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Chapter 3


The most commonly used image compression methods consist of three steps Source
Encoder (Linear Transform) Quantization and Entropy Coding. The first step, i.e. the
transform, may be accomplished using Wavelets. A signal can be processed by any of the
available mathematical tool called as transform (An algorithm or procedure that changes
one group of data into another group of data). The transformation is used to accomplish
the following: 1. to create a representation for the data in which there is less correlation
among the co-coefficient values and it is often referred as “decorrelating the data”. The
purpose of decorrelation is to reduce the redundancy, which enables us to quantize each
coefficient independently of the others. 2. To have a representation in which it is possible
to quantize different co-ordinates with different precision [1]-[7]. The mathematical
transforms used to process the signal like FT (Fourier Transform), STFT (Short Term
Fourier Transform), DCT (Discrete Cosine transform), Laplace Transform, Z Transform,
Hilbert Transform and Wavelets etc. [8]]-[15], are normally applied to the signals to
obtain information from that signal which is not readily available in the raw signal. Here
the raw signals in practice are time domain. When we plot Time Domain signals we
obtain a time amplitude representation of the signal. This representation is not always the
best representation of the signal for most signals processing application, because most of
the information of signal is hidden in the frequency content. The frequency spectrum of


signal shows what frequencies exist in the signal (frequency is something to do with the
change in rate). We can measure the frequency contents of signal using Fourier Transform
(A family of mathematical techniques based on decomposing signals into sinusoids).
Fourier Transform does not indicate the time in which time these frequency components
exist in the signal. Hence these signals are called the Stationary signals The theory of
Wavelets starts with the concepts of Multiresolution Analysis (MRA) [7],[16]-[25] ; the
detailed theory of Multiresolution is found at [5][[16][26][27]. Before dealing with
Multiresolution techniques let us first see the mathematical background for the
3.1 Vector spaces:
Consider an example of 2-D vector space is

Figure 3.1: Vector Space
The above vector shown in Figure 3.1 can be represented in many ways like.

In terms of magnitude and direction.

In terms of weighted sum of the vector in the x & y directions.

As an array whose components are the coefficients of the unit vectors?
As shown in Figure3.1 Ux = 4, Uy = 3. Therefore V= 4Ux+3Uy.

Thus the Vector V has magnitude 5 and angle 36.86 degrees.
V= 4Ux+3Uy………………………………………………………(3.1)
V  
3 
We can view the second representation of Vector as a decomposition of Vector V into
simpler building blocks. i.e. any Vector in 2-D can be decomposed exactly the same way


as said in above equation 3.1. We can get the coefficients of Vector through a product
called the Dot product or Inner product.
3.1.1 Dot or Inner product:
Let us consider two vectors, Vector A and Vector B
Such that
 A1 
A  
 A2

 B1 
B    ……………..…………………...……………….(3.2)
 B 2

The inner product between vector A and Vector B defined as
A.B= A1.B1+A2.B2……………………………………...………..(3.3)
Two vectors are said to be orthogonal if their inner product is zero.
 A set of vectors is said to be orthogonal if each vector in the set is orthogonal to
every other vector in the set.
 The inner product between a vector and a unit vector from an orthogonal basis set
will give us the coefficient corresponding to the unit vector we can write Ux and Uy as
1 
Ux   
0 

0 
Uy    …………………….……………………….………(3.4)
1 

Therefore the coefficients of Ux can be obtained by
A.Ux = A1.1+A2.0=A1 ……….…………………….…………….(3.5)
and the coefficient of Uy can be obtained by
B.Uy = A1.0+A2.1=A2…………………….……………..………(3.6)
3.1.2 Vector Space:
In order to handle 2D, 3D…nD we need to generalize the above concepts. A vector space
consists of set of elements called vectors addition, multiplication, etc., furthermore, the
results of these operations are also elements of the vector space.
Vector addition:
The Vector addition can be obtained by the point wise addition of the components of
two vectors.
For. Ex. Consider vector A and Vector B


