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‫‪UOT‬‬

‫‪Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch‬‬
‫‪Aircraft Design‬‬
‫‪Chapter One/ Introduction, Airworthiness & Crashworthiness‬‬

‫‪ .1‬مدخل (‪)Introduction‬‬
‫‪.1-1‬‬

‫أ‪-‬‬

‫ب‪.‬‬
‫ج‪.‬‬
‫ح‪.‬‬
‫خ‪.‬‬
‫د‪.‬‬
‫د‪.‬‬

‫تصميم و تطوير الطائرة‪:‬‬
‫يمكن إدراج العوامل الرئيسية التالية المحفزة لتطوير أنواع الطائرات المختلفةة الجديةدة أو الموجةودة ية‬
‫الخدمة‪.‬‬
‫نمو حجم النقل الجوي و هذا لالسباب التالية‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬انخفاض أجرة الركوب‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬تحسين نوعية الطائرة (السرعة‪ ،‬الراحة‪...‬الخ)‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬زيادة نشاط اإلعمال و نمو دخل األيراد‪.‬‬
‫‪ .4‬نمو سعة استيعاب الطائرة‪.‬‬
‫‪ .5‬زيادة عدد الطيرات على خط الطيران الواحد‪ ،‬و زيادة عدد الخطوط‪.‬‬
‫‪ .6‬االستخدام المتعاظم للتسهيالت األرضية و التسهيالت داخل الطائرة‪.‬‬
‫عائد االستثمار (‪ ) return of investment‬وهو المعيار المعقول ألي شركة استثمارية‪.‬‬
‫رغبات الزبون‪ :‬للحصول على طائرات مدنية أو عسكرية مختلفة األغراض تلب رغباته‪.‬‬
‫استبدال الطائرات الت قاربت اعمارها التشغيلية على االنتهاء‪.‬‬
‫ادخةةال التحسةةينات و التطةةويرات التكنلوجيةةة لمختلةةء اجةةراء الطةةائرة كالمحركةةات و سةةبائ الهيكةةل و‬
‫االجهزة االليكترونية المختلفة‪.‬‬
‫االذعان لمتطلبات سالمة الطيران و التحديدات البيئية من ناحية الضوضاء و االنبعاثات الغازية‪.‬‬
‫اعتبارات مختلفة‪ :‬سياسية‪ ،‬اقتصادية‪ ...‬الخ‪.‬‬
‫ويمكن تحديد مراحل تصميم و تطوير الطائرة بما يل من األطوار األساسية‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬طور التصميم ألمفاهيم (‪.) Conceptual design phase‬‬
‫= ‪.) Preliminary‬‬
‫‪ .2‬طور التصميم االبتدائ ( =‬
‫= ‪.) Detailed‬‬
‫‪ .3‬طور التصميم التفصيل ( =‬

‫ويمكن إضاية مراحل أخرى تكميلية وه ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬تصنيع النموذج التجريب (‪.) Prototype manufacturing‬‬
‫‪ .2‬الفحص (‪.) Testing‬‬
‫‪ .3‬التصنيع النهائ ( ‪.)Final production‬‬
‫و يالحظ إن هذه األطوار متداخلة مع بعضها‪ .‬نظرا التساع مراحل التصميم‪ ،‬خاصة الطورين األول‬
‫والثان ‪ .‬ان دراستنا الحالية تختص ببعض أجزاء طور التصميم االبتدائ ‪ .‬الشكل (‪ )1-1‬يمثل مخطط‬
‫لمراحل التصميم االساسية‪.‬‬
‫طور التصميم المفاهيم ‪ :‬ي هذا الطور تؤخذ بنظر االعتبار االشكال التقليدية و المبتكرة للطائرة و‬
‫معرية االشكال القابلة للتطبيق من الناحية التقنية و التجارية‪ .‬مثال الشكل الخارج للطائرة‪ ،‬عدد و انواع‬

‫‪1-6 Ch.1‬‬
‫‪2014/2015‬‬

‫‪Prepared by A.A. Al-Hussaini‬‬

‫‪UOT‬‬
‫‪Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch‬‬
‫‪Aircraft Design‬‬
‫‪Chapter One/ Introduction, Airworthiness & Crashworthiness‬‬

‫المحركات و مكانها‪ ،‬تصميم مقصورة الركاب‪ ،‬نوع منظومات المالحة و السيطرة‪ ،‬المواد المستخدمة‪،‬‬
‫طرق التصنيع‪ ،‬طرق التشغيل و الصيانة‪ ،‬مستوى التكنولوجيا المقترحة‪ ،‬الكلفة التخمينية ‪ ...‬الخ‪.‬‬
‫طور التصميم االبتدائ ‪ :‬يتم التحليل التقن لألشكال المقترحة بعمق ( االيرودينامية‪ ،‬االداء‪،‬‬
‫االستقرارية‪ ،‬السيطرة‪ ،‬االجهادات الهيكلية‪ ،‬الكلء المالية ‪ ...‬الخ‪ .‬و ايجاد الهيئة المثالية للطائرة و حسب‬
‫المتطلبات التجارية مع المقارنة باألنواع المنايسة ي السوق‪.‬‬
‫طور التصميم التفصيل ‪ :‬ي هذا الطور يتم اعادة التحليل التفصيل لمجمل اجزاء و اجراء الحسابات‬
‫المختلفة التفصيلية النهائية لكل النواح المتعلقة بالطائرة‪ .‬و ي نهاية هه المرحلة يتم اإلقرار على بداية‬
‫االنتاج بعد ان يتم تصنيع نماذج تجريبية للفحوصات االرضية و الجوية‪ ،‬لتحليل اداء الطائرة ويق ما هو‬
‫مخطط و تحليل كل جزء من الطائرة بعد مروره بالفحوصات الالتدميرية و التدميرية‪.‬‬
‫يحدد الزبون عادة المواصفات الفنية و غيرها للطائرة المطلوبة‪ .‬هذه الموصفات بمثابة بيانات إدخال‬
‫(‪ )input data‬للتصميم الطائرة الجديدة ‪ ،‬الشكل (‪ .)2-1‬يمثل مخطط انسياب لتصميم عام مطور و مؤلء‬
‫ألغراض برمجة الحاسوب‪.‬‬
‫بعض الشركات العمالقة ه الت تحدد المواصفات المطلوبة من خالل قراءة سوق الطائرات و‬
‫متطلبات حركة النقل الجوي‪ .‬لذل تبدأ الدعاية عادة بوقت مبكر لمحاولة جذب رؤوس أموال المستثمرين‪.‬‬
‫ويبدأ اإلنتاج بعد اجتياز نموذج االختبار(‪ )prototype‬جميع الفحوصات الجوية المطلوبة‪ .‬و يمكن لعملية‬
‫إبرام عقود البيع ان تتم قبل و أثناء و بعد اإلنتاج‪ .‬ويكون التسليم حسب القدرة اإلنتاجية للشركات و حسب‬
‫التوقيتات المتفق عليها‪.‬‬

‫‪2-6 Ch.1‬‬
‫‪2014/2015‬‬

‫‪Prepared by A.A. Al-Hussaini‬‬

‫‪UOT‬‬
‫‪Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch‬‬
‫‪Aircraft Design‬‬
‫‪Chapter One/ Introduction, Airworthiness & Crashworthiness‬‬

