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Chapter 5 Personality and Values

Page 51

Chapter 4
Personality and Values
Chapter Overview

PPT 5.1

Personality and values are major shapers of behavior. In order for managers
to predict behavior, they must know the personalities of those who work for
them. The chapter starts out with a review of the research on personality
and its relationship to behavior and ends by describing how values shape
many of our work-related behaviors.
Chapter Objectives
After studying this chapter, the student should be able to:
1. Define personality, describe how it is measured, and
PPT 5.2
explain the factors that determine an individual's
2. Describe the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality framework and
assess its strengths and weaknesses.
3. Identify the key traits in the Big Five personality model and
demonstrate how the Big Five traits predict behavior at work.
4. Identify other personality traits relevant to OB.
5. Define values, demonstrate the importance of values, and contrast
terminal instrumental values.
6. Identify Hofstede’s five value dimensions of national culture.
Suggested Lecture Outline
PPT 5.3
A. What Is Personality?
1. Personality. When psychologists talk of
personality, they mean a dynamic concept describing the growth
and development of a person’s whole psychological system.
2. Defining Personality: The sum total of ways in which an individual
reacts to, and interacts with, others – described in terms of
measurable traits.
a. Gordon Allport, nearly 70 years ago, said personality is “the
dynamic organization within the individual of those
psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments
to his environment.” traits that a person exhibits.
3. Measuring Personality. The ability to measure
PPT 5.4
personality traits to help managers select
appropriate employees and better match workers
to jobs.

Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education Inc.

social and assertive while those on the introvert side are quiet and shy. . This the most widely used instrument in the world. 2) Genetics appears to be more influential on personality development than parental environment. People scoring higher on the extraverted side of the scale are more outgoing. their personalities do change. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). PPT 5. Twin studies. facial attractiveness. Personality Determinants. This scale is important in decision-making: thinkers use reason and logic while feelers use emotions and their own personal values to make decisions. Personality traits. temperament. a. d. Four Classification Scales: 1) Extraverted versus Introverted (E or I). or the momentary emotional state of the candidate. Intuitive people are more “big picture” oriented and rely on “gut” feelings. muscle composition and reflexes. Sensing individuals are practical. Aging and personality. 2) Potentially inaccurate due to falsehoods. enjoy order and are detail oriented. 1) These are factors determined at conception such as physical stature. 4. 1) Studies of identical twins that were separated at birth indicate that a significant part the variation turned out to be associated with genetic factors. c. Personality appears to be development of both hereditary and environmental factors. impression management. The most common means of measuring personality is through self-reports surveys: 1) Individuals evaluate themselves on a series of factors.5 the two. this change is more in terms of level of ability than it is in changes in the actual ranking of the behavioral traits themselves—which are very stable over time. and biological rhythms. 2) However. energy level.6 1. 2) Two of the dominant frameworks for describing relevant personality traits are the MBTI and the Big Five Model. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education Inc. B. gender. 1) Traits are characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior that are exhibited in a large number of situations. Respondents are asked a series of situational questions and their answers are categorized on four scales to determine personality type. 3) Thinking versus Feeling (T or F). 2) Sensing versus Intuitive (S or N). b. 1) As people grow older.Chapter 5 Personality and Values Page 52 a. Heredity. 2) The heredity approach argues that personality is determined at the chromosome level. a. heredity seems to have the most impact. Of PPT 5.

