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Advances In Management

Vol. 5 (6) June (2012)

Case Study:

Assessing Work-Life Balance:
From Emotional Intelligence and Role Efficacy of Career Women
Jyothi Sree V.* and Jyothi P.
School of Management Studies, University of Hyderabad, Gachibowli (A.P.), INDIA
*srjyothi@yahoo.com

Abstract

One in three women in that bracket has left work for
some period to spend time caring for family members who are
not children. And lurking behind all this is the pervasiveness
of a highly traditional division of labor on the home front. In
a 2001 survey conducted by the Center for work-life policy,
fully 40 percent of highly qualified women with spouses felt
that their husbands create more work around the house than
they perform. Alongside these “pull” factors are a series of
“push” factors-that is, features of the job or workplace that
make women head for the door. Seventeen percent of women
say they took an off-ramp, at least in part, because their jobs
were not satisfying or meaningful. Overall, under stimulation
and lack of opportunity seem to be larger problems than
overwork. Only 6 percent of women stopped working because
the work itself was too demanding. In business sector, the
survey results suggest that push factors are particularly
powerful-indeed, in these sectors, unlike, say, in medicine or
teaching, they outweigh pull factors. Of course, in the hurlyburly world of everyday life, most women are dealing with a
combination of push and pull factors-and one often serves to
intensify the other. When women feel hemmed in by rigid
policies or a glass ceiling, for example, they are much more
likely to respond to the pull of family.

Work-life balance is the term used to describe
practices in achieving a balance between the demands
of employees’ family (life) and work lives. The demands
and pressures of work make difficult to stretch time for
balancing work-life activities. Women taking up worklife balance challenge have an impact on women's
advancement. Organization also may create work place
culture and climates that reflect concern for employees’
lives outside of work. It is important for organizations to
periodically review current work processes and
practices to determine which ones lead to work
inefficiencies and employee stress. In this background
the present study was undertaken to determine the
Indian Career Women work-life balance. The present
study focuses on the relationship between role efficacy
and emotional intelligence as related to work- life
balance of Career women. Sample consists of 63 career
women working in Andhra Pradesh, India. The results
show that there is a significant impact of factors
affecting Role efficacy on Emotional Intelligence.

Work-Life Balance

Key words: Work Life Balance, Career Women, Emotional
Intelligence, Role Efficacy, Organizational initiatives.

Work-life balance is the term used to describe those
practices at workplace that acknowledge and aim to support
the needs of employees in achieving a balance between the
demands of their family (life) and work lives. The work
Foundation, earlier known as the Industrial Society, believes
that ‘Work-life balance is about people having a measure of
control over when, where and how they work. It is achieved
when an individual’s right to a fulfilled life inside and outside
paid work is accepted and respected as the norm, to the
mutual benefit of the individual, business and society’.

Introduction
Most professional women step off the career fast
track at some point with children to raise, elderly parents to
care for and other pulls on their time, these women are
confronted with one off-ramp after another. When they feel
pushed at the same time by long hours and unsatisfying work,
the decision to leave becomes even easier. Many women take
an off-ramp at some point on their career highway. Sylvia and
Carolyn25 state that nearly four in ten highly qualified women
(37 percent) report that they have left work voluntarily at
some point in their careers. Among women who have
children, that statistic rises to 43 percent. Factors other than
having children that pull women away from their jobs include
the demands of caring for elderly parents or other family
members (reported by 24 percent) and personal health issues
(9 percent). Not surprisingly, the pull of elder care
responsibilities is particularly strong for women in the 41 to
55 age group-often called the “sandwich” generation,
positioned as it is between growing children and aging
parents.

