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Report Based on the Mini-Survey on Training

Programs in Sri Lanka

By
Rajith Lakshman and Susantha Liyanaarachchi

i

Contents
Contents..................................................................................................................................... iii
1.

Introduction .................................................................................................................... 1

2.

The Structure of the Public Sector in Sri Lanka .............................................................. 1

3.

The Central vs. provincial governments: Some statistics ............................................... 2

4.

The role of public sector in Sri Lanka: Broad trends....................................................... 3

5.

Public sector training in Sri Lanka................................................................................... 4

6.

Survey methodology ....................................................................................................... 4

7.

Analysis of the survey results ......................................................................................... 5
i.

The type/nature of training offered ................................................................................ 5

ii.

The trainees .................................................................................................................... 6

iii.

The financial framework.............................................................................................. 7

iv.

Innovative Programs ................................................................................................... 8

v.

The organization of training institutions ......................................................................... 9

8.

Beyond Institutions: Other issues ................................................................................. 10

9.

Conclusion ..................................................................................................................... 11

References ............................................................................................................................... 12
Appendix A:

The Survey Data............................................................................................. 14

A.1:

Center for Housing Planning & Building (CHPB) ....................................................... 14

A.2:

Center for Urban and Regional Planning (CURP) ...................................................... 15

A.3:

Distance Education for Public Servants (DEPS)......................................................... 15

A.4:

Institute of Government Accounts and Finance (INGAF) .......................................... 17

A.5:

Institute of Workers Education (IWE) ....................................................................... 18

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.......11: National Institute of Social Development (NISD) .........................................14: Sri Lanka Institute of Development Administration (SLIDA) ............................. 26 A............... 19 A......................A..........7: Management and Development Training Units (MDTU)............................................................... 32 iv ......................................... 24 A. 29 A............................................................8: National Institute of Business Management (NIBM) .............10: National Institute of Health Science (NIHS) ................................................................................................12: Public Service Training Institute (PSTI)....... 25 A......... The Western Provincial Council............................6: Lawyers for Human Rights and Development (LHRD) ... 30 Appendix B: The Structure of the public sector in Sri Lanka .15: Sri Lanka Institute of International Relations (SLIIR) .................... 21 A........................................ 27 A...................................................... 23 A...............................9: National Institute of Education (NIE) ....................................... 22 A.....13: Rural Development Training and Research Institute (RDTRI).............................. 19 A...16: Sri Lanka Institute of Local Governance (SLILG)...................

adopted in 1978.1 of Appendix B. 1 The Asian Development Bank (ADB) echoed a similar opinion in its report to the president in 1997. The President appoints the Prime Minister and the Cabinet of Ministers and is the Head of the Cabinet. while a Chief Minister appointed from the elected members. The Executive President of the Republic is elected by the people and holds office for a six-year term. The Parliament consists of 196 members elected by the people and 29 members from the national lists. The Central and Provincial governance structures are outlined in Figure B.1 This study. while reiterating the above as the broad constraints. titled ‘Training and Career Development’ deals with the very subject of the mini-survey. A broad finding of the mini-survey is that the problems identified in by the Wanasinghe Committee almost two decades continue to impede the Sri Lankan public service. With the establishment of the PCs the administration in the country was decentralized. Report Number 5. The fact that the report of the commission came out in ten volumes is indicative of the extent to which it covers the subject. The fifth volume. Introduction The Administrative Reforms Committee appointed in 1986 chaired by Shelton Wanasinghe. The Structure of the Public Sector in Sri Lanka The legal and administrative structure of Sri Lanka is based on a republican constitution. Power has been devolved to the provinces with the unit of devolution being the Provincial Council comprising of members elected by provincial votes. Parallel to the central government structure there is the provincial government structure. produced what is generally accepted as the most comprehensive analysis of the Sri Lankan public service. A Governor appointed by the President heads the province. Wanasinghe Committee outlined three major constraints with regard to the training of public servants: (1) shortage of funds for public service training. The central government rule is exercised thought to the village level using the network of District Secretaries (25) Divisional Secretariats (320) and Grama Niladharies. 2.1. heads the Provincial Council. The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution (1987) brought in the Provincial Councils Act (No 42). goes on to narrow them down to specific constraints as experienced by today’s training institutions. The Committee attributed these constraints to the lack of a coherent and a consistent policy framework. which divided the country into nine provinces for administrative purposes. 1 . (2) inadequacy of trained trainers and (3) reluctance to release public servants to undergo training.

when opposing political parties ruled the center and the councils. In addition Table B.2 also reveals that the central and the provincial governments employ a similar number of public servants. Given the fact that total population in the country is about 20 million this boils down to a figure of 22 persons per each government servant. Therefore.3. Table B. For instance. Both males and females enjoy this advantage in the provincial sector. The semigovernment sector.2 compares the gender representation of the Central and Provincial governments.5 in Appendix B analyze some of the results of the Census. how these excessive administrators function is a critical issue. 39%. The percentage of females who are trained is also higher in the provincial councils than in the center: 62% vs. when the center trains only 15% of the males the provincial councils train 37%.3 contains information on public servants who are professionally qualified i. exercising the provincial council’s power was found to be some what difficult. This may compare poorly with a much higher figure of 58 for New Zealand and may hint that the number of civil servants in Sri Lanka is too many. Though there are more females in Provincial governments than males—57% against 43%—it has better gender balance than the Central Government. New rules meant that the people who worked with them had to be trained afresh. they were governed by a relatively newer set of rules that emerged with the Thirteenth Amendment.1 to B. is also significant.e. We are aware of two possible reasons why provincial councils may have higher training needs than center. It is clear that provincial public servants are better trained than the central counterparts—52% against 22%.2.1 the public sector in Sri Lanka (including the semi-government sector) is estimated to be more than nine hundred thousand strong. More so. Even after two decades the tradition seem to continue unabated. Tables B. provincial governments: Some statistics The latest Census of Public and Semi Government Sector Employment was conducted in 2002. It seems that there are better opportunities for females at Provincial governments than at the Central government. According to Table B. Table B. Secondly. each employ 36% and 33% of the total respectively. Firstly. 2 . It may be said that Sri Lanka has more than double of what is considered as a reasonable number of civil servants. The Central vs. Irrespective of what the constitution said about the devolved subjects. working with the center was not as simple as laid down in the Thirteenth Amendment. A provincial council which wanted to uphold their authority had therefore to think seriously about training their employees on operating 2 See Albrechtsen (2006). This disparity in the numbers trained could relate mainly to the level training needs. who has had some form of post-entry training. which includes state corporations and universities.

within these political-economic realities. The bias can be identified in two areas: (1) in the available employment opportunities and.3 also show that the distribution of available training opportunities shows gender equality in the center and female bias in the provinces. Past experiences indicate in addition to the legislative changes. Table B. Though these governments generally discouraged centralized planning there still was a significant role to be played by the public sector.D. Thus we can conclude that while central and provincial public sectors seem on par in terms of numbers employed the latter is more female biased than the former. coordinated. In provincial public sector 69% of trained are females (31% are males). which devolved power to the Provinces. Public servants were expected to manage the state owned enterprise and administer trade and exchange controls as well as subsidies. This number can be compared against 53% in the central public sector (47% are males). changes were needed in administrative practices and work norms. For during this period there was a heavy dependence on donor assisted investment in infrastructure. The role of public sector in Sri Lanka: Broad trends After independence in 1948 Sri Lanka continued with the colonial economic structure and therefore little change was needed in the administrative system. (2) in the distribution of training opportunities. education and poverty alleviation which made it imperative that these investments were prioritized. the governments that came into power have relied more on market oriented policies and private enterprises for economic growth and development. That is until 1956 when the left oriented government of S. health. It was almost as if an entrepreneurial role was being assigned to them. Bandaranaike came into power. That government had put greater emphasis on the role of the public sector. that was never a straightforward affair in spite of the 13th Amendment. planned and implemented. In 1987 further complexities were introduced to the public service by the 13th Amendment to the Constitution. 4. The above historical/political events mark critical junctures in the evolution of the role of the Sri Lankan public servant. This was a complexity because it involved a process of delineating the public service into central and provincial components. In addition the provincial councils seem to have matched higher training needs with higher amount of dedicated resources for training. which clearly identified the responsibilities the provincial councils. While the evolution tracked above refers to what the public servant 3 . Analogous to the devolution of powers to the provinces the center was also on a decentralizing trend.W. For instance in 1992 some attempts were made to vest more powers in the Divisional Secretariats.R. This strategy continued—except for the punctuation during 1965-70 period—until 1977. In practice. It was the public sector that performed these important tasks. Since 1977.

