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THE DRIVERS AND INHIBITORS OF ORGANISATIONAL TRUST WITH

DATA FROM NIGERIA OIL AND GAS

ADENIKE OMOTAYO-JOHNSON

To the
Lancashire Business School
University of central Lancashire

Supervisory Team:
Prof. Yahaya Yusuf
Dr Claire Worthinghon

AUGUST 2016

Declaration

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Abstract
In the 1970s and 1980s ‘pipeline’ was used to show the stream of crude materials from
production methods to the end user,however, in 1990s ‘supply chain' took over the pipelines.
The supply chain includes the transfer of goods and services from production to end users.
The aims of supply chains are to improve customer service and build competitive advantage.
The achievement of an organisation, therefore,relies on how its supply chain contends with its
rivals. Contemporary research conducted has drawn a statistical correlation between
company’s financial success, the complexity and sophistication of their supply chains. Thus,
the supply chain is a substantial system in organisations, and it is likely to influence supply
chain performance and organisation financial performance. Currently, organisations attempt
to improve their supply chain to improve business results, but there is a lack of trust and
confidence about how to improve it and where to direct their supply chain investments to
achieve improvement.
This research attempts to examine the impact of trust in the supply chains of Nigerian Oil and
Gas by investigating the drivers and inhibitors of trust so as to increase and improve
performance. Zucker (1986) posited that trust consists of three different forms;
organisational, process, and personal trust. This research has shown that trust is a
multidimensional concept based on the working definition of Zucker’s formulation and
further expanded in this research. Numerous publications on diverse types of business
organisations and other value-adding partnerships consider trust as a mainstay for successful
operations in an increasingly global competitive environment. Some authors go further to
contend that in the economy; trust is nowadays more important than natural resources and
that trust is the precondition for existence and successful control of organisations.
This research employs quantitative method research design and use a quantitative technique
(i.e. questionnaire) in data collection so as to investigate the drivers and inhibitors of
organisational trust in the “Nigerian Oil and Gas” supply chain and the effect of trust on
supply chain performance and organisational performance. Similarly, the data were analysed
descriptively and inferentially using correlation and regression analysis for normality and
reliability were carried out prior to analysis. The result showed that the responses were
normally distributed and a reliability of 0.904 was recorded which shows high reliability
among the constructs of the questionnaire. Moreover, the result revealed that trust enabler
factors bring about the increase in supply chain performance and organisation performance.
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Also, of the trust variables that correlated with organisational performance, commitment
integrity, competence, benevolence, the level of risk, information sharing, honesty
documented to have significant positive correlations with the variables of organisational
performance. Similarly, regression analysis revealed that lengths of relationship with major
supplier account for 29.4 percent of changes in organisational performance and also lengths
of relationship with major supplier explain 43.8 percent variation in supply chains
performance. The evidence provided by this study with respect to the influence of trust on
performance have broadened the importance of trust in the supply chain relationship in order
to improve each of the supply chain performance and organisation performance. The findings
of this study were supported by the factual data provided by each organisation in this study.
Also, the findings of this research agree with literature in regard to the importance of quality
supply chain relationship to improve supply chain performance.

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1....................................................................................................1
1.1 Introduction........................................................................................1
1.2 Background of the Study....................................................................2
1.3 Research Aim......................................................................................6
1.4 Research Objectives...........................................................................6
1.5 Research Questions............................................................................6
1.6 Research Methodology.......................................................................6
1.7. Limitations of the Research...............................................................7
1.8 Thesis Structure.................................................................................7
1.9 Summary............................................................................................8
CHAPTER 2..................................................................................................9
Supply Chain Relationship, Organisational Trust and its Effect on
Organisational Performance........................................................................9
2.1 Introduction........................................................................................9
2.2 Supply chain.......................................................................................9
2.2.1 Supply chain concept...................................................................9
2.3 Supply Chain Management...............................................................22
2.3.1 Definition of supply chain management.....................................25
2.3.2 Supply Chain Management Practises..........................................26
2.3.3 Challenges of Supply Chain Management..................................27
2.4 Supply Chain Development..............................................................28
2.5 Relationship in Supply Chains Management.....................................32
2.6 Supply Chain Parties.........................................................................34
2.6.1 Relationships between Supply Chain Parties..............................34
2.7: Oil and Gas Industry........................................................................35
2.7.1: Oil and Gas Industry Supply Chain............................................37
2.8: Oil and Gas Industry Shareholders..................................................45
2.9 Competitive Advantage of the Firm..................................................46
2.10 Concept of Trust.............................................................................49
2.10.1 Definition of Trust.....................................................................49
2.10.3 Enablers/Trust driver’s/Trust attributes within Organisational
boundaries...........................................................................................58
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2.11 Evolution/Development of Trust.....................................................64
2.11.1 Classifications of Trust in Interpersonal Relationships..............64
2.11.2 Trustworthiness Attributes and Related Trust Dimensions........65
2.11.3 Stages of Trust Development....................................................66
2.12 Trust Relationships and Vulnerability to Risk..................................69
2.13 Beliefs of Economic Value of Trust..................................................71
2.14 Trust and Culture............................................................................72
2.14.1 Culture Differences between Countries....................................73
2.14.2 National Culture and Strategic Formulation..............................74
2.14.3 Organisation Culture.................................................................75
2.15 Nigeria’s Logistics and Supply Chain Review/Research..................81
2.16 Summary........................................................................................84
CHAPTER 3................................................................................................85
Supply Chain Performance and Organisation Performance.......................85
3.1 Introduction......................................................................................85
3.2 Supply Chain and Organisation Performance...................................85
3.2.1 Supply Chain Performance.........................................................85
3.2.2 Organisation Performance..........................................................90
3.3 Performance Measures.....................................................................91
3.3.1 Definition of Performance Measures...........................................91
3.3.2 Supply Chain Performance Measures.........................................92
3.3.3 Organisation Performance Measures..........................................96
3.4 Summary........................................................................................107
CHAPTER 4..............................................................................................108
Research Methodology............................................................................108
4.1 Introduction....................................................................................108
4.2 Ontology (Theoretical Perspective)................................................109
4.2.1 Realism (Objectivism)...............................................................109
4.2.2 Subjectivism (Constructionism/Interpretivism).........................110
4.3 Epistemology (Philosophy).............................................................111
4.3.1 Positivism.................................................................................112
4.4 Epistemological Perspectives in Social Sciences............................113
4.5 Research Designs/Approach...........................................................116
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4.5.1 Qualitative Research Methods..................................................117
4.5.2 Quantitative Research Methods................................................120
4.5.3 Distinction between Qualitative and Quantitative Research
Methods.............................................................................................121
4.5.4 Similarities between Qualitative and Quantitative Research....123
4.5.5 Limitations of Qualitative and Quantitative Research..............124
4.5.6 Mixed Methods Research (MMR)...............................................125
4.6 Triangulation...................................................................................127
4.7 The Methodology Adopted in this Research...................................128
4.7.1 Philosophical Position of this Research.....................................128
4.7.2 Survey Method.........................................................................130
4.7.3 Sampling Frame........................................................................130
4.7.4 Survey by Questionnaire..........................................................131
4.8 Conceptual Model of Trust in Supply Chain Relationship with Links to
Performances........................................................................................138
4.8.1 Development of the Conceptual Model....................................138
4.8.2 Justification of the Proposed Conceptual Model........................143
4.9 Summary........................................................................................144
CHAPTER 5..............................................................................................145
Survey by Questionnaire.........................................................................145
5.1 Introduction....................................................................................145
5.2 Questionnaire Design.....................................................................146
5.2.1 Questionnaire Administration and Response Rates..................147
5.3 Statistical Results...........................................................................149
5.3.1 Assessing Normality.................................................................149
5.3.2 Nonresponse Bias Analysis.......................................................153
5.3.3 Reliability and Validity Analysis................................................155
5.3.4 Descriptive Statistics of Respondent Organisations.................160
5.4 Demographic Characteristics of Respondents................................165
5.4.1 Designation..............................................................................167
5.4.2 Year of Establishment of Company...........................................167
5.4.3 Number of Employees in Organisation.....................................168
5.4.4 Forms of Classification of Companies.......................................168
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5.4.5 Size of Company by Annual Turnover.......................................168
5.4.6 Principal Business Sectors........................................................168
5.5 Inferential Statistics........................................................................169
5.5.1 Research Questions..................................................................169
5.5.2 Notion of Organisational Trust within the Oil and Gas Supply
Chain.................................................................................................170
5.5.3 Enablers or Drivers of Trust within and across Organisational
Boundaries.........................................................................................174
5.5.4: Inhibitors (risk) of Trust in Supply Chain Partnerships.............180
5.5.5 Types of Trust, Partnerships and Organisations Vis-a-vis their
Relationships.....................................................................................182
5.16 Examination of Trust and Organisational Fit and How to
Operationalize Trust across Supply Chains...........................................184
5.5.7 Type of Trust and its Impact on Supply Chain Performance and
Organisation Performance.................................................................188
5.5.8 Regression of Research Constructs...........................................191
5.6 Summary........................................................................................195
CHAPTER 6..............................................................................................197
Conclusion...............................................................................................197
6.1 Introduction....................................................................................197
6.2 An Overview of the Research.........................................................197
6.3 Conclusions....................................................................................202
6.3.1 Research Question one: What are the notions of organisational
trust within the oil and gas supply chain settings?............................202
6.3.2 What are the enablers of trust within and across organisational
boundaries?.......................................................................................203
6.3.3 What are the inhibitors (risk) of trust in supply chain
partnerships?.....................................................................................203
6.3.4 What are the types of trust, partnerships and organisations vis-àvis their relationships?.......................................................................204
6.3.5 How to operationalize trust across supply chains?...................205
6.3.6 What the type of trust has the most prominent impact on supply
chain performance and organisation performance?..........................205
6.4 Contributions of the Research........................................................206
6.4.1 Theoretical Contributions.........................................................206
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6.4.2 Practical Contributions..............................................................208
6.5 Limitations of the Current Research...............................................209
6.6 Suggestions Further Research........................................................211
References...............................................................................................213

Acknowledgement

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List of Abbreviations
BP

British Petroleum

ETO

Engineer-To-Order

ICT

Information and Communication Technology

JIT

Just in time

LNG

Liquefied natural gas

LPG

Liquefied Petroleum Gas

NGO

Non-Governmental Organisation

NIE

New Institutional Economics

NNPC

Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation

OKP

One-Of-A-Kind Production

PDSA

Plan-Do-Study-Action

SAB

South African Breweries

SABIC

Saudi Basic Industrial Company

SCM

Supply chain management

SPC

Statistical process control

SPSS

Statistical Program for Social Science

TCE

Transaction Cost Economics

TQM

Total Quality Management

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Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 Introduction

Supply chain concept was inspired from different directions which include quality revolution
(Dale et al. 1994), integrated logistics and management of materials (Carter and Price 1993),
a rising awareness in manufacturing markets and networks (Ford 1990, Jarillo 1993).
Consequently, researchers are overwhelmed with an overabundance of terminology with
include demand pipelines and supply chain (Farmer and Van Amstel 1991), ‘value streams’
(Womack and Jones 1994), and many others like supply chain and supply chain management.
Furthermore, the origins of supply chain management (SCM) are blurred, but its growth
appears to start by means of physical distribution and transport (Croom et al. 2000), based on
the Industrial Dynamics theory. SCM was found to have pre-existed in the total cost approach
to distribution and logistics (Heckert and Miner 1940; Lewis 1956). The two methods show
that concentrating on a single component in the chain cannot guarantee the success of the
whole system (Croom et al. 2000). Supply chain management was first introduced in the
early 1980s (Oliver and Webber 1992) and has afterwards gained great attention (La Londe
1998). Systematically, a typical supply chain is simply a flow of materials, information and
services that link with the characteristics of supply as seen in fig 1.1.

