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Ministry of Education and Youth of Moldova

Technical University of Moldova

The Specialty of Engineering and Management in Telecommunications

Theme: Touchscreen

Made by student

Bogaciuc Nicolai gr. IMTC-131

Checked by

Ababii Mariana

Chiinu 2013

1. Introduction
2. History
3. Technologies
3.1 Resistive
3.2 Capacitive
3.3 Interruptive

4. Components
4.1 Touch-Sensor
4.2 Controller
4.3 SoftwareDriver

5. Advantages
5.1 Public Information Displays
5.2 Retail and Restaurant Systems
5.3 Customer Self-Service
5.4 Control and Automation Systems
5.5 Computer Based Training
5.6 Assistive Technology

6. Key words; Images

7. References

1. Introduction
A touch screen is an electronic visual display that can detect the presence and location of a touch
within the display area. The term generally refers to touching the display of the device with a finger or hand.
Touch screens can also sense other passive objects, such as a stylus. Touch screen is common in devices
such as computers, tablet, and smart phones.
The touch screen has two main attributes. First, it enables one to interact directly with what is
displayed, rather than indirectly with a cursor controlled by a mouse or touchpad. Secondly, it lets one do
so without requiring any intermediate device that would need to be held in the hand. Such displays can be
attached to computers, or to networks as terminals. They also play a prominent role in the design of digital
appliances such as the personal digital assistant (PDA), satellite navigation devices, mobile phones, and
video games.
A touch screen is a display that can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area,
generally refers to touch or contact to the display of the device by a finger or hand. Touch screen is also an
input device. The screens are sensitive to pressure; a user interacts with the computer by touching pictures
or words on the screen, Touchscreens can also sense other passive objects, such as a stylus, the touch
screen has two main attributes. First, it enables one to interact with what is displayed directly on the screen,
where it is displayed, rather than indirectly with a mouse or touchpad. Secondly, it lets one do so without
requiring any intermediate device, again, such as a stylus that needs to be held in the hand. Such displays
can be attached to computers or, as terminals, to networks. They also play a prominent role in the design of
digital appliances such as the personal digital assistant (PDA).

2. History
In 1971, the first "Touch Sensor" was developed by Doctor Sam Hurst (founder of Elographics) while he
was an instructor at the University of Kentucky. This sensor, called the "Elograph," was patented by The
University of Kentucky Research Foundation. The "Elograph" was not transparent like modern touch
screens; however, it was a significant milestone in touch screen technology. In 1974, the first true touch
screen incorporating a transparent surface was developed by Doctor Sam Hurst and Elographics. In 1977,
Elographics developed and patented five-wire resistive technology, the most popular touch screen
technology in use today.
Touch screens first gained some visibility with the invention of the computer-assisted learning
terminal, which came out in 1975 as part of the PLATO project. Touch screens have subsequently become
familiar in everyday life. Companies use touch screens for kiosk systems in retail and tourist settings, point

of sale systems, ATMs, and PDAs, where a stylus is sometimes used to manipulate the GUI and to enter
data. The popularity of smart phones, PDAs, portable game consoles and many types of information
appliances is driving the demand for, and acceptance of, touch screens .

3. Technologies




3.1 Resistive
A resistive touch screen panel is composed of several layers, the most important of which are two
thin, electrically conductive layers separated by a narrow gap. When an object, such as a finger, presses
down on a point on the panel's outer surface the two metallic layers become connected at that point: the
panel then behaves as a pair of voltage dividers with connected outputs. This causes a change in the
electrical current, which is registered as a touch event and sent to the controller for processing.

3.2 Capacitive
A capacitive touch screen panel is one which consists of an insulator such as glass, coated with a
transparent conductor such as indium tin oxide (ITO). As the human body is also a electrical conductor,
touching the surface of the screen results in a distortion of the screens electrostatic field, measurable as a
change in capacitance. Different technologies may be used to determine the location of the touch. The
location is then sent to the controller for processing

3.3 Interruptive
A grid of waves over the screen gets interrupted at a certain point on the X axis and Y axis. A Very high
clarity due to having no layers over the actual screen. No capable of multi touch. Easily affected by dirt and
other interference.