Public sector training in Sri Lanka Pre-entry education and post-entry experience alone are not adequate to equip the public servant for coping with the new demands. This brings in a whole bunch of extremely contentious issues such as political interference in the public service. non4 . inadequacy of performance evaluation. it seems. many recommendations—including those of the Wanasighe Committee—have been submitted to the government with the aim of improving pubic sector training. In short engaging in good governance practices—to improve transparency. there is also the issue of how they should do it. predictability. However. It contains a description and contact details of government and semi government institutions that conducted training at that time. In other words planned participation in appropriately designed training is a critically important factor in creating a public service that can deliver the goods. etc.should do. In addition the geographic dispersion of the population of public servants has made this problem a logistical nightmare for the training institutions. the public service has still not responded favorably to the challenges posed by its evolving role. the delays and poor quality of the service. In fact the current state of deterioration in the public sector in Sri Lanka may be attributed to the sorry state of the training programs and training institutions available for the public sector. 5. the most recent SLIDA directory was for the year 1981. corruption and other transparency related matters. 6. Survey methodology The only list of training institutions for public servants in Sri Lanka is a directory compiled by Sri Lanka Institute of Development Administration (SLIDA). and participation—is a big part of the modern day public service. Factors such as faulty recruitment. inappropriate work systems and procedures. such as the creation of the Assistant Management Service. These recommendations. In addition there needs to be some training that can help the public servant to equip themselves to perform their role competently and efficiently. as well as inadequacies of training have contributed to this state of affairs. which are mostly Colombo-centered. Issues and skill related to e-governance and computerization of various aspects of public service figure high among these. However. over-staffing. pose new challenges for the training institutions. In addition changes in the public service. To date. as Shelton Wanasinghe Committee nearly two decades ago reported. While the above has direct implications to the development of the country there are other skills that the public servant needs to possess to be abreast of the modern day expectations. the low level of remuneration. have so far not been considered a priority. However. and the quality of training. The neglect has added to the problem by creating a huge backlog of needs—in terms of numbers to be trained.

also implies that the institutions in the sample together train a large proportion of the public servants in Central and Provincial sectors. central government. as we see it. The 16 institutions surveyed in this report in the opinion of the experts include what must appear in a survey like this. all known categories/types of training institutions i. who do not have a choice on this matter but to participate. so forth. 7. The sample therefore reflects what these experts thought were the more prominent training institutions for the public servants. Instead we relied on the knowledge of some of the experts in the field to select the sample. This coverage. the sample includes most of the major disciplines that come under public service training. Table B. These can be described as reactive functions of public servants. In addition.government institutions such as civil society organizations and international donor agencies that work in the training field are not listed therein perhaps because they were relatively inactive in this field back in 1981. For example. These policy contents training is obviously target those who are already involved in the policy making process. NGOs. is the kind of training that enables the public servants to continue the existing lines of work.4. according to Table B. provincial and local governments. We were also particularly careful to include in the sample. Center for Urban and Regional Planning (CURP) and NIE have policy components in their training modules. Analysis of the survey results This section analyses the survey results with the objective of ascertaining the salient features of the sample of training institutions. i. Because of these deficiencies we did not base our sample on the SLIDA directory. That is why it has been made compulsory for them to participate. Moreover. We do not have sufficient information to conclude whether participants prefer this policy contents training to other types of training. For example SLIDA.4 in Appendix B identifies these disciplines as unidentified in the Census of Public and Semi Government Sector Employment of 2002. National Institute of Health Science (NIHS) covers health (12%). National Institute of Education (NIE) covers education (59%). However the former programs are compulsory for higher grade civil servants. universities. 5 . there are programs that provided training on policy formulation. the success of these programs would rely upon whether the contents are delivered in an innovative and a practical manner which helps the trainees develop their policy making skills.e. However. The type/nature of training offered It was noted that most of the training by the surveyed institutions aim to improve public service management. an important proactive function of a public servant. For mere transfer of knowledge is not enough here. The 16 institutions investigated in this survey clearly cover the most important of these disciplines. Various aspects of the analysis are arranged in five separate subsection in what follows. This.

INGAF’s clientele include only those who handle public accounts. Another categorization of training can be based on whether the participant or her employer pays for the training or they receive it at no cost. This leads to a situation where government looses authority over the critical subject of training. It looks like as if the paid courses are more reliable source of money for the training institutions than the free ones. INGAF. However.SLIDA. Not getting paid on time naturally jeopardizes the sustainability of the training institution. cater to training needs of narrowly defined public services. The trainees The survey revealed that public employees from all levels of the service are trained in the sample of institutions. In contrast training offered by Center for Housing Planning & Building (CHPB). Table B. The table shows that in relative terms more senior managers (46%) and professionals (72%) have been trained than clerks (19%). The former seem to have more opportunities for training both in terms of funding as well as the choice of institutions. training opportunities for the members of parliament (MPs) of the central 6 . the administrative officers seem to get more opportunities than for example the technical grade employees. while SLIDA clientele includes Sri Lankan Administrative Service (SLAS) officers. accountants. Then there are institutions that combine these paid and free programs such as SLIDA. Financially independent institutions have tended to work independently of government policies. ii. etc. The survey revealed instances where elected representatives of provincial councils were trained. and National Institute of Social Development (NISD) are amongst the free training providers. and engineers. NIE. Institute of Government Accounts and Finance (INGAF) etc.5. This probably reflects that the government has meager funds for training. CURP. Thus it is important to restrict financial independence to only that. For example. On the other hand when the responsibility is with the governments the payment is not considered very reliable. The other side of the coin is that financial independence could lead to total independence. based on Census of Public and Semi Government Sector Employment (2002). have a significant amount of paid courses. It is alleged that high officials get more training opportunities than subordinate groups. In other words government should have a say in what kind of programs the training institutions conduct. However. CURP. is tentative proof of this. This is because the participant takes the responsibility of paying on time even if they would eventually be reimbursed by their employer. “At no cost” means that the costs are being absorbed by either the government or a donor agency. NIBM. Public Service Training Institute (PSTI) and National Institute of Business Management (NIBM) training programs for public service management are attended to by a cross section of public servants representing various disciplines. NIHS. Thus financial independence achieved by conducting paid course is valued by all training institutions. In other words these training programs cater to broad training needs.