Fig.1.1: Typical Supply Chain
Source: La Londe, 1998
The term supply chain administration has been utilised to portray coordination’s exercises
furthermore the flow of material and data inside an organisation or remotely between
organisations (Christopher 1992; Cooper et al. 1997b, and Fisher 1997). Specialists utilised it
to assign key, between hierarchical matters (Cox 1997, Harland et al. 1999), to talk about
another authoritative shape to mix (Thorelli 1986, Hakansson and Snehota 1995), to
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characterize the relationship an organisation has with its providers (e.g. Assistant 1991, Hines
1994, Narus and Anderson 1995), and to address the supply and buy (e.g. Morgan and
Monczka 1996; Farmer 1997).
The success or failure of a product is not enough quality, advertising campaigns or a large
manufacturing support with an efficient plant. The key is to have coverage at all points of
sale, which the product efficiently reaches the consumer. “Sending the product with time,
quality, quantity and cost is the result of the joint effort of a series of processes, different
companies and actors involved. The high levels of competition in international markets have
led companies to conclude that in order to survive and succeed in more aggressive
environments, it is no longer enough to improve their operations or integrate their internal
functions, but it is necessary to go beyond The boundaries of the company and initiate
relationships of exchange of information, materials and resources with suppliers and
customers in a much more integrated way, using innovative approaches that benefit all actors
in the supply chain.
The term "Supply Chain" also came into the public domain when Keith Oliver, a consultant at
Booz Allen Hamilton, used it in an interview for the Financial Times in 1982. He took Time
to consolidate and stay in the business lexicon, but in the mid-1990s began to appear a large
number of publications on the subject and became a regular term in the names of the posts of
some officials.
The importance and importance of Supply Chains in today's business environment has
become fundamental, to the extent that competition in the modern world is no longer between
products but Supply Chain versus Supply Chain. It has been proven that companies that excel
in sales are those that have bet on improving its supply chain. Because of its great importance
for companies in Nigeria and the world, the present work will address the most relevant
issues related to this topic.
According to the PILOT, Practical Handbook of Logistics Supply Chain Management is the
planning, organization and control of the activities of the supply chain. These activities
involve the management of monetary flows, products or information services, throughout the
supply chain, in order to maximize the value of the product / service delivered to the final
consumer while reducing costs of the organization. A Supply Chain is a network of facilities
and means of distribution whose function is the procurement of materials, transformation of
said materials into intermediate products and finished products and distribution of these
finished products to consumers. David Blanchard defines the supply chain as: The sequence
of events that cover the entire life cycle of a product or service from the time it is conceived
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until it is consumed. The "Supply Chain" is not limited to manufacturing companies, but has
been expanded to include both "tangible products" and "intangible services" that reach the
consumer, which in turn require inputs of products and services. It is literally a chain of links
(processes and actors) that seek to satisfy the needs of the client. Each link "produces" a part
of the final product, called transporting, producing, storing, shipping, buying, etc. The links
also add "costs" to the chain. If a link fails, the entire chain fails. The client will not be able to
identify which of the links he failed. Therefore, if an actor failed to meet some specific
requirement of its client, the entire chain will fail. Eventually companies will be able to find
another chain that provides you with that product. However, in this case everyone will lose.
Other authors define it as: Integration under a formal commitment of two or more "links" in
the set of processes between the initial supplies of raw material to the final disposal by the
consumer. The supply chain encompasses the business processes, people, organization,
technology and physical infrastructure that enables the transformation of raw materials into
intermediate and finished products and services that are offered and distributed to the
consumer to meet their demand.”
Supply chain management is a significant aspect to become competitive (Yeung, 2008) and
trust has been identified for long-term partnerships (Cannon, Donéy, Mullen, and Petersen,
2010). The study of trust can be traced back to sociology and economics and has advanced in
the relationship between organisations from many perspectives. Both sociology and
economics, however, have some common benefits that influence the study of supply chain
management. Nevertheless, they both view the issue from different viewpoints. Economics
assumes opportunistic behaviour as the norm, and on the other hand, sociology is concerned
with the emergence of trust relationships (institutional and personal). Some scholars using a
sociology viewpoint have recommended that many macro-level structures, including
networks and governance, improve performance trust organisations. Trust involves at least
two parties: the trustor and the trustee (Lane and Bachmann, 1998; Nooteboom, 2002;
Zucker, 1986). However, trust is said to be “the extent to which one believes that others will
not act to exploit one’s vulnerabilities” (Morrow, Hansen & Pearson, 2004) and that both
agents are at the same time trustor and trustee.
Moreover, various researchers have looked at trust in numerous ways, and given various
aspects of trust. However, trust varied between person or individual, place or event and even
between organisation (Gulati, 1995), individuals and organisations (Zaheer et al., 1998),
process, characteristics and institutions (Zucker, 1986), organisation (Giddens, 1990),
accounting (Anderson and Narus, 1990), economics (Larson, 1992), intentional relations
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(Nooteboom et al., 1997) IT system (Lippert, 2001), technology (Jones et al., 2000), or
financial services (Wang, 2008). SCM is very dynamic nature that there is no all-inclusive
definition and depth of trust in supply chain management.
1.2 Background

Globalisation has increased over the last two decades and threats associated withit have
become increasingly influential on business performance. Consequently, efforts to withstand
business threats through strengthening business relationships have received considerable
attention. However, research on the relational exchange has focused primarily on the longterm relational exchange. The interest in this matter initially concentrated on establishing
long-term relations through the recognition that it is possible to boost business performance
through the exchange. The interest in a long-term relationship then broadened to focus on the
short-term rational exchange (close, collaborative, fast-developing, and short-lived) This
indicates that the interest in strengthening business relationships involves a search for a
dominant factor in the relationship that leads to strong business relationships.
Another area that leads to business prosperity and has become considerably important and
gained considerable attention for business success and survival is supply chain management.
Supply chain costs look set to rise for the first time in nearly 20 years (Arminas, 2004).
However, before the 1990s the significance of supply chain management was still not
professed as a factor that may give edge to an organization over others.
The early 1990s focus was on the supply chain performance. During the mid-1990s, quests
for business prosperity through a focus on supply chain management based on the recognition
of the possible significant role that supply chain management can contribute to business
achievements started to appear. This acknowledgment depended on the thought that store
network associations that construct ability in sourcing and provider administration are
probably going to be fruitful (Sheridan, 1997). Recent research conducted by a team of
Accenture, INSEAD, and Stanford University researchers drew a correlation between
companies' financial success and their supply chains (D'Avanzo et al., 2003). In other words,
the supply chain is a significant system of current organisations, and it is likely to influence
organisation financial performance. However, so far, efforts to build core competence in
supply chain management have basically concerned the physical elements of the chain.
Nowadays, organisations attempt to improve their supply chain to maximise business results
but lack confidence about how to improve it and where to direct their supply chain
investments to achieve improvement (D'Avanzo et al., 2003).

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Some writers on supply chain management have asserted the need to address both physical
and human elements of the organisation rather than considering the physical elements as the
only ones responsible for supply chain performance (Drejere et al., 1998 cited by Voss et al.,
2002). Supply chain management and processes involve interactions between parties in the
form of organisations and individuals. The missing ingredient in contemporary thinking about
supply chain strategy is the understanding of human behaviour and its implications for supply
chain design and management (Gattorna, 1998). According to Boughton et al. (2001),
whenever interactions between organisations or individuals occur, then there are bound to be
some relationship patterns.
The kind of relationship between buying and supplying organisations became a focus of
research during near past (Macpherson, 2001). This tendency of interest in supply chain
relationships was identified in supply chain relationship patterns and a primary focus on the
effect of relationships on performance of supply chain (Handifiled, 2002). The intensity of
competition in the current market situation drives organisations towards collaboration
through building tight relations (Wilder et al., 2001). Based on the recognition of the
importance of supply chain relationships in facing fierce market competition, a great deal of
emphasis is placed by the procurement profession on the development and management of
supply chain relationships with the supply base (Proud, 1997).
Developing stronger relationships with suppliers and customers are believed to result in better
supply chain performance (Wong, 1999). Supply chain performance improvement and the
study of relationships between suppliers and customers have therefore been the subject of
many articles over the past several years (Ellram, 1991; Webster, 1992; Heide and John,
1992; Cannon and Perreault, 1999; Rinehart et al., 2004). The main work of these articles is
concentrated on developing closer relationships between suppliers and customers. Ellram
(1991) and Webster (1992) both are introduced basic frameworks ranging from transactions
and vertical integration. Heide and John (1992) distinguished between transactional and
relational relationships.
During the early 1990s, researchers advocated a need for empirical research to emphasis on
trust in supply chain relationships since personal trust has been recognised as an essential
factor in these relations (Heide and Miner, 1992; Sako, 1992; Ganesan, 1994; Handy, 1995).
This suggestion resulted in growing interest in building trust between organisations.
Nevertheless, organisations hesitate to take up this interest due to unexplored ambiguity in
regard to its consequences for supply chain performance. Sako (1992) asserts that the reason

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behind growing interest in building trust between organisations rests on the belief that trust
enhances business performance.
To this context, Handifiled (2002) argues that relationships can take different forms and the
type of relationship has an impact on supply chain performance. As mentioned before, trust
has been acknowledged as the important factor in deciding the nature of relationship.
However, this belief in the influence of trust in supply chain relations on supply chain
performance and organisation performance requires empirical research to assess its validity.
Therefore, investigating the extent of the truth of this belief could be an important focus of
research aimed at encouraging development in organisation performance.
The literature shows that the impact of trust on supply chain performance rose initially in
developed countries where organisations are continuously conducting research and rapidly
developing. In these countries, trust is increasingly being viewed as a precondition for
superior performance and competitive success in the new business environment (Lane, 1998).
However, the validity of this view still demands an investigation. The view of trust as a
prerequisite for higher performance involves an enthusiastic hope about the part of trust in the
business relations.
Moreover, the expected contribution of trust to the business success as argued by Lane (1998)
depends on a view of trust as a dominator hit the business relationship that can be used to
face threats and realise business survival. From this point of view Zaccone (2004) argues that
the continuous growth in business competition imposes the need for real trust and deeper,
more effective collaboration supply chain relationships, and points to the importance of trust
in supply chain relationships to reduce the result of the emergent business competition.
However, the effect of trust in relationships between supply chain parties has rarely been and
inadequately planned. Experimental investigation is required to test the outcome of trust in
supply chain relations (Tomkins, 2001). In this context, Fynas et al. (2005) indicate that in the
area of supply chain relationships, the previous empirical researchers have primarily sought
to explain the nature of relationship processes rather than their effect on business
performance. Sako (1998), in the context of automotive organisations, investigated the effect
of trust between suppliers on reducing transaction costs and investment, and thereby
increasing future returns and facilitating continuous improvement and learning. She found
positive relationships between trust and the other variables studied. Since her study was only
concerned with suppliers in the automotive industry, she recommended that similar studies be
conducted on different business industries to investigate whether or not her findings were
applicable for other business contexts.
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Later on, Dyaer and Chu (2003) studied the effect of trust between suppliers on reducing
transaction cost in automotive organisations in the United States, Japan and Korea and found
that trustworthiness lowers transaction costs in exchange relationships. Similarly, Sako
recommendation, Dyaer and Chu (2003) recommended research to investigate whether the
same is true in other industry settings. Since these two types of research were conducted in
the same industry setting and investigated a similar phenomenon, which is the effect of trust
between suppliers on reducing transaction cost. The results of Dyaer and Chuvalidates the
findings of Sako.
Previous work done whereon the effect of trust in relationships in specific areas mostly in a
specific industry setting. As a contribution in this area, this research will look at how parties
in supply chain business relationships view the importance of trust to their business
relationships. It aims to provide knowledge about the economic benefits of trust between
organisations in supply chains through empirical study as well as contribute to the distinctly
academic literature. It also studies whether or not organisations might need to consider their
vulnerability to risk.
1.3 Aims
Vesset (2003) posited that competitiveness is increasingly in organisations of all size, major
concern in the study of supply chain relationships are on “Small-to-Medium Sized
Organisations” (SMO) because of the growing number of new small size organisation.
However, the literature identified that “Medium Organisations” (MO) and “Large Sized
Organisations” (LO) are likely to be faced with risk occurrence, bullwhip effect occurrence
and cost in the supply chain than “Small Organisations” (SO). The size of operations of these
organisations are small and less complex compared to other organisations. The key objective
of this research, therefore, is to gain an understanding of trust in supply chain relationships
and impact on organisation performance and supply chain performance within MO and LO.
1.4 Objectives
The main objectives are as follows:
i.

explore the notion of organisational trust within the oil and gas supply chain settings

ii.

investigate the enablers of trust within and across organisational boundaries

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iii.

investigate inhibitors (risk) of trust in supply chain partnerships

iv.

investigate types of trust, partnerships and organisations vis-à-vis their relationships

v.

examine trust and organisational fit and how to operationalize trust across supply
chains

vi.

identifying the type of trust that has the most prominent impact on supply chain
performance and organisation performance

1.5 Research Questions
The research questions are as follows:
i.

What are the notions of organisational trust within the oil and gas supply chain
settings?

ii.