The concept of work-family (life) balance has
emerged from the acknowledgement that an individual’s
work-life and personal/family life may exert conflicting
demands on each other. Conflict is a normal part of life and is
a natural result of the conflicting demands arising from
multiple roles such as that of a mother, daughter, daughter-inlaw, wife, friend and employee. In order to manage the
negative spillover of conflict, it is important to balance the
demands from both the domains. Work-life balance is about
adjusting work patterns to achieve overall fulfillment. A good
work-life balance enables the business to thrive and at the

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Vol. 5 (6) June (2012)
beyond the stipulated number of days, depending on need.
Employee may find that taking more leave resulted in lower
increments or fewer subsequent promotions. Some
organizations offer formal programmes to women employees
that permit them to work reduced hours or extend leave
because of child care demands. However these women
employees are likely to still lose out on promotions due to the
long hour’s culture that undervalues employees who use
work-life programmes to make more time for their families.
Some times period of unpaid leave will not count towards
his/her service tenure resulting in adverse effect on chances
for promotions.

same time enables the employees to easily combine work
with other aspirations and responsibilities.
Work-life balance should not be understood as
suggesting an equal balance or scheduling equal number of
hours for each one’s work and personal activities. A positive
work-life balance involves achievement and enjoyment. A
good working definition of work-life balance may be
meaningful daily achievement and enjoyment in each of the
four quadrants of life-work, family, friends and self. The best
work-life balance varies for an individual over time at
different stages of career and age; different factors become
important for an individual.

In the contemporary environment, woman workforce
has been challenged with work – life conflict, turnover
intentions, stress, absenteeism and organizational commitment. In this endeavor, women experience pressures in a
number of contexts: cultural, domestic, work and professionnal. Despite women professionals having the requisite qualification and experience, they are continually undermined,
tensed between personal role and work role.

Work-life issues
In most organizations, employees rarely feel
comfortable discussing their personal priorities. They worry
that admitting a passion for singing with the local opera
company, for instance, will be seen as a lack of passion for
work. Such fear is not misguided. Most managers believe-or
at least hope-that work is at the top of an employee’s list of
life priorities. Work life issues or concerns refer to those
aspects of an employee’s work or family life that may have an
influence on one another. Initial interest in work-life issues
was the result of two developments that occurred during the
1970s. These developments included an increase in number of
women entering the workforce and the growth of dual-career
families where both the spouses were working. This trend
resulted in organization being urged to acknowledge
employees’ family and other personal commitments.

Organizational focus on Work-Life Balance
Issues
Organizations mainly revolved around job
characteristics, job enrichment and social information
processing. Today organizations need to be more flexible so
that they are equipped with the members of organization their
work force and enjoy their commitment. Therefore
organizations are required to adopt a strategy to improve the
employees’ quality of work life and personal life. Even
Quality of Work Life has concerns about: employee
commitment and skills during a period, Organizations and
rapid technologies change recognizing the achievement of
missions and goals require high performing employees to
address work issues, balancing personal and professional life.
The concern for quality of work life and personal life takes
more with overall climate of work – life domains. Analysis of
QWL described it as: A concern about the impact of work on
people as well as on organizational effectiveness and the idea
of participation in problems solving and decision making at
work place and home place.

Work life issues/concerns encompass all non-work
related demands and hence are not restricted to only family
demands. Equations both at the workplace and at home have
changed in the net worked era. While in the machine age,
work and life were seen as two independent domains, in the
networked age there is a complete overlap between the two
domains. These shifts are summarized in the table A. Women
face conflicts between work and family demands as well as
demands from family have increased over the years. This has
made it difficult for organizations to ignore the significance
of employees’ non-work demands on their performance,
commitment and job satisfaction.

According to Agarwala26, research evidence
indicates that when employees have such a participatory,
problem-solving approach to work-life, they are more
committed to their work place (organization) and home and
attaining balancing between both the work and the life.

Work-life balance consequences
It is not enough for organizations to implement
family-friendly practices such as flextime and extended
parental leave, to reduce employees’ work-life conflicts. It is
more important to have a supportive culture that encourages
employee utilization of work-life benefits. The extent to
which individual managers are sensitive to and
accommodating of employees’ family needs, is the managers’
responsibility to ensure that employees complete their leave
entitlements of optional holidays for the years.

The quality of work/life that an organization
provides is often determining factor in many individuals’
choices of employer. Human resources policies designed to
help employees balance their work and family lives can also
affect turnover, performance, absenteeism, organizational
commitment and employee willingness to go the extra mile
on behalf of their employers.

A firm may extend the benefit of opting for leave

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Vol. 5 (6) June (2012)
allow employees to simultaneously fulfill work and family
responsibilities.