Y. then X+Y and á X is also in S.8)  A3  B3  Scalar Multiplication: We mean that the multiplication of vector with real or complex numbers.4 Basis: One way with which we can generate a subspace is by taking linear combinations of a set of vectors.1.X = è  For every X in V there exit a (-X) such that X+(-X)= è. Z are the vector elements: á and â are the two scalar vectors then the following axioms are satisfied  X+Y = Y+X (Commutative)  (X+Y)+Z=X+(Y+Z) and (á â) X = á (âX) (Associative)  Their exist element è in V that X+ è = X for all X in è is called the additive identity  á (X+Y)= á X+ á Y and (á + â) X = áX + âX (Distributive)  1.…….7)  A3   B3   A1  B1  A  B   A2  B 2 ………………………………………………………….(3.X = X and 0.  Suppose Vector V is a vector space X. 3. X2…} is said to be linearly independent if no vectors of the set can be written as a linear combination of the other vectors in the set. 3. If this set of vectors is linearly independent then the set is called a basis for the subspace.(3. 58 .3 Subspace: A subspace S of a Vector V is a subset of V whose members satisfy all the axioms of the vector space and has the additional property that if X & Y are in S and á is a scalar. A1   B1    A   A2 B   B 2 ………………………………………………. A set of vectors {X1.1.

f(t) = f(t+nT) ……………………………………………. [5] 3. We can use the above concepts to represent periodic functions as linear combinations of Sines and Cosines.3…. We can represent the Fourier series f(t) as f (t )  a 0    an cos n  0 t  n 1   n 1 bn sin  0 t …….e.All members of vector space can be represented as linear or weighted combinations of the basis vector...….9) Where n= 1. ..Vectors are not simply points in two or Three Dimensional space. which are given a periodic function f (t) with period of T i.2. functions of time can be viewed as an element in a vector space.2 Fourier series The representation of Periodic functions in terms of series of sines and cosines was discovered by Joseph Fourier is called as Fourier series.We now have sufficient information in hand to begin looking at some of well-known techniques for representing functions of time. Basically.11) 59 .If a basis set is orthonormal (A basis vector has a unit magnitude and are orthogonal they are known as orthonormal basis set) the weights or coefficient can be obtained by taking the inner product.. .……(3.…(3. the important ideas that we should remember are: . (3. Any periodic functions can be represented as the sum of smooth. Infarct. well-behaved sines and cosines. f (t )    n   Cne jn  0 t ………………………..10) Where w0  2 / T an and bn are the coefficients of f(t) A more useful form of the Fourier series representation from this work point of view is the exponential form of Fourier series.

The coefficients of the basis Vectors Cn   gives us measure of the different amounts n   of fluctuations. 3 Hz denotes the completion of 3  periods in one second and so on.12) Where j  1 We can find the coefficients of Cn by taking the inner product of f(t) and the basis vector ejnw0t T jn 0 t  1 / T  f (t ). Thus Fourier series provides us with frequency representation of periodic signals.………. the Fourier series concepts can be extended to non-periodic signals also. Fortunately. Stationary (periodic) signal 60 . For ex. On the other hand the use of Cn representation n   tells us little about how the signal changes with time.. 2 Hz denotes the completion of two periods on one second.e  jn 0 t …………. the fourier representation Cn of function f(t) n   The basis functions are sinusoids that differ from each other in how fast they fluctuate in a given time interval. e 0  i.. Cn  f (t ). The basis vector e2jw0t fluctuate twice as fast as the basis vector ejw0t. The amount of signal change is obtained by the rate in which the signal changes at w0/2ð.. For example a frequency 1Hz denotes the completion of one period in one second.(3.(3. The ability to view the same signal in different ways helps us to understand the nature of the signal and also we need to develop tools for manipulation of the signal.……………. A fluctuation of this sort is usually measured in terms of frequency.. However many of the signals we will be dealing within day-to-day activities is a periodic (not periodic).e.We can easily move between the exponential and trigonometric representation by using Euler’s identity e j  cos   j sin  ……………………. and 3w0/2 ð and so on. 2w0/2ð.e. Thus the coefficient Cn provides the frequency n   profile.13) i. This information cannot be obtained by  looking time representation f (t).….

1 61 .2. and not suitable for non-periodic signals or Non stationary signals. For a Non-stationary signal we can assume that some portion of the signal is stationary. We can find the FT of given function as F ( )  F ( )   f (t )e jt dt …………………………………………. Let us consider a nonstationary signal as shown in figure-3.2: Stationary or Periodic signal 3.14)  Fourier transform is suitable for Processing stationary signals or periodic signals.Figure 3.2.1 Fourier Transform Fourier Transform (FT) is a standard tool for analyzing a given function f (t).………… (3.