‫‪ .2-1‬قسم التصميم االبتدائي‪:‬‬
‫حين يتم القرار على تطوير أو تصميم نوع جديد من الطائرات‪ ،‬يان اإلجراء المتبع هو تشكيل مجموعة‬
‫المشروع (‪ ) Project group‬من مختلء االختصاصات‪ ،‬و تتضمن هذه المجموعة خبراء و مهندس‬
‫التصميم االبتدائ ‪ .‬ويختصون ي الفروع التالية‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬خبراء االيرودينامية‪ :‬وهم يختصون بتصميم الشكل الخارج ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬مهندسو الهياكل‪ :‬الذين يضعون بدراساتهم تصميم البناء الهيكل المقترح و ينجزون وضع األبعاد‬
‫واالختيارات المثلى للهيكل (‪.)Dimensioning & Optimization‬‬
‫‪ .3‬خبراء اإلنتاج و المواد‪ :‬لتحديد أيضل طرق اإلنتاج الواجب إتباعها‪ .‬و متابعة آخر إبداعات علم‬
‫المواد‪.‬‬
‫‪ .4‬مهندسو الوزن‪ :‬وواجبهم التعامل مع أوزان المنتجات و السيطرة على توزيع األوزان لتحديد‬
‫مركز الثقل و انجاز حسابات عزم القصور الذات (‪.)Moment of inertia‬‬
‫‪ .5‬مهندسو السيطرة و أالستقرارية‪ :‬لتصميم منظومة السيطرة على الطيران وتحليل النوعية‪.‬‬
‫‪ .6‬مهندسو المنظومات‪ :‬لتصميم معدات و منظومات البدن ( جسم الطائرة)‪.‬‬
‫‪ .7‬خبراء االقتصاد و المالية‪ :‬والذين يكون واجبهم حساب الكلفة التخمينية األولية و التشغيلية‬
‫للطائرة‪ ،‬وكذل التدقيق عن قرب للنواح المالية لمجمل المشروع‪.‬‬
‫عمل يريق التصميم االبتدائ و الذي يكون مرتبطا بشكل دائم بأعمال المشروع‪ ،‬بخالف باق أقسام‬
‫المشروع‪ ،‬يتكون من النشاطات التالية إضاية للواجبات األساسية حسب اختصاصاتهم‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬تحليل السوق و وضع اللمسات للمواصفات األولية لنوع الطائرة الجديد بالتعاون مع قسم التسويق‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬اقتراح الحلول المختلفة ألي مشكلة تصميم معطاة‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬تقييم مختلء اقتراحات التصميم باستخدام طرق التصميم االبتدائ لك يتم اتخاذ القرار على‬
‫أساس بيان مختلء اآلراء‪.‬‬
‫‪ .4‬وضع و تحديد تفاصيل األبحاث للمشاكل الت تم مواجهتها‪ ،‬مثال االيرودينامية و الهيكل و باق‬
‫مساحات العمل‪ .‬مثال تطوير طرق تخمين الكبح‪ ،‬الوزن‪...‬الخ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .5‬مناقشات مع الزبائن الحاليين و كذل الوسطاء للمستقبل ي أمور تخص أجزاء الطائرة كالمحرك‬
‫و العجالت‪..‬الخ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .6‬تعزيز قسم المبيعات بالمعطيات الفنية‪.‬‬
‫‪ .7‬إجراء دراسات تطوير المنتج بهدف زيادة استخدام الطائرة‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬سالمة الطيران (‪:)Airworthiness‬‬
‫يمكن تعريء سالمة الطيران على انه تامين المتطلبات االساسية لضمان الطيران بشروط امنة ضمن‬
‫الحدود المسموحة‪.‬‬
‫‪ .i‬متطلبات سالمة الطيران‪:‬‬
‫ه أنظمة وقواعد) ‪(Rules & Regulations‬لتصميم واالشتغال و األنظمة األخرى الت يتم‬
‫تحديدها من قبل سلطات الطيران )‪ (Aviation Authority‬المحلية و تفرض على مصنع و‬

‫‪3-6 Ch.1‬‬
‫‪2014/2015‬‬

‫‪Prepared by A.A. Al-Hussaini‬‬

UOT
Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch
Aircraft Design
Chapter One/ Introduction, Airworthiness & Crashworthiness

‫الطائرات ضمن الحدود اإلقليمية لهذه السلطات لضمان مستوى معين من األمان لعموم‬

‫مستخدم‬
.‫الناس‬
،‫ مقصورة الركاب‬،‫ كالبدن‬،‫ لهذه األنظمة و القواعد بعيد األثر على تصميم أجزاء الطائرة‬
.‫الخ‬...‫المنظومات‬
.‫ على المصمم اختيار قوانين سالمة الطيران المالئمة لغرض تصميم الطائرة ويقا لهذه القوانين‬
.‫ قواعد سالمة الطيران تختلء من بلد إلى آخر‬
‫ ييجب أن تظهر الطائرة القدرة على اإلقالع‬،‫تفرض قواعد السالمة كما قلنا مستوى عال من األمان‬
‫ بقيادة طيار‬،‫و التسلق و الطيران للمساية المقررة و كذل المناورة مع األحمال المقررة للسرعة المحددة مسبقا‬
‫ إن احتمالية الفشل الفاجع ي‬.‫ دون أن تصبح الطائرة غير قابلة للقيادة أو متعبة للطيار أثناء الطيران‬،‫مرخص‬
.‫ ) طيران‬107 ‫ إلى‬1(‫الهيكل أو أي جزء آخر يجب أن يكون اقل من‬
Safety is a concept generally ingrained in the human mind. The main conventional flight safety
factors are; (i) man, (ii) the environment, and (iii) the machine. Many countries issue their own
rules and regulations to preserve adequate level of safety by its civil airworthiness authority. But the
most regulations and authorities are:
1. BCAR: British Civilian Airworthiness Requirements: are published by CAA: Civil Aviation
Authority in Britain. The CAA was established in 1972. BCAR are now replaced by EASA.
2. FAR: Federal Aviation Rules; are issued by FAA: Federal Aviation Administration. FAR are
adopted in the United States as well as in many other countries. The Air Commerce Act of 20
May 1926 was the cornerstone of the Federal government’s regulation of civil aviation. In 1938,
the Civil Aeronautics Act transferred the Federal civil aviation responsibilities from the
Commerce Department to a new independent agency, the Civil Aeronautics Authority. on 1
April 1967, the FAA became one of several modal organizations within the DOT, Department of
Transportation and was given a new name, the Federal Aviation Administration.
3. JARs, Joint Aviation Requirements are issued by JAA, The Joint Aviation Authorities for The
ECAC (European Civil Aviation Conference). The JAA’s work started in 1970 (when it was
known as the Joint Airworthiness Authorities). Since 1987, JAA activities have been extended to
operations, maintenance, and licensing and certification design standards for all classes of
aircraft. (since 2002 there is efforts to transfer all activities to the EASA regulations).
4. EASA regulations, The European Aviation Safety Agency. The EASA is an independent
European Community body with a legal identity and autonomy in legal, administrative, and
financial matters. This single authority has been created by the adoption of a European
Parliament and Council Regulation in 15 July 2002 in order to put in place a Community system
of air safety and environmental regulation. The activity of the EASA started, as planned, on 28
September 2003 and, after a transitory period in Brussels, the Agency has now moved to
Cologne (Germany).

5. ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) annexes. The ICAO officially came into
existence on 4 April 1947. At the invitation of the Government of Canada, Montreal was chosen
as the site for its headquarters. resently, the Contracting States number more than 180. The
4-6 Ch.1
Prepared by A.A. Al-Hussaini

2014/2015

‬اما االهداف التصميمية لسالمة‬ ‫التحطم يه تختص بسالمة الركاب‪. Then.‬‬ ‫‪(3) Minimize the damage to the aircraft structure in all crash events.)touch down‬‬ ‫‪ . Inc. Airworthiness & Crashworthiness‬‬ ‫‪applicable JAA/FAA/EASA airworthiness standards for the certification of aircraft to be‬‬ ‫‪internationally recognized are issued in accordance with the ICAO Annexes.‬‬ ‫و على هذا االساس ال تحبذ سلطات الطيران استخدام طائرة نقل للركاب ذات جناح علوي رغم ميزاته‬ ‫( تأثير ارض قليل بسبب بعد الجناح عن االرض‪ ،‬كفاءة ايرودينامية عالية لكون الكبح التداخل قليل و بناء‬ ‫الضغط المنخفض يوقه يكون مستمرا) و ذل لألسباب التالية‪:‬‬ ‫‪ . for The NASA Langley Research Center‬‬ ‫‪summarizes the crashworthiness requirement as:‬‬ ‫‪The concept of crashworthiness refers to those vehicle design characteristics that protect the‬‬ ‫‪occupant from injury or death during a crash event. the designer strives to:‬‬ ‫‪(1) Eliminate injuries and fatalities in relatively mild impacts.‬تتحقق بيئة التحطم القابلة للنجاة عندما يتعرض الركاب الى قوى تحطم‬ ‫ضمن المستوى المسموح لإلنسان وتبقى متانة هيكل الذي يحوي الركاب سليمة بحيث يمكن اخالء الركاب‬ ‫سريعا‪ .‬‬ ‫بدا التركيز على اهمية سالمة التحطم مبكرا و خاصة بعد الحرب العالمية الثانية يميال ي عام ‪1667‬‬ ‫نشرت ادارة الطيران الفدرالية (‪ )FAA‬ي الواليات المتحدة االمريكية معايير سالمة التحطم الت‬ ‫تخص يئة طائرات النقل‪ . Al-Hussaini‬‬ .2‬عند الهبوط االضطراري على الماء يؤدي ثقل الجناح الى سرعة غرق المقصورة‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬تقليل من مخاطر الحريق عند التحطم‪. the certification process is based on these airworthiness standards rather‬‬ ‫‪than (directly) on the ICAO International Standards.A.‬تصميم الهيكل لضمان سالمة الطائرة يجسد اهداف التصميم لكل من سالمة التحطم و سالمة‬ ‫الطيران ولكن بحدود متفاوتة‪ .‫‪UOT‬‬ ‫‪Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch‬‬ ‫‪Aircraft Design‬‬ ‫‪Chapter One/ Introduction.‬و ي عام ‪ 1672‬تم تحديث هذه المعايير‪ .‬‬ ‫‪5-6 Ch.1‬قد يؤدي ثقل الجناح الى انهيار المقصورة عند الهبوط االضطراري عند سرعة حط عالية‬ ‫(‪.1‬‬ ‫‪2014/2015‬‬ ‫‪Prepared by A.‬‬ ‫‪ .)Crashworthiness‬عند الهبوط االضطراري‪.3‬سرعة اخالء الركاب من الطائرة‪. Specifically.1‬حماية ركاب الطائرة من صدمة التحطم‪. from a‬‬ ‫‪practical point of view.‬‬ ‫‪(2) Minimize injuries and fatalities in all severe but survivable crashes.‬‬ ‫‪A report prepared by Simula Technologies.3‬سالمة التحطم (‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ .‬اهداف سالمة الطيران التصميمية تختص بقابلية الهيكل لتحمل االحمال‬ ‫التصميمية او الحفاظ على سالمة الرحلة نسبة لظروف العمل المحيطة‪ .‬ينصب اهتمام (‪ )FAA‬ي مقاربة‬ ‫سالمة التحطم على ثالث مساحات من االهتمام‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .‬‬ ‫سالمة التحطم بالنسبة لمقصورة الركاب تعن اسهام مجمل عناصر التصميم االساسية ذات العالقة لحماية‬ ‫الركاب ي "بيئة تحط م قابة للنجاة"‪ .

‬الخ‪.‫‪UOT‬‬ ‫‪Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch‬‬ ‫‪Aircraft Design‬‬ ‫‪Chapter One/ Introduction.. Al-Hussaini‬‬ .‬‬ ‫‪6-6 Ch..A. Airworthiness & Crashworthiness‬‬ ‫و استخدام وقود ذو درجة اتقاد عالية و ان تكون خزانات الوقود بعيدة عن مقصورة الركاب الى الجانب و‬ ‫الخلء و ان تحتوي الطائرة على مخارج طوارئ يتناسب عددها مع عدد الركاب ‪ .1‬‬ ‫‪2014/2015‬‬ ‫‪Prepared by A.

3. Fuselage design requirements: 1. It constitutes the shell containing the payload which should be carried to a certain distance at a specified speed. .1. 4. it also sometimes houses engines. since the fuselage design has influence on fuel consumption and manufacturing costs. Structural design and manufacturing are considerably simplified. The structure must be sufficiently strong. possess a fixed useful life and be easy to inspect and maintain.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Two/Fuselage Layout Design --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ch. 1-6 Ch. 4. 2. fuel tanks and retractable undercarriage. but also affects the tail configuration since the aerodynamic moments in pitch and yaw is approximately proportional to its volume.2 Prepared by A. tail unit and in some cases the engines). 3. The shell offers protection against climatic factors (cold. Fuselage Layout Design 2. The flexibility of the seating arrangement is improved. 2. rigid and light. low pressure. usually in the nose. The cylindrical arrangement The shape of fuselage is derived from efficient arrangement of passengers or freight. 2. 3. Fuselage main characteristics are: 1. Fuselage layout is usually configured as a cylinder for the following reason: 1. 2. 4. while the stabilizing contribution of the tail surfaces is mainly dependent on the length of the fuselage tail. It is possible to obtain an efficient internal layout with little loss of space.A. 3. The drag of fuselage should be low. Low operating costs. The fuselage does not merely serve to carry the empennage. Most of aircraft systems are generally housed in the fuselage. Further development by increasing the length of the fuselage (stretching) is facilitated. 2. a very high wind velocity and against external noise. It is the most suitable part for housing the cockpit. see (figure 1). Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . 2.2. The fuselage maybe regarded as the central structural member to whom the other main parts are joined (wings. since it represents ( ) of zero lift drag.

A. passenger. or calculated from the following formula: ( ) ( ) : Typical fuselage wall thickness. : Distance between end arm set and wall. : Number of arm set.2 Prepared by A. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 .4.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Two/Fuselage Layout Design --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2. : = = = without = =. showing cargo. : Number of set in a row. Circular cross-section is the simplest shape and the width ( ) can be evaluated from (figure 3). Cabin design (configuration): Left: Airbus A300 cross-section. : Minimum aisle width between arms seats.Cross-section: Configuration and dimensions. 2-6 Ch. Below: Cross-section comparison of Airbus A380 (Full length double deck) and Boeing 747-400(Only the front section is double deck) a. : From table (1). and overhead areas.

Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . 25.Cabin length. On airplanes having only one passenger aisle. The length of fuselage cabin ( ) can be evaluating from figure (5) or it is approximately: c. Preliminary design is based on a certain standard type of seat. no more than three seats abreast may be placed on each side of the aisle in any one row. Passenger seat.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Two/Fuselage Layout Design --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- According to FAR 25 Sec. but airlines can lay down their own specification for cabin furnishing.A.2 Prepared by A. And: 3-6 Ch. b. See figure 4 and the table.817 for the maximum number of seats abreast.

UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Two/Fuselage Layout Design --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Deluxe type : Set pitch is (38 .5. 2. The general configuration can be chosen by comparison with other a/c.32 in) 762 .1016 mm Normal type : = = = (34 . Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 .914 mm Economy type: = = = (30 . 3DMAX. Location and dimension of pilot seat and the flight controls can manipulated as shown in figure (6) where visibility from the cockpit during horizontal flight and during approach is assured.36 in) 865 . Fuselage main dimensions: The dimensions of the fuselage cabin are evaluated through using the design packages (CAD. Details are out of the scope of this lecture.A.812 mm d. …etc) or approximated by the following simple two methods: a) Quick method:For fuselage with cylindrical mid-section ( ) 4-6 Ch. SOLDWORK.Flight desk.2 Prepared by A.40 in) 965 .