The educational and social background of rural communities makes such problems very difficult to cope with. This underscores the value of RDTRI type programs. the self-financed institutions had considerably better facilities than those that were heavily dependent on state funds. Thus the training institutions do not have a captured market they can rely on. Another advantage in this particular program is that it does not bring the participants down to Colombo. iii. The main focus is promoting participatory development. how to work collectively. where the trainees included social leaders and Samurdhi (the poverty alleviation program of the state) beneficiaries. which is totally 7 . Though some of the SLILG se programs are held in Colombo most are held in their regional centers. It is noteworthy that the participants themselves decide the type of training they require. They are mostly trained in their villages.government are scant. Urban councils and Municipal councils can participate in them. The above distraction aside. Most of these comprise of awareness programs. Some of the areas identified in the past are how to reach agreements. and how to form an effective apparatus of community management. While the target group itself is a first in the circle of training institutions in Sri Lanka the content and the delivery is also unique. During their stay they identify the problems or the areas in which the community need training or improved skills. Suppose that some rural community solicits help from RDTRI on solving a problem faced by them. The main aim of these programs is to enhance the capacity of elected members to serve the public. For example Management and Development Training Units (MDTUs) of the provincial councils and Sri Lanka Institute of Local Governance (SLILG) have programs for elected members of provincial councils. For example NIBM. This is why we see that in most of the training intuitions part of the funding—in some cases all of it—is being funded by the moneys earned by the respective institution. RDTRI training targets peasant communities. Instead the various departments and ministries are allocated a training budget. For example some officials of SLIDA expressed the concern that the money earning activities such as various degree programs of SLIDA may have a negative impact upon the institutions core activity of training public servant. This is a key area that has been neglected in other training institutions. For instance. Some of the interviewees did not like this trend because they believed that it has undermined the key focus of the institutions. SLILG provide training for elected members at the local level which means that only the elected members of prdeshiya sabas. In response to such a request trainers from the institute will visit the community interact with them for many days in a bid to understand the problem. we did witness what may be identified as benefits of financial independence. The financial framework The central government in recent times has shown a reluctance to finance the activities of training institutions. which they can spend at a training institution of their choice. Rural Development Training and Research Institute (RDTRI) was a special case.

though introduced with the best of intensions was poorly implemented. where public training institutions rely heavily on government funds. In our opinion the demise of the DEPS program is also due to an innovation—Government-NGO partnership. One issue is that they are not being established independently from the corresponding ministries. We believe that there was an ownership issue: the government officials may 8 . use of English. For example. SLIDA and NIBM have quite a lot of profit making programs. A second issue would be that most of the government services are offered for people free of charge (Free health and free education). Distance Education for Public Servants (DEPS) has several innovative features in it. Though neither of these methods is innovative in the global training setting. For example NIE and NIHS have several donor-funded programs. the level of experience indicated by the number of year in existence and also the social and official status of the clientele being served are also different between NIBM and NISD. We believe that the partnership. For example MDTUs that were established under ministries of the central government has ceased to function due mainly financial difficulties. They choose not to pursue the moneymaking opportunities due to various issues. For example. self-learning groups. it may prove to be too costly a solution because it tends to shift the focus of the institute concerned. which relies on government funds for its sustenance. First is to divert some of their resources into revenue generating training programs. computer labs as well as better-qualified staff than NISD. Although this may be a sustainable approach to attaining financial independence. Innovative Programs Some training institutions have sought to become financially independent of government finances. As such they do not have the freedom to spend the monies they earn.independent. Features such as the distance delivery. help it stand out from the rest. iv. they are new in the Sri Lankan context. They should have been more careful given that the contention between the state and the NGOs is a well-documented phenomenon. As a result their training institutions face the problem fund raising on their own. Some of the training institutions continue to be highly dependent on government funds even when there are possibilities for them to raise funds by providing training for a fee. They use two methods to achieve this. In contrast the MDTUs of the provinces are still functioning well with the provincial training budgets. use of modern technology etc. has noticeably better lecture rooms. Second method is to solicit funds from international donor agencies. Another feature that struck us was the fact that Provincial Governments has more budgetary allocations for training that the central governments. However we cannot rule out the possibility that this contrast is due to factors other then the degree of financial independence.

It is unique in that it seems to be the only program which gives due recognition to the concept of participatory development. So far the complementariness and substitutability of various programs run by universities and public servant training institutions has not been clearly demarcated. This information problem is a reflection of a much bigger problem of not having a long-term state policy on public sector training. that does not negate the positive lessons learnt through other innovations implemented by DEPS. This makes it difficult for public servants from outstations to access them. However. Traditional face-to-face lectures. such as NIBM and SLIDA have realized that decentralization of traditionally delivered training is highly uneconomical. The latter part of the equation may have been neglected in the case of DEPS. However. The organization of training institutions It was clear from the beginning that the training institutions are fragmented and operate in isolation from each other. While the ideas etc. This is related to two inter-connected realities: (1) that Colombo based institutions command more resources and. has limited capacity to address this issue. Most of these training institutions are located in Colombo and suburbs. In fact. From the inspiration onwards every effort that went into the project clearly had the stamp of the NGO in it. It is not clear how individual training institutions/programs fit into the big scheme of things. Important links between higher education institutions and post-entry training of government workers have not been established. It works fine for lower teaching goals such as transferring knowledge. which was the predominant delivery method used by most of the surveyed institutions. On the supply-side. This was major problem at the time of selecting a sample for the mini-survey. This arises as a result of both demand-side and supply-side effects. RDTRI’s rural leaders program is also a departure from the norm. in training 9 . Because of this much duplication of training facilities has taken place. those who have attempted to do so. On the demand-side. Theoretically such training can make the public more receptive of policy changes and in fact the policy changed could also come from the public. In addition lectures are not the most effective method to achieve higher teaching goals. physical and personnel resource limitations make it very difficult to take these training programs out side of Colombo. the demand for Colombo based training is significantly more than the demand for out-of-Colombo training. This situation may arise out of the lack of a centralized information system for civil service training. may be path breaking it must be appreciated that in the final analysis the involvement and the contribution of the government matters a lot. (2) that their training is better recognized in professional circles.have felt left out because the NGO played the critical role. However we could not at this stage of the survey verify whether these positive results are available for RDTRI. v.

As a result. The quality of training programs and the teachers who deliver them have been compromised on account of this lapse. For instance. More importantly it reflects that the state does not care about how and for what purpose its employers are trained. In short. betrays the whole purpose of training. MDTUWestern Province has gone a step forward and has initiated one such program. The state has not imposed proper checks and controls on training programs. can be streamlined.public servants much more is expected. that the private sector organizations receiving the same training would provide feedback using a formal institutionalized post-training evaluation process. Firstly. With better HR services the determination of training needs. It would also make it possible to professionally identify the priority groups of civil servants that need to be trained. It was noted that they received very little post-training evaluation/feedback from that sector. it was noted. This section highlights these. Some of the other aspects of this framework were exposed during the mini-survey. needless to say. While such methods are considered more effective. the trainers would be better geared to serve the needs of the trainees. Generally. They are merely a single entity in a much wider institutional framework that is needed for the purpose. 8. rather than institutional needs. utilization of training knowledge/skills in practice. it is important that the department heads are trained to carry out post-training follow up activities on account of the subordinate officers who complete training. The survey results revealed that the effect of training on the activities of civil servants and their respective institutions have not been studied methodically. It also wastes the extremely limited funds in two ways. DEPS which was a distance learning method used role play and case study techniques. For example higher teaching goals like developing skills and cultivating positive attitudes need more innovative teaching methods than lectures. A peculiar reason for the feedback problem in state sector was the lack of understanding on the part of the immediate bosses of the trainees about the type of training received by their subordinates. the institution may be obtaining a kind 10 . This. This lack of interest on the part of state sector is in accord with the in-fashion policy stance of “shrinking the state”. there has been a very limited attempt to use such relatively new methods. In this setting new technologies and distance learning methods should be introduced to the training system. In contrast. Therefore. come the next round of training. Beyond Institutions: Other issues Public servant training institutions on their own cannot ensure that the public servants are properly trained. etc. nepotism. planning and assessing of training. The above deficiency underscored a much deeper problem—the lack of or weaknesses in human resource management services within government departments and institutions. NIBM was very critical of the state sector’s post-training evaluation system. determines who gets to be trained in the Sri Lankan public service. the public sector in Sri Lanka has no formally established post-training evaluation system.