Work-Family Conflict
The demands and pressures of work and family may
give rise to work-family conflict in an individual. An
employee may be faced with work-family conflict, when
he/she has to attend the parent-teacher meeting in the child’s
school or when he/she has a doctor’s appointment for an
ageing parent. The demands and pressures of work make it
difficult for the employee to stretch time for such activities.

Organization must create work place culture and
climates that reflect concern for employees’ lives outside of
work. It is also important for organizations to periodically
review current work processes and practices to determine
which ones lead to work inefficiencies and employees stress.
Employers are still struggling to understand how to best
implement work-life balance programmes and policies to
really make them work well so as to meet their dual agenda of
employee well-being and benefits for the company.
Moreover, there will always be employees who are willing to
put their career before their family and personal needs-this set
of employees are likely to be most promote able, since they
will be willing to do whatever the company needs without
letting family demands come in the way. What really keeps
employees here is the sense among them that they are all seen
as people first, not just employees.

Types of work-family conflict
Three major types of work/family conflicts have
been identified in work family literature.
Time-based conflicts: These arise when time spent on role
performance in one domain precludes time spent in the other
domain because of depletion of energy or stress.
Strain-based conflicts: These arise when strain in one role
affects an employee’s performance in another role. This type
of conflict does not connote conflicting demands. Rather, it
occurs when the demands from one domain cause tension,
anxiety, fatigue, or dissatisfaction for the employee thereby
reducing his/her personal resources of energy and physical or
mental capacity. When employee is tending to a terminally
sick spouse or parent, the mental and physical strain resulting
from the experience may hamper the employee’s performance
at work.

Financial implications for other factors are typically
not included in benefits calculations. These include financial
improvements associated with reduced recruiting, training
and related replacement costs, since employees who are
satisfied with their work/life situation are less likely to turn
over.

Women in different cadres
There are changes in large part due to a significant
cultural shift in parental perspective that is, an increased
acceptance of giving education to girls that allows for the
possibility of women working outside the home, contributing
economically to the family and even pursuing a career. With
more Indian women in the workforce, a number of rates of
female workers in rural areas are 31 percent and 11.6 percent
in urban areas.

Behavior-based conflicts: These occur when there is
incompatibility between the behavior patters that are desirable
in the two domains and employee is unable to adjust behavior
when moving from one domain to another. Behavior-based
conflict too, need not involve conflicting demands. It occurs
when a behavior developed in one domain interferes with the
role performance in another domain.
Conflict between work and family (life) is viewed in
terms of the interference of the demands from family role on
the performance of an individual’s work role. Most firms
developed HR practices that would provide the employee
with time off for fulfilling family demands. Work demands
are also equally likely to interfere with an individual’s
capacity to fulfill family (life) demands.

Employment numbers for women, further detailed in
women workers in the 21st century-Unemployment and
Underemployment, indicate that of India’s 397 million
workers, 123.9 million are women: 106 million women are in
the rural areas and 18 million in the urban areas. However,
only 7 percent of India’s labor force is in the organized sector
(including workers on regular salaries in registered
companies), with the remaining workers (93 percent) in the
unorganized or informal sectors.

Work-Life Balance: Management Challenge
The primary purpose of organizations is business,
there may be a fundamental conflict between the efficiency
and productivity oriented values of an organization on one
hand and the work-life needs of employees, on the other.
Since organizations have to jointly manage this competing
value, employees may often receive mixed-messages related
to work-life balance. In order to create a family-friendly
workplace, an organization must design and implement
benefits, practices and policies to help employees balance
their work and non-work lives by providing provisions for
flexible work schedules, dependent care supports etc. that

As a brief comparison, in the United States in 2008,
of the 121 million women ages 16 years and older, 72 million
(59.5 percent) were labor force participants. Women
comprised 46.5 percent of the total U.S labor force (68
million women were employed in the United Stats-75 percent
of employed women worked in full-time jobs and 25 percent
worked on a part-time basis). Women are projected to account
for 49 percent of the increase in total labor force between
2006 and 2010. In 2008, the largest percentage of employed

