

16

173,023 3.61%

51,420 1.07%

Minnesota

WTA 1,364,067 46.41%

10 1,321,120 44.95%

112,944 3.90%

36,921 1.26%

53,028 1.80%

Mississippi

WTA

678,284 58.32%

13,789 1.19%

3,590 0.31%

Missouri

WTA 1,054,889 37.84%

1,585,753 56.88%

10

96,404 3.46%

25,086 0.90%

Montana

WTA

174,281 35.97%

273,879 56.52%

27,264 5.62%

7,662 1.58%

8,335 1.04%

Maine

Nebraska

462,127 39.74%

13,180 1.17%

1,481 0.10%

46,702 6.72%

CD

273,181 33.96%

485,326 60.33%

37,615 4.67%

Nevada

WTA

537,753 47.89%

511,319 45.53%

37,299 3.32%

New
Hampshire

WTA

348,497 47.62%

345,810 47.25%

30,530 4.2%

6,377 0.87%

NewJersey

WTA 1,967,444 54.77%

14 1,509,688 42.03%

NewMexico

WTA

NewYork

8,546 0.42%

1,372 0.05%

68,695 1.86%

35,305 0.98%

316,134 40.05%

73,699 9.34%

9,740 1.23%

WTA 4,145,376 57.89%

29 2,638,135 36.84%

161,236 2.26%

100,033 1.40%

North
Carolina

WTA 2,162,822 46.13%

2,339,830 49.90%

15

127,794 2.8%

590 0.01%

NorthDakota

WTA

216,133 62.95%

21,351 6.22%

3,769 1.10%

Ohio

WTA 2,320,596 43.51%

2,776,683 52.06%

18

168,599 3.16%

44,278 0.83%

Oklahoma

WTA

419,788 28.93%

947,934 65.33%

83,334 5.74%

Oregon

WTA

949,319 49.89%

751,438 39.49%

86,306 4.80%

46,510 2.44%

Pennsylvania

WTA 2,817,409 47.60%

2,890,633 48.84%

20

142,653 2.39%

48,588 0.82%

RhodeIsland

WTA

227,062 53.83%

166,454 39.46%

14,643 3.21%

5,763 1.37%

South
Carolina

WTA

850,629 40.71%

1,147,045 54.90%

48,715 2.34%

12,945 0.62%

SouthDakota

WTA

117,442 31.74%

227,701 61.53%

20,845 5.63%

Tennessee

WTA

868,853 34.90%

1,519,926 61.06%

11

70,084 2.82%

15,952 0.64%

Texas

WTA 3,867,816 43.32%

4,681,590 52.43%

38

282,524 3.16%

71,307 0.80%

20,227 0.23%

Utah

WTA

222,858 27.81%

375,006 46.80%

29,921 3.3%

5,484 0.68%

163,573 20.41%

Vermont

WTA

178,082 61.12%

95,114 32.64%

10,043 3.44%

6,727 2.31%

Virginia

WTA 1,916,148 49.49%

13 1,729,932 44.68%

116,600 3.00%

27,248 0.70%

52,860 1.37%

Washington

WTA 1,210,824 55.57%

12

831,631 38.17%

131,779 4.80%

30,540 1.40%

WestVirginia

WTA

486,304 68.65%

22,798 3.22%

8,016 1.13%

Wisconsin

WTA 1,383,926 46.94%

1,411,432 47.87%

10

106,442 3.61%

30,942 1.05%

Wyoming

WTA

13,285 5.3%

2,482 0.96%

U.S.Total

380,923 48.26%

93,526 27.24%

187,519 26.47%
55,964 21.63%
60,017,405

232

174,383 67.40%
59,772,837

306

4,164,589

Electoral
votes

5,722 0.72%

20,871 1.00%

1,242,493

479,300

Twostates(MaineandNebraska)allowfortheirelectoralvotestobesplitbetweencandidates.Thewinnerwithineachcongressionaldistrictgetsoneelectoralvote

