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Knowledge

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For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation).
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness or understanding of someone or something,
such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through e
xperience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Knowledge can refer to a theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It
can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the
theoretical understanding of a subject); it can be more or less formal or syste
matic.[1] In philosophy, the study of knowledge is called epistemology; the phil
osopher Plato famously defined knowledge as "justified true belief", though this
definition is now agreed by most analytic philosophers to be problematic becaus
e of the Gettier problems. However, several definitions of knowledge and theorie
s to explain it exist.
Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception, communic
ation, and reasoning;[2] while knowledge is also said to be related to the capac
ity of acknowledgment in human beings.[3]

Contents [hide]
1 Theories of knowledge
2 Communicating knowledge
3 Situated knowledge
4 Partial knowledge
5 Scientific knowledge
6 Religious meaning of knowledge 6.1 As a measure of religiosity (in sociology o
f religion)
7 See also
8 References
9 External links
Theories of knowledge[edit]

Robert Reid, Knowledge (1896). Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D.C.
See also: Epistemology

The eventual demarcation of philosophy from science was made possible by the not
ion that philosophy's core was "theory of knowledge," a theory distinct from the
sciences because it was their foundation... Without this idea of a "theory of k
nowledge," it is hard to imagine what "philosophy" could have been in the age of
modern science.
?Richard Rorty, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature
The definition of knowledge is a matter of ongoing debate among philosophers in
the field of epistemology. The classical definition, described but not ultimatel
y endorsed by Plato,[4] specifies that a statement must meet three criteria in o
rder to be considered knowledge: it must be justified, true, and believed. Some
claim that these conditions are not sufficient, as Gettier case examples alleged
ly demonstrate. There are a number of alternatives proposed, including Robert No
zick's arguments for a requirement that knowledge 'tracks the truth' and Simon B
lackburn's additional requirement that we do not want to say that those who meet
any of these conditions 'through a defect, flaw, or failure' have knowledge. Ri
chard Kirkham suggests that our definition of knowledge requires that the eviden
ce for the belief necessitates its truth.[5]
In contrast to this approach, Ludwig Wittgenstein observed, following Moore's pa
radox, that one can say "He believes it, but it isn't so," but not "He knows it,
but it isn't so."[6] He goes on to argue that these do not correspond to distin
ct mental states, but rather to distinct ways of talking about conviction. What
is different here is not the mental state of the speaker, but the activity in wh
ich they are engaged. For example, on this account, to know that the kettle is b
oiling is not to be in a particular state of mind, but to perform a particular t
ask with the statement that the kettle is boiling. Wittgenstein sought to bypass
the difficulty of definition by looking to the way "knowledge" is used in natur
al languages. He saw knowledge as a case of a family resemblance. Following this
idea, "knowledge" has been reconstructed as a cluster concept that points out r
elevant features but that is not adequately captured by any definition.[7]
Communicating knowledge[edit]

Los portadores de la antorcha (The Torch-Bearers)
Sculpture by Anna Hyatt Huntin
gton symbolizing the transmission of knowledge from one generation to the next (
Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid, Spain)
Symbolic representations can be used to indicate meaning and can be thought of a
s a dynamic process. Hence the transfer of the symbolic representation can be vi
ewed as one ascription process whereby knowledge can be transferred. Other forms
of communication include observation and imitation, verbal exchange, and audio
and video recordings. Philosophers of language and semioticians construct and an
alyze theories of knowledge transfer or communication.
While many would agree that one of the most universal and significant tools for
the transfer of knowledge is writing and reading (of many kinds), argument over
the usefulness of the written word exists nonetheless, with some scholars skepti
cal of its impact on societies. In his collection of essays Technopoly, Neil Pos
tman demonstrates the argument against the use of writing through an excerpt fro
m Plato's work Phaedrus (Postman, Neil (1992) Technopoly, Vintage, New York, pp
73). In this excerpt, the scholar Socrates recounts the story of Thamus, the Egy
ptian king and Theuth the inventor of the written word. In this story, Theuth pr
esents his new invention "writing" to King Thamus, telling Thamus that his new i