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favorable to the attainment of organizational goals while
negative emotions are those that are perceived to be
destructive for the organization. Emotions influence the task
on which an employee is working, the efforts he/she puts and
how he influences other employees around him. In other
words, what employees feel and how they express their
emotions affects their performance.

women (39 percent) worked in management, professional and
related occupations and women accounted for 51 percent of
all workers in the high-paying management, professional and
related occupation.
Globally, the number of women senior managers in
large corporations is low. The march 2009 report, women
CEOs of the fortune 1000, published by Catalyst (the U.S
firm working to expand opportunities for women and
business), identifies the women CEOs of the fortune 500
companies, 15 CEOs are women, including Indian, Indra K.
Nooyi, PepsiCo, Inc. The statistics at the CEO level of these
large companies clearly show that there is much progress to
be made for women world wide at this level of management.
Women India has held important roles in politics, social
organizations and administration. There is a need for educated
women to reach very high level in the government and the
number of women in the corporate sector is gradually
growing.

More companies are realizing that encouraging
emotional intelligence skills is a vital component of their
management philosophy. Organization does not compete with
products alone: how well it uses its people is more important
for its survival.

Literature Review
The demands and pressures of work and family may
give rise to work-life balance issues to an individual.
Freedman and Greenhaus14 reveal that women in workforce
have increased considerably, however women face a lot of
issues and challenges. They are still seen as the primary
caretakers of the home and family, even if they work just as
much as men. Work role is often seen as secondary to family
roles. Not just men but women also hold themselves and other
women to the homemaker standard. Women spend more time
on housework, child care and family responsibilities. Women
used to spend almost 24 percent of their time on housework in
1966 to 30 percent of housework in 2005. However women
miss more work for child care. 20 percent of women take care
of both children and elders.

In this back ground the present study focuses on the
relationship between Role Efficacy and Emotional
Intelligence as related to work-life balance:
Role Efficacy: The performance of a person working in an
organization depends on his ones’ own potential
effectiveness, technical competence, managerial experience,
etc. as well as on the design of the role that performs in an
organization. The integration of a person and a role comes
about when the latter is able to fulfill the needs of the
individual and when the individual in turn is able to
contribute to the evolution of the role. The effectiveness of a
person’s role in an organization will depend upon his own
potential effectiveness, the potential effectiveness of the role
and the organization climate. This potential effectiveness can
be termed efficacy. Personal efficacy is the potential
effectiveness of a person in personal and interpersonal
situations. Role efficacy is the potential effectiveness of an
individual occupying a particular role in an organization. Role
efficacy can be seen as the psychological factor underlying
role effectiveness.

Greenhaus and Beutell16 defined work-family
conflict as ‘a form of inter-role conflict in which the role
pressures from the two domains, that is, work and family, are
mutually non-compatible so that meeting demands in one
domain makes it difficult to meet demands in the other’. That
is, participation in the work role is made more difficult by
virtue of participation in the family and vice versa. The major
concern in this most widely used definition of work-family
conflict is that role conflicts cause due to problems of role
participation and emotional intelligence. Hence, difference in
values, social relationships and requirements between work
and family do not constitute conflict per se.

Emotional intelligence (EI): It describes the ability,
capacity, skill or, in the case of the trait EI model, a selfperceived grand ability to identify, assess, manage and control
the emotions of one's self, of others and of groups. Different
models have been proposed for the definition of EI and
disagreement exists as to how the term should be used.
Despite these disagreements, which are often highly
technical, the ability EI and trait EI models (but not the mixed
models) enjoy support in the literature and have successful
applications in different domains. It is believed that
employees’ emotions matter because they drive one's
performance. Emotions at work place, generally, fall into the
category of positive (good) and negative (bad) emotions.
Positive emotions are those feelings of an individual that are

Waite and Gallagher28 documented the tensions
within and between dual career couples brought about by the
transformation of marriage and family life. At the personal
level, marriage and family functioning have become
fundamentally personal choices and responsibilities, making
the maintenance of both more vulnerable. At the cultural
level, while traditional values such as gender role ideologies
are constantly being challenged, balance related to the
importance of work life and personal life still persists to role
efficacy and emotional intelligence.
Landsman17 disclosed the employer provided
resources can help women a great deal in balancing work-life