AT&T. 2) There is no in-between. Let’s explore several examples. 4) But because results tend to be unrelated to job performance.7 body of research that supports it. evidence is mixed about the MBTI’s validity as a measure of personality—with most of the evidence suggesting it isn’t. (1) They are realistic.S. Five Factors a. . 2) Scoring high in this factor means the respondent is more gregarious. The MBTI is widely used by organizations including Apple Computer. Citigroup. individualistic. many hospitals and educational institutions. versatile. In spite of its popularity. 3M Co. Extraversion. and attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. a) Introverted/Intuitive/Thinking/Judging people (INTJ)s are visionaries. Armed Forces. managers probably shouldn’t use it as a selection test for job candidates. 3. GE. 3) The best we can say is that the MBTI can be a valuable tool for increasing self-awareness and providing career guidance. Deals with the comfort level with relationships. b. 1) One problem is that it forces a person into either one type or another (that is. (2) They are skeptical. though people can be both extraverted and introverted to some degree.. assertive. Sixteen Personality Types 1) These classifications together describe 16 personality types. this is contrasted with introversion. and sociable. c) The ENTP type is a conceptualizer. critical. 2. (2) They like to organize and run activities.Chapter 5 Personality and Values Page 53 4) Judging versus Perceiving (J or P). determined. independent. (1) They are innovative. conscientiousness) appears to be positively related to job performance and can be used as an employment selection or screening tool. and often stubborn. b) ESTJs are organizers. you’re either introverted or extraverted). This model of personality has an impressive PPT 5. with every person identified with one of the items in each of the four pairs. 1) Like the MBTI. a. The model (particularly one factor. C. and decisive and have a natural head for business or mechanics. 2. 1. (2) This person tends to be resourceful in solving challenging problems but may neglect routine assignments. analytical. and even the U. Perceivers are more flexible and spontaneous. logical. The Big Five Model. (1) They usually have original minds and great drive for their own ideas and purposes. Judgers are controloriented and enjoy structure and order. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education Inc.

able to plan. c. 3) They often have higher life and job satisfaction. reliable. b. Measures reliability. and quiet. persistent. and insecure. curious. 3) People high in this factor deal better with organizational change and are more adaptable. a proxy for creativity. 2) Agreeable workers are less likely to be involved in drugs and excessive drinking. this is the key determinant of job performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) on the Big Five. 3) Not surprisingly. Low emotional stability scorers tend to be nervous. and unreliable. and persistent. 4) Yet. Emotional Stability (or Neuroticism – its opposite). . How do the Big Five traits predict behavior at Exhibit 5. timid. Measures ability to handle stress. 2) Low scorers are easily distracted. thorough. Measures the range of interests and fascination with novelty. d. warm. Conscientiousness. Measures deference towards others. 4) However. “the preponderance of evidence shows that individuals who are dependable. and antagonistic. Openness to Experience. 1) High scorers are cooperative.8 1) As the authors of the most-cited review put it. more sensational tasks. 1) High scorers are responsible. 2) People with high emotional stability tend to become selfconfident and secure. hardworking. and achievementoriented tend to have higher job performance in most if not all occupations. 1) The more stable a person. Agreeableness.Chapter 5 Personality and Values Page 54 3) Introverts tend to be reserved. employees who score higher in conscientiousness Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education Inc. Research on the Big Five has found relationships between these personality dimensions and job performance. depressed. 4) Extraverts tend to be happy in their jobs but may be impulsive and absent themselves from work to take on some other.1 work? a. 2) High scorers tend to be creative. disorganized. disagreeable. 1) People who score low on this factor tend to be conventional and enjoy familiar circumstances. anxious. organized. and artistically sensitive. low-scoring people make better and faster decisions when in a bad mood than do stable people. conscientious people also tend not to take risks and may find organizational change difficult to handle. surprisingly. careful. dependable. and trusting while low scores are cold. organized. 4. e. the better he (or she) can handle stress. PPT 5.” 2) In addition.

and they are generally more assertive than introverts. b) They also tend to perform better in jobs that require significant interpersonal interaction. b. attention to detail.Chapter 5 Personality and Values Page 55 develop higher levels of job knowledge. All five traits also have other implications for OB. c. 3) Extraverts tend to be happier in their jobs and in their lives as a whole. 3) Although conscientiousness is the Big Five trait most consistently related to job performance. a) They experience more positive emotions than do introverts. 2) The results might surprise you. extraverts are more socially dominant. drinking. and setting of high standards —was more important than other traits. and other impulsive or sensation-seeking acts. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education Inc. d) One downside of extraversion is that extraverts are more impulsive than introverts. b) This is probably true because high scorers are more likely to be positive and optimistic in their thinking and experience fewer negative emotions. a) Of the Big Five traits. and they more freely express these feelings. Conscientiousness is as important for managers as for front-line employees. extraversion is a relatively strong predictor of leadership emergence in groups. c) Finally. job satisfaction. and their company’s performance later correlated with their personality scores) found conscientiousness—in the form of persistence. they are more likely to be absent from work and engage in risky behavior such as unprotected sex. probably because highly conscientious people learn more (a review of 138 studies revealed conscientiousness was rather strongly related to GPA). “take charge” sorts of people. 2) People low on emotional stability are hyper-vigilant (looking for problems or impending signs of danger) and are especially vulnerable to the physical and psychological effects of stress. 1) People who score high on emotional stability are happier than those who score low. 1) A study of the personality scores of 313 CEO candidates in private equity companies (of whom 225 were hired. . perhaps because they have more social skills—they usually have more friends and spend more time in social situations than introverts. and low stress levels. the other traits are related to aspects of performance in some situations. emotional stability is most strongly related to life satisfaction. 3) Higher levels of job knowledge then contribute to higher levels of job performance. but they attest to the importance of conscientiousness to organizational success.