What are the enablers of trust within and across organisational boundaries?

iii.

What are the inhibitors (risk) of trust in supply chain partnerships?

iv.

What are the types of trust, partnerships and organisations vis-à-vis their
relationships?

v.
vi.

How to operationalize trust across supply chains?
What are the type of trust that has the most prominent impact on supply chain
performance and organisation performance?

1.6 Methodology of the Research
The chapter 4 of this research is the research methodology, and it outlines a description and
examination of research measures that explored organisational trust. The five main stages of
this research are a literature review, data collection, analysis, recommendation and
conclusion.
The literature review will be collected through primary literature sources such as conference
proceedings, journals and thesis; secondary literature source will be through textbooks and

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reference guides such as a dictionary. The aim is to provide finding on the effect of trust on
supply chain performance and organisational performance.
The quantitative method takes the form of a questionnaire to investigate the views of people
within the organisation of study in Nigeria. The questionnaire contained both quantitative and
qualitative questions and was carried out with the aimed of gathering information to fit the
aim and objectives of this study. Pilot testing was carried out on the questionnaire, and the
results were utilised to restructure the questionnaire. The updated questionnaire was used to
conduct a survey within the supply chain organisations of “Nigeria oil and gas”. The
questionnaire administration was done by postage and mailed directly to the selected
organisations. This study utilized collection of information through mail questionnaire
because such questionnaire are easy to manage. It can reach up to more number of people in
quick time. The target respondent of the research was top management of oil and gas
companies in Nigeria who have broadest knowledge and experience to answer all aspects of
the survey. Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) responded to the questionnaires and quantitative
statistics was used to analyse the data. Cronbach's alpha reflected the internal consistency of
the data. Finally, recommendations were suggested ways of improving trust among supply
chains partnerships.
1.7. Limitations of the Research
The limitations are:
1. The research is mainly concerned with medium and large size organisations; small
business organisations were not considered in this study.
2. Each core organisation and its supply chain parties selected for study were located in
the same country, the study of organisations and their supply chain relationship across
different countries would require time and budget beyond the scope of this study.
3. The research is concerned with investigating the impact of trust organisations and
how this can boost supply chain performance. Cultural difference and how it affects
trust-building process (Heffernan, 2004) was not covered, because it has been
investigated by researchers like Dyaer and Chu (2003) and Sako (1998).

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The next section will consider the structure of the thesis after having identified the research
background, aims and objectives and the research limitations,
1.8 Structure of Thesis
This thesis comprises of six chapters. Each of the chapters contains sections and subsections
related to the topic of interest of the chapter.
Chapter 1: This chapter is the introduction to the research, its background, research aims and
objectives, research questions, brief research methodology and finally provides the research
limitations and structure of the thesis.
Chapter 2: This chapter is reviewed relevant literature to the thesis aims and objectives. It
provides a review of previous studies on supply chain concept and management, highlights
supply chain development, identifies and classifies supply relationships, clarifies trust in
supply chain relationships. Moreover, it identifies beliefs of economic values of trust and
reflects on the relationship between trust and culture.
Chapter 3: This chapter represents the second part of the literature review, and it provides a
literature review on organisation performance, supply chain performance and identifies their
measures. It identifies performance measures selected for indicating each performance and
demonstrates models developed to view trust in supply chain relationships.
Chapter 4: This chapter defines the research approaches and methodologies and indicates the
used data collection methods and presents the analysis methods used for analysing the
research data. Above all, it provides justification for the chosen method.
Chapter 5: This chapter is the analysis chapter, it analysed data collected using questionnaire
survey and was analysed with the help of SPSS. “Descriptive” and “inferential statistics” i.e.
“correlation and regression analysis” was done. It was aimed to show the relationship
between research variables.
Chapter 6: This chapter aims to discuss the research findings in connection with the research
propositions. Moreover, it provides conclusion drawn based on the research findings and
through the research findings it proceeds to provide theoretical contributions to the field of
supply chain and operations management knowledge. Additionally, it highlights managerial
implication on the basis of research findings.
10

1.9 Summary
This chapter presents an overview of the research subject. It describes the research problem
and provides background and outline to the study of trust in organisational performances. It
describes a gap in knowledge and explains the need for this research as well as contributions
made to fill the defined gap to improve supply chain knowledge. Then it proceeds to set out
the research aims and objectives, research questions, brief research methodology and finally
identifies the research limitations as well as structure of the thesis.

11

CHAPTER 2
Supply Chain Relationship, Organisational Trust and its Effect on Organisational
Performance.
2.1 Introduction

This chapter explores the findings of the literature review on trust between supply chain
parties. The review will commence with the meaning and definition of the concept of supply
chain and then examines the types supply chain relationships as well as cope with
organisational trust which is characterised by uncertainty and product complexity.
Furthermore, it defines supply chain relationships, types of relationships between them and
how it improves organisational performance.
The review will proceed with a discussion of the theoretical background of trust in
organisations and relationships. It will explore the various definitions of trust and also the
types. Attributes of trust and confidence are defined, and major trust functions are identified.
On the one hand, the chapters will consider literature on principles and economic values of
trust, and on the other, it will examine organisational culture and demonstrate the relationship
between trust in supply chain relationship and culture as well as the drivers and inhibitors of
organisational trust. The review then proceeds to provide literature on “Nigeria Oil and Gas”
and its supply chain. Finally, the chapter end with a summary of the reviewed literature.
2.2 Supply chain

This part of the review will emphasis on supply chain literature. It will define supply chain
concepts and demonstrates its importance by exploring supply chain development. It
examines the different supply chain parties as well as their role in the supply chain
organisational trust and how it ultimately affects supply chain performance.
2.2.1 Concept of Supply chain
This section of the review looks at various concepts that make up the supply chain. It is
necessary to explain these concepts before delving proper into supply chain management.
2.2.1.1 Brief of supply chain
In order to fully understand supply chain, it is important first to understand supply chain
concept. This section will discuss the supply chain concept, the origins of the supply chain as
well as its activities and its importance to the organisation business. Andersen Consulting has
proposed a list of 7 principles for supply chain management, based on the experience of
supply chain improvement initiatives in more than 100 industrial, distributor and retail
companies. The implementation of these principles allows balancing the needs of an excellent
12

service to customers with the requirements of profitability and growth. By determining what
customers demand and how they coordinate efforts across the supply chain to meet these
faster, cheaper and better demands.
Measurement systems in supply chains do more than monitor internal functions,
measurements must be taken that apply to each of the links in the chain. Most importantly,
these measures not only contain financial metrics, but also help us measure service levels,
such as the profitability of each customer, each type of operation, business unit, and
ultimately, each order. These principles are not easy to implement, and require certain skills
that in some cases are not naturally found in logistics professionals. It requires a group effort,
multifunctional skills, as well as quality facilitators that integrate the divergent needs of
manufacturing and sales, quality and price, cost and service, and qualitative and financial
measurements.
Supply chains have long been in being around (Kotzab et al, 2011). Supply chains first
showed up in logistics literature in 1982 as a stock administration process (Hines, 2006).
Logistics is a capacity of the supply chain (Stadler, 2008).In the 1970s and 1980s, ‘pipeline’
was utilised to depict the stream of crude materials from production to the end user (Hunter et
al., 1993). In 1990s ‘supply networks' replaced the pipelines (Christopher, 1996).
The history of processing in supply is classified into two points of view. Firstly, a
manufacturing viewpoint began from the 1800s to date incorporating: create a generation,
extensive manufacturers, lean preparation, just-in-time (JIT) creation, tiered creation,
scattered generation and construct-to-request generation. Also, a manufacturing viewpoints
incorporating: intra-group creation, intercompany processing and supply chain production
(Zacharia, 2001a) supply chain includes the movement of goods and services from maker to
end users (Mentzer, 2001) The aims of supply chains are to upturn consumer service and
shape competitive edge for the network ( Cooper Lambert and Pagh, 1997). The success of
firms depends on how their supply chain competes with networks of competitors(Attaran and
Attaran, 2009).
2.2.1.2 Definition of Supply Chain
There are numerous definitions of the supply chain. However, most definitions have
something in common (Mentzer etal., 2001a). The different definitions propose that supply
chain was approached at distinctive bearings to be utilised for diverse purposes.
The supply chain is simply the combination of individual firms involved in upstream and
downstream operations that ensure the flows of products/services, finance and information
13

from the supplier to the end user. Different definitions in the written works from different
authors are as follow:
There is a vast amount of literature covering in depth the technical and economic aspects of
the downstream oil. Although an integral perspective of the supply chain in this industry or
research activity is rare, even more limited to a global approach, in recent years a more
exhaustive body of knowledge of the supply chain of the stage of refining. The supply chain
is a situation of three or more associations joined by one or a greater amount of the upstream
and downstream streams of products, services, finances as well as information from
manufacture to final user (Mentzer etal., 2001a). Supply chain is usually a series of
companies, including suppliers, customers and logistics providers that work together to
provide a benefit bundle of goods and services to the end customer (Sochi-Levi et al. 2002)
Supply chain can be defined as the coordination of operations across the entire supply process
(Schary and Skjott-Larsen, 2001) through upstream and downstream value chain (Dobler and
Burt, 1996). The upstream consists of firms that supply raw materials, component parts,
information, finances and the manufacturers. The downstream consists of wholesalers,
retailers, agents, dealers and customers (Biniazi et al., 2011). Upstream is also known as
exploration and production (E & P), this sector includes the tasks of searching for potential
deposits of crude oil and natural gas, both underground and submarine, drilling exploratory
wells, and subsequently drilling and exploration of the wells that carry the Crude oil or
natural gas to the surface. Downstream commonly refers to the refining of crude oil and to
the processing and purification of natural gas, as well as the commercialization and
distribution of products derived from crude oil and natural gas. A member of one firm
upstream or downstream can also be part of another firm’s supply chain (Kotler and
Armstrong, 2008). Supply chains link a number of independent organisations that exchange
materials, information and financial flows (Stadtler, 2008).
Based on the concept of the supply chain as defined in this section, a typical supply chain
starts with a customer placing an order and ends with the consumer when the order gets to the
customer and in good time too. Supply chain is a sequence of processes and flows that take
place within and between different stages and are combined to satisfy a customer's need for a
product. View of push / pull. The processes divide into two categories depending on whether
they are executed in response to a customer's order or in anticipation of it. Push processes are
carried out in advance of customer demand. At the moment of execution of a push process the
demand is not known and must be predicted. Push processes can be called speculative
14

processes because they respond to speculated or predicted demand rather than actual demand.
The pull processes are carried out when the actual customer demand is visible. Tug processes
can be called reactive processes because they respond to speculated or predicted demand
rather than actual demand. A typical supply chain is very complex, and it comprises of the
supplier, manufacturers and customer (Kuei et al., 2001). As shown in Fig 2.3, the product
supply chain (manufacturing industry) is significantly longer than the supply process in
service supply chain. A typical supply chain as shown in the figures will normally move from
supplier/raw material to the final customer, and it is a process that involves a good amount of
time. Typical supply service chain is illustrated below

Information as a

Experience

Raw material

Know how (intuitive and
codification)