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look for work from economic necessity and for personal
goals. Women in lower to middle socioeconomic status seek
income opportunities and those in the upper middle class
pursue a career for professional ambitions. Women with
higher education have more interest in independence, are
career-oriented and interested in quickly moving up the
organizational ladder. At the time of this study, 40 percent of
female students attended management institutes in India. The
key challenge for career women is managing both their
traditional roles as housewives and their career. Women
experience great pressure to work hard to prove them in the
workplace.

balance issues. It employers provide facilities like onsite child
care or referral, it would help in decreasing absenteeism and
turnover from work. It would further help in increasing
women employee’s willingness to work overtime, from work
and take-home dinner, family-friendly benefits packages and
exercise equipments can help in removing the stress of
working women in a big way. Thus to conclude one can say
that flexible work time, job sharing, telecommuting, personal
leave, childcare facilities completely rely on degree of women
efficacy and her emotional intelligence.
Bandura3 defines self-efficacy as an individual’s
belief in her ability to produce designated levels of
performance. Self-efficacy is also a measure of an employee’s
confidence in her abilities to marshal personal resources and
deploy an appropriate response strategy to address job
situations.

To assess emotional intelligence in women
manager20, it is necessary to sustain them by means of
informative activities and guidance that entail the use of
emotional intelligence in relation to empathy and other sociointerpersonal areas10. Career women frequently express a
concern of being inadequately prepared to lead such
interventions and feel challenge to take on such a role9. This
means that the items are specifically attributed to career
women role-efficacy and enable study of a vast range of skills
that manager consider important in order to perform well,
without, however, being too specific and thus rendering it
impossible to compare career women that belong to different
contexts, level or degree of performance.

According to the theoretical model of Bar-On4, 5,
emotional intelligence is defined as a sum of emotional and
social competences that determine the modalities with which
a person relates to both him/herself and to others in order to
cope with environmental pressure and requests. Emotional
intelligence is thus, in this model, an important factor in
determining success in life and more generically, influences
the well-being of individuals. Emotional intelligence develops
over time, changes in the course of life and can be increased
by means of training programs.

Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated:

Chan11 study analyzed the relationship between
emotional intelligence and career women role-efficacy by
using a scale specific to demonstrate their role-efficacy. It is
anticipated that this study would be able to demonstrate
whether or not differences in emotional intelligence exist in
relation to the experience and/or age of women and the
typology of the organization and more generally, to evaluate
the relationship between emotional intelligence and career
women’ role-efficacy. It was expected that, also with regard
to the most targeted construct of women manager roleefficacy, the impact of several dimensions of emotional
intelligence would emerge. Studying this relationship in India
can, furthermore, draw attention to the existence of these
links in a different cultural context.

There is a significant relationship between role efficacy
and emotional intelligence.

Career women are high on Emotional Intelligence and
Role Efficacy aspects.

Methodology
Data sources: The study is empirical in nature and relied on
survey method. It is based on both primary and secondary
sources of data. Primary data were collected with the help of
structured questionnaires. Secondary data were collected from
books, journals and websites with HR managers’ interviews.

Tools used for the Data Collection

The term emotional intelligence, rendered popular
by Goleman15, was first used by Mayer and Salovey19 to
describe the capacity individuals have for monitoring their
feelings and those of others, discriminating between various
types of emotions and using this information to channel
thoughts and actions. They extended the definition to include
the capacity for perceiving emotions, comparing emotions
and feelings, understanding information caused by emotion
and being able to handle such emotions.

Data were collected by administering the following
tools:

Demographic profile data sheet

Emotional Intelligence Scale

Role Efficacy Scale

Sample chosen for the study
The sample consists of 63 career women. The
samples were selected from Government organizations and
private companies in the service sector in Hyderabad, Andhra
Pradesh. A convenient sampling method was adopted in

A 2005 study of senior women in public and private
sector firms, titled women in management in the new
economic environment: the case of India, found that women

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choosing sample.