Core Self-Evaluation. a) They also are more comfortable with ambiguity and change than those who score lower on this trait. a) And they are. especially artistically. b) They are generally performance oriented and have more trouble learning complex skills early in the training process because their focus is on performing well rather than on learning. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education Inc. g) Agreeable individuals may be poorer negotiators. probably because they’re so organized and structured. and in charge of their environment. agreeable individuals are usually their first choice. capable. however. friends. open people are more likely to be effective leaders. c) Finally.9 describing a person's personality. f) They are also less likely to engage in organizational deviance. open people cope better with organizational change and are more adaptable in changing contexts. conscientious people don’t adapt as well to changing contexts. and risky sexual or driving behavior. d) They also are more compliant and rule abiding and less likely to get into accidents as a result. a. b) When people choose romantic partners. Other Personality Traits Relevant to OB. 7) Interestingly. but only slightly. they are often less creative than less conscientious people. .Chapter 5 Personality and Values Page 56 4) Individuals who score high on openness to experience are more creative in science and art than those who score low. This is a measure of the degree to which a person likes or dislikes him. 6) You might expect agreeable people to be happier than disagreeable people. which explains why they tend to do better in interpersonally oriented jobs such as customer service. or organizational team members. b) As a result. they are so concerned with pleasing others that they often don’t negotiate as much for themselves as they might. c) Agreeable individuals are better liked than disagreeable people. e) Agreeable children do better in school and as adults are less likely to get involved in drugs or excessive drinking. i B. Positive core self-evaluators like themselves and see themselves as being effective. 1. a) Still. One downside of agreeableness is that it is associated with lower levels of career success (especially earnings). Other traits beyond the Big Five factors can be relevant in PPT 5. that they are especially susceptible to workplace accidents. drinking and drugs.(or her-) self. 5) Because creativity is important to leadership. conscientious people live longer because they take better care of themselves (they eat better and exercise more) and engage in fewer risky behaviors like smoking. Recent evidence also suggests.

h. and 3) when emotional involvement with details irrelevant to winning distracts low Machs. and believes ends can justify means.” d. An individual high in Machiavellianism is pragmatic. Negative evaluators tend to dislike themselves. Machiavellianism a. and view themselves as powerless over their environment. requires excessive admiration. or the three situational factors we noted are not in evidence. 2. c. But if ends can’t justify the means. 3. c. (often abbreviated Mach) Named after Niccolo Machiavelli. a man so vain and proud he fell in love with his own image. The term is from the Greek myth of Narcissus. Narcissism. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education Inc. allowing latitude for improvisation. Because narcissists often want to gain the admiration of others and receive affirmation of their superiority. A considerable amount of research has related high. In psychology. treating others as if they were inferior. 1) A study found that although narcissists thought they were better leaders than their colleagues. In jobs that require bargaining skills (such as labor negotiation) or that offer substantial rewards for winning (such as commissioned sales). win more. are persuaded less. Thus. 2) For example. their supervisors actually rated them as worse. High Machs manipulate more. 2) when the situation has a minimal number of rules and regulations. maintains emotional distance. . our ability to predict a high Mach’s performance will be severely curtailed. a. b. High Machs flourish 1) when they interact face to face with others rather than indirectly. g. whether high Machs make good employees depends on the type of job. high Machs will be productive.Chapter 5 Personality and Values Page 57 They tend to perform better because they set ambitious goals and persist at achieving them. b. d. question her capabilities. there are absolute standards of behavior. narcissism describes a person who has a grandiose sense of self-importance. and is arrogant. Yet high-Mach outcomes are moderated by situational factors. they tend to “talk down” to those who threaten them. f. an Oracle executive described that company’s CEO Larry Ellison as follows: “The difference between God and Larry is that God does not believe he is Larry. “If it works. and persuade others more than do low Machs. has a sense of entitlement. b. who wrote in the sixteenth century on how to gain and use power. use it” is consistent with a high-Mach perspective. e.and lowMach personalities to behavioral outcomes. Narcissism can have pretty toxic consequences.

