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Aircraft Engineering \ Fourth year stage

Subject Number: ME\484
Subject: Designs of Aircraft
Units: 6
Weekly Hours: Theoretical: 3
Experimental: Tutorial : 1
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Contents
Introduction
- Design and development of aircraft
- Design stages
- Preliminary design department
Airworthiness
- Definition
- BCAR
- FAR
- Crash airworthiness
Fuselage design
- Main characteristics
- Fuselage design requirements
- Shape of fuselage
- Cabin cross section layouts
- Cabin cross-section dimensions
- Cabin length
- Cockpit
- Fuselage main dimensions
Quick method
General method
- Fuselage weight
Wing design
- Basic requirements
- Wing location
- Wing geometric characteristics
- Evaluation of wing size
- Evaluation of SMC
- Evaluation of MAC
- Analytical method
- Graphical method
- Diagrammatical method
- Airfoils, requirements & definitions
- Airfoils coding
- High lift devices
- Wing aerodynamic characteristics
- Lift coefficient increment due to
T.E. flaps
Split flaps
Single slotted flaps
Double slotted flaps
- Wing weight

‫ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ اﻟﺼﻒ اﻟﺮاﺑﻊ‬/ ‫ﻓﺮع اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮات‬

484/‫ ھﻤﻚ‬:‫رﻣﺰ اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬
‫ ﺗﺼﺎﻣﯿﻢ اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮات‬:‫اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬
6 :‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪات‬
3 :‫ ﻧﻈﺮي‬:‫اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎت اﻷﺳﺒﻮﻋﯿﺔ‬
- :‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬
1 :‫ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬
‫ﻣﺪﺧﻞ‬
‫ ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ و ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮات‬‫ ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﯿﻢ‬‫ ﻗﺴﻢ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﯿﻢ اﻻﺑﺘﺪاﺋﻲ‬‫ﺳﻼﻣﺔ اﻟﻄﯿﺮان‬
‫ اﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻒ‬BCAR ‫ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت ﺳﻼﻣﺔ اﻟﻄﯿﺮان اﻟﺒﺮﯾﻄﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬FAR ‫ ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﻄﯿﺮان اﻻﺗﺤﺎدﯾﺔ‬‫ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ اﻟﺘﺤﻄﻢ اﻟﺠﻮﯾﺔ‬‫ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ اﻟﺠﺬع‬
‫ اﻟﺴﻤﺎت اﻟﺮﺋﯿﺴﯿﺔ‬‫ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ اﻟﺠﺬع‬‫ ﺷﻜﻞ اﻟﺠﺬع‬‫ أﺷﻜﺎل ﻣﻘﺎطﻊ اﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮرة‬.‫ اﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮرة‬‫ إﯾﺠﺎد أﺑﻌﺎد ﻣﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮرة‬‫ إﯾﺠﺎد طﻮل اﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮرة‬‫ ﻗﻤﺮة اﻟﻘﯿﺎدة‬‫ ﺣﺴﺎب اﻷﺑﻌﺎد اﻟﺮﺋﯿﺴﯿﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺬع‬‫اﻟﻄﺮﯾﻘﺔ اﻟﺴﺮﯾﻌﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻄﺮﯾﻘﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬
‫ وزن اﻟﺠﺬع‬‫ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ اﻟﺠﻨﺎح‬
‫ اﻟﻤﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬‫ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ اﻟﺠﻨﺎح‬‫ ﺳﻤﺎت اﻟﺠﻨﺎح اﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﯿﺔ‬‫ ﺣﺴﺎب ﻗﯿﺎس اﻟﺠﻨﺎح‬SMC ‫ إﯾﺠﺎد ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ اﻟﻮﺗﺮ اﻟﻘﯿﺎﺳﻲ‬MAC ‫ إﯾﺠﺎد ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ اﻟﻮﺗﺮ اﻻﯾﺮودﯾﻨﺎﻣﻲ‬‫ طﺮاﺋﻖ ﺣﺴﺎب أﺑﻌﺎد اﻟﺠﻨﺎح‬‫اﻟﻤﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت و اﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻔﺎت‬،‫ اﻟﻤﻄﯿﺎر‬‫ ﺗﺮﻣﯿﺰ ﻣﻘﺎطﻊ اﻷﺟﻨﺤﺔ‬‫ وﺳﺎﺋﻞ زﯾﺎدة اﻟﺮﻓﻊ‬‫ ﺳﻤﺎت اﻟﺠﻨﺎح اﻻﯾﺮودﯾﻨﺎﻣﯿﺔ‬‫ زﯾﺎدة ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻗﻼﺑﺎت اﻟﺤﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﺨﻠﻔﯿﺔ‬‫اﻟﻘﻼﺑﺎت اﻟﻤﻨﺸﻄﺮة‬
‫اﻟﻘﻼﺑﺎت اﻟﻤﺸﻘﻮﻗﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﻔﺮدة‬
‫اﻟﻘﻼﺑﺎت اﻟﻤﺸﻘﻮﻗﺔ اﻟﻤﺰدوﺟﺔ‬
‫ وزن اﻟﺠﻨﺎح‬-

