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Journal

of Food

Engineering

28 (1996) 27 I -2X2

Copyright D 1996 Elsevier Science Limited
Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved
0260-X774/96/$
IS.00
ELSEVIER

0260-8774(95)00053-4

Design and Control of Drum Dryers for the Food Industry.
Part 1. Set-Up of a Moisture Sensor and an Inductive
Heater
G. Rodriguez,

J. Vasseur”

& F. Courtois

ENSIA-INRA Food Engineering Department. 1, Av. des Olympiades, F-91305 Massy
Cedex, France
(Received 5 March 1995; accepted 23 August 199.5)

ABSTRACT
The aim of this work is to analyse different ways for controlling the final
moisture content of a product dried on a drum dryer; and to reduce its
unevenness in order to obtain a high-quality product and to increase dryer
productivity A new way to determine product moisture content by means of
product temperature measurement
is presented, which is convenient for a
moving and low thickness film. The product temperature is directly related to
moisture content, because drying on a drum dryer takes place by boiling: this
relation comes from the experimental desorption isobal; or boiling curve of the
product.
This measurement
allows the detection of wet zones, and the
correction of the moisture profile across the width by means of an additional
inductive heater Copyright 0 1996 Elsevier Science Limited.

NOTATION
Water activity
Concentration of noncondensible gases (kg air/kg water)
Dry matter load (kg DMlm’)
Film thickness (mm)
Outlet mass flow rate (kg/h)
Inlet mass flow rate (kg/h)
Inlet steam flow rate (kg/h)
Nominal inductive power (kW)
Pressure of saturated steam at Tpe (bar)
Total pressure (bar)
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
271

Trystram et al. Input variables. caseinates. For an increase in Vrc. Kim & Piyarat. a lower product quality. etc. right) (kg water/kg DM) Emissivity Feed product viscosity (Pa s) Gap between drum and dipping satellite (mm) DRUM DRYING SURVEY Drum drying is currently used in the food industry to dry heavy pastes and thick liquids. 1983. Drum speed Vrc and steam pressure pv are the most important variables of the process with regards to the final product moisture content Xf and outlet mass flow rate m. Final moisture content is also conditioned by steam pressure pv: Xf obviously decreases with increase in the steam pressure (pv) due to the higher drum surface temperature profile. resulting in a lower productivity due to the reduction in drum rotation speed. maltodextrins. such as fluctuations in the initial moisture and thickness of product (Trystram. and a higher cost than is necessary. 1988). Nevertheless. Vasseul. 1988. Dipping satellite speed Vrs increases slightly the quantity of product smeared on the drum Cs. e. 1988. The obtained dried product is porous and easy to rehydrate. baby food. and unevenness in the moisture content of the final dried product. All these . E Courtois Steam pressure in the cylinder (bar) Temperature measured by an infrared thermometer Boiling temperature (K) Product temperature (“C) Local final value of product temperature. middle. 1). problems are sometimes encountered with the output product quality because of some perturbations in the drying processes. Vasseur & Loncin. Phenomenological studies of the process (Abchir et al. right) (“C) Drum speed (rpm) Dipping satellite drum speed (rpm) Final value of moisture content (kg water/kg DM) Local final moisture content vs width. middle. mashed potatoes. Vanot & Develey. 1983) show the complex interaction between all operating parameters. on both sides (Abchir. ready to use. Figure 2(b) shows the nonlinear relation between WC and TV for a constant Xf value (TV is the saturated steam temperature at pv). concentrated liquids. accumulation of noncondensible gases in the drum with local bad heat transfer. 1986. 2(a))..g. just above the knife (left. Rodriguez. such as cooked starch. These perturbations produce wet zones on the drying film. just above the knife (left.. The same problems are observed in the paper industry (Udino.. but the effect on Xf is not considerable because of the auto regulation effect of the cylinder (increase of steam flow). 1988).272 G. J. temperature. the influence on Xf is due to the reduction in the drying time available and change in the quantity of product smeared over the drum Cs (see Fig. for example). fruit pulps. according to the degree of starch gelatinisation. 1988. The usual way to overcome these problems is to overdry the product so that even the wetter zones are nevertheless dry. These studies allowed us to select and to classify both the input and the output variables (Fig. yeast creams.