Although previous studies have shown managers in large organizations to be more risk averse than growth-oriented entrepreneurs who actively manage small businesses. Interestingly. a quality that affects how much time and information managers need to make a decision. 5. High self-monitors are very adaptable and sensitive to external cues. and persevere until meaningful change occurs. a. . 6. Individuals with this type of personality PPT 5. They are often leaders or change agents and will challenge the status quo. recent findings suggest managers in large organizations may actually be more willing to take risks than entrepreneurs. even though they have less commitment to their organization. take action. 3) The latter job might be better filled by someone with a low risk-taking propensity. Describes the ability of people to adjust their behaviors to fit external.10 tend to identify opportunities. High self-monitors tend to get better performance ratings. 1) A high risk-taking propensity may lead to more effective performance for a stock trader in a brokerage firm because that type of job demands rapid decision making. managers worked on simulated personnel exercises that required them to make hiring decisions. f. 1) For instance. situational factors. c. Self-Monitoring. 2) On the other hand. show initiative. Proactive Personality. People with low self-monitoring tend to have high behavioral consistency while high self-monitors can appear chameleon-like to their co-workers. c. take leadership positions. decision accuracy was the same for both groups. b. d. b. are more mobile and take up central positions in their organizations. People with this personality attribute are highly prized by organizations for obvious reasons. Their bosses rate them as less effective at their jobs than others. b. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education Inc. a. People differ in their willingness to take chances. particularly when it comes to helping other people. 2) High risk-taking managers made more rapid decisions and used less information than did the low risk-taking managers. a willingness to take risks might prove a major obstacle to an accountant who performs auditing activities. It makes sense to recognize these differences and even consider aligning them with specific job demands. Risk Taking. 4.Chapter 5 Personality and Values Page 58 e. a. The work population as a whole also differs in risk propensity. Narcissists also tend to be selfish and exploitive and believe others exist for their benefit.

5. 2. with few gray areas. and others. 4. but more often it reinforces them. The intensity attribute specifies how important it is. friends. All of us have a hierarchy of values that forms our value system. When we rank an individual’s values in terms of their intensity. A personality trait that reflects the extent to which decisions are affected by social influences and concerns vs. They influence our perceptions. If we question our values. self-respect. Values tend to be relatively stable and enduring. and behavior.” learning of values that ensures their stability and endurance. or desirable. 3. They contain a judgmental element in that they carry an individual’s ideas as to what is right. Proactive people tend to have successful careers but may not be a good match for organizations who do not value change. c.Chapter 5 Personality and Values II. B. Values lay the foundation for understanding people's attitudes. pleasure. .12 or end-state of existence is important. Terminal versus Instrumental Values. c. C. whereas those who are more self-oriented will help others when they expect to be helped in the future (pay me forward). a. 2. We find it in the relative importance we assign to values such as freedom. they may change. Values can cloud objectivity and rationality. of course. You were never taught to be just a little bit honest or a little bit responsible. VALUES Values represent basic convictions that “a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is PPT 5. teachers. implying our values may be partly determined by our genetically transmitted traits. Values have both content and intensity attributes. Other-Orientation. a. motivation. There is also evidence linking personality to values. for example.2 Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education Inc. A. The content attribute says a mode of conduct PPT 5. honesty. 7. Exhibit 5. obedience. Page 59 d. a. b. A significant portion of the values we hold is established in our early years—by parents. our own wellbeing and outcomes. 6. d.11 personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. a. or “black-or-white. we obtain that person’s value system. 3.” 1. It is this absolute. Individuals with this type of personality feel more obligated to help others who have helped them (pay me back). and equality. 1. we are told certain behaviors or outcomes are always desirable or always undesirable. good. As children. b. The Importance of Values. b.