‫اﻷﺳﺒﻮع‬
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Take off stages . to bearing capacity of A/F .Propulsion group.Types of surface control system .Computing of static thrust .Airframe services and equipments .General requirements .Structural load cases .Operational loads .Payload .Empennage weight Under-carriage design .Loading and balancing diagram .Fuel weight (based on flight stages) .‫ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ اﻟﺪﺳﺮ‬‫ ﻣﻌﺪات و ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎت اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮة‬‫ اﻷﺣﻤﺎل اﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻠﯿﺔ‬- 14 ‫ وزن اﻟﻄﺎﻗﻢ‬‫ اﻟﺤﻤﻞ اﻟﻤﻔﯿﺪ‬(‫ وزن اﻟﻮﻗﻮد ) ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ اﻟﻄﯿﺮان‬(‫ وزن اﻟﻮﻗﻮد )ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮع اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮة‬(‫)اﻟﺤﺴﺎب ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎت‬ ‫اﺧﺘﯿﺎر اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫ ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ اﻹﻗﻼع‬(‫ إﯾﺠﺎد دﻓﻊ اﻟﺴﻜﻮن )اﻷﻗﺼﻰ‬‫ إﯾﺠﺎد اﻟﺪﻓﻊ اﻷدﻧﻰ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب‬‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ اﻟﺜﻘﻞ‬ ‫ إﯾﺠﺎد ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺛﻘﻞ اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮة‬- 16 ‫ ﻣﺨﻄﻂ اﻟﺘﺤﻤﯿﻞ واﻻﺗﺰان‬‫ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ اﻟﺠﻨﺎح طﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ ﺛﻘﻞ اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮة‬- 19 ‫اﻟﻤﺪى‬-‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ اﻟﺤﻤﻞ‬ ‫ ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻔﺎت اﻟﻮزن اﻟﻤﺤﺪدة‬‫ اﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮة ذات ﻣﺤﺮك ﺗﺮﺑﯿﻨﻲ ﻧﻔﺎث‬‫ اﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮة ذات ﻣﺤﺮك ﺗﺮﺑﯿﻨﻲ رﻓﺎص‬- 15 17 18 20 .Tailoring u.Tail surfaces functions .c.Ground load factor .Tail surface configuration . size and inflation pressure of tires .Evaluation of aircraft center of gravity .Type.Vertical tail plane .LCN For single wheel .Aircraft Engineering \ Fourth year stage 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Empennage design .Limiting weight definitions .Computing minimum required thrust Center of gravity .Weight break down .Wing location according to aircraft center of gravity Payload-range diagram .Shock absorption.c Preliminary weight analysis .Engine section or nacelle group . Leg length .Horizontal tail plane .Surface controls group .Weight of u. Engine weight (dry) .Runways classification .Crew weight .Fuel weight (based on aircraft type) ( calculation by using graphics) Choice of engines .For turbo-prop aircraft ‫ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ اﻟﺼﻒ اﻟﺮاﺑﻊ‬/ ‫ﻓﺮع اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮات‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ اﻟﺬﻧﺐ‬ ‫ واﺟﺒﺎت أﺳﻄﺢ اﻟﺬﯾﻞ‬‫ أﻧﻮاع ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﻗﯿﺎدات أﺳﻄﺢ اﻟﺬﯾﻞ‬‫ ﺷﻜﻞ أﺳﻄﺢ اﻟﺬﯾﻞ‬‫ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎت اﻟﺬﯾﻞ اﻷﻓﻘﻲ‬‫ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎت اﻟﺬﯾﻞ اﻟﻌﻤﻮدي‬‫ وزن ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ اﻟﺬﻧﺐ‬‫ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﺔ اﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ‬ ‫ اﻟﻤﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬‫ ﺗﺼﻨﯿﻒ اﻟﻤﺪارج‬‫ أﻧﻮاع اﻟﻌﺮﺑﺎت اﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ‬‫ ﺗﻔﺼﯿﻞ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﺔ اﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ ﻟﺴﻌﺔ اﻟﺘﺤﻤﻞ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﺪرج‬ ‫ رﻗﻢ ﺗﺼﻨﯿﻒ اﻟﺤﻤﻞ ﻟﻌﺠﻠﺔ ﻣﻨﻔﺮدة‬‫ رﻗﻢ ﺗﺼﻨﯿﻒ اﻟﺤﻤﻞ ﻟﻌﺠﻠﺘﯿﻦ ﻓﺄﻛﺜﺮ‬‫ ﻧﻮع و ﺣﺠﻢ و ﺿﻐﻂ اﻹطﺎرات‬‫ ﺣﺴﺎب طﻮل اﻟﺴﺎق‬، ‫ ﻣﺒﺒﺪ اﻟﺼﺪﻣﺔ‬- 10 11 12 13 ‫ ﺣﺴﺎب ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﺘﺤﻤﯿﻞ اﻷرﺿﻲ‬‫ ﺣﺴﺎب ﺣﺎﻻت اﻟﺘﺤﻤﯿﻞ اﻷرﺿﯿﺔ‬‫ ﺣﺴﺎب ﺣﺎﻻت ﺗﺤﻤﯿﻞ اﻟﮭﯿﻜﻞ‬‫ وزن اﻟﻌﺮﺑﺔ اﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ‬‫اﻟﺘﺤﻠﯿﻞ اﻻﺑﺘﺪاﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻮزن‬ ‫ ﺗﺠﺰﺋﺔ اﻟﻮزن‬‫ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻗﯿﺎدات اﻷﺳﻄﺢ‬‫ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺣﺠﺮة اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬‫ وزن اﻟﻤﺤﺮك اﻟﺠﺎف‬.For turbo-jet aircraft .LCN For two or more wheels .Types of undercarriage .Ground load cases .