even if it is a useful training program. we will go on to add an interesting and a more recent ramification of the problem. To say that the trainee commitment determines the level of success of the training is to state the obvious. probation. it dose show that commitment on the part of the trainees is a basic ingredient for a successful training program. While the demand glut indicates the lack of a plan to release workers it also hints at a more serious problem of public sector not having looked at the their own training needs. specially in relation to issues such as prioritization of training. if not more. Conclusion The mini-survey covered a sample of sixteen public service training institutions in Sri Lanka. Another HR related problem. certification and accreditation. However. That is not to undermine the equally. The remedies that have been implemented to allay these problems can at best be described as piecemeal and at worse degenerative. and recruitment and selection in the public service. In the end. important role played by the trainee public servant him/herself. While this has made some training facilities financially sustainable it has also detracted them from their original goal of training public servants into money making institutions. financial independence has been popular solution to the financial problems faced by the training institutions. However the survey revealed “the obvious” in a tinge more interesting manner. the relationship of training to policies on job grading. is that there seems to be no plan for the release of public servants for training. This situation it seems is due to some departments releasing their workers simply to fulfill the mandatory requirement of utilizing the annual budgetary allocations for training. the former benefited more from the training than the latter. which is worth a separate note. promotion. remuneration. The analysis of the survey results revealed the prevailing situation in the training institutions and highlighted the problems faced by them. performance appraisal. For example. Secondly. the interviewees continued. We can curtail the discussion on the matter by noting that the content in the Wanasinghe Committee report on the same subject is very much relevant even today. Several trainers we interviewed noted that trainees from Northern and Eastern provinces were markedly more committed to the programs than those from other parts of the country.of training for which it has no use. The above issues evolve around the government’s role in public servant training. if inept officers with political influence are sent to obtain that training they might have insufficient capacity to absorb the training. 9. What is needed is a holistic approach covering all the problem areas of the public sector: something along the lines of Wanasinghe committee recommendations proposed way 11 . At a much higher level there is a need to develop a national policy for public service training. More than a few training institutions in the survey noted that there is an intense demand for training towards the end of the fiscal year. While it remains to be investigated why trainees from North and East are more committed.

19080299-32522. URL: http://www.theaustralian. Calendar 1996-1997.5 of the Administrative Reforms Committee. Sri Lanka Corporate Plan-2005-2007(2005). (2003). Sri Lanka Institute of International Relations Prospectus-2006.html “The Role of Public Administration in Building a Harmonious Society” by Lloyd Fernando 2005 “Training and Career Development” Report No.au/story/0. University of Colombo. School of Postgraduate Studies.com.I – 1988 Administration Report (2005). J (2006) Our pathetic addiction to big government. while being participatory.00. National Institute of Health Service Memories of the Past 1952-2002.20867. National Institute of Social Development National Census of Health Manpower (2005). Sri Lanka Institute of Development Administration Hand Book. Centre for Urban and Regional Planning Prospectus and Brochers-2005.back in 1986. Ministry of Health. Prospecture-2005. published in The Australian of May 10. The remedy. Directory of Training Institutions on Sri Lanka (1981). Sessional Paper No. Department of Local Government Brochers” Grama Probodha” (2005). 2005-2006. should allow for newer ideas/practices in governance such as devolution of power. National Institute of Business Management Prospectus-2006. Sri Lanka Institute of Development Administration Hand Book-1994.news. References Albrechtsen. participatory development and NGO/donor partnerships with the state. National Institute of Education Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Sri Lanka (2002). National Institute of Social Development 12 . Sri Lanka Institute of Local Governance.

Center for Housing Planning and Building Training Directory-2005. Institute of Government Accounts and Finance.The Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (1991). Government Publication Bureau Training Directory-2005. Sri Lanka Institute of Development Administration Training Programme Calender(2006). Ministry of Finance and Planning 13 . Sri Lanka Parliament.

Local Authorities and private sector organizations. administrators and other personnel involved in the housing. Note that in what follows the institutions are discussed in their alphabetical order. Kandambi Director • CHPB was established in 1979 as a Training and Research Centre of the Ministry of Urban Development. Housing and Construction. the HIS Rotterdam.3 A. effective communication for engineers.L. Sri Lanka Tel: 94-01-875628. • Areas of training includes construction management. Currently HIS does not provide grants but CHPB continues to function as a division of the Ministry.1: Center for Housing Planning & Building (CHPB) • Location 33. 14 .Appendix A: The Survey Data This appendix presents the survey data. Fax: 94-01-875628 • Contact Mrs. Each institute that we visited is discussed under a separate subheading. The information that is collated here were elicited mainly from two types of sources: (1) interviews with one or more officials attached to the institutions. K. housing officers. building designing using 3 All the materials are listed in the reference list in page 12. Sri Jayawardenepura. engineers. Sunil Mawatha Pelawatta. and contractors on the request of Government Departments. and (2) pamphlets and other reading material prepared by the institutions. • Training programs are conducted for technical officers. with a grant from the Government of the Netherlands. Trainees pay for the courses and some training programs are funded by the foreign funding agencies. • CHPB provides mid-career training to professionals. Battaramulla. landscape design and horticulture. Provincial. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). These agencies included Asian Productivity Organization (APO). financed partly from government grants and partly from the course fees levied. • Annually government treasury grants for salaries and recurrent expenditures. United Nations Development Program (UNDP). • CHPB collaborates in these activities with the Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies (IHS) of the Netherlands. building development and infrastructure programs of the Central provincial and local governments as well as private sector agencies and individuals. quantity survey. Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD) and National Building Research Organization (NBRO).

120. • It is observed that CURP is undergoing financial difficulties every year when training courses are conducted.computer software. Wijesinghe Mawatha. Problem of low-income communities. A. A. • Contact Mr. as this type of training is not provided by the private sector. Application of Planning Tools. construction site supervision building and road works. Local Government Budget. The later professional qualification is a great motivation for the participants to get the training offered by CURP. Even though training needs are high.12500 from participants.P. • The courses include an orientation course as well as courses in preparation for exams conducted by Institution of Town Planners of Sri Lanka (ITPSL). Local Authorities and other public and private sector agencies funding physical planning activities. construction planning and scheduling using computer software. which charges Rs.2: Center for Urban and Regional Planning (CURP) • Location 'Vidya Mandiraya' No. • The contents of the orientation course promises to be very pragmatic and includes topics such as: Role of Local authorities in the management of towns. Battaramulla 15 . the number of programs conducted by CURP is reduced to two due to lack or resources. Transport and Urban Planning. Pelawatte. Wijerama Mawatha Colombo 07. D. • The orientation course is a 15-day course. tendering for contractors. community water supply and sanitation and low cost housing training. Computer application in Town Planning (Autocad). Though there is keenness on the part of potential trainees their respective institutions is handicapped by lack of funds to pay the above fee. Training courses at the centre focuses on providing professional training for the personal engaged in physical planning in Urban. Ranasinghe Administrative Officer • The Centre for Urban and Regional planning was established in 2002 as the education arm of the Institute of Town Planners Sri Lanka (ITPSL). A typical orientation course can accommodate 40 students. Redevelopment in Cities.3: Distance Education for Public Servants (DEPS) • Location 713. quality management in construction. etc. This remains as a major obstacle in improving the capacity of the officers in the urban and local authorities.