In STFT. a window function “ù” is chosen. There is only minor difference between STFT and FT. In STFT we can consider some part of the signal to be stationary.2. The width of this window must be equal to the segment of the signal where its stationary is valid.2. the signal is divided into small enough segments. But FT doesn’t infer the time instant of appearance of a particular frequency component in the frequency spectrum. One way to obtain this information is through the Short Term Fourier Transform (STFT).1: Non stationary signal Through FT we can obtain frequency components of the signal. For this purpose. 3. where these segments (portions) of the signal can be assumed to be stationary. We may some times need the time instant of appearance of a particular frequency component.2 Short Term Fourier Transform (STFT) Thus a revised version of FT called Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) is used for the analysis of non-stationary signals. 62 .Figure-3.

e.2. then the STFT is given by  F ( .2(b) Time-frequency plane of a windowed Fourier Transform 63 .In order to reduce the boundary effect we make the windowing (  ) each piece of before we take the Fourier Transform. Figure 3. For Ex. T )   f (t ) g * (t  T ) e j t dt …………………………………………(3. the resolution of the analysis at every point in the plane is identical. 5khz may appear at T. If the window shape is given by g(t).15)  Figure 3. It also shows what the basis function (sine or cosine) looks alike as the frequency increases.2.2. where the window is a square wave. Because this same window is used for all frequencies. Thus we obtain an analysis of function of both time and frequency Figure 3.2(b) shows the time-frequency plane of a windowed Fourier transforms.2(a): Windowing of signal i. The square wave window fits the sine or cosine function to a window of a particular width. 20 kHz may appear at 3T. 10 kHz appear at 2T.

we have to have a short window. i. Consider a non-stationary signal as shown in figure 3.3 (a) STFT with Narrow Window The Figure 3. 64 . Figure 3.7.3 (b) shows STFT for a much wider window and in this case the time resolution degrades and frequency resolution increases.2. in order to obtain the stationary signal. The narrower Window gives the good time resolution but poor frequency resolution. [16] This representation problem is depicted in the figures below. Furthermore.2.2. If we use window of infinite length we get the FT. which has very good time resolution but relatively poor frequency resolution. in which the signal is stationary.3 (a) is the STFT of the above signal for a narrow window. which gives the perfect frequency resolution.3. we are unable to fix the window size because we do not know the exact time frequency representation of a signal this is called the Heisenberg Uncertainty principle i. The Wider Window gives the good frequency resolution but poor time resolution.e. However the window size t0 is greater means that we will not able to localize the high frequency. but no time information. The window size should be at least t 0 to get at least one cycle of the low frequency component.2.e. The Figure 3.3 Problem with STFT: The problem with STFT is fixed window size.

We can see that window is of constant size and with this window we have sinusoids with an increasing number of cycles.16)  The basis function are g(t).. the first three basis functions are shown in figure 3.3 (b): STFT with Wide Window Thus it can be seen that fixed windowed Fourier transform is not a suitable tool as there is a resolution trade off in terms of time and frequency. Figure 3.8. Now let us consider discrete STFT in terms of basis expansion and for the moment just take a one interval  F ( m .Figure 3.. This above problem is called resolution problem. g(t) e j 2 0t .2.12. g(t) e j 0t .………….(3.. Let us assume for instant number of cycles are fixed but the size of the window keeps changing as shown in figure 3.0 )   f (t ) g * te  jm 0 t dt ……………………………….12: Windowing function 65 . and so on.

the signals that are encountered in practical applications. Fortunately. Every spectral component is not resolved equally as was the case in the STFT.It clearly shows that the lower frequency function covers the long interval time.3(a) Non-Stationary signals. while higher frequency covers the short time interval. The Wider Window gives the good frequency resolution but poor time resolution. 66 . Now STFT faces the problem of resolution. This approach makes sense especially when signal at hand has high frequency components for short durations and low frequency components for long durations for example signal like non-stationary signal as shown in figure 3.3(a) and the time frequency resolution as shown in figure 3. MRA.3 Multi Resolution Analysis(MRA) Although the time and frequency resolution problem are result of physical phenomenon (the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle) and exists regardless of the transform used. MRA is designed to give good time resolution and poor frequency resolution at high frequencies and good frequency resolution and poor time resolution at low frequency. then question arises about the use of proper kind of window it is because the narrower Window gives the good time resolution but poor frequency resolution. as the name implies. 3.3(b). This is called the frequency problem and which is happening with STFT. it is possible to analyze any signal by using an approach called the Multi Resolution Analysis (MRA). analyzes the signal at different frequencies with different resolutions. are often of this type. The problem is of course choosing the window function (window size)[16][26][29][30][31]. Figure 3. in particular in the case of audio.