The sets are terminal and instrumental values. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education Inc. 3) Activists ranked “helpful” as their second-highest instrumental value. and members of a community activist group. parents. and activists all have a vested interest in what corporations do. Holland’s Personality-Job Fit Theory. b.2. students) tend to hold similar values.15 terminal values. b. a. 1) Although there was a good deal of overlap among them. Vocational Preference Inventory Questionnaire. LINKING AN INDIVIDUAL’S PERSONALITY AND VALUES TO THE WORKPLACE Managers have become concerned with matching both the personality and the values of an employee with those of the organization. 1) This was the tool Holland used identify congruent occupations. A.Chapter 5 Personality and Values Page 60 1. Holland identified six personality types and Exhibit 5. One study compared corporate executives. III. c. The hope is to identify workers who are both flexible and committed to the organization. See Exhibit PPT 5. Focuses on desirable PPT 5. 5) Because executives.13 4. there were also significant differences. 2) Instrumental Values. a. 1) People in the same occupations or categories (corporate managers. 2) The six personality types (or fields in Holland’s terminology) are laid out on a Exhibit 5. c. 4) The other two groups both ranked it 14. goals a person would like to achieve. Lists preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving PPT 5. members of the steelworkers’ union. Values can be classified by instruments such as the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS). Person-Job Fit 1. 2. 2) The activists ranked “equality” as their most important terminal value.4 hexagon. executives and union members ranked this value 12 and 13. Several studies confirm that RVS values vary among groups. respectively.3 proposed that job satisfaction and propensity to leave depend on how well the job and PPT 5. Social individuals belong in jobs requiring social skills and so on. these differences can create serious conflicts when groups contend with each other over an organization’s economic and social policies.14 end-states. .16 personalities are matched (congruency). This instrument consists of two sets of values each with 18 value items. union members. 1) Terminal Values. union members.

hire people high in agreeableness. an understanding of the differences would be helpful in explaining and PPT 5. d. a. 2. 2) Individualism/Collectivism. Because values differ across cultures.18 predicting behavior of employees from different countries. b) Low power distance cultures stress equality and upward opportunities. If the organization’s culture is innovative. lower turnover and higher organizational commitment. those diagonally opposite are highly dissimilar. hire people high in openness to experience. B. a) High power distance means that great inequities in power and wealth are tolerated. See Exhibit 5. 5. While there are many criticisms of this framework. hire people high in extraversion. 1. Holland's theory argues that satisfaction is highest and turnover is lowest when personality and occupation are in agreement. By testing and selecting based on this concept. 1) Power Distance. those jobs that are congruent to the field) are listed either within the field’s segment of the hexagon or in a separate document. Two frameworks to assess culture are Hofstede’s Framework and the Globe Framework. using Big Five terminology are: a. The understanding that a person must be a good PPT 5.Chapter 5 Personality and Values Page 61 3) Fields that lie adjacent to each other are similar. it is one Exhibit 5. a) Individualism is when people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups and believe in individual rights above all else. 4. Person-Organization Fit. The amount of emphasis placed on the individual as opposed to the group. 4) Appropriate jobs for that personality (that is. 3. If the organization’s culture is supportive. The alignment of an employee’s personality and values with an organization’s culture is positively related to increased job satisfaction.19 people accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. b. If the organization’s culture is aggressive and team-oriented.17 match to the organization itself has become increasingly important to managers. Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education Inc. IV.5 of the most widely read and accepted in OB. .5. Some general rules. c. Examines five value dimensions of national culture. Hofstede’s Framework. The degree to which PPT 5. managers can increase organizational outcomes. This concept argues that employees are more likely to leave an organization when their personalities do not match the organizational culture rather than when their skills or personalities are a good match with a particular job. INTERNATIONAL VALUES A.