discussion.org • The DEPS project was launched in June 2001 and continued till June 2004. an NGO. • DEPS project was financed by NORAD. However. They were located at Ministries. His/her task was to be the facilitator. All of these functions were critical for a self-learning exercise like DEPS. • DEPS program ran out of money with one semester remaining to go. and executed by Worldview Global Media Ltd. the innovative approaches initiated by the project prompted us to add it to this survey. which could be listened to from home. This happened because the earlier stages took more time than planned due mainly to Financial 16 . Though strict guidelines on how to appoint a leader were issued to senior officials who pointed them. • Inadequate English language skills were a major problem for the participants. (2) a weekly radio program produced by the DEPS program also helped the participant to overcome English difficulties. peer group interaction. Having said that the drawback was that the success of the program depended heavily on the quality of the group leader. It is an example of an attempted collaboration between state and NGO sectors in the area of training. • The methodology adopted for DEPS is a combination of self-learning.. the guidelines were sometimes not followed. (3) the radio programs were also available in audiotapes. sponsored by the Ministry of Public Administration. Currently the project is on hold for reasons we will discuss later. It made the training more sustainable by helping the public officials to engage in self-learning using Internet and other English language material. • An important feature of the DEPS program was its innovative approach to inculcating the ability to work in English. not only because of the large numbers that remains to be trained but also because they are dispersed far and wide. Lloyd Fernando Director Tel: +94 11 7287117 Email: Lloyd@wisrilanka. and debate. Departments. A distant training program such as DEPS was therefore thought to be more suitable for Sri Lankan Conditions. For this purpose 113 group-learning centers were established through out the country. evaluator and change manager of the group. trouble-shooter. Provincial Councils. Clearly the aim was to establish the centers near the work places of the trainees.• Contact Dr. • There is very little that SLIDA and other face-to-face training institutions can do to bridge the accumulated backlog of training requirements. facilitated by SLIDA. • Each group had a leader appointed by the ministry or the department concerned. they were rewritten in a simple and fun to learn way. Regional Offices. District Secretariats and Divisional Secretariats. motivator. Several measures were taken to remedy this: (1) once the experts have prepared the course material.

Information Technology. Each program is limited to 2-3 days. However. +94 11 2472334 Email: ingaf@sltnet. INGAF’s training has become even more useful after the introduction of internal audit braches to government offices.lk • Contact Mr. and publications. • The Sri Lankan Civil Accountants’ Service officials such as Accountants. Accounts Clerks and Cashiers/Shroffs participate in these programs. Approximately 5%-10% of the participants are from the private sector. Colombo 10 Tel. A.Regulations (FRs). +94 11 2472335/6 Fax. an even more serious problem was the lack of enthusiasm on the part of government—at various levels—to overcome these delays. Finance Managers.D. P. firm's rate of growth. which may have made it difficult to attract fullest support from the Government. advisory services. firm's business purposes and values. • The initiative came from an NGO. It meant that a serious government policy was not backing DEPS. • Other services offered by INGAF include consultancy services.2. profitability and possible business partners. financial strengths. The initial enthusiasm and support reflected personal interest of some of the officials in SLIDA and the Ministry of Public Administration. However currently the institution is functioning independent of ADB funds. Ponweera Registrar/Accountant • INGAF is the training body of the Ministry of Finance. • INGAF conducts over 60 training programs. • Compared to the other institutions INGAF has properly understood long-range strategic goals. Olcott Mawatha. General Management. Worldview Global Media Ltd. These include staff from various donor-funded projects.5m from the government to maintain its capital assets. in-service facilities. Bookkeepers. Own funds of INGAF are adequate to meet their expenses.M. annually. and communication Skills. • INGAF receives an allocation of Rs. INGAF materialized as a part of ADB’s Financial Management Reform Project (FMRP).D.4: Institute of Government Accounts and Finance (INGAF) • Location 355-3/1.A. The earnings from training programs and other services cover other expenses including recurrent expenditures. This support could not be sustained once these officials got replaced. Accounting Technicians. They cover areas such as Public Financial Management. Also there are specified expected 17 .. Its establishment was possible due to the funding from ADB. • INGAF training programs are also open to the private sector participants.

C. 400.C. trade unionism.ac. • The course contents include the subject areas of law. This sums up to 12973 training days and 2283 trainees. INGAF pays its lecturers Rs. For instance. • During 2005 INGAF conducted 141 programs. statistics. The main reason to establish this institute was the great demand made by trade unionists and Ministry of Labour to improve opportunities available for workers to obtain higher educational qualifications and develop their potentials academically and professionally.improvements in the future in terms of training.E ordinary level examination are eligible to apply for the Diploma program. political science. • IWE offers three levels of programs in labor studies: Foundation level. labour. Lectures are conducted in the evenings from 5 pm to 7 pm. Persons with minimum of two years of work experience and have passed G. Colombo 7 Tel: +94 11 2503393 Email: iwe@cmb. Those who have passed in G. economics. This leaves the subordinate grades with very little money to be used for their training.E advanced Level and have two-year work experience are eligible to apply for the Degree program in labor studies. 18 . financial and resource personnel. • The interviewees noted that the staff-grade officers absorb a major part of available training funds. even though the government circular on payments to lecturers stipulates an hourly rate of Rs. Diploma Level and the Degree level. and population studies. organizational. • Employed or self-employed persons with 5 year working experience over the age of 22 years with at least Year Eight in school and five years of work experience are eligible to seek admission to the foundation program. Entry qualifications to these programs indicate the willingness on the part of IWE to encourage the workers who missed out on education earlier in their lives to gain academic qualifications.700/hr.5: Institute of Workers Education (IWE) • Location No. accountancy. • The institutional structure of INGAF is such that it gives them more room to maneuver than for example the usual government department. communication.lk • Contact Director • IWE was established in 1975 under the University of Colombo. management. 275 Bauddhaloka Mawatha. A. public relations. policy. consultancy.

law students and non legal professionals. IWE courses do not directly contribute to improve their skills. A. Lalith Kannangara Deputy Chief Secretary (Human Resources Part time Lecturer and Training) Also Council Secretary—Western Provincial Tel: + 94 11 2693952 Council 19 . This is possible because the treasury funds its activities. • IWE merely provides academic qualifications for the trainees. highlights the laws violating human rights. 32. M. Human Right Law and Law and order.6: Lawyers for Human Rights and Development (LHRD) • Location 233/1. Even though about 300 students enroll for all these programs each year. Ramanayake Mr. Although the participants are all working. Colombo 07. assist people in protecting and legal recognition. This training program has been conducted in most of the Divisional Secretariats in the country. Members of LHRD are all lawyers concerned with human rights.• IWE offers these courses free of charge to the trainees. • Mode of delivery is ordinary lectures. • Contact Mr. A. They conduct training programs for village heads (Grama Niladari) through Divisional Secretariats since 1998. and provide legal aids to those communities whose human rights are violated. only one third completes the degree program. • LHRD conducts training and awareness programs for public servants. After a full day of work concentrating on a two hour lecture is challenging to say the least.7: Management and Development Training Units (MDTU). Cotta Road Colombo 08. • Contact Mr. No. Sri Marcus Fernando Mawatha. • LHRD educate people on laws relating human rights. The Western Provincial Council • Location Srawasthi Mandiraya Chief Secretariat—Western Provincial Council. Thiranagama Director • LHRD is an NGO which was started in 1986 with the objective of promoting and protecting human rights of the poor. K. Participants will be trained in the areas of Laws related to Grama Niladari.

administrative. (Subsection A. The financial stability of the Provincial Council is reflected in the facilities available at the respective MDTU. • MDTUs also perform a critical function by training elected members. • Development Management at the local level was a new experience for the public servants of Sri Lanka. MDTUs see this as an attempt by the Center to exercise authority over a devolved activity. the MDTUs do not provide specific induction courses for newly appointed local government employees. In contrast. 20m annually to each of them. MDTUs role as a mechanism in strengthening devolution must be appreciated if one wants to meaningfully devolve powers. and managerial and service delivery capacities of the provincial and local authorities. Thus the Western Province MDTU is by far the best equipped out of all provincial MDTUs. However. MDTU training aims to improve performance by elevating financial. 20 .15 has more details on SLILG). MDTUs provide trainings to facilitate the institutional capacity building of Provincial Councils and Local Authorities. the Provincial Councils took their MDTUs more seriously and infuses Rs. This is important because retaining the control of the devolved subjects is not straightforward in spite of the provisions in the Provincial Councils Act. They get training on Internal democracy. Therefore.The Sri Lankan government established eight Provincial Councils under the 13th Amendment to the Constitution and the ancillary Provincial Councils Act in 1987. There exists a large economic and financial disparity among the provincial councils in Sri Lanka. The need for training and for provision of technical assistance to improve core management functions and processes was critical after the introduction of the new institutions of Provincial and Local governance. Instead these recruits go through training on generic subjects open to all MDTU trainees. • In addition to the management capacity building. • In addition to the provincial MDTUs each ministry and department also had its own MDTU. • Western Provincial Council is the richest among the 8 provincial councils in the island. All Provincial Councils are provided with a Management Development Training Unit (MDTU) headed by a Deputy Secretary of the Provincial Council to conduct training programs for the provincial public servants. However. For example. local authorities have very specific problems and needs that are not addressed in these generic courses. • The Sri Lanka Institute of Local Governance (SLILG) is the central government mechanism to coordinate the training activities of provincial MDTUs. • It is noted that very few MDTU programs cater to the specific needs of local governments. However. Development management in the provinces resulted in many conflicts between the center and the provinces. these were relatively under financed and as of today barely functioning. constituency relations and platform development.