Seventeen emotional intelligence variables and role efficacy
have above average scores. It means career women working
have an above average ability to manage their own emotions
of with whom they interact. It is assumed that an above
average amount of emotional intelligence possessed by them
would help them to function effectively in their respective
roles in the organization/s. This assumption of the
investigators has empirical grounding, as other researchers1, 21
working in the area of emotional intelligence and the related
domain of knowledge have maintained similar assumptions.
The above average level of emotional intelligence possessed
by social work professionals is assumed to help them in the
management of felt emotions that they experience in
interactions with others around.

Results and Discussion
The present research highlights the work life balance
issues. Table 1 shows demographic profile of women whose
age ranged from 23 to 60 years and had an average age of 40
(s.d. = 7.28). Career women represent various levels of
management. The majority of the career women were
assistant officers (ASO/AAO, Jr. Executive) middle
management (63.4%). Other categories were: Gazetted / Sr.
Executives-upper middle (34.9%), top management (vice
presents, deputy secretary and so on) (1.6%). Their education
qualification ranged from graduation (71%) to post graduate
(28.6%). Their work experience ranged from 1-35 years, of
them maximum 25.3% of women had 15-20 years experience.
97% women were married and more than 50 percent have
children under the age of 18. Family status of women is
Nuclear family (82.5 %) and Joint family (17.5 %). Women
while traveling to work place felt inconvenient due to lack of
bus frequency (3.2%) and heavy traffic (25.4%).

Then this can in turn increase their affective
commitment to the organization by generating enthusiasm for
their work. This assumption of the study finds support in the
work of Caner and Salovey8. Mean values reveals the results
obtained for the potential role effectiveness of career women.
While looking at the results obtained, it can be said that the
overall role effectiveness of career women in the study is
above average.

Table 2 shows that there is a significant (F=.005)
relationship between work experience and emotional
intelligence of career women. This assumption of the study
finds support in the work Chan11 which states that there is no
overall significance on demographic profile on emotional
intelligence.

Such a relatively high level of the role effectiveness
of career women can be assumed to be a function of their
perceiving their roles to provide them with opportunities for
professional development and finding themselves well
integrated with the roles assigned. Therefore, it is assumed
that these career women would tend to interact freely with the
people and the environment and feel satisfied with life.

The result in table 3 shows the mean values of the
emotional intelligence and the potential for effectiveness in
the organizational roles and functions of career women.

Table A
Different Phases of Work-Life Balances issues
The machine age

The industrial age
Work started spilling into family
time and was often carried home

The networked age

Work-life issues

Work and family were two
independent domains

Workdays span 24 hours with brief time
intervals for non-work activities

Home issues

Traditional roles with men
Dual career couples with both men Dual career couples with both men and
working and women working and women working but women women working as well as attending to
care of household chores
still tending the household chores home issues

Support

none

Availability of help like baby
Hands-free executives support firms that
sitters, crèches, old-age homes and provide services as diverse as managing
maids
the laundry and the kind’s homework.

Source: Business Today7

Table 4 shows the impact of role efficacy on
emotional intelligence of career women. These values
measure the strength and direction of the linear relationship
between the two variables.

Emotional Intelligence Scale
Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS) used was
developed by Matrix Life System Pvt. Ltd. converted into a
five point scale. It has 43 items grouped into seventeen
emotional intelligence and they are: Capability to Express

(CE), Purposefulness (PUR), Self-reliance (SR), Identifying
Emotions (ID), Support Building(SB), Empathy (EMP),
Logical Analysis (LA), Initiative(INT), Ability to Cope (AC),
Anger Management(AM), Happiness Orientation (HO),
Confidence (CON), Assertiveness (ASS), Decisiveness (DEC),
Civic Sum / Accountability (CS/ACC), adaptability (ADA) and
Patience (PAT). Participants respond by indicating their
agreement to each of the 43 statements using five point scale
ranging from 1(strongly disagree) to 5(strongly agree). The EIS
has demonstrated high internal consistence with that for self-

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ratings, the alpha coefficients (Cronbach’s Alpha; N=43) is
.950.