The data can also be processed on different scales or resolutions unlike the fixed resolution of the STFT.(3. By taking linear combinations of the scaling function and its translates we can generate a larger function.……. Every box in Figure 3.17) 67 . but different proportions are allocated to time and frequency. Figure 3..3(c) has a constant area and therefore represents equal portions of the time frequency plane. f (t )   ak (t  k ) ……………………………………………. the wavelet transform is well localized in frequency and time. Let us define a function  (t ) called scaling function.Figure 3.3(c) Time-frequency plane of a Wavelet Transform The idea behind the multi resolution analysis is fairly simple.3(b) Resolution of Time & Frequency Wavelet transforms (WT) overcome the aforementioned resolution problem. In short. The short high-frequency basis functions and the long low-frequency ones enable detailed time and frequency analysis to be performed at the same time.

(3.18) Then f(t) can be any piecewise continuous function that is constant in the interval [k.k+1] for all k Let us define  (t )   (t  k ) the set of all function that can be obtained using linear combination of the set {k (t )} f (t )   akk (t ) ……………………………………………………. non-detailed) and low scales corresponds a detailed view...20) Now this equation is useful for defining the wavelet transform. The parameter “scale” is used in wavelet analysis.. In terms of mathematical functions if f(t) is a given function f(st) (where s is scaling) corresponds to a contracted (compressed) version of f(t) if s<1 and to an expanded (dilated) version of f(t) if s>1.. Scaling is a mathematical operations either it dilates or compresses a signal. Whereas high frequencies correspond to the detailed information of a hidden pattern in the signal (low scales). high scale corresponds to a global view (i.………(3.e.19) k As the scaling function has the property that any function that can be represented exactly by an expansion at some resolution j can also be represented by dilations of the scaling function at resolution j+1. before going to see about the wavelet transform we begin with “What is scaling”. Similarly in terms of frequency Low frequencies correspond to global information of signal (high scales). The final equations of MRA is  (t )   hk 2 (2t  k ) ………………. Larger scales correspond to dilated signals and small scales correspond to compressed signals. In particular. In case of map scale. as we use it to scale the map.[32][33] 68 .………(3. this means that the scaling function itself can be represented by its dilations at higher resolutions..Where a and k are real numbers (scales) which we call as coefficients of  (t  k ) s The scaling function has the property that any function that can be represented by the scaling function can also be represented by the dilated versions of the scaling functions For example One of the simple scaling functions is the haar scaling function t1 (t) 10.0otherwise ……………………………………………………….

 )   f (t ) s. Wavelet analysis is about analyzing signal with short durations finite energy function.   1 / s *  (t   / s ) …………………………………………………………….22)  The wavelets are generated from a single basis wavelet  (t ) . )s . (t ) called the wavelets.. The difference between the CWT and the STFT is that the width of the window is changed as the transform is computed for each spectral component and it can be written as.  ( s. by scaling transform s . The Equation (3. For a given scaling parameter s we translate the wavelet by varying the parameter  .4. the wavelet).1 The Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) The Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) is similar to the STFT because it also involves the multiplication of the signal with some function (in this case.….………………… (3. The variables s and  are the two new dimensions scale and translations.(3.(3.23) Where s is the scale factor and  is translation factor and the factor s is for energy normalization across the different scales. )   f (t ) *1 / s * (t   / s )dt ………………………………………………. For the function to be wavelet it should be limited. We define the wavelet transform as: w( s. And the inverse wavelet transform is given by f (t )    ( s. This transformation of the signal is called the “Wavelet transform”[44].…….24) t 69 ..[45][46]. They transform the signal under investigation into another representation. which presents signal in more useful form. so called the mother wavelet. and the transform is computed separately for different segments of the signal.. (3. 3.4 Wavelet Transform (WT): Wavelet means small wave..21) * Where * denotes the complex conjugation.3.21) shows how function f (t) is decomposed (sampled) into a set of basis functions s.  (t ) dds ………………………………………………………. (t )dt ………………………………..