Final customer

Fig.2.1: A typical service Supply Chain
Source: Cox et al., 2001

2.2.1.3 Supply Networks
All associations take an interest in a production network, from the crude supplies to the last
shopper (Lambert and Cooper, 2000). Moreover, once in a while do firms take an interest in
standout production network; as firms have a place with multiple chains? Accordingly, a
supply system is the condition in which an association participates in multiple supply chains.
Subsequently, supply systems are the sets of supply chains unfurling the movement of
products and administrations from unique wellsprings of raw materials or administration
creation to the last consumer (Lamming et al., 2000). Supply chains show direct stream or
design, whereas the supply systems are viewed as an intricate connection with different firms
and associations. Despite the apparent contrasts between supply chains and supply systems,
supply systems have frequently been assigned as an expansion of supply chains (Harland,
1996; Lamming et al., 2000). There is the need to saddle the separate qualities and abilities of
15

system accomplices in order to accomplish more prominent responsiveness to market needs
to succeed in the unsettled worldwide markets (Christopher 2000). Along these lines, supply
system is a type of relationship including (and reaching out past the conventional) inventory
network individuals
Porter (1990) brought up the advantages of close provincial systems, including enhanced
advancement and new item improvement. Also, Bal et al. (1999) keenly observed that the
significance of systems in amplifying the advantage of close local contacts and solid bonds
between assets. The advantages of territorial systems are gotten from the accompanying three
key components: firstly, arrange associations co-situated in one area have the potential for
enhanced individual communication, along these lines prompting expanded joint effort
through data trade among individuals. Furthermore, the interpersonal cooperation changes
after some time to incite trust between system individuals; this is so since trust is critical to
enhancing time and quality execution (Flynn et al., 1990). At long last, arranges give an
information base to profit different associations. The push of the contention here is that
systems achieve interpersonal association. Moreover, the exceptional interpersonal
connection could prompt enhanced advancement.
It is undeniable that the logistics has been gaining increasing importance in a world that is
becoming globalized. Large corporations that are specializing their production plants at the
global level, locating and relocating their facilities in those markets that offer the most
attractive terms; decreasing rates of gain due to fierce competition with products practically
undifferentiated, and a constant concern for cost reduction, have placed as one of the
favourite subjects in the magazines of business management. But the logistics is a discipline
well known. The supply of raw materials, packaging, packaging, marking and labelling of
packages, the transport, the control of production, optimization in the inventory management,
the management of warehouses, the shipping process, etc., are only some of the
responsibilities of a manager of this area and are activities that companies make from a long
time ago. There is currently a varied arsenal of statistical tools and mathematics to assist all
those who work on logistical matters. These in themselves and separately, can hardly explain
many of the abnormalities that are present in the daily work: shipments that remain in
customs, growing inventories or missing inventory, large quantities of products that become
obsolete, parts of high value and low rotation that are "sit" in various stores, systems of
Material Requirements Planning (MRP) that seem to act against the cost control of the
16

company instead of in their favour, etc. The topics developed in the present work we will
know which is the way to manage a logistics area based on new management tools as well as
the supply chain.
During recent years there is not only a remarkable "debate" on the importance of Logistics
within the companies, but also a series of strategic and operational measures aimed at
improving the management of the flow of materials and information in the provisioning
process, manufacturing and distribution logistics. It notes at the same time a considerable
optimization of the management of the information that derives from it, since the flows of
materials and information should not always be states and certain aspects of logistics
processes can be virtual. This is for two reasons: on the one hand, rediscovering the potential
of logistics as a generator of clear competitive advantages, increasingly oriented to marketing
and less to the engineering and, on the other hand, has developed a series of management
models that facilitate the implementation of action programs that go beyond improving the
efficiency of the organizations (to improve service and cost in the Classic product lines) and
that, in many cases, to redefine or redesign business models (bringing innovation and rapid
response to the new product lines), as we see in the segmentation.
Almost all companies coexist in a competitive environment very conditioned by the
phenomenon, all lights unstoppable, globalization, the integration and centralization of the
logistics. The ease of access to new markets requires to redesign the distribution networks
and, with increasing frequency, to locate the productive capacities and to define a global
model of management of purchases. In parallel to this fact, and very probably as a result,
increases the competitive pressure and customers are increasingly demanding with regard to
the value proposition offered by the company. There is also match in assert that this trend
does not seem to have time and brake that the transformation of the chains push or pull. The
market data are becoming increasingly essential to direct and integrate supply chains. Thus,
one cannot speak of logistics without having a clear orientation toward the customer. In spite
of this, the organized forms of companies do not always respond adequately in its orientation
(often the logistics is too focused on issues of a technological nature and little to marketing).
It should be noted that this document is not intended to give a personal answer to the needs of
the individual and sartorial undertakings but to serve as a tool for reflection and become a
guide to define and focus the conceptual framework, as well as to point the main lines of
action in new trends.
17

Spekman et al. (1998) recognise three progressive levels of coordinated effort: connections,
unions and also organises. A relationship is the establishment of the organisation together
development, while a system is more than common relationship or even a collision. Sensibly,
systems are shaped from designs of collisions and connections that extend from
organisationsto straightforward exchanges like purchasing and offering on an aggressive
premise or trade of data or perspectives. Moreover, supplementing the infrastructural setup of
the inventory network system is the hierarchical perspective. Thus and in evaluating the
authoritative advancement as far as rebuilding embraced as a consequence of changes in the
focused field, Miles and Snow (1992) contended that associations, in the 80s, moved far from
the progressive midway planned structure towards adaptable structures that intently look like
systems. These systems are for the most part get-togethers of firms or master units facilitated
by business sector instruments. Furthermore, Networks comprise of three essential variables:
Actors, Activities and Resources (Harland, 1996; Pihkala et al., 1999). Performing artists are
characterised as people, gatherings of people or firms. Then again, practically on-screen
characters control exercises, assets or both. Exercises happen when on-screen characters
consolidate, trade, create, or make assets by utilising different assets (Pihkala et al., 1999).
Essentially, on-screen characters, assets and exercises identify with various fields of
operation in different courses, thus bringing the vitality of the business systems (Pihkala et
al., 1999). By the by, not at all like the groups where contention and rivalry is one of its
trademark (Porter, 1998a), in a vibrant system, every association show its own particular
recognising capability (Miles and Snow, 1987), supplementing instead of restricting with
others in the system.
2.2.1.4 Types of supply chain
Mentzer et al., (2001b) categorised supply chains into three types consisting essential supply
chain, extended supply chain, ultimate supply chain and partnership. An essential supply
chain comprises of a producer, a basic supplier and an instant client. A developed production
network consolidates suppliers of the fundamental supplier and customers of the moment
customer. An extreme supply chains all associations in upstream and downstream
developments of items, administrations, reserves and useful information.
In the technical vision of some specialists in logistics we will find experts in competitive
strategy, which pointed to a few lines of action in this field in full accordance with the
external view of market that defend the experts in logistics, i.e. improvement of the
18

competitive variables of innovation, flexibility, quality, service and cost. But above all, this
level of matching is produced by the enormous capacity of interaction that has the logistics
function with the main functional areas of the company: marketing and finance. Association
is a formal coordination between associations for the sole reason for enhancing consumer
loyalty. In inventory network administration, the organisation is an overwhelming idea went
for picking up advantages and imparting results to the exchanging accomplices (Spekman et
al., 1998). As per (Bowersox and Closs, 1996; Chan et al., 2003) the accentuation on the
adequacy of Supply Chain completely has evacuated the limits of the single firms and has
advanced them for anoint effort between inventory network accomplices, prompting the
arrangement of solid associations with each other. Therefore, Myhr and Spekman (2005) have
depicted it as basic connecting pins, as more noteworthy specialisation gets a greater amount
of combination in the general store network. Besides, Bahinipati et al., (2009) has
characterised it as a business assertion between two or more organisations at the same level in
the Supply chain or system in order to permit more noteworthy simplicity of work and
collaboration towards accomplishing a typical goal. So also, in the expressions of Whipple et
al., (2002) it implies accomplices cooperating, in a trustful, steadfast and shared environment
went for diminishing expenses and enhancing execution. In this manner, it is seen as a
capable instrument in accomplishing powerful and effective production network
administration (Fu and Piplani, 2004; Mentzer et al., 2000). Organisationin-store network has
been guessed in different routes by specialists, as it can go from exceptionally shallow valuebased cantered to exceedingly coordinated close relations (Goffin et al., 2006); from
collective correspondence to supplier improvement (Oh and Rhee, 2008) or from internal
confronting to outward confronting (Frohlich and Westbrook, 2001).
Structural decisions are those relating to the construction of the structural means to design the
logistics system. In this way, the companies are exploring the dimension and the location of
the physical distribution network in taking into account both the factories and the approach as
the distribution centres and transit platforms (warehouse of connection with virtually no
stocks which serve to make the capillary distribution) as well as the features, the dimension
and the distances of the markets that you want to serve. It also defines the types of
distribution centres and are designed their layouts; to determine the policies and the most
suitable means of transport, but above all major decisions are made related to the level of
integration and the growth models, i.e. the degree of outsourcing of the logistics functions.

19

Finally, and this is probably the most difficult, must be selected and in many cases to bet on
the main information system that will lead the logistics system.
Inferential decisions: the company considers infrastructural those levels of skills necessary to
the system created to operate effectively: how to define a policy of inventories and their
location in the supply chain, when and how will circulate this inventory, how will you handle
the order cycle (push or pull), how to define and manage the service policy, what will be the
planning systems and more adequate control. This series of decisions determine the level of
knowledge and managerial practices that the organization requires, the way to organize and to
measure its effectiveness. Logically, the set of decisions and actions are intimately related.
For example, with a good level of demand planning we can decrease inventories and optimize
the capabilities of production and storage. A few meanings of organisation in inventory
network are displayed in the Table2.1
Table 2.1: Definitions of Partnerships
Authors
Bowersox

Definition
et “Emerges when two or more firms voluntarily agree to integrate human,

al., (2003)

financial, and/or technical resources in an effort to create a new, more efficient,

Crum

effective or relevant business model.”
and “Characterised as cooperative behaviour or joint decision making between

Palmatier
(2004)
Finley

companies, and represents a willingness, versus a requirement, to engage in
inter-organisationalefforts.”
and “Diverse entities working together, sharing processes, technologies, and data to

Srikanth

maximise value for the whole group and the customers they serve.”

(2005)
Kahn et al., “A process based on trust, mutual respect, information sharing, joint ownership
(2006)
Min et

of decisions, and collective responsibility for outcomes.”
al., “Two or more companies sharing the responsibility of exchanging common

(2005)
Sanders

planning, management, execution, and performance measurement information.”
and “An effective, mutually shared process where two or more firms work together,

Premus (2005) have mutual understanding, have a common vision, share resources, and
adapted from achieve collective goals”.
(Schrage,
1990)
Simatupang

“Two or more companies working together to create a competitive advantage

and Sridharan and higher profits than can be achieved by acting alone.”
(2002),

and
20

Whipple

and

Russell (2007)
Simatupang

“The close cooperation among autonomous business partners or units engaging

and Sridharan in joint efforts to meet end customer effectively needs with lower costs.”
(2005)
Skjoett-Larsen

“Two or more parties in the supply chain jointly planning a number of

et al., (2003)

promotional activities and working out synchronised forecasts, on the basis of

Stank

et

which the production and replenishment processes are determined.”
al. “A process of decision making among interdependent parties, involving the

(2003)
joint ownership of decisions and collective responsibility for outcomes.”
Source: Fugate et al., 2009
Matopoulos et al., (2007) proposed reasonable system for inventory network association and
hadviewed that it is about associations and endeavours cooperating and the connections can
be deliberated as past typical business connections. Additionally, in the expressions of
Bowersox (1990); Mentzer et al., (2000); Muchstadt et al., (2001); it can be comprehended as
a perspective which infers that the chain individuals get included and cooperate distinctly to
coordinate exercises spreading over the limits of their associations for satisfying and fulfilling
needs of consumers. Matopoulos et al., (2007) further proposed a common exploration
structure for inventory network association. In his system, two columns were recognised and
recognised i.e. the one managing outline and overseeing of production network exercises and
the other managing the foundation and support of inventory network connections. Hence, it is
clarified as takes after: The process of integration of logistics and supply chain management
Martin Christopher synthesizes as follows the stages by which the logistics transits and
evolves within the organizations:
a) Stage 1: initial situation. In an embryonic stage or base of departure, considers that the
logistics function acts as a subsidiary activity of the major functional areas of the companies
(purchasing, production, distribution, etc.). Companies focus their efforts on achieving unit
costs of production low to facilitate a good outlet for the products on the market. Logistics
costs are almost never measurable nor, therefore, a priority for the companies. Nor is the
service, if not that the priority is in the tangible elements of the product.
(b) Phase 2: functional integration. The independence and the isolation of the different
business functions give way to a first integration process in which the total cost prevails over