: Fuselage nose length. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . 5-6 Ch. The comparator aircraft should be civilian passenger transporter.2 Prepared by A. : Fineness ratio. : Fuselage length. mean. ) ⁄ ( ) ( ) b) General method:The general method depends on a diagram and an illustrative figure. The following formulas are used: ( ( ) ) ( ) The length of fuselage nose ( ) and fuselage tail ( ) are evaluated by comparison with other aircraft that is in service.A. : Mid-section cross area. : Fuselage wetted area.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Two/Fuselage Layout Design --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ( ⁄ ) ⁄ ( ) for √ For fully stream lined shapes without cylindrical midsection: ( Where : Fuselage volume. : Diameter. ( ⁄ ) ( ⁄ ) The ratios ( ⁄ ) and ( ⁄ ) are extracted from comparator aircrafts.

For AL-alloy fuselage. Fuselage weight: The fuselage makes a large contribution to the structure weight.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Two/Fuselage Layout Design --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2. ) . doors.2 Prepared by A.c. and horizontal tail a.A. the following simple weight estimation method can be used as a first approximation: √ ( ) . attachment. aircraft maximum take-off 6-6 Ch. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . but it is much more difficult to be predicted by general methods than the wing. support structure at. . in : Fuselage maximum width and height. is attached to the fuselage. To the total basic weight that calculated by above formula:: should be added for pressurized cabin. The nominal fuselage weight is about ( weight. ⁄ : Dive speed which is the maximum aircraft speed for its structure to withstand. windows and other special structural feature. : Distance between wing a.5. : = = = if the main u.c. bulk heads. : = = = for rear fuselage mounted engines. Fuselage weight is affected primarily by gross shell area ( ). The reason is the large number of local weight penalties in the form of floor. : = = = for freighter aircraft.c. . which intern depend upon the overall dimensions of the fuselage as well as the design diving speed.

3. 7. Wing Layout Design 3. and the basic shape is finally evaluated mainly on the basis of the stalling characteristics. strength. Wing design must connect to the choice of power plant. 1. b) Basic shape (planform. 8.2. the following comments may help to speed it up: it is convenient to make a distinction between:a) Wing size (area). Continuous wing structure. based on takeoff and landing characteristics and manufacturing complexity. Acts as an emergency dissipater in case of crash. sections and twist). 2. service life.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Three/Wing Layout Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 5. 1-24 Ch. when engine attached to fuselage. 6.3 Prepared by A. It must be possible to design the structure within the external lines and the general arrangement which satisfies demands regarding. 3. In case of low speed aircraft. with good possibility of survival.--------------------------------- Ch. the wing loading and type of high lift devices are dealt with next. weight. it is probably best to determine the aspect ratio first. Flight characteristics must be satisfactory both at high and low flying speeds. 4. 4. accessibility &etc. practically in the preliminary stage. In small a/c. 5.c. 2.1. Wing location: 3. The aircraft must satisfy the performance characteristics laid down in the design specification with best economic yield and operation flexibility. 3.A. 2. rigidity. fuel tank volume and buffet margins may lead to corrections of wing area which have only minor effect on high speed performance. concentrated load and occupants could be reacted directly by the low wing. tail configuration.1. Small variations in the wing size have only a minor effect on the stalling characteristics. In case of high speed jet aircraft the span loading and wing loading maybe dealt with first according to wing sweep and mean thickness/chord ratio of high subsonic a/c which are based primarily on the Mach number in high speed flight in order shock formulation and to decrease wave drag and increase. Short u. weight distribution… etc. c) High _ lift devices. 3. Wing basic requirement: 1. The high lift devices is to be decided after a satisfactory wing shape. Simple flap and ailerons control mechanism. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . minimizing fuel consumption. Good visibility in a turn during takeoff and landing.3. Sufficient space must be provided for fuel and to permit the attachment and retraction of main u.c.3. Conventional tail is quite sufficient. 3. Passenger seats can be arranged on the middle portion of the wing. design aspects: Wing design is a highly iterative process. A final check on low speed performance. 4. Low wing: advantage: 1. 3.

Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 .--------------------------------- 2-24 Ch.3 Prepared by A.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Three/Wing Layout Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.A.

e. For these reasons many midwing layouts are found in fighter and trainer aircraft. 3-24 Ch. The energy dissipated finally by the wing. Mid wing: This type is chosen. when minimum drag in high-speed flight is of paramount importance. large ground clearance is wanted which means long leg u.c. 6. 3. The advantages and disadvantages are moderated. i.2. crush on the passenger.3. High wing: disadvantage: 1.3 Prepared by A. 4. generally. and it may be as a heavy weight. Because of ground effect. With a fuselage of roughly circular cross-section.c. 3. Wing root fairings of only very modest size will therefore be required. In small a/c occupants weight should transmitted to the fuselage and up to the wing. C-17). 5. Suitable for wing attached engine. 5. 2. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . Long u. Low wing: disadvantage: 1. The divergence of the airflow over the wing root at high angles of attack is thus minimized.--------------------------------- 3. High ground clearance. a high a/c (long u. 2. 5. i. with small track if attached to the fuselage.) is needed.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Three/Wing Layout Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 3. minimum ground effect. The passenger's seats need to be arranged on a torque box and not directly on the floor.3. Continuous wing structure. attached to the wing. or a complicated short u.3.A. 2. High wing: advantage: 1. 4. In most cases the fuselage section at the location where the wing is mounted to it is roughly cylindrical.c. High interference drag. weight penalty. For fuselage mounted engines the c.g. The wing may be continuous through the fuselage. High aerodynamic efficiency.c. 4. Low visibility in a turn during takeoff & landing.e. Special equipment must be used during loading and unloading. is shifted backward and a large tail to ensure trim condition which lead to higher profile drag. Very suitable for military transportation (IL-76. 3. For a wing mounted engine. C-130. the surfaces at the wing-fuselage junction meet at practically right angles so that interference between the boundary layers at small angles of attack will be minimized. T-tail is needed.

√ . but excluding fillets or fairings. For straight taper wing. is the line passes through points at for all sections from tip to root. quarter line and wing trailing edge. ). Angle of attack is the angle between line of flight (free air velocity) and chord line. Gross or design wing area is the total wing area which the area enclosed by the wing outlines including wing flap in the retracted position. [ ( ) ] ( ) ⁄( ) ̅ Geometric or standard mean chord. For straight taper wing.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Three/Wing Layout Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Angle of dihedral is the angle between the projection of the quarter chord line on the ( The negative angle is called anhedral. If the wing contains nacelles. (See figure 1): Taper ratio is the ratio of wing tip chord to wing root chord. Exposed or wetted wing area which is the net external wing surface area that exposed to the air flow. the gross wing area minus the projection of the central wing part. and aileron. Net wing area. Wing characteristics: The most important wing characteristics are defined briefly below. ∫ ⁄ . Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . .--------------------------------- 3. swept angle for any edge relative to other edge is.4. Sweep angle is the angle between the projection of the quarter chord line on the ( ( ) plane and y-axis.3 Prepared by A. ̅ Aspect ratio Quarter chord line. the wetted area should be reduced by wing area inside the nacelle structure.A. ( ) and ( ) are sweept angle for wing leading edge. Angle of incidence is the angle between a/c (fuselage) datum line from nose to tail and wing root chord line. ( ) ( ) ( ) 4-24 Ch. ) plane and the y-axis.