Role Efficacy Scale (RES)
The Role Efficacy Scale (RES) used was
developed by Pareek27. It is a structured instrument
consisting of twenty traits of statements, divided into ten
dimensions. The ten dimensions of the RES are: Centrality
(Cen), Self-role Integration (Sri), Pro-activity(Pro),
Creativity(Cre), Inter-role Linkage (Irl), Helping
Relationships (Hrel), Super-ordination (Sup), Influence
(Infu),Personal Growth (Pg), Confrontation (Conf). Role
Efficacy Score (RES) has three alternatives which are preweighted. Each dimension of role efficacy and the scoring
pattern followed is +2, +1 or -1.

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extent influences the work – life balance those women
employees are trying to achieve. Therefore, it is necessary for
any organization to implement a number of measures like flexitimings, recreational facility, crèches in work place and good
team building initiatives so that they build reputation as
employers of choice.

Table 1
Demographic profile of sample N=63
Characteristic

frequency

percent

23-30

5

7.9

31-37

10

15.9

38-45

30

47.9

46-63

13

20.6

54-60

5

7.9

Age

Out of seventeen variables of Emotional
Intelligence and ten variables of Role Efficacy it may be
observed (table 4) that emotional intelligence jointly
predicts (23.5%) significant to the role effectiveness of the
career women in their organizational lives. That is variables
related to Ability to cope (F=0.340), Anger management
(F=0.25), Happiness orientation (F=0.27) and Confidence
(F=0.279) are significant between .01 level to .05 level.
Apart from these variables, we may also observe that (13%)
variables such as self reliance, identifying emotions, support
building and so on also show the significance on the role
efficacy variables. As researched by Bandura3, people with
high confidence in their capabilities handle work-life related
factors effectively and approach difficult task as challenges
to be mastered rather than as threats to be avoided.

Educational qualification
Graduates

45

71.4

Post graduates

18

28.6

V.P, D.S,

1

1.6

Gazetted/ Sr. Executive

22

34.9

ASO/AAO/Junior Executive

40

63.5

Designation

Annual income in lakhs
1-5

54

85.7

5-10

9

14.3

7

57

90.5

9

5

7.9

10

1

1.6

married

61

96.8

unmarried

2

3.2

Nuclear family

61

82.5

Joint family

11

17.5

Under 18 years

31

50.8

Above 18 years

30

49.2

Work hours

The relationships between role efficacy and
emotional intelligence variables predict that an increase in
the amount of emotional intelligence of the career women
will cause corresponding increment in their potential role
effectiveness. In other words, as the career women become
efficient in managing their own emotions and those of
others with whom they interact in their organizational lives,
they engage more often in giving and receiving help from
others whenever the need arises and the like. The analysis
reveals that the career women are high in role effectiveness
and emotional intelligence. It is asserted that role efficacy
has an impact on emotional intelligence. The present study
is statistically significant on four components of the Role
Efficacy with Emotional Intelligence of Career women.
Thus, hypothesis one as stated in the present study is
supported.

Marital status

Type of family

Children status

Inconvenience in transport

Implications
The research study has highlighted factors
affecting role efficacy and emotional intelligence. The
implications would benefit organization for better
understanding about nuances emerging from work-life. The
quality of work life provided by an organization to a large

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Difficult to get bus

2

3.2

Long distance

1

1.6

traffic

16

25.4

No difficult

44

69.8

Advances In Management

Vol. 5 (6) June (2012)

Table 2
Demographic effect on Emotional Intelligence Impact of work experience on Emotional Intelligence
ANOVA

Role efficacy Total

Emotional Intellignece

Sum of Squares

Df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

235.630

7

33.6661

.859

.544

Within Groups

2154.688

55

39.176

Total

2390.317

62

Between Groups

12320.375

7

1760.054

3.371

.005

Within Groups

28713.276

55

522.060

Total

41033.651

62

Table 3

References

Mean and standard deviations of Emotional Intelligence
and Role Efficacy of Career women (N = 63)
Descriptive Statistics

Mean

Std. Deviation

Capability to express

14.49

2.552

Purposeful

4.22

0.812

1. Bachman W., “Nice guys finish first: A SYMLOG analysis of
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2. Bandura A., “Self-efficacy: Towards a Unifying Theory of
Behavior Change”, Psychological Review, 84, 191-215 (1997)