21

the sum of unit costs. The synchronized logistics and management of material flows allow a
clear improvement in the efficiency of the Organization. On the other hand, companies
recognize the need to recoup their physical assets (facilities and equipment) and achievable
(inventories of raw materials, semi-finished products and finished products). The efficient
management of the binomial service-cost has even led some companies to convert in business
unit their departments of logistics.
c) Stage 3: internal integration. Is the integration of the different business processes in a
single process that revolves around the supply chain? The organization, fully integrated, is
directed by processes generated and commanded by multifunctional teams under the dictation
of the behaviour of the demand, which is constantly planning. This process of integration
improves the coordination function, integrates the physical flow of materials and information,
unifies responsibilities and improves the overall systems of management, which facilitates the
achievement of the overall objectives of the companies.
d) Stage 4: External integration. With this external vision, the company becomes part of a
string consisting of various entities of suppliers of materials, manufacturers, distributors and
end customers. For this string is competitive must intertwine the parties through an operating
process perfectly synchronized and through information systems that facilitate a high degree
of communication in real time. In other words, the advantages of these networks of firms in
relation to their competitors lie in its capacity to coordinate with agility and speed the
individual competence of each member and in the possibility of establishing strategies and
common goals between them.
The progress that has been made in the field of logistics and supply chain
management have been undoubtedly considerable. Surveys of different
sources indicate that the small and medium enterprise is found mainly
between the stages 2 and 3 described. Some of these companies,
sometimes due to a lack of knowledge and other times by a lack of
resources, but above all by the possibility of creating synergies between
them, enter into partnership processes. Consider, for example, the supply
of logistics services that incorporates the central purchasing of great
consumption to its partners. On the other hand, the large company is
found mainly in stage 4 and drives with force integration programs with
their suppliers and distributors, which causes a ripple effect. The
22

programs that we hear are nowadays in the logistics of entry, the VMI
(inventories led by suppliers), and in the outbound logistics, the CRP
(provisioning process continuous),it seems that the future processes will
be based on new programs of cooperation in the supply chain and, above
all, in jointly plan and optimize the transportation system between
different companies.
(a) Designing and governing of supply chain activities:
Although considerable progress has been made in developing a true culture of supply chain
management, much remains to be done. This industry cannot rely exclusively on technology
investments even if this is an indispensable condition of success. It is necessary to have a
more attractive paradigm that leads to more demand-driven operations to achieve significant
gains in profitability from improvements in the supply chain. The initial phase in this
contains taking the choice with respect to the choice of an accomplice. This is so since
organisations interface with a substantial number of suppliers and clients in this present
reality yet not every one of them can be included into associations, as it depends on the
assumed advantages and downsides, desires and the "Business Fit" of organisations.
Henceforth, the determination of exercises on which organisations would be set up establish
the second stride and the exercises are characterised as "Width" of a joint effort. Developing
this Sahay (2003) says that organisations ought to decide particular exercises on which
association can be executed as every one of the exercises don't require the same sort of
inclusion and cosy connections.
The third step is the choice with respect to the key, strategic and operating level, and it
establishes the "Profundity" of organisation (Fawcett and Magnan, 2002). The mix of above
three components said above contains the power of organisations. As expressed by
Matopoulus et al., (2007), more the profundity, the width (from straightforward inventory
network exercises to more mind boggling, for example, new item advancement) and the
quantity of elements, upstream/downstream) the more serious the organisation is. The last
stride includes the choice in regards to the determination of fitting strategy and innovation for
facilitating data sharing. This is considered as an exceptionally complex choice since every
one of the individuals will be unable to meet the prerequisites regarding innovation and
methods.

23

(b) Supply chain relationships: their establishment and maintenance
The

second

column

is

the

foundation

and

support

of

inventory

network

connection(Matopoulus et al., 2007). There is acommonality of advantages and sharing of
vulnerabilities and awards. The other distinguished components, in writing like trust, force,
and reliance likewise assume a powerful part in the organisation's choice to team up.
Therefore, to compress the above talk, it can be said that organisation in inventory network
implies distinctive organisations include themselves in the stream of items and data from the
crude materials to the conclusive buyer in order to satisfy the client needs. The territories in
which they go about as a group, as distinguished by Anderson and Lee (2001),
Ellaram(1995); Horvath(2001). These are store network outline (acquirement, transportation
and dispersion); fabricating (arranging, stock administration, item plan and advancement) and
for request satisfaction (counting request handling, deals, client administration and interest
administration). Different sorts of supply chains include:
2.2.1.4.1 Lean Supply
The ideas of dexterity are advances in administration considering (Naim and Barlow 2003)
not quite the same as the conventional large scale manufacturing viewpoint of practical
hierarchical structure. Incline generation is the pioneer to incline supply. In incline procedure,
the anxiety is on the proficiency of procedures, while spryness is gone for procedure
response. The incline idea started from incline generation that is one and the same with
“Toyota Production System” (TPS) (Womack et al., 1990). Incline generation the same with
the TPS is supported by the “Just-in-time” (JIT) business framework, which is receptive to
client necessities. JIT is a planning system that works in a circumstance where protracted
requirements for materials are known and brief time generation timetables are solidified (Doll
and Vonderembse, 1987). Thus, the path of the incline standard is the disposal of waste inside
systems by ideal usage of assets; as it were, proficiency of use of assets.
Nonetheless, then again, incline supply includes the acquiring capacity, material use and
change to give the merchandise or administration bundles equipped towards consumer
loyalty. In an association, that serves a fluctuated client base, a business required in various
divisions or a business sector with a worldwide base, incline supply will contain choices
identifying with the advancement of fitting hierarchical structure coordinated at obliging the
differences in operations to serve worldwide markets successfully. Basically, the incline
24

supply idea takes "an all-encompassing way to deal with overseeing operations inside
community oriented between association systems, permitting the plan and execution of sound
techniques for making, fortifying, catching and fulfilling end client request by means of
advancement of items, administrations, supply system structures and frameworks, in a
worldwide dynamic environment" (Harland et al., 1999; 663). Subsequently, it merits
highlighting that in incline supply, supply system and the foundation is of vital significance.
Also, joint effort – a deliberate participation between autonomous firms along a quality
included chain producing upper hand ranges from free organisation together to coordination.
Besides, incline supply framework gives a stream of products, administrations and innovation
from supplier to client, joined with fitting streams of data and interchanges (Lamming, 1996).
In incline supply, accentuation is on disposal of waste by a decrease in lead times and in
addition set-up times, and enhancing item quality to minimise crude material, work-inprocedure and completed merchandise stock. Therefore, the whole stream inside the worth
chain, from crude materials to purchase, is considered as an incorporated entirety. Also,
incline supply can be seen as the result of a working state of mind that recognises the expense
connected with any take-off from flawless execution of the errands important to give long
haul consumer loyalty, therefore accomplishing all out annihilation of those expenses. The
truth of business sector rivalry makes incline supply execution unavoidable, in spite of the
appearing troubles connected with its usage. It is appropriate to say that a key worldview of
vantage point and client prevalence that are major over production network administration are
not critical or in the amazing straightforwardly nullified by those of incline supply
(Lamming, 1996).
In addition, the idea of incline supply has driven firms to presume that they will all the more
promptly achieve long haul cost diminishment by shaping nearer working associations with
important traders (Harland et al., 1999). Additionally, there has been a developing pattern
towards avocation of the supplier base, from various fierce exchanging to single or double
sourcing exploited by the company (Harland et al., 1999). Supply methodology portrays the
incorporation of supply exercises inside the organisations in supplier/client connections,
chains of firms and in between hierarchical systems. The point of fact, aside from the nearer
collaboration and coordination of the client, suppliers are regularly taken a gander at as
accomplices, turning out to be all the more profoundly required in helpful critical thinking,
especially in new item improvement (Harland et al., 1999). Incline supply as a feature of
25

waste disposal expects to reconfigure the route obligation regarding esteem administration is
shared, in order to adventure capability wherever it exists in the production network and to
perceive the effects in one a player in the store network of choices made in another
(Lamming, 1996). Similarly, the authoritative part of the incline methodology as perceived by
Pihkala et al. (1999) does not permit "progression building" conduct. Or maybe, it favours
adaptable specialisation, which is tricky for the rise of systems administration. Adaptable
specialisation, in which different parts of the quality chain are executed by various
associations, is additionally a component of groups and modern areas; with the end goal that
it can be seen there are properties of incline supply and incline supply that is comparative.
2.2.1.4.2 Agile Supply Chain
It has been watched that inexorably upper hand is reliant on the joined capacities of the
coordinated system of associations (Christopher and Towill, 2001). This, however, stands out
from the conventional perspective of business being founded on a solitary firm. Besides,
showcases today are progressively shaky and in this manner less foreseen. Consequently, to
be focused and fruitful obliges associations to be lithe in their reaction to the market request.
Developing agile chains does not only depend on the exclusive processes of the operators, but
also on the stages that connect the customer, other companies and the market in general speed
of change in customer requirements, in the variation of technology, in the supply of
competitors and, therefore, in the speed of obsolescence of products, obliges producers to
adapt their processes in order to be able to respond To the variations of the demand, of the
market and of its clients, in the shortest time possible to be able to be competitive. Adapting
to this context implies flexibility and agility to respond, in real time, to the changing needs of
customers and markets. But the concept of flexibility goes beyond the company framework
and also covers its suppliers and its commercial channels, so it is necessary to achieve
cooperative schemes among all the actors in the supply chain, and to take advantage of
complementary competencies. Agile Supply Chain refers to the ability of companies to meet
the challenge of volatility with a high flexibility, which is achieved by organizing to be able
to respond in shorter terms and produce smaller lots competitively. That is to say, if our
production is organized in such a way that it does not require huge batches of production to
be efficient, it increases the flexibility and, therefore, the responsiveness to adapt to the
changes. Subsequently, the abilities of the entire store network ought to be utilised to
fulfilclient request. The confusion in business environment prompts the necessity for

26

dexterous supply chains. In addition, the system for contending on the premise of spryness is
a methodology for the administration of the entire inventory network (Power et al., 2001).
Producing and commercializing hydrocarbons in Nigeria, as in the world requires large
logistic deployments ranging from the exploration stage to the placement of products and
derivatives in the final consumer, but in the typology of each family of refining products and
treatments. Chemical physicists establish different supply chains and each one of them
acquires its characteristics of complexity and necessities of own availability and disposition.
That is why logistical issues in the hydrocarbons sector are increasingly complex in terms of
both formulations and processes, as linkages between the different links in addition to the
generation of large networks -require significant investments of capital, From the exploration
itself to the sale in the suppliers of fuels, lubricants and in general products to the final
consumer. In like manner, readiness in-store network requests top administration contribution
to rebuilding the inventory network and related administrations, for example, logistics, in
order to accomplish the level of responsiveness fancied in the production network. In lightfooted store network circumstances, adaptability and responsiveness seeing someone between
suppliers of items or administrations are imperative. Really, to be genuinely spry, supply
accomplices must have the capacity to move all the more rapidly notwithstanding utilising
existing gear and offices all the more skillfully, (Gunasekaran, 1999) yet essentially, dexterity
in the production network is relying upon the way of material and data stream. Van Hoek et
al., (2001) set up nimble production network system which they in this way used to review
lithe capacities in the store network. The after effects of the review demonstrate thathowever,
client affectability is a real worry in a questionable working environment, understanding the
coordinated demeanour will require further endeavours on authoritative capacities, for
example, system, and virtual procedure mix. The study attempted to incorporate the
nimbleness measurement into the production network by utilising understandings from the
current writing,
In addition, Christopher (2005) gives philosophies of rivalry among various supply chains by
expressing that "4Rs" aide the way of rivalry among supply chains. The “4Rs” are condensed
as “Responsiveness”, “Resilience”, “Reliability” and “Relationships”. Among the main traits
of responsiveness of an inventory network is the need a dexterous store network keeping in
mind the end goal to take care of the vibrant demand of client for unadjusted item or a maketo-request item. Also, responsiveness is firmly associated with the unwavering quality of the
27

supply chains regarding process capacity and skill. The accompanying outlines the
responsiveness and dependability in the 4Rs:
a.