. For example ( ) and ( ). Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . Positive twist. is a line passes through T. is the chord of an equivalent untwisted. i. Negative twist. the lift is zero.3 Prepared by A.--------------------------------- Where ( ) is a fraction of the chord. (wash-in). ̿ . Zero-lift line. tip section nose leading edge rotated upwards.e. angle of incidence of wing section relative to that of root section.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Three/Wing Layout Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Analytical method: ̿ ⁄ ∫ ⁄ ̿ ∫ 5-24 Ch.5. stream velocity is parallel to the zero-lift line. non-swept and non-tapered wing. Aerodynamic twist is the twist of the zero-lift line of a section relative to the zero-lift line of root section. ̿ . and make a negative angle with the chord line. Geometric twist is the twist of the chord line of a section relative to the chord line of root section. then: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Wing twist. ( ) and ( ). and if the free 3.A. For any section ) ) ) For tip section. is the distance from aerodynamic center to root chord. Determination of (MAC): ̿ Mean aerodynamic chord. for which the total lift and pitching moment are essentially equal to the lift and pitching of the actual wing. 3. measured in plane parallel to (XOZ) plane (side view). is the distance from aerodynamic center to root chord apex.5. ) ) ) ) Angle of attack for zero lift line which has a negative value. (wash-out).1. For wing or tail plane with straight trailing edge. = = = = = = downwards.E.

UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Three/Wing Layout Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Graphical method: (see figure 2). ̿ ̿ ( ) ̿ ̿ 3. then: ̿ ∑ ∑ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ∑( ̿ ) ∑( ) ̿ ∑( ) ∑( ) ̿ ∑( ) ∑( ) 6-24 Ch. Draw tip chord ( ) at root side. Determine (MAC) of the rectangular and trapezoidal portions separately.3. The interception point of the two diagonals indicates the position of ( ̿ ).4. 2. ( ̿) and ( ̿ ). Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . Prepare a table as shown below. 2. 3. For (rectangular & trapezoidal) wing: 1. Determine the area ( ) and ( ) of each portion: ̿ For rectangular ̿ For rectangular Then: ̿ ̿ ̿ ̿ ̿ ̿ ̿ ̿ ̿ 3.5.2.5. 1.Measure the mean chord of each strip ( ) and the distance ( ) from this mean chord line to a/c center line.--------------------------------- For straight taper wing and moderate sweep angle. 3.3 Prepared by A.A. Strips method: For elliptical wing for example (see figure 4): Divide the wing into (n) number of strips of equal width (Δy).5. Draw root chord ( ) at tip side.

structure weight … etc. You should decide wither a geometrical or aerodynamical twit is chosen depending on local lift distribution (from Ch. How to evaluate wing size: Wing loading ( ⁄ ) and aspect ratio (AR) is chosen in advance by comparison with similar a/c in service. varying from a maximum value at takeoff to minimum value at landing. is a very important character. 3.--------------------------------- 3. is the mean aerodynamic chord quarter point.3 Prepared by A.( ⁄ ). wing loading for short range subsonic transporter lies in the range of ( The weight of the a/c is guessed as a first start from comparator a/c or evaluated roughly.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Three/Wing Layout Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.): is a point in the XOZ plane about which the aerodynamic pitching moment coefficient of the wing is essentially constant up to maximum lift in subcritical flow. Figure (6) shows the trends of wing loading with take-off weight. It influences takeoff and landing field distance.c. stall speed. Wing loading. Assume that the wing is straight tapered with straight trailing edge and compute .c. The airfoil cross section area and wing 7-24 Ch.5. The ⁄ ).A. ( ̿ ). Graph method: Figure (5) is useful evaluate mean aerodynamic chord ( ̿ ).6. gust loads. buffet boundaries. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . It is a variable parameter. ⁄ . For moderate sweep angle a reasonable approximation for the a. A suitable three views should be drawn for the wing. Then: The wing area is ( ⁄ ) The wing span is √ And compute other wing characteristics. Aerodynamic center (a. ̅ ̅ ̿ ̿. 10).5.

root section circumference. contamination and dirt…etc.3 Prepared by A.. For the inboard sections with flaps extended. The critical Mach number should be sufficiently high. and mechanical controls…etc. The same procedure must be carried out for horizontal and vertical tail. 3. 3. Simpson’s rule with graphical paper or computer aided design software are recommended. 4. If the wing loading at takeoff is and the airfoil designation area. wing span.1 Definitions: ( ) This is very roughly value. and a taper ratio of . main u. the drag must be low in high lift condition. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . The wing sections should have the largest possible thickness ratio in the interest of low Structure weight.c. The inboard wing sections should have high maximum lift with flaps extended. In order to estimate area of the airfoil section at root or tip or other sections. Airfoil section: Requirements 1. Calculate wing Solution: ̅ ⁄( ⁄ ) √ ⁄ ⁄ √ ⁄ ( ) ( √ ( ) ) ( ) √ ( ) ̅ ( ) ( ) 8-24 Ch. The basic airfoil must have a low profile drag coefficient for the range of lift coefficients used in cruising flight. 8. The aerodynamic characteristics should not be extremely sensitive to manufacturing variations in the wing shape.7. 2. √ ( ) ( ) 3. The tip section should have high maximum lift coefficient and gradual stalling characteristics.A. 6. wing volume.--------------------------------- wetted area and wing volume also should be computed. particularly during takeoff and climb. standard mean chord.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Three/Wing Layout Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 5. a sufficient internal space must be provided for fuel tanks. The pitching moment coefficient should be low. Example: an a/c has weights at takeoff has a straight taper of aspect ratio of ⁄ . 7.7.

and sometimes at L. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . 9-24 Ch. which used mainly to increase lift coefficient during takeoff and landing stages.--------------------------------- 3.8.E.E..E.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Three/Wing Layout Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.3 Prepared by A. They are mainly flaps. which are positioned at L. High lift devices: They are mechanical devices. which are positioned at T.A. see table (2). and slats.

the NACA airfoils are still useful in many aerodynamic design applications.4C). ⁄ ). The position of maximum camber is at (0.Digit series. while dashed line is due to L.E. NACA (National Aerodynamic and a Space Administration) officially turned over operations to NASA on 1 October 1958. Most of the airfoils were based on simple geometrical descriptions of the section shape. 4. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 .15C).E. NACA • (2) Design lift coefficient is of magnitude ( ⁄ • (30) The position of maximum camber is at ( • (12) Section maximum thickness is ( ⁄ ⁄ ). airfoils were designed during the period from 1929 through 1947 under the direction of Eastman Jacobs at the NACA’s Langley Field Laboratory. (6 is normal. 0 is sharp). • (15) Section maximum thickness is (0.E.Digit series. The design lift coefficient is the theoretical ( ) for the airfoil when (α) is such that the slope of mean camber 10-24 Ch. although the 6 and 6A series were developed using theoretical analysis and don’t have simple shape definitions.3 Prepared by A. 5.( ) is increment of lift coefficient due to T. • (3) Magnitude of leading edge radius.--------------------------------- Figure (9): the effect of leading edge slat. flaps only.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Three/Wing Layout Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. The upper curve shows the effect of T. and L. Airfoil section coding: The NACA. (for subsonic low speed a/c): Ex. flaps or slats. high lift devices 3. A number of references have been included to allow the reader to study both the older NACA literature and the new airfoil design ideas. (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics). leading edge flap and trailing edge flap upon lift and angle of basic wing section.9.04C). ). Although a new generation of airfoils has emerged as a result of improved understanding of airfoil performance and the ability to design new airfoils using computer methods.4C). (for slower a/c): Ex.E. • (4) The position of maximum thickness is (0. NACA • (4) • (4) The maximum camber ( ) value is (0.A. Many airfoil sections were designed in many countries having their own coding.