Verbal teaching and handing down of knowledge is limite d to those who would have contact with the transmitter or someone who could inte rpret written work." This narrative of situation is hi storical textures woven of fact and fiction. that writing is considered central to capturing and sharing it. without succumbing to its mystification as 'the truth' or to the ironic skepticism common to many c ritiques. that had to be stocked with facts reduced to letters. Writing is still the most available and most universal of al l forms of recording and transmitting knowledge. Neil (1992) Technopoly." This is the "gaze that mythically inscribes all . Major libraries today can have millions of books of knowledge (in addition to wo rks of fiction).[8] This analogy betw een language and thought laid the foundation for a graphic conception of knowled ge in which the mind was treated as a table. He argues that the written word will infect the Egyptian people with fa ke knowledge as they will be able to attain facts and stories from an external s ource and will no longer be forced to mentally retain large quantities of knowle dge themselves (Postman. Vintage. a container of content. so much so that educators paid very close attention to the visual st ructure of information on the page and in notebooks. "it is to treat (this narrative) in the most serious way. It is only recently that audio and video technology for recordi ng knowledge have become available and the use of these still requires replay eq uipment and electricity. Classical early modern theories of knowledge. pp 74). It is harder to preserve rec usually neither the source nor t ords of what was said or who originally said it he content can be verified. numbers or symbols. and as Escobar explains further. As to the value of writing. New York. which Arturo Escobar expla ins as.nvention "will improve both the wisdom and memory of the Egyptians" (Postman. T his plays into a longstanding analytic notion in the Western intellectual tradit ion in which verbal communication is generally thought to lend itself to the spr ead of falsehoods as much as written communication. the extent of human knowledge is now so great. New York. "e ven the most neutral scientific domains are narratives in this sense. as well a s the overemphasis of the sense of vision in science. King Thamus is skeptical of thi s new invention and rejects it as a tool of recollection rather than retained kn owledge. "neither fictions nor supposed facts." insisting that rather than a purpose dismissing science as a trivial matter of contingenc y. It stands unchallenged as manki nd's primary technology of knowledge transfer down through the ages and to all c ultures and languages of the world. in order to live in it well and in critical. This created a si tuation in which the spatial alignment of words on the page carried great cognit ive weight. better account of a world. refle xive relation to our own as well as others' practices of domination and the uneq ual parts of privilege and oppression that makes up all positions. Ne il (1992) Technopoly.[9] Media theorists like Andrew Robinson emphasise that the visual depiction of know ledge in the modern world was often seen as being 'truer' than oral knowledge."[10] This sit uation partially transforms science into a narrative."[11] Haraway's argument stems from the limitations of the human perception.pp 74). one which "offers a more adequate. visi on in science has been. a nd the people interested in a piece of knowledge so separated in time and space. It is a term coined by Donna Haraway as an extension of the feminist approaches of "successo r science" suggested by Sandra Harding.[citation needed][disputed discuss] Situated knowledge[edit] Situated knowledge is knowledge specific to a particular situation. especially those advancing the inf luential empiricism of the philosopher John Locke. Gossip and rumors are examples prevalent in both med ia. Vintage. According to Haraway. were based implicitly or expl icitly on a model of the mind which likened ideas to words. "used to signify a leap out of the marked body and into a conquering gaze from nowhere. riche r.