The wetter zones are commonly on the drum edges. conductivity sensors. The variations of these factors produce an unevenness in film thickness. However. 1983).. In industry. Variations in initial moisture content (X. . p. 1. resulting in a lower productivity and a higher cost because of the drum speed decrease. product viscosity (p). but the response time is too long for control. meaning that dry matter load (Cs) is not the same everywhere. Figures 4 and 5 show the influence of WC and pv on final moisture content and mass flow rate. 1988.. The traditional method used to measure the final moisture content is to take product samples and dry them in an oven at 105°C for 24 h or in an infrared heated balance. The most important are moisture content X’. Vasseur & Loncin. 3). 1988. Vasseur & Loncin (1983) have proved that the evaporation rate increases at low thickness of product smeared on the drum (Fig. Schematic representation of the influence of variables variables. Simulation results have shown that WC and PLJ are the most important input variables for controlling product moisture content vs time. pv.. Output variables. (input) on objectives (output) variables induce nonlinear responses with response times and delay depending on the set points. thickness of product layer (e) and the gap between dipping satellite and drum drier (rj) are considered as disturbances. State of the art of moisture measurement Detection of a small change in the product moisture content is not easy to realise due to the small thickness of the film and the motion of the product. which will be measured by means of product temperature (T “C) and mass flow rate (mr) linearly depending on Cs and Kc.). it is necessary to overdry the central zone. on-line measurement of -Yf is sometimes made by capacitive sensors. Several models of the process have been proposed (Abchir et al. A method to overcome this kind of problem is proposed. . Trystram et al. this global action is not sufficient to correct unevenness in moisture content across the drum width. To reach the desired moisture content in these zones. microwave sensors or .Design and control of drum dryers for the food industry 273 Unmeasured Disturbances non-condensible gases changes in Xo. Output variables Input Variables Prc Sysren (Dryer -_ Fig.

and besides. Slight. 1976).02 kg/kg). The results may be affected by the particle size. the product temperature and thickness. 1986. Vasseur. Swift. 1988). 2. the colour (Jones. 1988. (a) Influence of drum speed over Xf (Trystram. m l 10 15 20 25 Drum Drier VIC (m/r&) (b) 180 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Dmm speed VR: (rpm) Fig. 1991. these methods are quite expensive. This is why real time moisture measurement techniques are rarely encountered for industrial drum dryer control. 1971).G.I. Most of these methods are difficult to calibrate and work on ground product in thick layers after having left the drum.. . Influence of Vie on flake thickness (Trystram. Rodriguez.. 1988). Richard et al. .: Courtois 274 infrared sensors (Goldstein et al.1. (b) Relation between steam temperature (TV) and drum speed (WC) when keeping Xfconstant (Xf-0.

since air velocity around the dryer is under 6 m/s. Vasseur & Loncin. Desorption isobar (1 bar) obtained in the laboratory of product (maltodextrin D. That means that the product attains its m Oswin’s Model 0 100 110 X Experimental 120 130 by Bassal’s Method 140 150 Product TempeI. \\ lzl 275 ilf Schematic diagram of the pilot drum dryer.E. We have looked for cheaper sensors. 3. native wheat starch (3. 17(20%). 1988.3%) and water (76. . Previous studies on the drying mechanisms (Abchir. able to measure ‘on-line’ the moisture content in order to control the process with precision and rapidity.Design and control of drum dryersfor the food industry tnife wet product I 91 I Fig.lture(“C) Fig.7%)) fitted with Oswin’s Model. 1983) have shown that drying on a drum dryer takes place by boiling. 4.

. a dipping satellite was used for distribution on the drum (see Fig.3%) and water (76. AV. d’aubibre. over the product (generally atmospheric pressure). The product to be dried in our tests was a ‘model product’ of maltodextrin D. able to measure on-line the moisture content with precision and rapidity. which is a function of X.44 m2. J. The speed range is O-10 rpm. defined by the fact its steam pressure at Tpe (i.. 63800 Cow-non. 17(20%). leading to a stationary state defined by its input m. for about 314 of a rotation. PTpe) is equal to the total pressure P. The DUPRAT pilot dryer is made of cast iron. Rodriguez. Vasseq l? Courtois 216 100 110 120 130 140 150 Product temperature (“C) Fig. m. Validation of moisture estimation from direct (oven) and indirect measurement (temperature measurement at two emissivities and isobar equation). if product temperature is measured. 20. the useful drying surface is 0. SociCtC DUPRAT. France. boiling temperature Tpe. 414 mm diameter.7%). before being scraped by a knife. The energy consumption varies *Constructor of drum dryers. 5. Therefore. 3) determining the specific load Cs.e. and 22 mm thick. This property facilitates the use of cheaper sensors.G. native wheat starch (3. The product dries during contact with the hot wall.E. internally heated with steam @v). In all our tests. and output mf mass flow rates. the corresponding moisture content X is known through knowledge of the desorption isobar. MATERIALS AND METHODS The product to dry is smeared in a very thin film on the hot metallic surface of a rotating drum (kc). and the evaporating flow rate is 30 kg/h maximum. 600 mm long.