Responsiveness: The present day business environment regularly requests items in an

in the nick of time (JIT) mode, with the end goal that the need to fulfil the client at the named
time is of basic significance. This requires the lead time for items to be abbreviated.
Additionally, the requirement for tweaked items prompts the call for adaptability of the store
network to give client driven items that have a great deal of assortment. Subsequently, the
figure driven nature of the conventional production network is inadequate to fulfil client
request viably. Subsequently, just a coordinated production network or spryness being inbuilt
in the inventory network is equipped for fulfilling the interest in circumstances of this nature.
In a way, the dexterous production network can be clarified from the "interest force and
innovation push" perspective of the interest fulfilment process. In such manner, the interest
force depends on the requirement for the item as orchestrated by the particular client need
and subsequently is subject to the client request being gotten, to begin with, which enacts the
procedure for making the item. Run of the mill associations that work on this sort of
procedure is Zara, Dell PCs and Seven Eleven of Japan. Then again, the innovation push kind
of inventory network is what is dependent on interest expectation to such an extent that a
regular item is made and sent to the business sector with the trust that the business sector will
acknowledge the item. For this situation nonetheless, no exertion is made inside the inventory
network for mass customisation of the item; truly, this sort of supply chains tries to decrease
irregularity in the interest by gauging and totalling the interest for the item in light of past
deals or the utilisation of creation sources of info. Surely, the fundamental characteristic of
the draw store network is that it is interest driven while the innovation push production
network is expectation driven.
b.

Reliability: as indicated by Christopher (2005), the second guide for rivalry is the

unwavering quality of the store network to fulfil the interest despite vagueness. The
wellspring of vulnerability could be as far as trust among supply chains accomplices, future
requests, and the supplier's capacity to meet conveyance guarantee or about the nature of
materials and segments
Duclos et al. (2003) contended that to be effective; firms must raise adaptability from an
operational level to a vital between hierarchical observation, along these lines achieving store
network wide adaptability; in this way joining offices inside an association and in addition
28

the outer accomplices, including suppliers, bearers, outsideorganisations and data frameworks
suppliers. It likewise incorporates the adaptability to capture market requests and trade data
between associations. They presume that adaptable supply chains will exceed their less lithe
rivals. As such, Duclos et al. (2003) connected adaptability as a pointer of how nimble an
association stands.
Besides, readiness is especially reliant on the working environment of the inventory network
which a specific organisation works. Thus, Fisher (1997) recognised two sorts of store
network in light of the working environment. A physically effective or responsive inventory
network is suitable for practical items with unsurprising interest, while creative items with
sporadic interest would best be served by a business sector responsive production network.
For utilitarian items, the conspicuousness of the inventory network is to minimise "physical"
expense, however, for imaginative items, the velocity of reaction and adaptability in fulfilling
client interest are vital. Fisher (1997) presented the coordinating of store network systems to
the right level of interest questions of the item and Lee (2002) extended Fisher's structure to
incorporate supply instabilities. Lee (2002) went ahead to induce four techniques for a store
network taking into account request and supply vulnerabilities. The production network
methodologies are Responsive store network, proficient supply chains, Risk-Hedging supply
chains and Agile inventory network. Thusly, a spry store network is an incorporated operation
including the whole scope of upstream and downstream exercises. It can be introduced to
exploit transient windows of chance in the business environment joined with engaging
representatives from all measurements (Adeleye, 2002). Bal et al. (1999) watch that a lightfooted supply chain is subject to rich connections (i.e. trust) among individuals from the
supply chains.
Also, a scope of possibility models in production network organising that will empower
smooth operation of a coordinated store network have been distinguished (Adeleye, 2002).
These are: incline supply chains, light-footed supply chains and restrictive unions. Incline
supply chains are prosecuted for outsourcing and dispersion to stay away from bending in the
calendar while coordinated supply chains give away to utilisingcentre abilities on a
worldwide scale to adventure change lastly contingent organisations together are utilised
particularly by multinationals to enter the new domain. The dexterous inventory network is
equipped for taking care of client demand successfully, for the most part for complex items
and in circumstances of business sector flimsiness.
29

Christopher (2000) kept up that the way to being a deft association is the nature of supplier
connections or organisations. Regularly it is the lead-time of inboundsellers that decide the
reaction of a maker to client necessities. Moreover, including the suppliers in the
advancement procedure will altogether diminish new item presentation time. Barlow (2000)
accounts that BP had 53% of its consumption the UK North Sea oil operation totalling $3
billion in 1993 went through with outsiders. It was distributed among 4200 contractual
workers and suppliers, 70% of which represented 0.5% of use and this is an appearance of an
incoherent supply. Systems like supplier base legitimization and nimble inventory network
could be valuable in bring into line the store network for better execution. Also, an
organisation with suppliers is critical to the advancement of more responsive supply chains.
All things considered, to accomplice effectively, there must be supplier support and trust.
Also, the work on deftness is, for the most part,centredon unmistakable high volume
generation producing, and there is an absence of work on coordinated supply chains in the
process business. Having defined and described supply chain using a typical supply chain
processes, explain partnerships in detail, the next section reviews the literature on supply
chain management.
2.3 Supply Chain Management

The chain of the hydrocarbon sector corresponds to the set of economic activities related to
the exploration, production, transport, refining or processing and commercialization of the
non-renewable natural resources known as hydrocarbons (organic material composed mainly
of hydrogen and carbon) is formed by the regulation and administration of these activities. A
review of supply chain literature reveals that supply chain management is increasingly
recognised as a critical component of a firm’s strategic plan. Oliver and Webber first used
supply chain management in 1982 (Giannakis and Croom, 2004) and (Hines, 2006) also used
it to describe the extent organisation in go in obtaining and maintaining supplies. The
petroleum industry and hydrocarbons in general are characterized by a high specialization in
equipment and materials, which implies technological innovation and development that will
permanently propitiate new projects. It is well known that in this field the national industry
lacks important advances and this forces to go to international suppliers, who are who supply
great amount of physical resources necessary for the operations. This reality demands that the
import logistics operative processes develop to optimal lead times - especially in the fields of
dry cargo flow - in order to be able to reach the oil fields in a timely manner, taking care of
cost efficiency and arriving in a timely manner with the machinery, spare parts, accessories
30

and equipment in general, required for the development of the activity of the hydrocarbons
sector.
In Nigeria, one of the most problematic factors that the Gas & Oil sector (as well as other
industries of the real economy) is facing is the delay in the country's infrastructure. It is not
necessary to repeat the causes and reasons for the limitations and backwardness reflected in
the country, but it is essential to mention that the lack of multimodal alternatives, the low
quantity and poor quality of the roads and their connectivity, and the lack of versatility of
Equipment entail the competitive detriment (in terms of costs and time) of the supply of the
products and materials that make up the flows of the sector. It first rose in an early practice
less than 30 years back, Supply chain administration has been developing in significance with
expanded worldwide reception (Mentzer et al, 2001). Supply chain management has steadily
increased since then.
The literature shows that the concept of supply chain management and the concept of
logistics management are overlapping and interrelated. Lamming (1996) argued that supply
chain management is a theory grounded in the field of logistics and the literature indicates
that transportation and procuring are conventional approaches to Supply Chain management
research and practice. In this context, Larson et al., (2007) maintained that the concept of
supply chain management reflects wide roles than are rooted in the concept of logistics. This
argument is supported through changing the of the name of the “Council of Supply Chain
Management Professionals” (CSCMP) from “Council of Logistics Management” (CLM) to
which cause into effect on 1st of January, 2005 (Larson et al., 2007). Consequently, supply
chain management is a broader term for logistics management and involves more
sophisticated and developed roles than logistics management. Put in another way; supply
chain management reflects the development of the logistics management concept and
upgraded roles practised and applied in the field of logistics.
Furthermore, supply chain management is developed to improve customer service, achieve a
balance between costs and services, and to give the competitive business advantage (Steven,
1990). Thus, the concept of supply chain management is directly related to managing the
supply chain processes. Monczka and Morgan (1997: 70) stated that "Integrated supply chain
management is about going from the external customer and then managing all the processes
that are needed to provide the customer -with value in a horizontal way." This concept was
established with business process reengineering (BPR), whose appealing benefits were the
31

improvement in response time to customers, lower operating cost, reduced inventory and
reduction in working capital flow (Moore, 1998).
Giannakis and Groom (2004) argued that organisations depend on upon the capabilities and
resources entrenched in their suppliers, customers and partners. Based on Ginnakis and
Groom's argument, supply chain management purposes to develop linkage between the
supply chain capabilities and resources to create value for organisations or partners in the
supply chain. In this context, the supply chain management aims to provide competitive
advantages to the companies through the improvement of the supply chain process and to
enhance the organisation's capabilities to satisfy customers with lower cost products and
services and faster order fulfilment.
Therefore, the term supply chain management has become a standard part of the business
wordlist (Harrison et al., 2003) and it refers to an integrated philosophy to manage the total
flow of materials from suppliers to ultimate customer (Folinas et al., 2004). It occupies an
important position in today's business functions. In any size of manufacturing organisation,
the fundamental value proposition of supply chain management is to improve corporate
profitability and return on capital (Cohen, 2004). In this background, an organisation that
wants to sell its products at a higher profit and a lower cost need to be equipped with efficient
supply chain practices (Anderson et al., 1999). As a result, for an organisation to improve
supply chain efficiency, appropriate supply chain practices need to be acknowledged.
The right supply chain practices have always been a topic that has generated great debate.
What significant function in the daily activates of supply chain management is to review
supply chain practices in agreement with the organisation's business goals (Sahay and
Mohan, 2003). Lately, Kees (2005) expressed that the correct methods of supply chain
administration are expanding association influence with its resource base, investigating
supply sources, coordinating providers, and clients' instalment terms, enhancing supply chain
forms and keeping up proficient and controlled procedures. The principle point of an audit of
supply chain hones with the business goals is to boost supply chain execution and to
accomplish supply chain advancement as an upper hand. Thusly, supply chain administration
in light of the literature synthesis in this area is for the most part about dealing with the
relationship between the supply chain accomplices in order to enhance supply chain
execution.

32

Today, supply chain management has developed into a ‘hot topic’, as it is rare to see journal
on production, customer satisfaction or transportation without seeing an article supply chain
management (Ross, 1988). Supply chain management actions incorporate: buying, physical
delivery management, logistics, material management and client management (Slack,
Chambers and Johnston, 2007). Basically, firms exclusively supervised their manufacturing
and dispersion methods (Hines, 2006). Environmental or ecological forces for example
expanded rivalry, expanded inhabitants present and globalisation compelled companies to
make supply chains systems (Vonderenbse et al., 2006).
2.3.1 Definition of supply chain management
Literature reveals that the concept of supply chain management and logistics management are
intertwined. Supply chain management is an essential theory of logistic support (Lamming,
1996). The concept of supply chain management reflects essential and more sophisticated
roles that are important and grounded in the logistics concept(Larson et al., 2007). This
reveals that logistics and purchasing are very important to supply chain management
research. While some see supply chain management as an operational involving flow of
material to product, others see it from a management viewpoint as a management process
(Mentzer et al., 2001). And some definitions are as follows:
Supply chain management (SCM) is the organisation and movement of material and items
between various organisations to convey merchandise and to end users (Sadler 2007).
According to Handifiled and Nichols 1999, Supply chain administration (SCM) is the
coordination of exercises by way of upgraded supply chain relationships, to attain a
sustainable competitive advantage, both in the upstream supplier system and its downstream
distribution channel. Slark et al.(2007) opined that SCM is the administration of the
interconnection of organisations that identifies with one another by way of upstream and
downstream linkage between the different processes that adds value to products and services
to the final consumers. Tan et al., (2002) distinguished six parts of SCM practices; supply
chain joining, data sharing, supply chain attributes, client benefit administration,
topographical closeness and, JIT capacity. Elmuti, (2002) recognised outsourcing rehearse as
an instrument to be connected to transportation, warehousing, human asset administration and
data innovation for cost lessening.
Christopher et al., (2005) distinguished supply chain hones as time-to-market, time-to-serve
and time-to-respond. Li et al., (2007) distinguished five measurements of supply chain
33