k (t )  s0  j/2  ( s0  j t  ko) ………………………………………………(3.e. This is achieved by modifying the CWT (Continuous Wavelet Transform) through sampling specific wavelets coefficients 3. j .  Most of the functions of wavelet transforms have no analytical solutions and they can be calculated only numerically by an optical analog computer [7][17]-[20].  Even without the redundancy of the CWT we still have an infinite number of wavelets in the wavelet transform. (t  k 0 s 0 j / s 0 j i. As mentioned in CWT it has two parameters (s and  ) therefore contains high amount redundant data. we have wavelet transform coefficient representing how much the scaled wavelet is similar to the function at location t=  /s.21) is calculated continuously shifting a continuously scalable function over a signal and calculating the correlation between them and it will be near an orthogonal basis and obtained wavelets coefficients will therefore be highly redundant. fast algorithms are needed to be able to exploit the power of the wavelet transform and it is fact that the existence of these fast algorithms that have put wavelet transforms where they are today [7]. which are difficult to use:  The CWT (Equation 3. This is called the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). The CWT in this form is not suitable for computer implementation. Instead of varying the parameters.25) 70 . j . So. this work has analyzed the signal with a small number of scales with varying number of translations at each scale.According to Equation (3. However.  ). k (t )  1 / s 0 j .4. the Continuous wavelet Transform (CWT) still has three properties.24) for every (s.2 The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) DWT is obtained via s  2  j  where j and k are integers representing the set of discrete translations and discrete dilations.

Each of the filters is downsampled by two.………………(3. which defines the resolution of the DWT in both time and frequency. 0 other wise……………………….[35] where one is a low pass filter (lpf) and the other one is a high pass filter (hpf). So. we denote it as  ( j . Thus redundancy can be removed by making the discrete wavelets orthogonal and by making the Discrete Wavelets orthonormal.3 Structure of Wavelet Wavelet transform is a pair of filters.27) j . k ) . For the translation usually we choose  0 =1. k ) j . Wavelet transform can be used to analyze or decompose signals and an image operation through wavelet is called decomposition [29][30][31]. DWT results the series of Wavelet coefficients and it is referred as “Wavelet Decomposition”. We usually choose s 0 =2 so that the sampling of frequency axis corresponds to dyadic sampling.k Every time wavelets do not need the orthogonality because in some application the redundancy can help to reduce the sensitivity to noise. The translation factor  0 depends on the dilation step. The same components can be assembled back into the original signal without loss of information called reconstruction 71 .  j. that we also have dyadic sampling of this time axis. The effect of discretising the wavelet is that the time scale is now sampled at discrete intervals. Similarly.4. this gives the disadvantage of discrete wavelet (DWT).e. k (t ) * j . If j & k are integers and s 0 >1 is fixed then it is dilation step.(3.That which is the function of j and k. Dilation and translation made orthogonal to their own dilations and translations i. The way in which we compute the wavelet transform by recursively averaging and differentiating coefficients is called the filter bank [34].. resulting in a tree structure called the decomposition tree. weighted by the wavelet transform coefficients f (t )    ( j . k (t ) ………………………………………….26) We can get the inverse wavelet transform for discrete wavelets by summing the orthogonal wavelet basis function. [17]-[20] 3. Each of those two output signals can be further transformed. this process can be repeated recursively several times. Figure shows the Filter bank structure for one level decomposition and reconstruction of two dimensional signals. k (t ) dt  1 0  if j=m & k=n.

Figure3.4.4.3(b )shows the Wavelet reconstruction at Level 1 Figure shows way in which decomposition of the image taking place in four directions.3(a) Shows Wavelet Decomposition at Level 72 .3(c) Representation of Image Decomposition at level 1.3 Shows Wavelet Decomposition at Level Figure.3(b) shows the reconstruction and Figure 3.3. Figure 3.4.3(d)-3. Figure 3.or synthesis Figure 3.3(h) shows wavelet decomposition from 1to 5 level for cameraman image.

4.Figure-3.4.3(d) Wavelet Decomposition at Level 1 Figure-3.3(e) Wavelet Decomposition at Level 2 Figure-3.3(f) Wavelet Decomposition at Level 3 73 .4.