) 8) Individualism/Collectivism. The degree to which unequal power is acceptable. 4) Uncertainty Avoidance. The extent to which future-oriented behaviors are encouraged and rewarded. and persistence. 5) Long-Term/Short-Term Orientation. 2) It can be seen as an extension of Hofstede’s framework. (Equivalent to Hofstede’s masculine/feminine. (Equivalent to Hofstede’s dimension of the same name. and control. (Equivalent to Hofstede’s long-term/short-term orientation. (Equivalent to Hofstede’s dimension of the same name. The GLOBE (Global Leadership and PPT 5.) 6) Uncertainty Avoidance.20 Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) Framework. (Equivalent to Hofstede’s dimension of the same name. The value a culture places on traditional gender roles. 4) Future Orientation. Degree of long-term devotion to traditional values. The degree to which individuals are encouraged to be integrated into groups. The degree to which people in a culture prefer structured over unstructured situations. confrontational. a) High uncertainty avoidance cultures are anxious over ambiguity and uncertainty: they emphasize law and controls. a) Long-term cultures are future-oriented and value tradition. and competitive. b) Low cultures accept a greater variety of opinion and higher levels of risk while relying less on rules: they more readily accept change. power. and expressly value achievement. 7) Hofstede’s framework is not without its critics. b) Feminine cultures value equality among the sexes. Reliance on social norms and procedures to remove uncertainty. but it is still highly influential. . b. 1) A relatively recent and on-going program of research. assertive. 3) Masculinity/Femininity.) 7) Power Distance. 3) Assertiveness. thrift. The extent to which society maximizes gender differences.) Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education Inc. a) Masculine societies have men dominating society. this framework uses nine dimensions of national culture. b) Short-term cultures are immediate and accept change more readily.Chapter 5 Personality and Values Page 62 b) Collectivism emphasizes a tight social framework in which people expect group members to look after and protect them. The extent to which people are encouraged to be tough.) 5) Gender Differentiation. separate roles for men and women. 6) There are both regional and national differences in culture as measured by this framework.

2.Summary PPT 5. SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGERS A. May be very useful in predicting behavior C. Easily measure B. . matching an individual’s values to organizational culture can result in positive organizational outcomes VI. and the organization in order to determine what the optimum Big Five personality type would be for a new employee. Sensing Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education Inc. Keep in Mind A.21 work group.22 1. Big Five Personality Traits 1. friends. impression management activities. Personality. Describe the two most common methods of assessing a personality. The scales are: 1) Extraverted/Introverted. Vary between and within cultures VII. the PPT 5. generous. B.Chapter 5 Personality and Values Page 63 9) In-Group Collectivism. A second type is observer-ratings surveys. 11) Humane Orientation. Values 1. Managers need to evaluate the job. and work organizations). Related to many OB criteria 2. C. 10) Performance Orientation. or changes due to the emotional state of the observed individual. The sum total of ways in which individual reacts to. The degree individuals are rewarded for fair. Extent to which people take pride in membership in small groups (family.23 Discussion Questions 1. Which is likely to be the most accurate? Why? Answer: Most common are the self-reports surveys. The degree to which group members are rewarded for performance improvement and excellence. what would you think was your personality type? Why? Answer: The MBTI is made up of four classification scales which are combined into sixteen personality types denoted by the initials of the dominant side of each scale (with N for intuitive). 2) Sensing/Intuitive. social and assertive while those on the introvert side are quiet and shy. Values strongly influence attitudes. People scoring higher on the extraverted side of the scale are more outgoing. where individuals evaluate themselves on a series of factors to determine the personality. These observer-ratings surveys tend to be more accurate as they do not lend themselves to falsehoods. Based on the framework. The MBTI could be helpful in training and development. and interacts with others 2. and altruistic behaviors. In these surveys. Describe the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality framework. Personality PPT 5. Values. a neutral party assesses the individual’s personality. behaviors and perceptions. V. Additionally. so knowing a person’s values may help improve prediction of behavior.

