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**(20 points) Consider the system of linear equations
**

x + 3y + 2z + w = a

2x + 8y + 5z + 2w = b

x + 5y + 3z + w = c

(a) What are the constraints on the values of a, b, c in order for the system to be

consistent?

(b) Find all the solutions for the homogeneous system, that is, when a = 0, b = 0 and

c = 0.

(c) Is the system consistent when a = 3, b = 8 and c = 5? If it is, find one particular

solution and then the general solution for that system.

Let’s row-reduce this system. Writing

1

2

1

Multiplying the row line by -2 and

first row by -1 and adding it to the

1

0

0

**the augemented matrix for this system we get:
**

3 2 1 a

8 5 2 b .

5 3 1 c

**adding it to the second, and then multiplying the
**

third, we get the equivalent system

3 2 1

a

2 1 0 b − 2a .

2 1 0 c−a

**Now multiply the second row by -1 and
**

1 3 2

0 2 1

0 0 0

**add it to the third row:
**

1

a

0 b − 2a .

0 c+a−b

**So the answer to (a) is that c + a − b must equal zero for the system to be consistent.
**

If a = b = c = 0, then the system is consistent and we can solve it. We get that

2x2 + x3 = 0 and that x1 + 3x2 + 2x3 + x4 = 0. Therefore, x3 = −2x2 and x1 =

−3x2 − 2x3 − x4 = −3x2 + 4x2 − x4 = x2 − x4 . So the solution set (and the answer to

part (b)) is

x = x2 − x4

1

x2 is free.

x3 = −2x2

x is free.

4

If (a, b, c) = (3, 8, 5), then our condition from part (a) is satisfied, so the system is

consistent. We get that 2x2 + x3 = 2 and that x1 + 3x2 + 2x3 + x4 = 3. Therefore,

x3 = 2 − 2x2 and x1 = 3 − 3x2 − 2x3 − x4 = 3 − 3x2 − 2(2 − 2x2 ) − x4 = −1 + x2 − x4 .

So the general solution is

x = −1 + x2 − x4

1

x2 is free.

x3 = 2 − 2x2

x is free.

4

1

To get one particular solution. 2. 1 −4 −1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 −1 0 −1 2 −1 1 3. let’s pick values of x2 and x4 . either it does not exist or it is unique. Depending on b and the matrix A. Picking x2 = x4 = 0. Depending on A and b. (a) What is the reduced echelon form of A? It is 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 . −6 3 −5 0 0 1 So here it is. (15 points) Suppose A is a 5 × 3 matrix with 3 pivots. (b) What can you say about the number of solutions of the equation Ax = b? Explain you answer. the solution is x1 = −1. −6 3 −5 Finding the inverse of this matrix amounts to finding the reduced echelon form of the matrix −3 1 −2 1 0 0 (A I) = 6 −1 2 0 1 0 . it the solution either does not exist or there are infinitely many solutions since 2 pivots will give free variables. (c) What if A has only 2 pivots. x4 = 0. (10 points) Find the inverse of the matrix −3 1 −2 A = 6 −1 2 . This follows from the fact that A has 3 pivots and therefore A defines a one-to-one linear transformation. 2 . what can you say then about the number of solutions of the equation Ax = b? Explain your answer. step by step. x3 = 2. x2 = 0. −3 1 −2 1 6 −1 2 0 −6 3 −5 0 −3 0 0 −1 → 0 1 −2 2 0 0 1 −4 1 0 → 0 1 0 0 −3 1 −2 1 0 0 0 1 −2 2 1 0 → 0 1 −1 −2 0 1 −1 0 −3 0 0 −1 1 0 → 0 1 0 −6 −1 1 0 0 1 −4 0 − 13 − 31 0 0 −6 −1 2 = (I A−1 ).

if n < m. (15 points) (a) If T : Rn → Rm is onto. then (circle the right answer. 1 3 1 0 We want to find the standard matrix A for the linear transformation T . 0 9 0 1 Since linear transformations are always given by matrix transformations. 2 5 2 1 2 1 − = T −T =T − 3 0 1 1 1 1 1 −3 = T = . (15 points) (a) Find all linear transformations T : R3 → R3 such that 1 7 0 5 0 1 T = 5 and T = 0 . 1 3 1 1 . 3 . then T is not onto. there is a b in Rm for which the system Ax = b has no solution. then the standard matrix A for T has at most n pivot positions which means that. (b) Find the matrix of the linear transformation T : R2 → R2 satisfying 2 2 1 5 T = and T = . Using the fact that T is linear. all such linear transformations have a standard matrix of the form 7 5 a A = 5 0 b . no need to explain) n ≥ m. 9 1 c where a. c can be any numbers. 5. 0 3 and 2 3 −2 5 0 2 1 − 2T 0 = T = −T −1 = T So A= −3 8 3 −3 1 1 2 1 =T −2 0 −8 = .4. since n < m. Here’s why: if n < m. b. Therefore.

if false. True. . b. For A to define a one-to-one linear transformation. Use the same matrices as part (a). Multiply (on the right) both sides of the equation AB = 0 by B −1 . and B = A= 0 0 0 0 (b) . v2 } and {v3 . B being invertible implies that A = 0. Let x = By. By part (a). but all other pairs of vectors are linearly independent. If A is not invertible. (d) Bonus question (5 points): . . This will be the case if (a. . then there is a non-zero vector x such that Ax = 0. (a) . In this case. show a counterexample. This matrix defines a linear transformation T : R2 → R3 . v4 } are linearly dependent sets. v4 in R2 such that {v1 . 4 . 3 c When is T one-to-one? When is T onto? Explain your answer. for example. BAx = 0 and x 6= 0. . v2 = 2 0 . c)T is not a multiple of (1. (c) . v2 . Here are two solutions to this one: i. then. BA = 0. 3)T . 6. 2. ii. either A = 0 or B = 0 (or both). in which case any vector x will do. then by multiplying AB = 0 on the left by A−1 gives you B = 0. Consider 1 0 0 1 . If A and B are two 2 × 2 matrices such that AB = 0. v4 = 0 2 . v1 = 1 0 . . Pick. its columns must be linearly independent. . 7. . If B is the zero matrix. Either A is invertible or it is not. False. if B is not the zero matrix. Then BAx = BABy = B · 0y = 0. False. v3 . there is a vector x 6= 0 such that BAx = 0. this cannot be onto. It follows that A = 0. . (15+5 points) Is each of the following true or false? If true. If it is. then any vector x will do.(b) Let T be a linear transformation whose standard matrix is 1 a A = 2 b . . explain why. (10 points) Write down four vectors v1 . Otherwise. then there is a vector y 6= 0 such that By 6= 0. v3 = 0 1 . .

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