4. Now each filter is 2D with subscript indicating the type of filter (HPF or LPF) for separation of horizontal and vertical components [36]-[40].3(g) Wavelet Decomposition at Level 4 Figure-3.4. The resulting fourtransform components consist of all possible combinations of high and low pass filtering in the two directions.3(h) Wavelet Decomposition at Level 5 The structure of Wavelet can be represented as a four channel perfect reconstruction of filter bank.3(c) There are three types of detail of images for each 74 . By using these filters in one stage an image can be decomposed into four bands as shown in Figure-3.Figure-3.4.

which will play a crucial role in compressing the images.4 Wavelet properties: To achieve a high compression rate. The selection of wavelet filters plays a crucial part in achieving an effective coding 75 .. more than one decomposition level is performed on the image data. Five levels of decompositions are used in current wavelet based image compression [8]. However. it will be more successful in resolving DWT coefficient because Human Visual System (HVS) is less sensitive to removal of smaller details.. Higher order does not imply better image quality because of the length of the wavelet filter. on approximation band using the second identical filters bank [41].(3. If we use decomposition iteration. Successive iterations are performed on the low pass coefficients (approximation) from the previous stage to reduce further the number of low pass coefficients. with successive approximations being decomposed.resolution Diagonal (HH). The maximum levels of Decomposition of any image can be determined by using the formula given in equation (3. this iteration process yields better energy compaction. this becomes a limiting factor for decomposition. The operations can be repeated on the low low (LL) i. Vertical (LH) and Horizontal (HL).[42]-[46].e. in practice.28) Maximum Levels of Decomposition = log2 xmax ……………………. The quality of compressed image depends on the number of decomposition. Compression of an image can be obtained by ignoring all coefficients less than the threshold value.4. it is often necessary to choose the best wavelet filter bank and decomposition level. Decomposition iterations depend on the filter order.….28) Where xmax is the maximum size of given image 3. Usually. The decomposition process can be iterated. Since the low pass coefficients contain most of the original signal energy.

Decomposition level 8. In biorthogonal wavelet the basis functions are not orthogonal. Filter Length 3. The main criteria are: 1. Each wavelet family is parameterized by an integer N called the filter order. The efficiency of a transform depends on how much energy compaction is provided by the transform. biorthogonal filters lack it [48][49]. Group delay 7. The existing Compression system used the biorthogonal wavelet filters instead of orthogonal. therefore the resulting wavelet transform is energy preserving. Because orthogonal filters have a property of energy preservation whereas. therefore they do not preserve the energy but conserve it. Orthonormality 2.[48]-[56]. Filter magnitude response 6.performance. Wavelet Filter can be used to analyze or decompose signals and images called decomposition. Smoothness 5. which is proportional to the length of the filter. Shorter synthesis basis functions are desirable for minimizing distortion that affects the subjective quality of the image. This relation is different for different wavelet families [57] and non-smoothness basis function introduces artificial discontinuities that are reflected as spurious artifacts in the reconstructed images. which is called reconstruction or synthesis.[33]. Vanishing order or moment 4. this implies the Mean Square Error (MSE) introduced during the quantization of the DWT coefficients which is equal to the MSE in the reconstructed signal. The length of the filter is related to the degree of the smoothness of the wavelet and which can affect the coding performance. The choice of optimal wavelets has several criteria. The same components can be assembled back into the original signal without loss of information. Regularity These are discussed in [29]. because there is no filter that performs the best for all images [47]. Higher filter order gives more energy and increases the complexity of calculating the DWT coefficients. Longer filters are responsible for ringing noise in the reconstructed image at low bit rates [50]. while lower 76 . Orthogonal Filters lead to orthogonal wavelet basis functions.

it preserves the important edge information. Therefore. However. This becomes a limiting factor for decomposition. Vanishing order is the measure of compaction property of the wavelet and it corresponds to the number of zeros in the LL sub band [50][59]. Regularity is one of the properties of the wavelet. A non-GDD introduces a phase distortion that affects encoding and decoding by altering the DWT Subband structure. Group Delay Difference (GDD) measures the deviation in-group delay of the orthogonal wavelets from the linear phase group delay. 77 . and these decomposition iterations depend on the filter order. in practice more than one decomposition level is performed on the image data. this successive iterations process yields better energy compaction. we must take care of wavelets in image compression application concerning that good balance between filter orders. Usually five levels of decomposition are used in wavelet-based compression [8][50][60][61]. greater regularity often does not improve the visual quality. These properties depend on the image contents. Higher order does not imply better image quality because of the length of wavelet filter. The decomposition process can be iterated with successive approximations being decomposed. The filter responses approach the ideal rectangular response with the increase in the number of zeros and these numbers of zeros also correspond to vanishing order of the wavelet. The quality of the compressed image depends on the number of decompositions.order preserves the energy. i. degree of smoothness and.e. Filter Response is another critical property that affects the subjective quality of the reconstructed image. computational complexity [58]. Successive iterations are performed on approximation coefficients.