or learning from experience. and its attempts at co llecting subjective perspectives into an embodiment "of views from somewhere.[12] In order to avoid this.[citation needed] Situational kn owledge is often embedded in language.[13] Some methods of generating knowledge.[ citation needed] This idea is also present in the concept of bounded rationality which assumes th at in real life situations people often have a limited amount of information and make decisions accordingly. This integration of situational knowledge is an allusion to the community. This is what Haraway terms a "god trick". it is clear to you that the chair is in space. This knowledge is no t knowledge that one can "forget". or traditions. resulting in a position of "modest witness". unl ike the typical math problems one might solve at school. or the aforementioned representation while escaping representation. and geography. "Haraway perpetuates a tradition of thought which emphasizes the importance of the subject in terms of both ethical and political accountability". it i s not possible to understand an information domain exhaustively.[14] Partial knowledge[edit] One discipline of epistemology focuses on partial knowledge. even someone suffering from amnesia experienc es the world in 3D. In this case.[15] An individual may "know" about a situation and be unable to ex plain the process that led to their knowledge. as well as the skeptic stance of situated knowledge is present in the main arguments of post-structuralism. Intuition is the ability to acquire partial knowledge without inference or the u se of reason."[10] This causes a limi tation of views in the position of science itself as a potential player in the c reation of knowledge. that makes the unmarked category claim the power to see and not be seen. where all data is given and one is given a complete understanding of formulas necessary to solve them. to represent while escaping representation.the marked bodies. The pure existence of a term like "a posteriori" means this also has a counterpart. Most real problems have to be solved by taking a dvantage of a partial understanding of the problem context and problem data." [ 10] Knowledge generated through experience is called knowledge "a posteriori". culture. our knowledge i s always incomplete or partial. and the idea of power as an inherited trait of objectification. tend to create highly situational knowledge. that it is 3D. One of the main attribu tes of the scientific method is that the theories it generates are much less sit uational than knowledge gained by other methods. such as trial and error. a s well as the rejection of universal rules or laws or elementary structures.[citation needed] Even though Haraway's arguments are largely based on feminist studies. meaning before. "Knowledge is Power" The development of the scientific method has made a significant contribution to . For example. T he knowledge prior to any experience means that there are certain "assumptions" that one takes for granted. power. if you are being told about a chair. meani ng afterwards. Scientific knowledge[edit] Sir Francis Bacon. that is knowledge "a priori". In most cases. both argue the contingency of knowledge on the presence of history.[10] this idea of different worlds. Fundamentally.

and (iv) in the DNA of the genetic code.[25] Religious meaning of knowledge[edit] In many expressions of Christianity. it was simply taken for g ranted that knowledge was something possessed only by humans and probably adult humans at that. maintaining skepticis m means that a scientist will never be absolutely certain when they are correct and when they are not. as i n (e. a tenet of all Dharmic Religions. ?????? ??? (Vidya Daan) i. a method of inquiry must be based on gathering observable and me asurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning and experimentatio n. page 31) also references by both to Niels Jerne. Science is "the process used everyday to logically complete thoughts through inference of facts determined by calcula ted experiments. Sometimes the notion might stretch to (ii) Society-as-such. Some way must exist for the system to access this information quickly enough for it to be useful. his works established and popularized an inductive meth odology for scientific inquiry. As science itself has developed. His famous aphorism.) "the knowledge possessed by the Coptic culture" (as opposed to its indi vidual members). For biologists. is fo und in the Meditations Sacrae (1597). Thus the criteria seem to be: The system should apparently be dynamic and self-organizing (unlike a mere book on its own).[18] Scie nce. at least in the Western tradition. "knowledge is power". include: (ii i) the immune system.[24] or ways of dealing with it (directly or indirectly). but that was not assured either.[20] Until recent times." Sir Francis Bacon was critical in the historical development o f the scientific method.g. scientific knowledge now includes a bro ader usage[19] in the soft sciences such as biology and the social sciences disc ussed elsewhere as meta-epistemology.. or genetic epistemology. P . See the list of f our "epistemological domains": Popper. though that system need not be conscious.[16] To be ter med scientific. (1975).e.[27] Hindu Scriptures present two kinds of knowledge.how knowledge of the physical world and its phenomena is acquired. Nor was it usual to consider u nconscious knowledge in any systematic way until this approach was popularized b y Freud. divine knowledge or gnosis is hoped to be attained.[17] The scientific method consists of the collection of data through observat ion and experimentation. such as Catholicism and Anglicanism. the man is becom e as one of us. Note that "epistemology" is the study of knowledge and how it is acquired. knowle dge is one of the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit.. in the hopes that this practice will lead to great er convergence on the truth in general. and to some exten t related to "theory of cognitive development". Behold. and the nature of scientific knowledge have also become the subject of Phil osophy.[22] and Traill (2008:[23] Table S. It is thus an irony of proper scientific method that one must doubt even when correct." (Genesis 3:22) In Gnosticism. The knowledge must constitute some sort of representation of "the outside world" . and the formulation and testing of hypotheses. knowledge must be usefully available to the system.[26] The Old Testament's tree of the knowledge of good and evil contained the knowled ge that separated Man from God: "And the LORD God said. Scientific knowledge may not involve a claim to certainty. to know good and evil. knowledge sharing is a major part of Daan.[21] Other biological domains where "knowledge" might be said to reside. Such considerations seem to call for a separate definition of "knowledge" to cov er the biological systems.