0 the product emissivity has to be as high as possible (E >OG30) for the chosen sensor waveband (opaque product). emissivity can be set from 1.15 to 1. the boiling temperature of the product goes over 100°C and the temperature difference between product and metallic wall decreases.=l. This method consists of drying a product in a pure steam atmosphere until it reaches equilibrium. for a.pe is pressure of saturated steam.4 to 1. which is usually the case at the beginning of the drying process. and quite independent of moisture content variations (it is a temperature measurement).. and in motion with the metallic wall. Due to the emissivity difference between the wall and the product. The schematic 277 diagram of Principle of moisture estimation from temperature measurement In boiling type drying.l. leading to a low heat flux at the end of drying. At the end of drying. the heat flux is then very high.Design and control of drum dtyers for the food industry classically from 1.=0. 3. the product temperature reaches 100°C at atmospheric pressure as long as activity of water in the product is a. 1992). To describe the desorption isobar. the pilot drum drier is shown in Fig. is the total pressure over the product (bar). The selected sensor was a near infrared thermometer: range 0-2OO”C. kZ. 1992) Oswin model to take into account the effect of temperature (eqn (1)). 1 (k. k3 and k4 are the parameters to be identified P. aw=< (1) k. Different factors were taken into consideration: 0 the film is thin. with a 7-14 pm spectral range. when some problems occur upstream. at Tpe (bar) and Tpe is the boiling temperature of product (“C). p. successively the results obtained for temperature and for the correction of wet zones with an additional and local . RESULTS This section describes moisture measurements heater. a. This curve determines the relation between moisture content X of a product and its boiling temperature Tpe. < 1. we used an infrared thermometer.~tXJ7‘pt2) X=(kl +kzTpe) ___ [ 1 -a. this sensor also detects the absence of product over the drum. Its target is 20 mm distant and the response time is about one second. Remote temperature sensor In order to measure on-line the product temperature without contact. P. we used the transformed (Bassal & Vasseur. The desorption isobar (1 bar) was obtained using Bassal’s method (Bassal & Vasseur.2 kg steam/kg water removed.

middle and right (Ti. J. Vasseq l! Courtois 278 TABLE 1 Optimized Parameters used to Fit the Isobar Desorption with the Oswin Model for a Model Product of Maltodextrin D. We can thus deduce the moisture content Xf from the measurement of Tpe with a good precision. Several additional sources of energy have been proposed: Figure . samples at different temperatures were taken just before the knife and their moisture contents were determinated in the oven. which is precise (error 7% for T=118-148“(Z). process modifications have been made by adding complementary energy sources.G. 1988).284369 -9*687127x10-4 6~616002~10~~ 5. which means that the product is wetter in this zone. Conclusion. giving through the isobar a local value of Xf. The same situation is observed in the paper industry (Udino.). A nonlinear optimisation method (Simplex) was used to estimate the parameters of the model from the experimental results (Table 1). without contact and quite cheap compared to other methods of moisture measurement.. Correction of unevenness in moisture content across the drum width 6 is a recording of product temperature at three points across the width of the drum: left. felt nonuniformities.95. which is the temperature working range at the output of the drum dryer. Native Wheat Starch (3. We can see both variations vs time and vs width: the left temperature for example is lower than the middle one. In order to correct these uneven moisture content distributions. etc. 4 that the newly adjusted model is close to the experimental points especially between 118 and 145”C. the final product moisture content can be achieved by an infrared thermometer T=TIR=f(Xj). where nonuniform moisture profiles are attributed to basic weight variations. 1983. 17(20%).7%) Modified Oswin Model Parameters k.3%) and Water (76. k2 6. T. Two different emissivities were tested for the IR thermometer: &=0. We observe in Fig.537222~10-~ Validation of moisture estimation method Figure 4 shows the desorption isobar (1 bar) of our product obtained from equilibrium laboratory experiments using Bassal’s method and described with Oswin’s model (1992). T. Rodriguez. uneven dryer roll conditions. We can also check that the emissivity variation has little influence on the moisture content deduced from the temperature. Vanot & Develey.E. Figure 5 shows a good agreement between the experimental moisture content obtained from drum drying experiments through classical oven methods and through the isobar equation and temperature measurement for ~=0*85. In order to validate the use of the desorption isobar with the dried product coming out of the drum.85 and 0.