e. the high pass output of each branch is also filtered and downsampled 78 . While.Table indicating the properties of wavelet 3. This allows wavelet packet to perform significantly better than wavelets for compression of images with large amount of texture (like fingerprint images. The benefit of the wavelet packets over the wavelet decomposition comes from the ability of the wavelet packets to better represent high frequency (this is how image may contains a noise) content. Barbara images etc) and also points out that the perceived image quality is significantly improved using wavelet packets instead of wavelets especially in the textured regions of the images [63][64]. wavelet packets provide more flexible decomposition at any node of the decomposition by allowing decomposition at any node of the decomposition tree and also to obtain the best decomposition tree [62]. The major difference between wavelet and wavelet packet is: The filter design associated with the wavelet analysis method involves iterating the low-pass and high -pass filtering and downsampling procedure only on the low-pass branch of the previous. wavelet packet (WP) provides an extension of the octave band wavelet decomposition to full tree decomposition i.5 Wavelet Packet (WP) In addition to the above properties of wavelet transform. and high frequency oscillating signals in particular.

up to maximum number of decomposition this is one of the key differences between the wavelet and wavelet packet [65][66].5(c) Wavelet packet decomposition at level 2 (DB1) of Woman image 79 . Figure 3.5(b) Wavelet packet decomposition at level 1 (DB1) of Woman image Figure 3.5 shows the Wavelet Packet (WP) presenting on extension of the octave band wavelet decomposition to full tree decomposition Figure 3.5(a) shows the Wavelet decomposition to full tree decomposition Figure 3.

.1 Motivation behind Multiwavelets for Compression Algorithms based on wavelets have been shown to work well in image compression.e. However. Then. T denotes the vector transpose and öj(t) is the jth scaling function. wavelets transforms require filters which can combine some of desirable properties such as orthogonality. Multiwavelets are able to posses the best for all these properties simultaneously due to the extra freedom in the design of multi-filters. . where Ö(t) is called the multi-scaling function. öL(t)]T. (3. ö2(t).3. Thus Multiwavelets have the potential to offer better reconstructive quality of the same bit rate and can achieve better level of performance than the wavelets with a similar computational complexity [67]-[72] Multiwavelets are similar to the wavelets but have some important difference i. . . A filter with good energy compaction property can decorrelate a fairly uniform input signal into a small number of scaling coefficients containing most of the energy and large number of sparse wavelet coefficients. where øj(t) is the jth wavelet function. Another desirable feature of any transform used in image compression is the amount of energy compaction achieved. Likewise. the dilation and wavelet equations for Multiwavelets take the following forms.6. For better performance in image compression. ø2(t). let the wavelets be denoted as Ø(t) = [ø1(t).29) 80 . Therefore better performance is obtained when the wavelet coefficients have values clustered about the zero with little variance to avoid as much as quantization noise as possible. Let the scaling functions be denoted in vector form as Ö(t) =[ö1(t). Symmetry. respectively:   (t )  2  H k  ( 2t  k ) k     (t )  2  Gk  (2t  k ) k   …………………………………………………. This becomes important factor during quantization. .6 Multiwavelets (MW) 3. In contrast to the limitations of wavelets.[74]. Multiwavelets are characterized with several scaling functions and associated wavelet functions [73]. øL(t)]T. the design possibilities for wavelets are limited because they cannot simultaneously posses all the desirable properties.

2 × 2 matrix filter bank operates on two input data streams. In scalar wavelet. Decomposition of Multiwavelets. so that there will be two sets of scaling and two sets of wavelets coefficients.2. symmetry.6. 2-D Multiwavelet decomposition has the 16 subband intermediate image (single level decomposition) as shown in figure-3.The low-pass filter H and the high-pass filters G are N × N matrix filters. This procedure is as shown in Figure-3. N could be as large as possible.1(a) Multiwavelets Filters with repeated input 3. during the single level of decomposition the image data is replaced with four blocks corresponding to the sub bands representing either low-pass or high-pass filtering in each direction (Horizontal.6. For single scaling and wavelet functions extend to the matrix version. The resulting two channels. Vertical. Multiwavelets have two channels.6.2(a): Single Level Multiwavelets Decomposition 81 .6. but in practice it is usually chosen to be two.1(a) Figure-3. and high order approximation [68].6. instead of scalars. This degree freedom can be used to incorporate useful properties of the Multiwavelet such as orthogonality. filtering them into four output streams. In theory.2(a). L1L1 L1L2 L1H1 L1H2 L2L1 L2L2 L2H1 L2H2 H1L1 H1L2 H1H1 H1H2 H2L1 H2L2 H2H1 H2H2 Figure-3. Diagonal and Approximation). Each of these streams is then downsampled by a factor of two.