administration hones as; vital provider organisation, client relationship, the level of data
sharing, nature of data sharing, and deferment. Chow et al., (2008) in their experimental
study on the US and Taiwan ventures recognises supply chain hones as; client and provider
administration, supply chain elements, correspondence and speed, data sharing, and
incorporation. Supply chain management is helping to improve customer service, reduces
cost and create a competitive advantage for the business (Sh even, 1990) Supply chain
management simply means managing supply chain processes.
2.3.2 Supply Chain Management Practises
The Supply Chain is a subsystem within the organizational system that encompasses the
planning of the activities involved in the search, procurement and transformation of products.
It includes the coordination and collaboration of channel partners, or transmission flow of the
inputs or products, whether these suppliers, intermediaries, officials or customers. At each
stage it is important to measure the flow correctly to avoid waste and waste. In essence,
Supply Chain integrates supply and demand both inside and outside the company. Supply
chain management practices are the set of activities used by organisations to compete in this
competitive world. The previous discussion reveals that supply chain management can also
be known as the competitive advantage to an organisation. The development has appeared to
diminish cost, oversee shorter item life cycles, asset globalisation, adapt to expanded interest
for customisation, and concentrated quality activities (Taylor, 2004). Since the 1980s the term
supply chain, administration and coordination wereutilised synonymously. Later on, it was
understood that supply chain administration is more than coordination. The term coordination
is worried about client benefit, stock administration, transportation, warehousing, data
frameworks and part measure contemplations (Lambert, 2001). This argument can be proved
when the name “Council of Logistics Management” (CLM) changed to “Council of Supply
Chain Management Professionals” (CSCMP) which took effect after on January 1st, 2005
(Larson et al. 2007).
The logistics and supply chain management often, executives and owners of small and
medium-sized enterprises commented that the potential to generate competitive advantages
through logistics and supply chain management is limited to the scope of the large company,
which has more resources. Companies have made and make considerable efforts to open up
to new markets, to develop new channels for marketing their products and adapt to the
individual needs of its customers, to innovate and to be competitive. And to achieve these
34

objectives have flexible organizations, even poorly structured, action-oriented, with systems
of informal communication very developed and with a dimension that facilitates the
multidisciplinary work and equipment. If this is the case, there is no reason to be closed to
new roads that go beyond the operational and tactical movements.
The main objective that are marked by enterprises each time that incorporate the "logistics
factor" in their work agendas is to look for ways to minimize costs, improve service levels
and shorten the response time. In principle, you might think that there are three conflicting
elements. But the reality is responsible for demonstrating that this will is clearly achievable.
At the general level, reduce the time is almost more important to reduce costs. And logistics
is one of the few business activities likely to reduce the cost to the time it becomes a
differentiating factor in service or time. Very few companies who know exactly what is the
"invoice total" of their logistics costs, either because they have a part posted within the cost
of the shopping cart or because costs are outsourced. Figure 8 shows us that the logistical
costs correspond to storage, transport, inventory finance and logistics management and that,
contrary to what might appear to be the case, the optimum position is not always the least
costly but the optimization of binomial service-cost in order to avoid extra costs which almost
never appreciate, as are the obsolescence and the sale lost. For example, with a minimum cost
model, a transport strike in France in a few days we could be at the level of loss of market
share, the savings achieved during the last few years with a logistic model aimed solely at a
minimal cost.
Few companies define a formal policy of customer service that go beyond the "best possible
service" and few are those that have indicators or appropriate metrics; but the most
significant thing is the lack of quantitative knowledge of its impact on sales. The element in
which converge the logistical costs and the level of service are the result accounts of
organizations: in the same way that we understand that some logistics costs high deteriorate
the items of operating expenses, the ruptures of stocks or the lack of an adequate level of
service adversely affect sales revenues and produce many lost sales. The good indicators of
service to the client should contact with customers using techniques of qualitative and
quantitative research.
The management of supply chain is “a set of three or more entities (organisational or
individuals) directly involved in the upstream and downstream flow of products, services,
finances, and/or information from source to the customer” (Mentzer et al., 2001). “The
35

Council of Supply Chain Management” (2007) defines logistics management as “that part of
SCM that plans, implements, and controls the efficient, effective forward and reverse flow
and storage of goods, services and related information between the point of origin and point
of consumption in order to meet customers' requirements.”Coordination is an imperative
segment of supply chain administration, and reconciliation of coordination procedures betters
serve the clients. The coordination benefit suppliers ought to concentrate on coordination
since it includes the biggest cost in the worldwide exchange (Rodrigues et al., 2005) and
supply chains serve as the connections between providers, makers, merchants, clients (Lai
and Chang, 2003) and coordination.
Also, the logistics involvement in product development projects improves both the project
performance and as well as logistics and organisational performance (Zacharia and Mentzer,
2007). Supply chain administration constitutes all exercises connected with an outline,
arranging, combination, association, and control of supply chains (Chan et al., 2003). The
fundamental components of supply chain administration are the structure of supply chains,
supply chain business procedures, and supply chain parts (Lambert, 2004). It is a mindboggling flow of interest, supply, and money (Taylor, 2004).
2.3.3 Challenges of Supply Chain Management
As profitable as supply chain management appears to be, there are challenges associated to
with it, and they are as follows:
I Customisation
This is a focus on individual customer requirements; the key challenge is how to create value
to meet all individual customers wants without cost exceeding the value created (Hines,
2006). It’s challenging for organisations to meet up with different customer’s various needs
with good quality and speed at the same time at low cost.
II Globalisation
The present worldwide substances present both chances and posture threats to organisations;
the problems of globalisation to supply chain management are doubt, unpredictability,
governmental issues, economy and culture (Nix, 2001a). There is also the effect of
globalisation postured supply chain management such as cybercrime Hines, 2006).

36

III Greening the Supply Chain
The utilisation of coal, fossil and fuel as life origins has negative effects on the ozone layers
in the environment (wheeler, 2004). Moreover, there is a developing issue on waste transfers
which is essentially influencing the design of products and supply chain conveyance
instruments, compelling organisations to make extreme using renewable energy sources or
recyclable materials and parts (Hines, 2006).
2.4 Supply Chain Development

The discussion in the preceding section shows that supply chain management is regarded as a
competitive advantage to the organisation. This advantage accounts for supply chain
improvement to deal with market environment and the nature of competition. Therefore,
based on supply chain management and supply chain practices discussed in the foregoing
section, different organisations may have different patterns of supply chain and each pattern
has its exceptional features that identify it. Consequently, knowing supply chain patterns and
their characteristics is important to understand the supply chains of the organisations that will
participate in the research. This section of the thesis reviews the literature on supply chain
patterns in order explain more on supply chain development.
The supply chain started as supply channels in the form of a lightly linked group of
independent businesses, denoted to as the traditional supply chain. The traditional supply
chain is mainly for protection, and it was established as a push-based supply chain strategy in
which production and distribution are based on long-term prediction (Sochi-Levi et al.,
2003). It is based on establishing long-term relationships with distributors, retailers and
vendors with high inventory, long lead time and fixed margins. The long-term forecast of
production and distribution require market stability, considered by high market certainty.
At the present time and due to continuous technology development, market research and
innovations, change has occurred in the market, and the market has become unstable,
characterised by an extraordinary increase in market instability and high market uncertainty.
As a result, it becomes difficult to rely on long-term predictions. Also, because this strategy is
entrenched in the traditional supply chain, it becomes obvious that this type of supply chain
lacks the mechanism to cope with the fast market environment. For that reason, its
competitiveness in the market is regarded as low. Literature shows that the isolation of
suppliers and other entities in the traditional supply chain is regarded as limiting business
37

growth and competitiveness. Shenton (2003) argued that this pattern of the supply chain is no
longer enough to continue to compete in the unstable market. Therefore, the traditional
supply chain has become an ineffectual business strategy, resulting in a search for a more
competitive supply chain pattern so as to cope with the unstable market environment.
Furthermore, and as mentioned before, the loosely linked group of independent businesses in
the traditional supply chain was recognised as the reason for low supply chain
competitiveness. Thus, to improve competitiveness, organisations began to realise that more
collective relationships between supplier and the other supply chain parties are important.
This led organisations to realise the importance of supply chain management integration, and
integration of supply chain management came to be recognised as a fundamental competitive
strategy (Ee, 2001). Therefore, this form of supply chain suggests that for organisations in the
supply chain to improve supply chain performance, there must be cooperation with other
organisations in their supply chain, as shown in Fig.2.2.
Inventory flow

Enterprise
Suppliers

Procurement

Manufacturing support

Physical support

Customers

Information flow

In addition, supply chain integration led to the development of another form of the supply
chain named the lean supply chain. This form is supported by upstream and downstream
integration with suppliers and customers, as shown in Fig.2.3

38

Fig.2.3: Interactions and Flows in Lean Supply Chain
Source: Emiliani, 2000
Models for the management of the system time-service-cost in order to advance the
knowledge of best practices logistics to help the management of the system time-service-cost,
we propose the analysis of three options. Each model provides concrete answers to the
problems we are facing, but her greatest wealth comes from the fact that the models are
connected and interrelated, as we will see later.
The model of business strategies based on the life cycle of the lines or families of products
has a high level of applicability when defining logistical strategies. As we see in Figure 11, in
an initial phase of launching new products, the logistical priorities are focused on the
availability of the product in the flexibility to manage volumes and types of clients and the
ability to deliver orders of all kinds and almost always difficult to predict in advance.
Competitive variables are, again, flexibility and innovation. In a growth phase, logistics
prioritizes the service and the speed and reliability of deliveries. In phase of maturity, the
logistical approach focuses on the efficient management of the binomial service cost (the
quality must be totally consistent across the supply chain to the time that must be minimized
costs). In phase of decline, the priority competitive logistics lies in the maximum reduction of
costs and in the care of only those customers or those orders that justify a certain level of
profitability. Thus, as our product lines traverse the life cycle and change the competitive
variables, we should go adapting all the decisions we take, both with regard to the structural
variables.

39

Researchers move from a decentralized network, with regulators and regional warehouses
(valid for a customer service strategy), to a centralized network service-cost, where, from the
factories focused reaches customers through regional warehouses, many of them converted
already in logistics platforms with very little inventory. From the point of view classic,
companies recognize that to develop a system of physical distribution should work on four
major policies are the following:
a) Inventory: permanent reduction of stocks, without reaching ruptures of orders.
b) Transport policy: the speed and flexibility in the face of a low cost.
c) Storage costs: network and typology of distribution centres, optimizing storage spaces and
maximum productivity in the management and preparation (picking) of orders.
d) Administration: improvement of the efficiency of the transactional costs and the service
indexes with customers and suppliers.
The individualized management of these policies has reached a level of complexity High
when observe the interconnections and commitments (trade-offs). So, if thanks to a policy
more careful management of stocks, we managed to reduce the number of stores, you can see
increased transport costs. The same exercise can be done by comparing the rest of variables.
This level of complexity increases to relate the elements that make up the system of physical
distribution, as part of the distribution policy of the company, with marketing policies:
policies of product, price, advertising and promotions.
For innovative products: networks of quick response. The priority is the flexibility and the
capacity for immediate response. The brevity of the life cycle of these products means that
the priority of the logistical system is the adaptation to a demand unpredictable and often
very variable. It could make a parallel with the products of the growth phase as we mentioned
in the model of the life cycle. That said, many companies have a single distribution network
by where they spend all their lines of products. This model, the same as the model of life
cycle, determines that, since the competitive variables of the various product lines are
different, we need different networks aimed at a cost-service for the functional products and
aimed at a rapid response to innovative products. This model can provide a first level of
proposals for solutions to the new logistical needs posed by the trade and transactions still
limited among firms via the Internet. The new technologies will be a great facilitator for
access to new markets and to the creation of new marketing channels; a great tool at the
service of disintermediation, an engine of improvement and elimination of transaction costs,
and an instrument for the development of customized services.

