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# Chapter 15 Explicit Dynamics

Chapter 15
Explicit Dynamics
15.1
Basics of Explicit Dynamics
15.2
Step-by-Step: High-Speed Impact
15.3
Step-by-Step: Drop Test
15.4
Review

## Section 15.1 Basics of Explicit Dynamics

Section 15.1
Basics of Explicit Dynamics
Key Concepts

## Implicit Integration Methods

Explicit Integration Methods
Solution Accuracy
Integration Time Steps
Automatic Mass Scaling
Static Damping

## Implicit Integration Methods

M

{D} + C {D } + K {D} = {F }

<Transient Structural> solves the above equation using the following algorithm:

+ (1 )D

D n+1 = D n + t D
n
n+1
1
+ (1 2 )D

Dn+1 = Dn + tD n + t 2 2 D
n
n+1
2

The parameters and are chosen to control characteristics of the algorithm such as
accuracy, numerical stability, etc.

It is called an implicit method because the response at the current time step depends on
not only the historical information but also the current information; iterations are
needed in a single time step.

## Explicit Integration Methods

{D} + C {D } + K {D} = {F }

<Explicit Dynamics> solves the above equation using the following algorithm:

t
D n+ 1 = D n 1 + D
n
2

Dn+1 = Dn + D n+ 1 t
2

It is called explicit methods because the response at the current time can be calculated
explicitly; no iterations within a time step is needed.

## Section 15.1 Basics of Explicit Dynamics

Solution Accuracy

<Explicit Dynamics> uses the principle of conservation of energy to monitor the solution
accuracy.

## (Reference Energy) + (Work Done)ReferenceCurrent = (Current Energy)

It calculates overall energy at each cycle. If the energy error reaches a threshold, the
solution is regarded as unstable and stops. The default threshold is 10%.

Energy Error =

## The red curve is

the energy error.
In this case, the
solution is quite
stable.

## Integration Time Steps

With explicit methods, the integration time step needs to be small enough to ensure
stability and accuracy of the solution. The German mathematicians, Courant, Friedrichs,
and Lewy, suggested that, in a single time step, a wave should not travel further than the
smallest element size, i.e.

h
c

where h is the smallest element size, c is the wave speed in the element.

Because of the CFL condition, when generating meshes for <Explicit Dynamics>, make
sure that one or two very small elements do not control the time step. In general, a
uniform mesh size is desirable for <Explicit Dynamics> simulations.

## The wave speed in an element is c = E , where E is the Young's modulus

and is the mass density of the element. Further, = m V , where m is the
mass and V is the volume of the element. Therefore the CFL condition yields

t fh

m
VE

The idea of mass scaling is to artificially increase the mass of small elements,
so that the stability time step can be increased.

Static Damping

## <Explicit Dynamics> is primarily

designed for solving transient dynamic
problems.

## The idea is to introduce a damping

force, to critically damp the lowest mode
of oscillation.

## Chapter 15 Explicit Dynamics

Section 15.2
High-Speed Impact

10

Section 15.3
Drop Test
R20
5 m/s

aluminum alloy.
120

10

R3

20

Unit: mm.
60

## [2] The concrete floor can be

modeled with arbitrary sizes, we
will use 160x80x10 (mm).

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