6. L1L1 L1L2 L2L1 L2L2 The next step decomposes the “Low-Low-Pass” sub matrix in the similar manner which gives the Second level of Decomposition and as shown in Figure-3.2(c): Multiwavelets Decomposition of Cameraman image at Level 1 82 .6.6. Multiwavelet iterates on the low-pass coefficients from the previous decomposition. L1L1 L1L2 L1H1 L1H2 L2L1 L2L2 L2H1 L2H2 H1L1 H1L2 H1H1 H1H2 H2L1 H2L2 H2H1 H2H2 H1L1 H2L1 H1L2 H2L2 L1H1 L1H2 L2H1 L2H2 H1H1 H1H2 H2H1 H2H2 Figure-3.2(b).2(b): Second Level Multiwavelets Decomposition Figure 3. In Multiwavelets.As Scalar wavelet transforms give a single quarter sized low-pass sub band from the original larger sub band. the multilevel decompositions are performed in the same. the quarter image of “Low-pass” coefficients is actually a 2x2 sub bands. An N number of Decomposition of a 2D image will produce the 4(3N+1) subband (sub images)[73][74].

Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) provides the useful information for texture analysis in the fingerprint image. DWT is Multiresolution analysis. which is to be referred as Stationary Wavelet Transform. In order to preserve the invariance by translation. Particularly it has a better performance when it is applied to non-stationary signal analysis such as noise removal and transient detection. This approach gives good result for images but not for signal analysis. The redundancy of this transform facilitates the identification of salient features in a signal. especially in image processing analysis.7 Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT) Wavelet transform is superior approach time-frequency analysis tools because its time scale width of the window can be stretched to match the original signal. 83 .6.Figure 3. The Stationary Wavelet Transform was proposed to make the decomposition time invariant [75] [76].7(a).2(d). especially for recognizing the noises. Multiwavelets Decomposition of Cameraman image at Level 2 3. which is a non-redundant decomposition due to non-invariance in time. the down sampling operation must be suppressed and the decomposition obtained in redundant form. depicted in figure 3.

y of fingerprint image and have the following wavelets [77]. k y )   j . Vertical wavelet (LH):  1 ( x .…. separate the variables x..………. y )   ( x ) ( y ) …………………………….31) Diagonal Wavelet (HH):  3 ( x .7: Stationary Wavelet Transform SWT has similar tree structure implementation without any sub-sampling. k y )     g (lx)h(ly)c lx  ly  2 j 1 w (k x .…(3.30) Horizontal Wavelet (HL):  2 ( x .. k y )      g (lx ) g (ly )c lx   ly   j . ly ) …………………………..32) Where.k  2 j (lx .k 2 j (lx. In fingerprint image decomposition..  is the wavelet function and  is the scaling function. ………(3. y )   ( x ) ( y ) ……………………………...….(3..…(3.k  2 j (lx. ly) ………………………….33)   h(lx)g(ly)c j .35) 84 .34) lx ly w 3j 1 ( k x .…(3. This balance of Perfect Reconstruction (PR) is preserved through level dependent zero padding interpolation of respective low pass and high pass filters in the filter bank structure. y )   ( x ) ( y ) ……………………………. The detailed signals contained in the three sub-images as follows:  w1j 1 ( k x . ly ) …………………..(3.DWT Wavelet Coefficient DWT Translation Wavelet Coefficient Input Image Translation Figure 3.

properties required for the compression and decompression of the image.e.8 Summary: This Chapter describes the various multi-resolution techniques used in transform coding by providing mathematical background for the transforms followed by the limitations of time-frequency limitations of the STFT. 85 . It emphasis the theory and practical implementation of wavelets i. Structure. Finally describes the stationary wavelet transform (SWT). This chapter also describes the limitations of wavelets and how these are overcome through wavelet packet and Multiwavelet while discussing the additional properties of the wavelet. The experiments are carried out through these multi-resolution techniques compression and de-nosing pertaining to the various applications in presence/absence of noise discussed in Chapter 4.3.

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