--------------------------------- line at the L. ) Section has cusped T. is at (0. 6. which is favorable gradient. NACA (this is 5-digit airfoil in 6-digit series). ). at the design lift • ( ) Section is straight on both surfaces from about ( • ( ) Design lift coefficient is ( •( ) Section thickness ratio is ( ) to the . Ex.A. 7. is parallel to the free air stream velocity. (without A). Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . laminar-flow wing sections): Ex. Favorable lift coefficient range is (± 0. is at (0.E.digit series. Ex. • (18) Section thickness ratio is (0. NACA • (6) 6-digit series.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Three/Wing Layout Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. NACA • (6) 6-digit series. ) to the T. is at ( •( ). NACA .E. ) of L. ). • (12) Section thickness ratio is (0.3 Prepared by A.4).2). • (15) Section thickness ratio is ( ). • (3) Position of minimum (negative) pressure.E. Position of minimum (negative) pressure.E. •( ) 7-digit series. which is favorable gradient.E. ). Ex.3C). NACA • (6) • (5) • (3) 6-digit series. • (6) 6-digit series. 11-24 Ch. • ( ) Position of minimum (negative) pressure. Ex. • (2) Design lift coefficient is (0.18). • ( ) low drag range is ( ) above and below lift coefficient ( • ( ) Design lift coefficient is ( •( ) Section thickness ratio is ( ).Digit series. at the design lift •( ) Extent of region of favorable pressure gradient over lower surface from ( coefficient. which is favorable gradient. is at ( • (A) Section is straight on both surfaces from about ( • (2) Design lift coefficient is ( ). ). ). • (4) Favorable lift coefficient (designed) is (0. ) of L.3) above and below the design lift coefficient where favorable pressure gradients exist on both surfaces. which is favorable gradient. • (4) Position of minimum (negative) pressure.5C). •( ) Extent of region of favorable pressure gradient over upper surface from ( coefficient. (for slower a/c.12C).

: Prandtl-Glauert factor. upper curve. but below the critical Mach no. : Mach number. ). for two dimensions incompressible flow. : Effective sweep back in degree. Chose a suitable airfoil. the curve slope 3. Where and ( ) for .3 Prepared by A. as follow:  Extract data from  Draw a tangent straight line to the curve starting from ( graph using a graphic software. ( roughness and ( ).: ( ) √( : Sweep back of quarter chord line. (√( ).: .--------------------------------- 3.1. Determine lift curve slope for unflapped wing: 1.01. lift curve for unflaped wing for sub-sonic aircraft at low Mach ( ) : Factor from sheet W01. Determine ( no.01. incompressible flow. : Taper ratio correction factor.  Take a straight portion of the lift curve. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . : Aspect ratio correction factor.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Three/Wing Layout Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Wing aerodynamic characteristics: 3. lower curve. := = = W01. : slope of lift curve of airfoil section in 2-D.01. see figure 10. Determine ( ) ). for example ( ). 12-24 Ch. at high Mach. ( 4. lift curve for unfflaped wing for sub-sonic aircraft at high Mach. but below the critical Mach no.10. at low Mach no. see figure (11). 2. use the origin data sheet or create a new is ). for standard ). incompressible flow. : slope of lift curve of airfoil section in 2-D.10. Determine slope of lift curve for wing section.A.01. which is ( ).

. . Find wing lift curve slope.A.--------------------------------- Example. √ ( ) √ 13-24 Ch. : June's edge velocity factor For straight tapered wing.Then: ⁄ From sheet ( ) ( ) ⁄ . For subsonic high Mach no.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Three/Wing Layout Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . . For straight.3 Prepared by A. ( ) The value from this method is not far away from the previous value. ( ) For the previous example. Sol. A straight rectangular wing. From sheet Since ( ). Lift curve slope can be evaluated also as flow: : Correction factor for wing taper . ( ). rectangular wing ( ) and ( ).

Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 .A.--------------------------------- 14-24 Ch.3 Prepared by A.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Three/Wing Layout Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

A. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 .3 Prepared by A.--------------------------------- 15-24 Ch.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Three/Wing Layout Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

is not available and should be evaluated during design stage. From previous example. So for standard roughness. From origin ( data is available. .11. is drawn from point (d) parallel to the first line as in figure 14. and assume that ̅ v. ⁄ and standard Mean chord.3 Prepared by A. Calculate maximum wing lift curve ( ) variation due to surface roughness and Reynolds number ( ) influence. For preliminary design stage there are many simple ways to draw such curve.A. ii. Zero lift angle. with ) at ( ) as shown in figure 13. The distance is ( ). The following procedure can be used. the actual maximum lift coefficient is ( ) and 16-24 Ch. This lift curve is evaluated by aerodynamic wing testing in a wind tunnel. as 3-D object. . ). peak point ( on origin lift curve. Takeoff velocity is assumed by comparison with other a/c in service ⁄ ). Measure the distance between ( A ) and (A′ ). Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . How to draw wing lift cure: Usually wing section lift curve is available from airfoil data sheets. Choose a standard surface roughness and Reynolds number at takeoff ( ). while lift cure for a wing.--------------------------------- 3. . the following For standard roughness iii. Draw a straight line. Draw the relationship between ( ) and ( ).UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Three/Wing Layout Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. . i. the following data is available: i. Takeoff stage: 1. For smooth roughness there are three points while for standard roughness there is one point at ( iv. ( For ) . ⁄ At takeoff speed where: Air viscosity. ( ). For smooth roughness – ) sheet. Air density.it does not change with aspect ratio or taper ratio. along line ). So the second line ⁄ . Extend this line until it intersects line ( iii. . from point ( ) at ( slope ( ). the relation is assumed linear. . 2. Then : ). ( ii. ̅ take off speed.

⁄ . [ ( )] : extended wing cord. Copy the curved portion from the origin curve.1. Δ 3.3 Prepared by A. : lift coefficient increment based on extended wing chord C′ and standard aspect ratio (6). ⁄ From figure (11d) with ( ) Δ ( ) .--------------------------------- vi. there is a ). to find Lift coefficient increment: ( ) Δ ( ) ( ) : A parameter which is a function of aspect ratio. From figure (11c) with . : Correction factor depends on ( ). At each angle of a take ( certain value for ( ). : Standard aspect ratio which is (6). where ( . And the total Lift coefficient is then: Δ Example: A rectangular wing has a split flap. 17-24 Ch. . Lift coefficient increment due to T. ( From figure (11a) with ) ( ) . ).12. flaps: 3.13. The parameters ( . & ) are laid down (chosen) by the designer in comparison with comparator a/c that is similar and is in service. Determine lift coefficient increment due to split flap (or plain flap) The following formula can be used.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Three/Wing Layout Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. : Correction factor depends on ( ⁄ ). : Wing aspect ratio. : Flap span. ⁄ and C . see figure (15). : lift coefficient of the actual wing where flaps are at neutral position.12.2.A.E. on the new curve. From point ( ) with slope ( intersects line ( ) at ( the right a distance ( vii. ) draw a straight line till it ). ⁄̅ . Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . : flap deflection angle in degree. 3. find the increment in the lift coefficient. For full span single slotted flap the following formula is used. Then from point ( ) a long line ( ) move to ) to point ) to the peak of the new curve. : Flap mean chord. ⁄̅ From figure (11b) with . ( ) : A parameter which is a function of ( : Correction factor depends on ( ⁄ ̅ ). Determine lift coefficient increment due to single slotted flap.

3 Prepared by A.A.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Three/Wing Layout Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 .--------------------------------- 18-24 Ch.