knowledge (Arabic: ???. Exalted are you. the intensity of the knowledge. Muhammad is reported to have said "Seek knowledg e from the cradle to the grave" and "Verily the men of knowledge are the inherit ors of the prophets". "The Knowin g" (al-?Alim) is one of the 99 names reflecting distinct attributes of God. and the centrality of the information (in that religious tradi tion. Religious knowledge itself may be broken do wn into four dimensions: content frequency intensity centrality The content of one's religious knowledge may vary from person to person.) In Islam. as will the degree to which it may occupy the person's mind (frequency). Paroksh Gyan (also spelled Paroksha-Jnana) is sec ondhand knowledge: knowledge obtained from books. theologians and jurists are often given the title alim. a nd "knowledge is chosen above gold"..aroksh Gyan and Prataksh Gyan.e." The Ta nakh states. "A wise man gains power. etc. Prataksh Gyan (a lso spelled Prataksha-Jnana) is the knowledge borne of direct experience. As a measure of religiosity (in sociology of religion)[edit] According to the sociologist Mervin Verbit. (It is compared and contrasted with Bhakti Yoga and Karma yoga. Existent-One. knowledge may be understood as one o f the key components of religiosity. Observant Jews recite three times a day in the Amidah "Favor us with knowledge. knowledge (Hebrew: ??? da'ath) is considered one of the mos t valuable traits a person can acquire. or to that individual). the gracious giver of knowledge. i. knowledge that one discovers for oneself. Islamic scholars. a priori and a posteriori Analytic-synthetic distinction Descriptive knowledge Epistemic modal logic Explicit knowledge Figurative system of human knowledge Inductive inference Inductive probability Intelligence Knowledge engineering Knowledge extraction Knowledge management Knowledge relativity Knowledge representation Knowledge retrieval . understanding and discretion that come f rom you. hearsay. ?ilm) is given great significance. The Qur'an asserts that knowledge comes from God (2:239) and various hadith encourag e the acquisition of knowledge.[citation needed] In Jewish tradition. meaning "knowledgeble". and a man of knowledge maintains power".[29][30][31] See also[edit] Epistemology portal Book icon Book: Epistemology Outline of knowledge guide to the subject of knowledge presented as a tree struc tured list of its subtopics.[28] Jnana yoga ("path of knowledge") i s one of three main types of yoga expounded by Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita.

"Does the Gettier Problem Rest o n a Mistake?".com/2012/jul/12/opinion/la-oe-wilson-social -sciences-20120712 20. Each of these de finitions is shown to be unsatisfactory. Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third Worl d.Jump up ^ Chapter 1. pp. Female Man© Meets_OncoMouse2. 26: 215 245. New Brunswik: Ontos. 5. Braidot ti. merriam-webster .Jump up ^ "Sir Francis Bacon Quotationspage. Rosi.^ Jump up to: a b c d "Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective".1017/s0269889713000045. "Methodology". 19.Metaknowledge Philosophical skepticism Procedural knowledge Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge Tacit knowledge References[edit] 1. S. Arturo.Jump up ^ "Introduction: Development and the Anthropology of Modernity". Haraway. when Kant (follow ing Newton) dismissed Space and Time as axiomatically "transcendental" and "a pr iori" a claim later disproved by Piaget's clinical studies. 14." in: Hrachovec.philo.Jump up ^ Stanley Cavell. doi: 10. 1997. A. Cambri dge: Cambridge University Press. Donna. (2008): "Internet and the flow of knowledge. Feminism and Technoscience.Jump up ^ Ludwig Wittgenstein. It also seems likely that the vexed problem of "infinite regress" can be largely (but not completely ) solved by proper attention to how unconscious concepts are actually developed. Frankfurt. 4. 2002).pdf 8. 14. "The Shape of Knowledge: Children and t he Visual Culture of Literacy and Numeracy". Michel.): Philosophy of the Information Society. (Hg. Gil. However this may lead to problems whenever the topic spills over into those excluded domains e. in that it allows for in-depth study of logic-procedures and oth er abstractions which are not found elsewhere. All Too Human: Towards a New Process Ontology".com. Socrates and Theaetetus discuss three definit ions of knowledge: knowledge as nothing but perception. No. Theory Culture Vol. pp.Jump up ^ "Science Definition of science by Merriam-Webster". Oxford University Press on behalf of the Mind A ssociation.Jump up ^ Gottschalk-Mazouz. and.Jump up ^ "The Subject and Power". http://sammelpunkt.Jump up ^ Eddy. Retrieved 2009-07-08.latimes. 21. 12. 501 513. Donna. Critical Inquiry Volume 9.g. jstor (subscription required)[dead link] 6. Why Does Language Matter to Philosophy?. pp. finally. 238 266. pp.Jump up ^ There is quite a good case for this exclusive specialization used b y philosophers. JSTOR 2254258. H.com". Feminist Studies Vol. Lancaster.[dead link] 2.Jump up ^ http://articles. No.Jump up ^ Dekel.. 9. 18. 215 232. 3. 23. 17. from the General Scholium. 13. Pichler. 3. Foucault. 10. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. 777 795. Modest_Witness@Second_Millennium. Retrieved 3 July 2006. Matthew Daniel (2013).Jump up ^ "Posthuman.Jump up ^ In Plato's Theaetetus.Jump up ^ "knowledge: definition of knowledge in Oxford dictionary (American E nglish) (US)". 575 599. .Jump up ^ "[4] Rules for the study of natural philosophy". 1988. Newton 1999. which follows Book 3. 7 94 6. pp. New Series. International Ludwig Wittgenstein Symposium Kirchberg am Wec hsel. Richard L.Jump up ^ Kirkham. Pro ceedings of the 30. 1982 15. Austria 2007. Haraway. Ian (1975). "Knowing and Acknowledging". 11.Jump up ^ Oxford English Dictionary 16. N.at:8080/2022/1/Gottschalk-Mazouz. (October 1984). 197 208. Esco bar. oxforddictionaries. Must We Mean What We Sa y? (Cambridge University Press. On Certainty.Jump up ^ scientific method. Science in Context. Volume 2. knowledge as a true judgment with an account. knowledge as true judgme nt.Jump up ^ Hacking. Mind. Paris. remark 42 7. The System of the World. 2006. 4.com.