forthedistrict.Thewinnerofthestatewidevotegetstwoadditionalelectoralvotes.[294][295]ResultsarefromtheAssociatedPress.[296]
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Closeraces
Reddenotesstates(orcongressionaldistrictsthatcontributeanelectoralvote)wonbyRepublicanDonaldTrumpbluedenotesthosewonbyDemocratHillary
Clinton.
Stateswherethemarginofvictorywasunder1%(30electoralvotes):
1.Michigan,0.27%
2.NewHampshire,0.37%
3.Wisconsin,0.93%
Stateswherethemarginofvictorywasbetween1%and5%(116electoralvotes):
1.Pennsylvania,1.24%
2.Florida,1.27%
3.Minnesota,1.46%
4.Colorado,2.62%
5.Maine,2.68%
6.Nevada,2.73%
7.NorthCarolina,3.77%
8.Arizona,4.40%
9.Virginia,4.81%
States/districtswherethemarginofvictorywasbetween5%and10%(83electoralvotes):
1.Georgia,5.46%
2.NewMexico,8.21%
3.Ohio,8.55%
4.Texas,9.11%
5.Iowa,9.50%

Reactions
Somespontaneousprotests,violent,riots,wereheldinmanycitiesacrossthenationforseveraldaysaftertheelection.[297][298][299]

Voterdemographics
Voterdemographicdatafor2016werecollectedbyEdisonResearchfortheNationalElectionPool,aconsortiumofABCNews,TheAssociatedPress,CBSNews,
CNN,FoxNewsandNBCNews.Thevotersurveyisbasedonquestionnairescompletedby24,537votersleaving350votingplacesthroughouttheUnitedStateson
ElectionDayincluding4,398telephoneinterviewswithearlyandabsenteevoters.[300][301][302]

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2016Presidentialvotebydemographicsubgroup
Demographicsubgroup

Clinton Trump Other

Totalvote

%of
totalvote

47.7

47.5

4.8

100

Liberals

84

10

26

Moderates

52

41

39

Conservatives

15

81

35

89

37

90

33

42

48

10

31

Democraticmen

87

10

14

Democraticwomen

90

23

Republicanmen

90

17

Republicanwomen

89

16

Independentmen

37

51

10

17

Independentwomen

47

43

14

Men

41

53

48

Women

54

42

52

Ideology

Party
Democrats
Republicans
Independents
Partybygender

Gender

Genderbymaritalstatus
Marriedmen

37

58

29

Marriedwomen

49

47

30

Nonmarriedmen

46

45

19

62

33

23

White

37

58

70

Black

88

12

Asian

65

29

Other

56

37

Hispanic(ofanyrace)

65

29

11

Nonmarriedwomen
Race/ethnicity

Genderbyrace/ethnicity
Whitemen

31

63

34

Whitewomen

43

53

37

Blackmen

80

13

Blackwomen

94

Latinomen(ofanyrace)

62

33

Latinowomen(ofanyrace)

68

26

Allotherraces

61

32

Protestant

37

60

27

Catholic

45

52

23

OtherChristian

43

55

24

Mormon

25

61

14

Jewish

71

24

Otherreligion

58

33

None

68

26

15

Religion

Religiousserviceattendance
Weeklyormore

40

56

33

Monthly

46

49

16

Afewtimesayear

48

47

29

Never

62

31

22

WhiteevangelicalorbornagainChristian
WhiteevangelicalorbornagainChristian

16

81

26

Everyoneelse

59

35

74

1824yearsold

56

35

10

2529yearsold

53

39

3039yearsold

51

40

17

4049yearsold

46

50

19

5064yearsold

44

53

30

Age

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65andolder

45

53

15

78

14

47

48

95

Firsttimevoter

56

40

10

Everyoneelse

47

47

90

Highschoolorless

45

51

18

Somecollegeeducation

43

52

32

Collegegraduate

49

45

32

58

37

18

Sexualorientation
LGBT
Heterosexual
Firsttimevoter

Education

Postgraduateeducation

Educationbyrace/ethnicity
Whitecollegegraduates

45

49

37

Whitenocollegedegree

28

67

34

Nonwhitecollegegraduates

71

23

13

Nonwhitenocollegedegree

75

20

16

Under$30,000

53

41

17

$30,00049,999

51

42

19

$50,00099,999

46

50

31

$100,000199,999

47

48

24

$200,000249,999

48

49

Over$250,000

46

48

Familyincome

Issueregardedasmostimportant
Foreignpolicy

60

34

13

Immigration

32

64

13

Economy

52

42

52

Terrorism

39

57

18

Cities(population50,000andabove)

59

35

34

Suburbs

45

50

49

Ruralareas

34

62

17

Communitysize

Seealso
HistoryoftheUnitedStates(1991present)
Listofcloseelectionresults
ListofUnitedStatespresidentialelectionswherewinnerlostpopularvote

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