( ⁄ ) ( and ) ( ⁄ ) ( ⁄ From the lower sets of curves. For obtaining the lift coefficient increment due to a double slotted flap.01. The data is applicable to slotted or split auxiliary flap with the deflection of the main not less than ( ). 19-24 Ch. : lift coefficient lift coefficient increment due to full span double slotted flap. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 .A.01.01. the optimum ( of sheet (F 01. mean wing chord. ⁄ From sheet (F01. .3. : lift coefficient increment due to full span double flap with the wing at the chosen incidence. : lift coefficient increment due to full span main flap with ( aspect ratio ( ).--------------------------------- Example: Find lift coefficient increment due to a fixed hinge full span single slotted flap having the following data: mean flap chord. see data sheet (F 01. ( ) : lift coefficient of the actual wing at the chosen incidence with main flap and auxiliary at neutral position. we have: .UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Three/Wing Layout Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Sol.08). upper curves of figure (12) at ⁄ And ⁄ From lower curves of sheet (F01. : lift coefficient increment due to full span auxiliary flap based on extended wing chord and standard aspect ratio (6).01. is (0. we get: ( ⁄ ) ) For the same wing and flap arrangement .98). flap angle.01.08). ⁄ . based on wing chord and aspect ratio of the wing.3 Prepared by A.13. Determine lift coefficient increment due to double slotted flap. Usually one is main flap and the other is auxiliary.08) at ( ⁄ ) ⁄ ⁄ and ( ( ) ( ⁄ ) . ⁄ and the wing with the flap in the neutral position has a lift coefficient. contributions of the main flap and the auxiliary flap are estimated separately. .08) for obtaining the lift coefficient increment due to the main flap and the curves of data sheet (F 01.01. from the upper set of curves ) ) ( ⁄ ) ( ) 3.08). This data does not apply to flaps having in themselves a fixed slot or some similar arrangement. ( ) ( ⁄ ⁄ ( ⁄ ) ) that could be obtained.09) for obtaining the contribution of the auxiliary flap. using the dotted curves in the upper set of curves of data sheet (F 01. then: ⁄ ⁄ . based on extended wing chord and ). ̅ .

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. Structural wing span . but not for wing mounted engine: [ √ ] ( ⁄ ) ⁄ .UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Three/Wing Layout Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. It can be seen from this equation that the wing structure weight decreases with increasing wing loading ( ⁄ ). The weight given by this equation includes the weight of high lift devices and ailerons. fairing etc. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 .e. maximum takeoff weight. . It is valid for the case of wing mounted retractable U.A. Reference span ⁄ ( ).  Reduce ( ) for four wing mounted engines. relatively small wing area for given all up weight 22-24 Ch. non-tapered skins.C. Wing weight Some of the non-optimum weight penalties in wing arise from joints.C. . Factor for proportionality. is not wing mounted. ).C. and this is the reason why all transport aircraft has been designed with large wing loading.3 Prepared by A.  If spoilers and speed brakes are used. Maximum thickness of root chord.14. attachment. . Gross weight. . U. The following simplified expression can be used for general a/c with AL-alloy cantilever wings. i.  Reduce ( ) if U. . added (  Reduce ( ) for two wing mounted engines. for transporter: .--------------------------------- 3.

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Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 .A.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Three/Wing Layout Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.3 Prepared by A.--------------------------------- 24-24 Ch.

bitching. The v. For the v.A. to balance the moments producing by wing in steady level flight. to ensure stable equilibrium. A stabilator is variable-incidence (adjustable) tail plane which has the advantages that at high-subsonic speeds adjustment of the tail plane is more effective than trimming by means of the elevator . tail. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . The major difference between a wing and a tail is that. b) Stability function. tail incidence is usually adjustable through a range of about up and down. As the wing pitching moment varies under different flight conditions. The exact area of the tail surfaces is actually not very critical in the early stages of the design process.1.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Four: Tail Layout Design --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4. An aft h. Tail (Empennage) Layout Design 4.2. for example. nose down. 4. and has the additional advantage that it improves both maneuverability and control in out-of-trim conditions. so after disturbance the equilibrium must be restored with an adequate damping. c) Control function. and control. yawing. recovery from spin…etc. while the wing is designed to produce a substantial amount of lift to carry the aircraft. Tail surface functions are: a) Trim function. 1-11 Ch. Introduction Tails are little wings. tail of a multi-engine aircraft must be capable of providing a sufficient trim force in the event of an engine failure. vertical tail provides trim moment to equilibrate moment created due engine failure for multi-engine aircraft. trim primarily refers to the balancing of the moment created by the wing. For the h.4 Prepared by A. a tail is designed to provide moments for trim. the h. tail (stabilizer) typically has a negative Incidence angle of about to balance the wing pitching moment. tail. the generation of a trim force is normally not required because the aircraft is usually symmetric about x-z plane. d) Other functions. The tail geometries are revised during later analytical and windtunnel studies. The tail must be sized to provide adequate control power at all critical conditions for maneuvering the aircraft at stages of nose up.which may cause shock waves. stability.

The choice of the type of aerodynamic balance.as a fraction of the tail plane area . This may be achieved by using a certain degree of dihedral. 2-11 Ch. and more data will generally be required than are available to the preliminary design engineer. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . The danger of tail plane stall and elevator lock-over grows greater with increasing elevator chord and deflection. The design of the tail plane is always an iterative process. etc.A.3. In the case of high-speed aircraft the tail plane angle of sweep. whether the stabilizer will be fixed or adjustable.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Four: Tail Layout Design --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. The position of the tail plane relative to the propeller slipstream or jet efflux may f) make it desirable to shift it slightly in an upward direction. . b) Taper ratio. but for manual control systems the stick forces will increase.g. b) Power assisted controls. direct mechanical transmission. Tail plane shape and configuration: 4. locations. Tail plane taper has a slightly favorable influence on the aerodynamic characteristics. the basic requirements are that the airfoil section should have a high and a large range of usable angles of attack. Elevator area and deflection. in these systems the control surfaces are moved by electrical. It is usual to make an initial choice of certain shape parameters such as aspect ratio and thickness ratio.4. The stick forces increase with size. d) Airfoil shape.promotes good controllability at forward e. by means of pneumatic or hydraulic ram which exerts the multiple of the force applied by the pilot (boost ratio). a) Aspect ratio. 4. a large elevator area . in combination with its thickness ratio. .4 Prepared by A. Tail parameters.4. Later may previous assumptions regarding the tail plane shape or even the wing location will have to be revised. e) Dihedral. . c) Power operated controls. c) Sweep angle. Similar arguments apply to the maximum elevator deflection. Type of surface controlling system: a) Manual.1. and the type of control system is much more difficult. hydraulic or pneumatic means without direct physical effort by the pilot. This factor is of direct influence because of its effect on the lift-curve slope. . ⁄ ) is chosen so that at the design diving Mach number strong shocks are not jet formed. EAS and load factor.