Fees paid by the trainees cover the costs.C. Roughly 40% of the trainees are from the public sector. • We were informed that the MDTU of the Western Province is functioning well compared to not only the other provincial MDTUs but also to some Central government training institutions such as PSTI (Subsection A. where training needs are identified at lower levels. Kaluarachchi Management consultant and Director – Management Development Tel: +94 11 2693404 Email: kalu_sck@yahoo. Kannangara who we interviewed in his classroom is the incumbent Council Secretary of the Western Provincial Council. Wijerama Mawatha. Apart from training undertaken under its name. Currently. makes them very useful resource personnel. A. For example Mr. NIBM operates under the Ministry of Skills Development and Vocational and Technical Training. However this is difficult due mainly to top-down nature of the public sector in Sri Lanka. NIBM shares its resource personnel with public sector training institutions such as SLIDA and SLILG. • NIBM provides business management education and training as well as management consultancy and advisory services. Colombo 07 • Contact S. • An MDTU. The respective government departments pay for tuition fees for NIBM courses for government workers. That also is a significant contribution to public servant training.8: National Institute of Business Management (NIBM) • Location 120/5. However the flip side of the coin is that their commitment to their main work means that their teaching work has to be compromised. which is meant to satisfy training needs that exist on the ground. • All the courses offered by NIBM are open to public as well as private sector workers. 21 . These are directly related to their work. • Resource personnel in MDTUs consist of senior officials who work as part time lecturer. The extensive experience in key public sector positions. • The Treasury does not allocate money for NIBM to conduct training programs. In that sense an MDTU should ideally work as a bottom-up structure.11 has more details on PSTI). In addition these MDTUs receive financial support from the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank (ADB).com • NIBM was established as a statutory body under the Ministry of Industries and Scientific Affairs in collaboration with UNDP and ILO.• In contrast to the Western MDTU in some of the other MDTUs depend on financial support from the central government. NIBM organizes in-house training programs as well as tailor made causes for government workers on request. no doubt.

These functions set out standards in Sri Lanka Education Service (SLES). This standardization is important because not all the training of SLES officers is undertaken by NIE. D. 22 .• NIBM branch in Kandy is said to be not financially viable due to insufficient volumes. A. Main functions of this organization are school curriculum development. • A concrete example—that of the Insurance Corporation—backs the above assertion. Notice that if the budget is not finished within the fiscal year it will be slashed in the following year. • It was noted that the private sector makes better use of NIBM training than the public sector. 28 of 1985. This may be an indication that government support is needed to implement such expansions. which is dedicated to the development of general education in Sri Lanka with the purpose of capacity building of personnel in the education system. This phenomenon is attributed to an attempt by the government institutions to finish their training budgets. Accordingly NIE can prescribe examinations. principals and teachers who are in the SLES with the objective of development of professional and general competence.e.A. This is mainly because the heads of private institutions that send people to be trained are interested in the end product: whether the work of the trainees reflects the expected positive effects of the training. The public sector on the other hand is mostly interested in whether training was undertaken. NIBM has conducted training for the Corporation before and after it was privatized. This indicates that even though the Colombo centered training is criticized it is not possible to expand training networks away from Colombo and still maintain profitability. • NIE provides training for the personals such as educational managers. • NIBM has noted a sharp increase in public sector demand for training towards the end of fiscal year i. NIBM has seen a clear increase in the level of interest and follow-up activities of the Corporation after it was privatized. It is recognized as the prime institute.9: National Institute of Education (NIE) • Location Maharagama • Contact Mr. professional development and the conduct of policy research on education and reform needs of schools. in the months of November and December. impose conditions leading to various academic qualifications sought by education professionals recognize examinations etc. teacher educators. • Under the Act NIE is empowered to provide professional development of all personnel in education system. Jayatunga Additional Director General (Finance) Tel: 9412851301 Fax: 9412851300 • The National Institute of Education (NIE) is a public corporation established under the Act No.

• Training at NIE covers designing of curricula.net • Health care is provided free at the point of delivery in state sector health institutions.10: National Institute of Health Science (NIHS) • Location Nagoda. in-service advisors and evaluating the teaching learning materials and standardizing them. Fax 94 . development of teacher’s guides and teaching-learning material. NIHS provides comprehensive health care to the population in the field of practice area through health workers can serve as a bridge between providers of health care services and the community. A. • NIHS is the Premier training center of the Ministry of Health. the guide. NIHS trains workers and other categories of health personnel in the public health 23 . Sri Lanka has achieved better health indicators compared to the other countries in South Asia due mainly to this free service. • The Treasury funds the main activities of NIE. 97206 are employed in the Ministry of health and other provincial intuitions in the health sector. According to the NCHM (2005). there are 1581 Public Health Officers (PHI) and 8861 Health Midwives in Sri Lanka. In addition there are some project implemented by NIE with support from multilateral donor such as the World Bank and ADB. This may be indicative of lack of care. Curricula also did not cover ancillary but very important roles that teachers are expected to play such as the motivator. • A perusal of the curricula indicated that the latest research-based instructional techniques are not been used when training educational personnel. Email: nihs@slt. Piyaseeli Director Tel: 94 034 222682. This is surprising given that a large proportion of graduates enter into the teaching profession.• NIE’s training and instructions for teachers and principals is critical for Sri Lanka’s future. • NIHS addresses itself all aspects of health manpower development. This training will equip the trainees with the expertise needed to teach children of all abilities all over the country. Kalutara • Contact Dr (Mrs) U. • NIE has not entered into partnerships with other educational institutions such as universities that offer education related training. • It produces manpower required for the primary health care (PHC) programs.342226314. Approximately 25% of these employees are in the Primary Health Care (PHC) sector. According to the National Census of Health Manpower (NCHM) conducted in 2005. coordinate health manpower development activities between educational and health services agencies in Sri Lanka. interest and seriousness with regard to the important task entrusted to NIE. the counselor.D.K. NIE is also involved in the preparation of teachers to implement new curricula. the coach and the disciplinarian. It does this by training subject directors.