"Knowledge by Acquaintance vs. Piaget.Jump up ^ "?????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??? : ????? . The child's conception of space. K.com.both during infantile learning and as inherited "pseudo-transcendentals" inheri ted from the trial-and-error of previous generations. Piaget. T. and B.pdf 24. and B. 60 70. vhp. J. Problems of Scientific Revolution: Scientific Progress and Obst acles to Progress in the Sciences. different "mental levels" corresponding to different Piagetian stag es. (1975).com/dosyalar/mpdf%20(1135). 1831".Vishva Hindu Parishad Officia l Website". The Divine Life Society.. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. M.Jump up ^ Verbit.Jump up ^ "Part Three. The child's conception of time. 39. Rout ledge & Kegan Paul: London. Catechism of the Catholic Church.eskieserler. The Philosophy of the Panchadasi. 26. Knowledge at the Indiana Philosophy Ontology Project [show] v · t · e Human intelligence topics . (1970). 28. 31.ondwelle. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies. Retrieved 2008-07-05. Clarendon Press: Oxford.Jump up ^ This "outside world" could include other subsystems within the same organism e.Jump up ^ Küçükcan. 4 (10).Jump up ^ "philosophy bites". "Chapter 7".g..). 24. Routl edge & Kegan Paul: London.pdf External links[edit] Find more about knowledge at Wikipedia's sister projects Search Wiktionary Definitions from Wiktionary Search Commons Media from Commons Search Wikinews News from Wikinews Search Wikiquote Quotations from Wikiquote Search Wikisource Texts from Wikisource Search Wikibooks Textbooks from Wikibooks Search Wikiversity Learning resources from Wikiversity Knowledge at PhilPapers "Knowledge".com/OSM02.R.org. i n Rom Harré (ed. 29.Jump up ^ Popper. 22. F. J.Jump up ^ http://www.Jump up ^ Swami Krishnananda. philosophybites. 23. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . "The Analysis of Knowledge". See Theory of cognitive development. No. See also "Tacit knowledge" . Multidimensional Approach to Religion: a way of look ing at religious phenomena. "The Value of Knowledge".Inhelder (1948 / 1956). American mosaic. (2010). Description". "The rationality of scientific revolutions". 25. 30. 27. The components and dimensions of religious be havior: Toward a reconceptualization of religiosity.Jump up ^ http://www.Inhelder (1927 / 1969). Retrieved 2007-04-20.

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