and the type of control system. The initial estimation of tail area is made using the "tail volume coefficient" method. For a high-speed aircraft. the tail effectiveness is proportional to the tail area times the tail moment arm. thickness ratio ( ⁄ ). there is no reason for vertical-tail sweep beyond about deg other than aesthetics.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Four: Tail Layout Design --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Horizontal tail ( ) values are in the range of ( to ). Thus. Horizontal tail Leading-edge sweep is usually set to about more than the wing sweep. or variable-incidence stabilizers can be used to reduce the control forces to zero.4 Prepared by A. The surface areas required for all types of tails are directly proportional to the aircraft's wing area. ) are typical for tail surfaces. especially to avoid aft-engine/pylon wake effects. vertical-tail sweep is higher than the wing to insure that the tail's Critical Mach Number is higher than the wing one. For a low speed aircraft.2. etc. Typical aspect ratios are about ( ). Tail layout design. and also provides the tail with a higher Critical Mach Number than the wing. so the tail areas cannot be selected until the initial estimate of aircraft takeoff gross weight has been made. Horizontal tails on transport aircraft are usually power-operated. An anti-balance tab is recommended in order to obtain acceptable control forces and control force stability. balance tabs. T-Tails are sometimes higher ( Taper ratios of about ( ). horn balance. This product has units of volume. which avoids loss of elevator effectiveness due to shock formation. Trim tabs. The force due to tail lift is proportional to the tail area. which is more difficult and more data acquiring. For low speed aircraft.4. taper ratio ( )…etc.A. 3-11 Ch. which leads to the "tail volume coefficient" method for initial estimation of tail size. Vertical tail sweep varies between about . A controllable tail plane is sometimes used on small aircraft and frequently on gliders. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . in comparison with comparator a/c  The decision whether the horizontal tail will be fixed or adjustable.  The first stage is the initial choice of a certain shape parameters such as aspect ratio ( ). This tends to make the tail stall after the wing. 4. the horizontal tail sweep is frequently set to provide a straight hinge line for the elevator.

one should consider horizontal “tail plane volume” instead of “tail area” and so tail distance is evaluated.6. the following requirements are necessary: 1. In table (1) a variety of horizontal tail volumes for many airplanes in service.4 Prepared by A. which is a way of reducing hinge moments by construction geometry i. In the above formula. Horizontal tail plane: Horizontal tail plane volume is defined as: ̅ ̅ : Horizontal tail plane area. 4. ( VH ) is assumed and since (  H ) is known from layout. When designing tail plane. After these decisions have been taken about the previous assumptions. 4.e. The vertical plane must not stall as a result of an oscillation after deflection of the rudder or sudden engine failure. In addition to the geometric data.A.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Four: Tail Layout Design -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The next stage is to choice the type of aerodynamic balance. vice versa. Multi-engines a/c must remain controllable to ensure steady flight if an engine failed.  Large center of gravity movement needs large tail plane.  Bigger tail volume gives greater airplane stability. tail plane is more complicated than that of the horizontal tail plane. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . the tail plane shape or even the wing location will have to be revised.  Transport a/c needs large tail plane and seat arrangement.c. 2.5. to horizontal tail a.g. Horizontal tail usually uses symmetrical airfoils. : Wing area. : Distance from aircraft c. tail volume is related to wing area and to the SMC which has great importance on the airplane longitudinal stability and control. ̅ : Standard mean chord. then ( S H ) is evaluated and as aspect ratio is assumed then all other dimensions are computed. (to reduce force exerted by the pilot for light or old a/c). 4-11 Ch. Vertical tail plane: The design of vertical.

g. The a/c must possess good directional and lateral static stability. which makes it more efficient and hence allows reducing its size. Vertical tail plane volume is defined as: ̅ : Vertical tail plane area. Tail surface configuration: a) Group A: single fin with horizontal tail (or stabilizer) mounted either on the fuselage or on the fin structure. cross wind up to ( 4.  The " A( " is also widely used.c. 5. i. It is simple and stiff.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Four: Tail Layout Design --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. ( ̅ ) is assumed. Vertical tail always uses symmetrical airfoils. recovery from spin must be possible and rudder must be effective even art large angle of attack.  The (T –tail) lifts the horizontal tail clear of the wing wake and prop wash. Here vertical tail is related to wing span which has a great significance on directional stability and control. Convention tail. which reduces fatigue for both the structure and the pilot. the ( – ) allows a smaller vertical tail. It should be possible to land transport a/c in ⁄ ).A. : Wing span.4 Prepared by A. 4. In small a/c.7.  This also reduces buffet on the horizontal tail. ii. : Distance from aircraft c. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . see table (2).  Due to end-plate effect. 5-11 Ch. ) is inherently heavier than a conventional tail because the vertical tail must be strengthened to support the horizontal tail. by comparison with similar airplanes that in service. to V.  The ( ) allows the use of engines mounted in pods on the aft fuselage. tail a.

The cruciform tail. a compromise between the conventional and T–tail arrangements. The " " is used primarily to position the vertical tails in undisturbed air during high angle-of-attack conditions.c. or to position the rudders in the prop wash on a multiengine aircraft to enhance engine-out control. c) Group C: ( ) (or butterfly) tail which is adopted for sailplanes and sometimes on powered a/c to keep the tail surfaces clear of jet efflux. the horizontal and vertical tail forces are the result of horizontal and vertical projections of the force exerted upon the" V" surfaces. lifts the horizontal tail to avoid proximity to a jet exhaust (as on the B-IB).4 Prepared by A. The modern fighters always use such configuration. for single large fin.  Fewer tendencies toward rudder lock. In " ". It is also a good choice when a twin tail booms are used. or to expose the lower part of the rudder to undisturbed air during high angle-of-attack conditions and spins. (as on the T46). These goals can be accomplished with a T-tail. It has the following advantage: Less drag interference. 6-11 Ch.  Fewer surfaces to manufacture. but the cruciform tail will impose less of a weight penalty. And it has the following disadvantage:  More complicate operating system. b) Group B: twin fins is used to minimize rolling moment due to large distance from fin a. The ( ) is heavier than the conventional tail.  Possible of interaction of elevator and rudder action. but its endplate effect allows a smaller horizontal tail.  High location of surfaces which reduce possibilities of tail buffeting due to wakes. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 . to a/c longitudinal axis.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Four: Tail Layout Design --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------iii.A.

4 Prepared by A. and thus carries little of the aircraft's weight.g. In the control-canard.) need twin fins. Accurate weight prediction is difficult due to the wide variety of tail plane configurations adopted and the limited knowledge of strength stiffness and other conditions that controls the design. Torenbeek method: ..g. e) Tailless configuration: It offers the lowest weight and drag of any tail configuration. Mig-29. but as its c. 7-11 Ch. the maneuvering loads are most important and the specific tail weight is affected by the load factor as follow: [ ] . which increase tail ⁄ a) For relatively low speed. The canard normally operates at nearly zero angle of attack. a far from aircraft c. computerized flight control system that changes the angle of the canard in response to gusts. which generate upward lift. etc. if it can be made to work. for example some highly maneuverable aircrafts ( group weight. the wing of a tailless aircraft must be reflexed or twisted to provide natural stability. the wing carries most of the lift.8. For a stable aircraft. and the canard is used primarily for control. This is accomplished by a Sophisticated. Tail group weight: This weight is a small part of a/c weight which is a bout . ( ) light a/c.  The lifting-canard.A. so it has an effect on the position of the a/c c. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 .g. 4.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Four: Tail Layout Design --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------d) Canard tail (forward tail): There are actually two distinct classes of canard:  The control-canard.. . This reduces the efficiency of the wing.

For variable incidence stabilizers. : half chord swept back angle for horizontal and vertical tail plane. For fuselage mounted stabilizers. [ { [ { }] √ }] √ : Design dive (maximum) speed in ( ⁄ ) which is expressed in terms of ( ). For fixed stabilizers.4 Prepared by A. : fin height. : Height of horizontal tail plane above fin root.A. . [ ] for fin mounted stabilizers. (movable tail).Tabl UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Four: Tail Layout Design --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------⁄ b) For transport category a/c and executive jets. design . figure 4. . : Correction factors. 8-11 Ch. see figure (4). Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 .6. (convention type). .

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A.UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Four: Tail Layout Design --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10-11 Ch. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 .4 Prepared by A.

UOT Mechanical Department / Aeronautical Branch Aircraft Design Chapter Four: Tail Layout Design --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11-11 Ch.4 Prepared by A.A. Al-Hussaini 2014/2015 .