The dimensions are: Hofstede and GLOBE common dimensions: 1) Future Orientation.) 2) Gender Differentiation. Perceivers are more flexible and spontaneous. and work organizations). enjoy order and are detail oriented. The degree to which individuals are encouraged to be integrated into groups. 6. assertive. Personality answers will vary. 4. confrontational. Hofstede has five dimensions while GLOBE has nine. Reliance on social norms and procedures to remove uncertainty. Intuitive people are more “big picture” oriented and rely on “gut” feelings. . They influence our perceptions. this is contrasted with introversion. Identify and describe the five traits of the Big Five personality model. Answer: Hofstede’s framework is older and the established standard in the area. What are two attributes of values? Why are values important in OB? Answer: The two attributes of values are content (how important the mode of conduct or end-state of existence is to the individual) and intensity (how important this value is in relation to other values). 3) Thinking/Feeling. Extra credit should be given if students search the web and use a free MBTI program to identify their type. and behavior. 4) Judging/Perceiving. a proxy for creativity. GLOBE dimensions not found in Hofstede: 1) Assertiveness. motivation. (Equivalent to Hofstede’s long-term/short-term orientation. 5) Openness to Experience: measures the range of interests and fascination with novelty. Values lay the foundation for understanding people's attitudes. Values can cloud objectivity and rationality.) 3) Uncertainty Avoidance. 4) Power Distance. friends. 2) In-Group Collectivism. Terminal values are desirable end-states while instrumental values are the preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving those end-states. 3) Performance Orientation. Judgers are control oriented and enjoy structure and order. 2) Agreeableness: measures deference. Answer: 1) Extraversion: deals with the comfort level with relationships. Extent to which people take pride in membership in small groups (family. and competitive.Chapter 5 Personality and Values 3. (Equivalent to Hofstede’s masculine/feminine. Page 64 individuals are practical. 5) Individualism/Collectivism. 4) Emotional Stability (or Neuroticism – its opposite): measures ability to handle stress. This scale is important in decision-making: thinkers use reason and logic while feelers use emotions and their own personal values to make decisions. 5. Describe the relationship between terminal and instrumental values. The degree to which unequal power is acceptable. GLOBE is a more recent invention. 3) Conscientiousness: measures reliability. It is important to know values so that managers can better predict behavior. Like the MBTI. which include Hofstede’s five. Compare and contrast Hofstede’s and GLOBE’s national culture frameworks. The extent to which people are encouraged to be tough. Answer: These are the two sets of values in the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS). The extent to which future-oriented behaviors are encouraged and rewarded. The extent to which society maximizes gender differences. The degree to which Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education Inc.

were in jobs) that Holland’s assessment indicates they should enjoy and which are in jobs that the assessment says they would not enjoy. Select a free webbased version of the MBTI. A combination of the two. Then search for “Free Big Five” and do the same for the Big Five model. Ask them to go to http://www. generous. 2. A short paper. How good a “match” are you with your co-workers and supervisor in terms of personality? b. either as: a. search on the term “Free MBTI” and take one of the “light” versions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. What sort of personality should be hired in your organization if a vacancy occurs in your workgroup? Present your findings as your instructor directs. Determine: a. Have them share the results with you.buzzle. Get the list of jobs you are most likely to enjoy doing and those you are least likely to enjoy. Teamwork. Ask the student groups to discuss the four types as they relate to people who work at your university. Analyzing your Organization (Cumulative Project). 3. consider the following questions: a. b.Chapter 5 Personality and Values Page 65 group members are rewarded for performance improvement and excellence. Using your favorite search Take the assessment and ask five of your co-workers and your supervisor to also take the assessment. search for “Free Holland Career Model Assessment” on the web and take one of the assessments. Does your supervisor have a personality that is a good fit for the leadership position in your particular organization? c. Exercises 1. Have them create a table that shows the following: Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education Inc. and altruistic behaviors. 4) Humane Orientation. As individuals. or c. or Holland assessment tool. Bring your results into the team. find out which team members are currently in jobs (or if they are not working now. Based on these results. . Self-analysis/Web Crawling. What is the group’s opinion of the personality field in which each person was placed? How accurately does it describe each of you? Compile your results and share them with the class. The degree individuals are rewarded for fair. Suggested Assignment Divide the class into groups of three to five students. A five-minute oral presentation to the class.html and read about this resource’s definition of four different personality types. Write a short paper providing your thoughts on the results of these two personality tests. As team. How well do your degree fields match the suggested careers? c. How accurately does the assessment match your own experiences? b. Big Five.

Age Tenure at Sociowork Economic background Page 66 Person’s Personality Type Please do not place people’s names in the chart. attempt to estimate responses to each of the categories for specific people the students know. Does Personality Type relate to characteristics identified such as age.Chapter 5 Personality and Values Person’s Position University Employees Person’s Person’s Person’s Approx. . socialeconomic background. have the groups assess the entries for any patterns. But. Once this is completed for 15 to 20 people the group knows who work at the university. or length of time a person has worked at the university? Does the distribution of Personality Types offer suggestions as the how people in different units should be managed? Does management of employees mean understanding their individual types and adjusting management techniques appropriately? Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education Inc.