l a modular infrared heating system has been located inside the cylinder (Manfredi & Raymond. The results obtained with the infrared heater (4 kW over a 40 cm width) were not satisfactory: the energy is not well absorbed by the product which is transparent to this wavelength IR radiation. T. Evolution of final product temperature at three locations on the width of the drum: T.4 kW over a 20 cm width (heated surface 0. T. In this work. .. with a ma netic circuit. 1983). Vrs=30 rpm. directly over the paper sheet at the end of the process. Nevertheless. The following results show that such a process modification can also be implemented in the food industry. 1989) or most often. Inductive electric heater The inductive electric heater was used to correct the unevenness in moisture content on the left side. producing up to 3.23 rpm. the modules are individually commanded to control the local moisture content.. Also the flux density transferred to the drum wall and later released to the product was not sufficient. (Vrc=1.Design and control of drum dryers for the food industry 3200 3400 3600 3800 4ooo 279 4200 time s Fig. 6. The results with the inductive electric heater are given below..26 m #). without impedance adaptation. in order to correct the moisture profile and to increase the product quality and productivity. 1986). It is a ‘low-frequency’ (50 Hz) inductor. two additional energy sources have been tested: a short infrared heater and an inductive electric heater. this kind of solution has not yet been used in the food industry. 0 a modular inductive moisture profile corrector has been situated outside a heating cylinder (Udino. using a single-step drum dryer. for a wide range of gaps (3-10 mm).) 0 high-frequency dielectric heating has been used directly over the paper sheet (Jones. In the last two cases.pv=S bar.

e. only a small part (10%) is net energy to increase the local mass flux. In the first part of the test. Thus. an alternating electromagnetic field intersects the portion of the drier shell adjacent to it. CONCLUSION We can conclude that drying on a drum dryer takes place as a boiling phenomenon mechanism. This measurement works with a thin . the left side being 15% wetter. most of electrical power input also results in a reduction of the energy coming from the heating steam condensation. thus requiring the time of several rotations. washability. The initial unevenness between left side and middle is obvious. Figure 8 shows the process response when the local actuator is switched on. When the inductor is started. and heat is generated from the resistance to this eddy current. However. this technique brings heat to the wall. 2-25 kW is transferred to the wall. The environment in zone A is very humid because of the steam produced by the drying of product.280 G. In fact. J. the inductor location is rather a question of practicability. with an applied power of 3 kW. Vasseur. the left moisture content decreases rapidly. which must be heated before increasing the local heat flux (left side). The response time is about 100 s. When the inductor is energized. between the feed zone and the knife. changing from Xf=4-2% to Xf=2*8%. the system is used without the inductor. We must choose an inductive power adapted to the unevenness to control and to the size of the drum.I? Courtois Fig. an eddy current is induced in the wall. consequently. The inductor efficiency is about 75%. Figure 7 shows the inductor installed near the outside surface of the drum dryer (3 mm gap). etc. 7). Since the wall dryer is electrically conductive. Rodriguez. an infrared temperature sensor can be used as a local moisture sensor for the dried product (Xf. Three zones are possible for installing the inductor (Fig. Zone C Induction heating of dryer. 7.25 kW (on 20 cm width). The additional evaporating flux does not consume 2. That is why the actuator was placed under the drum in zone C. i.

