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Real Analysis Open and closed sets

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**Show that if a finite number of points are removed
**

from A, the remaining set is still open. IS the same true if a countable number of points are

removed?

Solution. We know that a single point x ∈ R1 is a closed set, as it contains its own limit

point(empty set). Also we know a finite union of closed sets is still closed. Therefore if we

remove a closed set from an open set, we still obtain an open set.

However this is invalid when you are removing a countable number of points, especially

when they do not form a closed set. For example if you remove all the rationals from R1

you won’t have an open set as the result.

**Problem 2. Show that a limit-point of A is a limit-point of the sequence. Show that if no
**

point in A occurs more than a finite number of times in the sequence, then a limit-point of

the sequence is a limit-point of the set.

Solution. Assume x is a limit-point of the set A, then pick up a point xnk ∈ (x− k1 , x+ k1 ), k =

1, 2, 3, . . . , then we have our subsequence {xnk } converging to x, which means x is also a

limit point for the sequence A. Now we need to prove the second part. Assume this time x

is a limit point of the sequence A, then there is a subsequence xnk ∈ A converging to x. As

no point in A occurs more than a finite number of tiems we know x is also a limit point for

the set A.

**Problem 4. . The solution to this question is quite similar to the previous one
**

Problem 5. Let A be a closed set, x a point in A, and B = A\ {x}. Under waht conditions

is B closed

Solution. This is an open problem as there might be more than one solutions. However the

most reasonable one would be if x is not a limit point, because by removing a limit point

from A, A no longer contains all of its limit points, which breaks up the definition of closed

set.

**Problem 6. Prove that every infinite set has a countable dense subset. Give an example
**

of a set A such that the intersection of A with the rational numbers is not dense in A

Solution. Since Q is countable, we let qi , i = 1, 2, 3, . . . denote the rationals. Now consider

the countably many open intervals

Ik = (qi , qj )

1

On the other hands. It is quite easy to “guess” only the empty set ∅ and R1 can be both open and closed. Of course if U. Problem 4. we know x ∈ V (you can prove this rigorously by showing that x is a limit point of U c = V ). . and of all its subsets. which shows that B c is open. because there is a “gap” of length 1/n which prevents points in A from converging to x. we know B1 ⊂ B2c . x + ) = ∅. therefore A ∩ B2c = [(A ∩ B2c ) ∩ B1 ] ∪ [(A ∩ B2c ) ∩ B1c ] = A ∩ B1 ∪ ∅ = A ∩ B1 . Therefore B 0 = A Problem 14. so is the intersection U ∩ [x. Problem 9. If A ⊆ B1 ∪ B2 where B1 and B2 are disjoint open sets and A is compact. x + 1/n0 ). V are not empty. This is just a corollary of the open set structure theorem on page 88. Problem 15. For the counterexample. y]. Since B2c is closed. therefore x ∈ U . We denote the limit points of sequence A by B. For ∀x ∈ B c we know that there exists certain n0 such that 2 2 A ∩ (x − . Solution. By the construction process we know that B = {xk } is dense in A. x + 1/n0 ) ⊂ B c . n0 n0 Now choose a slightly smaller neighborhood of x. y]. However the proof is not trivial. you can simply consider the irrationals Problem 8. Since B1 and B2 are disjoint. . Solution. as a new label for the countable set.in which we apparently use k = 1. Then we need to prove B c . Given a closed set A. What sets are both open and closed. which means A ⊂ B 0 by the property of dense subsets. since A is closed it must contain the limit points of itself. show that A ∩ B1 is compact. Now choose xk ∈ Ik ∩ A if the later one is not empty. since y ∈ / U and U is also open. Is the same true if B1 and B2 are not disjoint? Solution. Since U is closed. Therefore we know (x − 1/n0 . 3. Therefore we know since B ⊂ A that B 0 ⊂ A. Now we have a contradiction because U ∩ V = ∅. 2. We use {xk } constructed in exercise 6. say (x − 1/n0 . However. Now assume U is both open and closed in R1 and so is its compliment V = U c . Then it is easy to see that there exits no limit points of A inside this open interval. construct a sequence whose set of limit points is A Solution. Now consider the least upper bound z of the set U ∩ [x. then there exist at least one point x ∈ U and one point y ∈ V . Then it is easy to see that {xk } is dense subset of A. the compliment of B in R1 to be open. Show that the set of limit point of a sequence is a closed set. . we know that A ∩ B2c is 2 .

For the second part you can use A = [−1. 1]. . The first part is trivial from the property that a compact set is both closed and bounded. 0) ∪ (0. mk ∈ N. then A + B is also open. A is compact. . As A and B are compact. Now choose lk = max {nk . Problem 6. Solution. there exist subsequences ank . then A + B is compact. 3 . Give an example of a non-compact set A such that both sup A and inf A belong to A. 2. b ∈ B. Now [ A+B = A + {x} x∈B is also open. Since a closed set of a compact set is also compact(try to prove this). k = 1. an ∈ A. Any sequence {xn } ∈ A + B can be written as xn = an + bn . bn ∈ B. Show that if A and B are compact. Solution. mk }.also closed as A is closed. which are convergent to a ∈ A. it is easy to see that A + {x} is open for ∀ ∈ R1 . . show that sup A and inf A belong to A. we are done. Show that if A is open. nk . bmk . Since A is open. Now assume A and B are both compact. then it is easy to see that xlk = alk + blk is convergent to a + b ∈ A + B. Problem 8.

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