Air load distribution Schrenk method .Empirical method for cruising stage .Load factor .Aircraft Engineering \ Fourth year stage 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Flight and gust envelope .Load factor at correctly banked turn .Area drag method: Cockpit Undercarriage Nacelle Wing/fuselage interference .Aircraft pitching moment of inertia .Flight envelope .Induced drag coefficient of wing with part-span flap Structural design .gust envelope Wing and tail loads (for flight-gust envelope) .Wing group inertia load distribution .Flight .Area drag method: Wing Empennage Fuselage .Load factor at steady pullout .Gust envelope .Fuselage group inertia load distribution Drag estimation .Aircraft main part structural design ‫ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ اﻟﺼﻒ اﻟﺮاﺑﻊ‬/ ‫ﻓﺮع اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮات‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺼﻔﺔ‬-‫ﻣﻈﺮوف اﻟﻄﯿﺮان‬ ‫ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﺘﺤﻤﯿﻞ‬‫ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﺘﺤﻤﯿﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﺴﺤﺐ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺮ‬‫ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﺘﺤﻤﯿﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻻﺳﺘﺪارة اﻟﻤﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻓﻌﻠﯿﺎ‬‫ ﻣﻈﺮوف اﻟﻄﯿﺮان‬‫ ﻣﻈﺮوف اﻟﻌﺼﻔﺔ‬‫اﻟﻌﺼﻔﺔ‬-‫ ﻣﻈﺮوف اﻟﻄﯿﺮان‬-‫أﺣﻤﺎل اﻟﺠﻨﺎح و اﻟﺬﯾﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻈﺮوف اﻟﻄﯿﺮان‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺼﻔﺔ‬ ‫ ﻋﺰم ﺧﻄﺮان اﻟﻘﺼﻮر اﻟﺬاﺗﻲ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﺋﺮة‬‫ ﺣﺴﺎب اﻷﺣﻤﺎل ﻟﻠﻄﯿﺮان اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮي‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﺘﻌﺠﯿﻞ اﻟﺰاوي‬ ‫ﺗﻮزﯾﻊ اﻷﺣﻤﺎل ﻋﻠﻰ طﻮل اﻟﺒﺎع‬ ‫ ﺗﻮزﯾﻊ اﻟﺤﻤﻞ اﻟﮭﻮاﺋﻲ‬‫طﺮﯾﻘﺔ ﺷﺮﻧﻚ‬ ‫ ﺗﻮزﯾﻊ اﻟﺤﻤﻞ اﻟﮭﻮاﺋﻲ‬‫طﺮﯾﻘﺔ دﯾﺪرﯾﺞ‬ ‫ ﺗﻮزﯾﻊ ﺣﻤﻞ اﻟﻘﺼﻮر اﻟﺬاﺗﻲ ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ اﻟﺠﻨﺎح‬‫ ﺗﻮزﯾﻊ ﺣﻤﻞ اﻟﻘﺼﻮر اﻟﺬاﺗﻲ ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ اﻟﺠﺬع‬‫ﺗﺨﻤﯿﻦ اﻟﻜﺒﺢ‬ ‫ طﺮﯾﻘﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ اﻟﻜﺒﺢ‬‫اﻟﺠﻨﺎح‬ ‫اﻟﺬﻧﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺬع‬ ‫ طﺮﯾﻘﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ اﻟﻜﺒﺢ‬‫اﻟﻘﻤﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺮﺑﺔ اﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﺮة اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﺗﺪاﺧﻞ اﻟﺠﻨﺎح\اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ طﺮﯾﻘﺔ ﺗﺠﺮﯾﺒﯿﺔ ﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﺠﻮال‬‫ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﻜﺒﺢ اﻟﻤﺤﺘﺚ ﻟﻠﺠﻨﺎح ذو اﻟﻘﻼب‬‫اﻟﺠﺰﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ ھﯿﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ ھﯿﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﺠﺰء رﺋﯿﺴﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮة‬- 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 .Load calculation at level flight with angular acceleration Span wise air and inertia load distribution .Air load distribution Diederich method .