4. Components
A basic touch screen has three main components: a touch sensor, a controller, and a software driver.
The touch screen is an input device, so it needs to be combined with a display and a PC or other device to
make a complete touch input system.

4.1 Touch-Sensor
A touch screen sensor is a clear glass panel with a touch responsive surface. The touch sensor/panel
is placed over a display screen so that the responsive area of the panel covers the viewable area of the
video screen. There are several different touch sensor technologies on the market today, each using a
different method to detect touch input.

4.2 Controller
The controller is a small PC card that connects between the touch sensor and the PC. It takes
information from the touch sensor and translates it into information that PC can understand. The controller
is usually installed inside the monitor for integrated monitors or it is housed in a plastic case Tor external
touch overlays. The controller determines what type of interface/connection you will need on the PC.
Integrated touch monitors will have an extra cable connection on the back for the touch screen. Controllers
are available that can connect to a Serial/COM port (PC) or to a USB port (PC or Macintosh). Specialized
controllers are also available that work with DVD players.

4.3 Software-Driver
The driver is a software update for the PC system that allows the touch screen and computer to work
together. It tells the computer's operating system how to interpret the touch event information that is sent
from the controller. Most touch screen drivers today are a mouse-emulation type driver. This makes
touching the screen the same as clicking your mouse at the same location on the screen. This allows the
touch screen to work with existing software and allows new applications to be developed without the need
for touch screen specific programming. Some equipment such as thin client terminals, DVD players, and
specialized computer systems either do not use software.

5. Advantages

5.1 Public Information Displays

Information kiosks, tourism displays, trade show displays, and other electronic displays are used by
many people that have little or no computing experience. The user-friendly touch screen interface can be
less intimidating and easier to use than other input devices, especially for novice users. A touch screen can
help make your information more easily accessible by allowing users to navigate your presentation by
simply touching the display screen

5.2 Retail and Restaurant Systems

Time is money, especially in a fast paced retail or restaurant environment. Touch screen systems are
easy to use so employees can get work done faster, and training time can be reduced for new employees.
And because input is done right on the screen, valuable counter space can be saved. Touch screens can
be used in cash registers, order entry stations, seating and reservation systems, and more.

5.3 Customer Self-Service

In todays fast pace world, waiting in line is one of the things that has yet to speed up. Self-service
touch screen terminals can be used to improve customer service at busy stores, fast service restaurants,
transportation hubs, and more. Customers can quickly place their own orders or check themselves in or
out, saving them time, and decreasing wait times for other customers. Automated bank teller (ATM) and
airline e-ticket terminals are examples of self-service stations that can benefit from touch screen input.

5.4 Control and Automation Systems

The touch screen interface is useful in systems ranging from industrial process control tc home
automation. By integrating the input device with the display, valuable workspace can be saved. And with a
graphical interface, operators can monitor and control complex operations in real-time by simply touching
the screen.

5.5 Computer Based Training

Because the touch screen interface is more user-friendly than other input devices, over training
time for computer novices, and therefore training expense, can be reduced. It can also help to make
learning more fun and interactive, which can lead to a more beneficial training experience for both students
and educators.

5.6 Assistive Technology

The touch screen interface can be beneficial to those that have difficulty using other input devices
such as a mouse or keyboard. When used in conjunction with software such as on-screen keyboards, or
other assistive technology, they can help make computing resources more available to people that have
difficulty using computers.

6. Key words; Images

Touch screen is an electronic visual display that can detect the presence and location of a touch
within the display area.
Personal digital assistant (PDA) is a mobile device that functions as a personal information manager.
PDAs are largely considered obsolete with the widespread adoption of smartphones.
Stylus is a writing utensil, or a small tool for some other form of marking or shaping, for example in
pottery. It can also be a computer accessory that is used to assist in navigating or providing more precision
when using touchscreens.
Multi-touch in computing, multi-touch refers to a touch sensing surface's (track-pad or touchscreen)
ability to recognize the presence of two or more points of contact with the surface.
Automated bank teller also known as an automated banking machine (ABM), is an electronic
telecommunications device that enables the clients of a financial institution to perform financial transactions
without the need for a cashier, human clerk or bank teller.

HP Series 100 HP-150 ca. 1983, the earliest

commercial touchscreen computer.

Pointed nail for easier typing.

7. References

Apple iPad, a tablet computer with a