.! 400 .. 300 .. The next step is to include the above sensor and actuator in a control loop in order to adjust the local additional power to the objective in moisture content.steam pressure @v). It can be used to detect moisture unevenness and location of wet zones in real time. by avoiding over-drying which is the conventional way to overcome unevenness in industry.... which provided the material and invaluable aid in the preparation of this work. . .. 500 600 .. Trystram and Dr. and eventually to detect anomalies such as absence of product on the dryer. which is a more complex strategy. 700 . In fact.. 900 1000 . without contact. It should be taken into account that the controlled electrical power is partially used for increasing the moisture evaporation rate. . . Heating .. This will be the subject of part 2 of this paper.e.with specific dynamics and nonlinear response... film.( .. 800 . rotation speed (Vrc) and local induction heating (Pind) ... is precise and quite cheap compared to other methods. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank DUPRAT Company and EDF. 1100 .. the power of the additional local heating should be related to the moisture unevenness and to the drum size.... .. The feasibility of unevenness correction of Xf has been demonstrated.... *. the industrial control can combine several actuators . .. .Design and control of drum dryers for the food industry pv = 4 2 z’“! 00 6” fg 281 bar.. It increases the drum dryer productivity. i. . 100 200 . Bassal whose comments led to significant improvements of the text. Vrc = 3 trlmin Pind = 3000 W 4 Inductive 2 (..... .. .. G. using a complementary heating source.. A. 1200 time (s) Fig.. The authors would also like to thank Dr. Step response of product moisture content (Xi=left and X. 0 .. 8.=middle) when the local actuator is switched on. Of course for adequate control. an inductive heater..

43 (12) 116-7. G. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation. Measurement of water activity at high temperatures. Tomezak. Vasseul. K. 225-32. Food Eng.05% accuracy. L. 47-53. IDS’88. Sixth Bassal. R. Domanico. ENSIA-Massy. (1989). 265-83. 217-25. In Drying ‘86. A. Vasseur. Modelisation and Simulation of Drum Drying. Tappi Journal. Elsevier Science Publishers B. A. B. pp. (1988). eds. Amsterdam. M. J. Meot. 43 (12). Gersh. Mujumdar.. Drying Technol. M. ed. G. A. 4 (2) Abchir. & Couvrat-Desvergnes. Slight.. 435-439. High frequency dielectric heating in paper making. & Piyarat. Bien. Essex. A. (1986). E. H. (1983). Dynamic Modelling of a Drum Dryer for Food Products. 313-21. 39 (May).. S.M. Barking. G. In Engineering and Food. R. Kim. (1991). C.. D. Sixth International Drying Symposium. F. Swift. J. M. High heat transfers coefficient in thin film drying: application to drum drying. 33. Elsevier Applied Science.. ed. Trystram. Bimbenet. Multipoint fiberoptic humidity monitor. (1988). M. R. 147-51. J. J. Comparative Study of Industrial Applications. W. & Develey. Vasseur. pp... & Ronat. International Drying Symposium.V. E. Versailles. Mujumdar. In Drying ‘92. J. Sixth International Drying Symposium. Abchir. Abchir.. Vanot. . & Trystram. Drying characteristics of minced fish on drum dryers. (1976). J. Elsevier Applied Science. Udino. Bimbenet. Renard & J. M. (1988). 13-18. fkarqais de l’electrothermie. G. Cylindre chauffe interieurement par rayonnement infrarouge. (1992). pp.282 G. ht. M. (1988).. Trans. and Technol. R. & Raymond. F Courtois REFERENCES F.. IDS’88. J. In Automatic Control and Optimisation of Food Processes. (1986).. A. 115-25. Process Control. Drying Technol. Measures moisture with infrared. 9 (4) pp. Journal Fraqais de I’Electrothermie.. 83-4. (1971). Jorrr$_t4L. M. (1988). G. pp. Thesis. N. 9 (4) 833-47. 70C (September). Rodriguez. J. ed. On-line moisture control system features *0. M. M. 408-12. Versailles. S.. Aubrun. (1982). & Vasseur. (1988). An Approach to Automation of Rotary Drum Dryers. & Trystram. B.. J. Richard. pp. Process control in the food industry. Goldstein. 66 (6) pp. Vasseur. Food Sci. G. S. (1992). pp. IDS’88. Food Processing. (1983). Lee. Trystram. ZChem E. 27-31. J. & Loncin.. Contribution a l’automatisation d’un pro&de industrial de sechage sur cylindre. Massachusetts. Chauffage par induction d’un cylindre de sechage. Manfredi. The Netherlands. Magnetic moisture profile corrector. Versailles. J. Modelisation du sechage sur cylindre. & Zakin. 49-51. pp. S.