Self reliance

18.78

2.997

Identifying emotions

28.33

4.385

Support building

7.63

1.649

Empathy

12.17

2.311

Logical analysis

16.32

3.073

Initiative

3.68

0.93

Ability to cope

11.4

2.083

Anger management

3.25

0.967

Happiness orientation

12.08

2.611

Confidence

16.06

2.758

Assertiveness

3.76

0.911

Decisive

4.54

6.153

Civic sum/accountability

4.38

0.923

Adaptability

3.43

1.174

Patience

3.16

1.322

Emotional intelligence

167.7

25.732

Centrality

2.1

0.995

Integration

3.16

1.334

Pro-activity

2.02

1.039

Creativity

2.7

1.444

10. Chan D. W. and Hui E. K. P., “Stress, support and
psychological symptoms among guidance and non-guidance
secondary school teachers in Hong Kong School”, Psychology
International, 19, 169-178 (1998)

Inter-role linkage

2.97

1.47

11. Chan D. W., “Perceived emotional intelligence and self-

Helping relationship

3.3

1.352

Super ordination

1.63

1.579

efficacy among Chinese secondary school teachers in Hong
Kong”, Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 1781 (2004)

Influence

2.05

1.25

Growth

2.33

1.107

Confrontation

3.53

0.97

Role efficacy

25.73

6.274

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Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, NY, Academic Press (1998)
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Advances In Management

Vol. 5 (6) June (2012)

Table 4
Integration

Proactivity

Creativity

Inter-role
linkage

Helping
relationship

Influence

Growth

Confrontation

Role
efficacy

0.178

-0.16

0.24

0.16

-0.24

0.064 0.04

0.07

-0.07

.326(**)

0.108

-0.027

-0

0.05

0.06

0.03

-0.08

-0.1

0.16

0.2

0.209

0.11

0.007

-0.08

0.15

0.19

-0.2

0.12

0.15 .408(**)

0.09

.393(**)

0.235

Identifying emotions

0.004

-0.12

0.18

0.21

-0.13

0.105 0.09 .274(*)

0.17

.443(**)

0.228

Support building

0.041

-0.09

0.21

0.04

0.04

-0.12

0.02

0.2

-0.05

0.217

0.095

Empathy

-0.127 -.260(*)

0.08

-0.1

-0.06

.267(*)

-0

.293(*)

0.1

.443(**)

0.11

Logical analysis

0.027

-0.08

0.2

0.08

-0.01

0.24

0.13

.253(*)

0.174

Initiative

-0.089

-0.18

.256(*)

0.1

-0.08

0.04

-0.02

0.122

0.032

Ability to cope

0.168

-0.02

0.22

.260(*)

0.01

0.077 0.12 .333(**)

0.18

Anger management

0.125

0.24

0.22

0.11

0.01

0.113 0.15

0.18

0.07

-0.04

.251(*)

Happiness orientation

0.171

-0.04

.261(*)

0.12

0

0.089 0.11

0.25

0.13

.296(*)

.271(*)

Confidence

0.115

0.06

0.21

0.14

0.01

0.008

0.2

.280(*)

0.11

.273(*)

.279(*)

Assertiveness

-0.028

-0.08

0.07

.251(*)

-0.24

-0.01

0.13

0.11

0.1

.359(**)

0.135

Decisiveness

0.002

-0.12

0.16

0.01

-.264(*)

0.05

0.09

0.14

-0.02

0.125

0.021

Civic sum/accountability

-0.145

-0.19

0.06

0.09

-0.09

-0

0.01

0.17

0.1

0.24

0.038

Adaptability

0.144

0.07

0.13

.353(**)

-0.13

0.08

0.16

0.12

0.04

0.217

0.226

Patience

0.074

-0.01

0.03

0.19

-0.15

0.117 0.18

-0.1

-.257(*)

-0.05

0.029

Emotional intelligence

0.062

-0.12

.252(*)

0.18

-0.16

0.095 0.14 .311(*)

0.09

.402(**)

0.236

Correlations

Capability to express
Purposeful
Self reliance

Superordination

Centrality

Correlation coefficients of Role Efficacy with Emotional Intelligence for Career women (N= 63)

0.046 0.07
-0.1

0.09

.453(**) .340(**)

**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
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(Received 23rd February 2012, accepted 20th May 2012)

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