• Contacts Mr. In recent times. • NISD has four divisions: (1) Sri Lanka School of Social Work. Assisted Medical Officers. (3) Social Policy Research. (2) Training. Other 8 centers (Moratuwa. • Trainees include teachers. United Nations Development Program (UNDP). when schools were nationalized. Homagama and Jaffna) are established to train health midwives in the Island. medical officers. Badulla. Four centers (Kurunegala. S. Public Health Midwives (PHM). PHIs. 24 . Supervising Health Midwives. after obtaining degree awarding status. etc. Sirisena (Deputy Director) Ms Shamalee Attanayake (Lecturer) • NISD originated as an NGO in 1952. Grama Niladari/Village Head. • NISD’s main objective is to train workers to implement social development work and social welfare programs. classroom teaching and field teaching methods conducted by clinical specialists. Medical Officers of Health (MOH) and middle level managers of primary health care and PHM are trained in continuing education program. Galle and Batticoloa) have been established to provide training for PHIs. Community Development Officers. The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). and (4) Administration and Finance. • NIHS training consists of basic. It grooms social workers at various levels. and World Health Organization (WHO) and International Development Research. Anuradhapura. Post basic training is given to Public Health Nursing Sisters. Basic training is designed to provide training for Public Health Inspectors (PHI). • The Training Division conducts the short-term training programs of NISD. PHNs. Dharmapala Mawatha.11: National Institute of Social Development (NISD) • Location No 191. tutors and PHC workers. In 1993 while it was operating as a sub-department of the Ministry of Social Services it was awarded the degree awarding status under the provisions of the Universities Act. • NIHS uses clinical teaching. • NIHS receives an annual budgetary allocations and considerable financial assistance for the above activities by agencies such as Asian Development Bank (ADB). A. Panadura. Colombo 07. • NIHS carries out its training in twelve regional centers. and ward sisters. Kadugannawa. Other functions of the institution are to provide medical care services and to conduct health system research (HSR). District Youth Service Officers. US AID.care. Later. Social Development Assistants. posts basic and continuing education. World Bank. Ratnapura. Medical Laboratory Technicians and Pharmacists. it became a training institution. the Sri Lanka School of Social Work had developed a Diploma that involves one year of field research. Colonization Officers.

• The practical orientation of the training makes the trainees ideally suited to work in Sri Lankan conditions. This enables a considerable degree of decentralization to take place. caters to the training needs of staff grade public servants (Subsection A. The highest demand for these trainees is from NGOs. Their network of regional centers in Kalpiyiya. A. • PSTI operates through an outreach network comprising of Management Development and Training Units (MDTUs) of ministries. Polonnaruwa and Monaragala play a very useful role in this regard.• Nearly 50% of the trainees are government workers. family violence. counseling. working with social groups and communities. get absorbed into the filed of social work as soon as they finish the training. • Subject Areas: Introduction to social work. Anuradhapura. departments and provincial councils (Subsection A. NISD claims that there is an excess demand for their trainees • The government finances 90% of NISD’s budget. who are open to job offers. working with individual and families. The officials we talked with attributed this state of affairs to the lack of funds. Typical PSTI course runs from one day to a maximum of 4 days.13 has more details on SLIDA). and mental health. The lecture rooms and staff facilities require a lot of capital infusion.6 has more details on MDTUs). SLIDA. PSTI offers training for non-staff grades of public service. human rights. 25 . • The training could either be an induction program or an in-service training program.12: Public Service Training Institute (PSTI) • Location Ministry of Public Administration and Home Affairs Independence Square Colombo 07 • Contact Mr. Sunil Abeygunawardena Director Tel: +94 011 2676433 • The public service training institute was established in 1990 under the Ministry of Public Administration and Home Affairs. which means that is even though the government fund allocation for NISD is not adequate. • We noticed that the physical facilities at NISD could be improved further. Its sister organization in the same ministry. Also the unemployed trainees get Mahapola scholarship or a bursary similar to a regular university student. For instance it was claimed that almost all of the trainees of NISD. In fact. social environment. We felt that NISD has effectively incorporated rural field research into their training programs. social work. Lectures are conducted in Colombo and trainees have to conduct their fieldwork in rural areas.

• Use outdated training methodological approaches. • These courses are fully financed by the government. development of knowledge and attitudes in pioneers of state and NGOs.• PSTI provides training in the following areas. • The fact that trainers are unlikely to do any follow-up on their trainees. coordinating with local and foreign establishments to disseminate knowledge to grassroots civil society and increase participation. except to try to persuade them to take more courses. Castle Street. Supra Grade Officers. Stenographers and Typists. publications. International Centre for the Training of Rural Leaders (ICTRL). Managerial Skills. Development Officers. Advanced Payments. • To achieve a meaningful effect the educational program needs to be sustained over a period of time. Ravindra Hewavitharana Director (Acting) • RDTRI was established in 1978 and is currently under the Ministry of Samurdhi and Poverty Alleviation. Training Of Trainers. Change Management. Field Officers. • PSTI as a training institution is a failure due to lack of resources. PSTI courses are open only to the government servants for no fee. Social Service Officers. Public Relation Communication. Samurdhi Authority of Sri Lanka and Gramodaya Folk 26 . involve direct and constant interaction between the trainers and the trainee. if any. and Program Assistants. Disciplinary Matters. • Training programs of the Ministry are conducted by RDTRI. Tamil Language. Land Matters. Good Governance. hands on learning. Tender Procedures. strong follow up activities. A. Book-keepers. Disaster Management. proper premises to conduct their trainings and not regionally spread through out the country. Grama Niladharis. Positive Attitudes & Personal Development.13: Rural Development Training and Research Institute (RDTRI) • Location No 24/4. Colombo 8. Certificate Course In Public Finance Management & Accounts. lack solid integration with reform efforts or provide very little. English Language. Certificate in Human Resources Management. This is achieved by preparing and formulating rural development training methodologies. Shroffs. development of training center facilities. • Trainees: Officers in the Public Management Assistants' Service. Stress Management. Report Writing. Main objective of RDTRI is to promote participatory development in rural Sri Lanka. Pension Program. Office management & Office Supervision. • Contact Mr. Therefore it cannot raise money from these courses. Store Keepers. These are the most common areas of which non-staff public servants provide their services to the community. and include practical. long-term follow up to ensure substantial improvements in the productivity and efficiency.

Colombo 07. rural development project management. A. Training of resource persons. They are not prescriptive i. workshop to prepare training handbooks. • The training programs conducted for rural leaders selected from among villagers has poverty alleviation as the main objective. They are helped to overcome various technical and knowledge based barriers and other practical problems. These leaders are expected to influence the rest of the rural community. Center for Human Resource Dev Tel: 94 112585103 Tel: 94 11 2508849 Email: thilak@slida. social mobilization. Center for Management Studies Head. Sri Lanka • Contact Persons M. A. • Following training programs or activities are conducted by RDTRI. namely SLIDA and Public Service Training Institute (PSTI). planning and management of rural development training programs. Thilakasiri W. These people do not have any professional training or any knowledge to start their own businesses. businesses and industries through dissemination of the knowledge gained by training. They are given training in the areas such as finding a business idea. Jayasudara Head. program to exchange experience about the new rural development approach. village heads and rural leaders participate in these training. SLIDA trains the staff 27 .lk • The Ministry of Public Administration has two training bodies for the public servants in Sri Lanka.14: Sri Lanka Institute of Development Administration (SLIDA) • Location 28/10. Development officers and senior officials of the ministry.lk Email: jayasundara@slida.e.Art Centre. management development of community based organization and training programs on accounting. Integrated rural development programs. • Rural Leaders training reinforces the participants’ confidence and their willingness to try new and different ways of thinking and behaving. • Challenges and Problems RDTRI cannot stand as an independent body as it is not established by an act of parliament and is currently working as a project under the Ministry of Samurdhi. workshops to identity the new role of rural development officers. participants are encouraged to set their own goals and take responsibility for achieving outcomes that are important to them. • The next category of training is providing training for Samurdhi Beneficiaries. small businesses and getting career guidance. Most of the higher positions in the executive cadre positions remain vacant. training of officers of rural development societies. participatory rural development. Malalasekara Mawatha.

000 per head. Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs). • The calendar programs which are relevant to the public servants are delivered free of charge for them. Postgraduate Diploma in Public Financial Management also in collaboration with Post Graduate institute of Medicine (PGIM) MSC in Medical Administration • Some of the Subjects found in SLIDA syllabi: Public Administration and Local Governance. senior police officers. commissions). Accountants. • Clientele: Officers of the Sri Lanka Administrative. employees from private sector organizations. is self-finances by SLIDA.grade public servants and PSTI the non-staff grade public servants. local government officers. senior officers of the forces.11 has more details on PSTI). Postgraduate Diploma in Public Management. Officers from departmental services. Thus the income earning activities have become critical for the survival of SLIDA. Diploma and Masters programs are amongst the most important out-of-calendar activities of SLIDA. Financial Management. • SLIDA was established under SLIDA Act No. Research and Policy Studies. institutions. authorities.9 of 1982. • Overwhelming majority of the SLIDA training is conducted in Colombo. This status enabled them to increase the number of out-of-calendar programs. Productivity and Quality. Information Technology. However. Management Studies. 28 . planning and engineering services. • The income earning activities of SLIDA include its consultancy services and out-of-calendar training programs—meaning training programs offered for a fee and open to clients from outside public service. The course fee for these programs is Rs. and Language studies. SLIDA has initiated a decentralization attempt with the help of the District Secretariats. which amounts to about 55% of the total expenditure. Development Management. Officers in semi-government organizations (corporations. These range from induction trainings for all newly recruited civil servant to training for top level policy makers of Sri Lankan Administrative Service (SLAS) (2) Tailor made training conducted at the request of government and private organizations (3) Out-of-calendar training programs which are open for public servants and those from outside public service. Human Resources Development. The remainder. • The degree programs offered by SLIDA: Master of Public Management. (Subsection A. As the premier public sector training organization in Sri Lanka it aims to develop knowledge and improve managerial skills of public administrators as well as to support and reinforce the role of civil service in Sri Lanka. • SLIDA managed to obtain the degree-awarding status in 2004 under the provisions in the amendment to the Universities Act (1985). • SLIDA offers three types of training programs: (1) Calendar programs offered exclusively to the public servants. 90. This is possible because the Treasury finances a part of SLIDA expenditure namely its capital expenses and the staff salaries.

Horton Place. • The training of officers from Sri Lanka Foreign Service (SLFS) by SLIIR. when it was functioning involved seminars. from SLAS Class 1 to super grade are now linked to educational qualifications. Colombo 7 • Contact Ms. policy planning. in-house briefings and offers of internships.15: Sri Lanka Institute of International Relations (SLIIR) • Location No. and Language studies are currently being taught in these out-of-Colombo centers. and to collaborate between institutions and provide training when necessary. The lack of trainers and funds is the main constraint.gov.Information Technology. A. In addition to the normal lecture rooms. three computer laboratories. and an audio-visual studio with modern facilities. Manel Abesekara Director Telephone: +94 11 5363503 Fax: +94 11 5363504 Email: sliir@formin. it was noted that the government Financial Regulations (FRs) did not allow anything more than 600 Rs/hr to be paid to them. We were interested in SLIRR on account of the last of these functions. However. Even the details such as Culture. • The residential center of the institute has fully furnished and equipped single rooms for 60 participants. one air-conditioned boardroom. protocol and etiquette at formal functions were thought of and included in the syllabi. • SLIDA played an active role behind the government gazette no 1419/3 issued on 14. Still there is a lot of room to improve the facilities at these centers. SLIDA’s training facilities include two air-conditioned Auditoriums. • A cursory glance asserts that the contents aim to inculcate skills that are critical to the effective delivery of services by an SLSF officer and could not be obtained elsewhere. Though its administrative structures and physical facilities are still intact its training programs have since the demise of Minister Kadiragama withered into a state of inactivity. five air-conditioned classrooms.lk • SLIIR was established in 2002 under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs with the personal involvement of the then minister Lakshman Kadiragama. research. folk art and music. which stipulated that the promotion of an SLAS officer be linked to educational qualifications. 24. Promotions from SLAS Class 3 to 2.11. from SLAS Class 2 to 1. public lectures. • SLIRR was designed to help the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to conduct discussions. The caliber of people that were providing services to SLIRR would have received more than double that amount in the competitive market. • The contents of the program were well thought of and were prepared and delivered by the top people in the country.2005. It was noted that this sort of coverage was not available with the other diplomatic training institutes such as the Bandaranaike 29 .

Legal and Research. R. which has objects similar to those of the Institute. • The Core Modules are as follows: Management information systems. Ratnayake Consultant(Physical planning) Tel: +94 11 2581982 • In 1999. it also coordinates activities of the relevant national and international institutions. Malalasekara Mw. Monitoring evaluations. A. The focus here is the capacity to efficiently and effectively provide services to the people. Neither did it visibly help the participants to progress in their careers. • Though the content of the program was very relevant to the target group there were weaknesses that lead to the failure of the program.16: Sri Lanka Institute of Local Governance (SLILG) • Location 17.K. SLILG considers the various aspects of good governance vital in this regard. SLILG functions as the resource center on local governance providing technical information services for its stakeholders. Group dynamics. Advocacy. • SLILG’s training programs target the elected members and the employees of local governments. • SLILG formulates and delivers capacity building programs to the provincial councils and local authorities. General Management. Human Resource Development.A. • SLILG has seven divisions. Colombo 07 • Contact Mr. • SLILG uses many methods to uplift the capacity of local governments. Engineering. training. Each one of these divisions represents an important aspect of local governance. That is the SLIIR training was not mandatory. The foremost among those was the fact that the ministry had not appreciated the need for the kind of training offered by SLIIR. Action planning.M. • SLILG works in partnership with Management and Development Training Units (MDTUs) of the provincial councils as well as with other organizations. 30 . Physical Planning. research and consultancy services are among these methods. We feel that such compulsions are important to ensure a healthy rate of participation in training programs—at least at the initial stages. Financial Management. SLILG was established under the Ministry of Provincial Councils and Local Government. Motivation. Conflict management. Accordingly the officers were not released from their work to receive the training. The objective of SLIIR’s training was different to these institutions in that it concentrated more on on-job skills.International Diplomatic Training Institute (BIDTI). Namely. • The training program was not formally and institutionally integrated to the administrative structures of the ministry. Communication.

Project management. Productivity improvement. • SLILG faces several challenges in conducting its training programs.Social mobilization. (2) Accessibility problems in North-East Provincial Council due to the ongoing ethnic conflict in these areas. 31 . (3) Inadequate number of trained moderators among member institutions. (1) English language difficulties of the trainees have created a barrier between resource personnel and trainees. Organization development and Effective meetings.

32 .Appendix B: The Structure of the public sector in Sri Lanka Source: *********** Figure B.1: The governance structure in Sri Lanka.

0% 215037 Source: Census of Public and Semi Government Sector Employment Table B.Coverage Number of Employees Rate (%) Estimated Enumerated Total 909.7 (26%) Table B.734 209.932 57% Table B. 2002 Sector Central 295.4% 397 0.1% 5041 2.734 90.187 71% 86.2% 127080 59.3% 38629 18.2% 13790 6.240 292.9 Central Government 328.650 91.2: Gender composition of the public sector Central Provincial Total 295.071 64507 150530 22% 52% 30621 47119 Qualified males as a % of total males 15% 37% Qualified males as a % of total qualified 47% 31% 33886 103411 39% 62% Number Qualified Number Qualified as a % of total Qualified males Qualified females Qualified females as a % of total females Qualified females as a % of total qualified 53% 69% Table B.4% 3106 1.216 247.547 29% Total Male Percentage of males Female Percentage of females Provincial 292.4% 26130 12.3: Professional qualifications of the public servant Medicine Health Engineering & Architecture Accountancy Law Education Agriculture Other Professionals Total trained Number Percent 864 0.071 126.1 (36%) Provincial Public sector 308.108 295.1: The coverage of the Public Sector Census.071 94.8 (33%) Semi-Government 237.845 90.564 835.139 43% 165.4: The composition of trained according to the discipline in central and provincial public sectors 33 .734 292.

34 .5: Distribution of training opportunities according to levels of public service.Senior Officials and Managers Technicians Professionals and associate professionals Clerks and related workers Total 2143 178403 24032 19684 With no professional qualification 1162 50195 11245 15925 Percentage with qualifications 46% 72% 53% 19% Table B.