40

The lean supply chain unlike the traditional supply chain, involves efforts by buyers to
improve the performance of their suppliers (Emiliani, 2000). The concluding part of the
twentieth century saw the lean production model positively impact many market sectors,
ranging from automotive through to construction. Lean production requires close
coordination between suppliers and customers, rapid flows of materials and information as
well as Just in Time (JIT) deliveries (Kippenberger, 1997). As a result, leanness in this pattern
of the supply chain may be achieved by removing non-value added time. The close
coordination between suppliers and customers, the rapid flows of materials and JIT deliveries
are features that highly contribute to minimising inventory cost and response time to the
customer. Thus, the literature shows that to minimise supply chain physical cost and
maximise business profit; the lean supply chain pattern requires smooth demand leading to a
level schedule to eliminate all waste (Muda) in the supply chain processes (Mason-Jones et
al., 2000). Although it is more competitive than the traditional supply chain, the lean supply
chain has been disapproved for the lack of human integration or its limited applicability
outside a high-volume repetitive manufacturing environment (Hines et al., 2004). In the
context of an unstable business environment and more extensive competition, organisations
began to realise the significance of human integration in the supply chain processes for
additional improvement. This lead to the development of another supply chain pattern named
the responsive/agile supply chain.
Very closely related to the previous model and the latest developments in the field of logistics
focus on combining the logistic models aimed at improving the efficiency of the systems
(adjusted, read) with those that facilitate a rapid response capacity (Agile, agile). Thus, the
same production concepts are valid for the logistics (Figure 17).
While the model read groups the concepts and practices that enhance operational efficiency
and the elimination of processes that do not add value, the agile model focuses on the
establishment of programs that facilitate the analysis and the capacity of adaptation to the
behaviour of the demand. The so-called agile supply is not a philosophy or a vision but a
practical approximation to the organization of the management of the supply chain and its
ability to be structured around each individual customer. The goal is to organize around the
cycle of order instead of creating a product or service for which is subsequently supplied to
the market.
Harrison and Hoekpropose a mechanism very understandable that allows to mark the borders
between the read and the agile and do so beginning to understand what they define as costs of
41

the process of supply: to the costs of physical distribution mentioned in figure 8 of this
chapter should be costs of adaptive, i.e. the costs of obsolescence or reductions of the
products and the costs of the ruptures of stocks.
Too often we see that companies, for whatever reason, not "counted" these other items of
cost. Having said that, it is also true that more and more companies are initiating programs of
redesigning the logistics process from the fact that these costs can, in many cases, exceed the
costs of physical distribution. This line of work allows them to achieve three new objectives:
(
a) Improve the planning systems of the demand in an environment characterized by constant
turbulence.
b) Facilitate the processes of internal integration and external to connect information systems.
(c) Optimize capacities for the production and storage.
Agility is progressively mentioned as one of the coming challenges of the international
business world, where the market is unstable and increasingly requires energetic performance
(Van Hoek et al., 2001). In this perspective, an agile market is global, and the supply chain
needs to respond more quickly to changing customer requirements. According to Christopher
and Agility is a business-wide competence that involves organisational arrangements,
evidence systems, logistic progressions, and mindsets(Towill, 2000). Therefore, Yusuf et al.,
(2004) posited that agile supply chain is the pattern of supply chain that should extend to the
highest levels in both dimensions of reach and range, and it should be flexible and capable of
coping with globalization in the internet era (Yusuf et al., 2001; Christopher, 2000).
Consequently, the agile supply chain has the advantage of technological advancement to
reduce the response time required to fulfil customer orders (Mason-Jones et al., 2000), and
eliminates sources of variability- induced waste, especially inventory (McCullen and Towill,
2001).
Hence, both agility and leanness demand high levels of product quality and require minimum
total lead-times (i.e. time taken from a customer placing a request for a product or service
until its delivery to the customer). Nevertheless, they differ in terms of the total value
provided to the customer (Christopher and Towill, 2001). Consequently, the lean and agile are
not mutually exclusive models and may be merged to create integrated, cost-effective supply
chains. To differentiate between the agile and the lean paradigms, it is useful to draw a
comparison between them based on their features. Table 2.1 shows this comparison.
42

The agile supply, completely related with chains pull, directed by demand, presupposes,
therefore, a qualitative leap for the logistics and supply chain management directed to
reinforce the importance of the quickness of the service as a differentiating element and key
to the business competitiveness. Logically, the companies are forced to combine supply
chains with capabilities of improving operational efficiency and with rapid response
capabilities. So require the nature of its products and the characteristics of their markets
Table 2.2: Comparison of Lean supply with Agile supply
Distinguishing

Agile Supply

Lean Supply

Attributes
Typical products
Market place demand
Product variety
Product life cycle
Customer drives
Profit margin
Dominant costs
Stock out penalties
Purchasing policy
Information enrichment
Forecasting mechanism

Fashion goods
Volatile
High
Short
Availability
High
Marketability costs
Immediate and volatile
Assign capacity
Obligatory
Consultative

Commodities
Predictable
Low
Long
Cost
Low
Physical costs
Long term contractual
Buy goods
Highly desirable
Algorithmic

Mason-Jones et al., (2000)
As shown in Table 2.2, physical costs, comprising all production, distribution and storage
costs, dominate the lean supply chain. However marketability costs including all uselessness
and stock-out costs, dominate the agile supply chain. Additionally, the lean supply chain is
appropriate for the commodities market where there is less change than in the fashion market,
where the market environment is swift and highly unreliable. As a result, an organisation with
a commodities supply chain is expected to use the lean supply chain. Though, market
uncertainty, rapid product development and technological advancement may lead to the use
of the agile supply chain in the commodities market. This is clearly shown in Fig.2.5, where
globalisation and the Internet become dominant in the market.
The preceding discussion shows that the supply chain development through integration is a
matter of cooperation and coordination between different business's units in the supply chain,
which is directly related to supply chain management discussed in the previous section. The
literature shows that the supply chain originally started with the traditional supply chain, then
developed to a lean supply chain and now an agile supply chain pattern is continually arising

43

as a better design to deal with the agile market environment. This section indicated that
improvement of the supply chain begins with integration between the different supply chain
business units through managing the supply chain relationship between the business units so
as to achieve higher supply chain performance. And these business units are referred to as
supply chain parties. The next section of this review shed light on the meaning of the supply
chain parties and highlights the supply chain relationships.
2.5 Relationship in Supply Chains Management

In this area drivers and characteristics and store network administration when all is said in
done, and inventory network parties specifically will be exhibited. It is vital as a preface and
to direct operational apparatuses and measurements for observational review of the supply
chains parties inside the oil and gas.
Empowering influences are the basic achievement variables for execution of inventory
network administration, while traits are the critical parts of an empowering agent. In a review,
four key empowering influences to viable inventory network administration were
distinguished, and the empowering agents of production network administration are
anauthoritative framework, innovation, key unions and HR administration. The properties of
each of the empowering agents are described in Table 2.2 (Marien, 2000).
Data sharing between store network accomplices is crucial to the execution of an inventory
network since it is the premise for basic leadership by administrators(Chopra and Meindl,
2001). Data ties the other production network drivers Inventory, Transportation and Facilities
to cooperate in order to make an incorporated and facilitated store network. Also, data makes
the store network obvious to administrators to settle on choices that will enhance execution
(Chopra and Meindl, 2001). The researcher further considers data to be the most essential of
the inventory network drivers, on the grounds that without it, none of the drivers can be
utilised to convey an abnormal state of execution.
Data and Communication Technology (ICT) includes instruments used to pick up attention to
data and to break down the data to settle on the best choices for the production network
(Hooper et al., 2001). In this way, Information is fundamental for production network
execution change; ICTs in inventory network empower catch and conveyance of data for
basic leadership. Lin et al. (2005) characterised data reconciliation as one of the key

44

empowering influences of deft supply chains. Data mix incorporates the capacity to utilise
ICT to share information amongst purchasers and suppliers.
Table 2.3: SCM Enablers and Attributes
Enabler
Organisational

Attribute
“-A coherent business strategy

infrastructure: Having

-Formal process - flow methodologies to enable SCM improvements
-People committed and responsible for cross-functional processes
-Right process metrics identified to guide the operating unit’s
performance toward the strategic organisational SCM objectives
-Cross-functional design teams implement change
-Business processes shared within the organisation vs. being owned
by functional units
-One business function is driving the SCM initiative.”

Technology
1. Information technology:

“-Operations, marketing and logistics data coordinated within the

Having

company
-Data readily available to managers, not embedded within legacy
systems
-Operations, marketing and logistics data coordinated between
companies

2.

Manufacturing

and

Materials Handling: Having

Products designed for production flow-through and inventory
velocity
Physical production processes designed to facilitate SCM initiatives
Products designed to facilitate flow-through inventory velocity.”

Strategic: Having

“-Expectations clearly stated, understood and agreed upon up front
-Collaboration on supply chain design and product and service
strategies
-Top management of partnering companies interfaces on regular
basis
-Compatible IT systems
-Top management communicates why strategic alliances are
important and being pursued
-Agreeing on a process to incorporate business changes
-Developing an alliance partnerselection process
45

-Lead persons responsible for building alliances on the job at least
Human

Resource

Management

for a year.”
“-Sourcing, hiring and selecting skilled people at all management
levels
-Finding change agents to manage SCM programs in place
-Compensation and incentive programmes in place for SCM
performance
-Finding internal process facilitators knowledgeable in SCM
-Appropriate job descriptions and responsibilities
-Performance appraisal system for people working in crossfunctional supply chain projects.”

Source: Marien, 2000
2.6 Supply Chain Parties

Supply chain parties are very important components in order to be able to understand the
supply chain process and how relationships can affect the supply chain performance and
eventually organisation performance. This will be done by defining supply chain parties and
classification based on different positions in the supply chain process as well as exploring the
importance of these parties in the supply chain process.
The logistics is an activity that interacts with the rest of the business processes of the
company. Thus, it is an activity that requires a multidisciplinary approach and the active
participation of the managers of the companies. For this reason obliges a substantial shift of
focus: the physical movement of the products to the address of people and information. As we
often say, the role of a director of logistics is not to solve logistical problems understood in
the sense of "running behind the orders", but to design and implement innovative networks
and act as a facilitator of changes. In spite of that this statement does not wake up a general
enthusiasm, the number of supporters is increasing day by day. It is also indisputable that
each time there are less businesses that rely logistics only to the functions performed by the
Chief of the warehouse or the head of transport. The modern management philosophies differ
each time more of the features and are oriented to processes. It is much more important to
achieve levels of total results higher than the sum of internal results of each of the
departments or functional areas.
The Logistics (Internal vision) and the management of the supply chain (external view)
perform very specific contributions in this field. From a trade perspective provide capacity
46

for interaction with customers because they determine and manage the right level of service
for each client, channel or segment and because it minimizes the costs transactional. But, in
particular, help to improve the planning and management systems of the demand. From a
production perspective contribute to level the capacities and to determine, depending on the
required delivery dates, priorities, the planning and the rhythms of production. In addition,
contribute to the process of development of new products, to the extent that reduce the time
of arrival on the market of these products. From a perspective of shopping, help in the
process of selection of suppliers and materials and to implement the new marketing shopping.
The internal integration gives way to the external integration. The processes of business
concentration and the need to create strategic alliances, together with the already mentioned
need to improve competitiveness, force companies to establish new frameworks of relations
based on collaboration, the exchange of information and the sharing of resources. To
transform competitive relationships in collaborative relationships we have before us three
obstacles: the first are the own historical legacies, the second is the little predisposition that
companies have to share information and the third, and probably the most difficult to resolve,
are the criteria for the distribution of the benefits to be derived from it. Mark Barrat and
Marteen Green (5) propose a model of collaborative relationships in which it considered the
need to introduce cultural changes, the sharing of information and the alignment of the
processes.
Supply chain parties can simply be people or a group of people in an organisation involved in
supply chain activities, operations and management. A party is defined in the Oxford
dictionary (1995: 294) as the “gathering of a group of people with common interest”.
Therefore, parties in the supply chain can also be described as people in an organisation with
a common interest in the supply chain process.
2.6.1 Relationships between Supply Chain Parties
The way of relationship issues amongst purchasing and supplying associations turned into a
suitable wellspring of research (Macpherson, 2001). This inclination of enthusiasm for supply
chain relationship prompted to distinguishing proof of supply chain relationship designs and
an essential concentrate on the impact of relationship on supply chain execution (Handifiled,
2002) This led organisations to realise the significance of supply chain management
integration, and integration of supply chain management became recognised as a main
competitive approach (Ee 2001). This means that for the supply chain to performance to
47

improve, the supply chain in the organisation must intimate cooperation with other
organisations in their supply chain.
The supply chain interaction flows from the material, information and finance between the
supply chain parties in any supply chain system take place upstream starting from the
supplier and downstream toward the final customer. The parties, in this case, are the supplier
in the upstream and the customer who is downstream and they are connected with a specific
business relationship which can be referred to like the interaction between organisations. The
discussion above reveals that the more the co-operation and coordination between parties in
the supply chain, the better the supply chain performance, which means the extent of the
relationship between parties is probably able to impact positively on the supply chain
performance. This can also be achieved by some level of trust. Some writers on supply chain
management have addressed the need to consider both physical and human element of an
organisation instead of just considering the physical elements alone (Drejere et al., 1998 cited
by Voss et al., 2002) this means that for supply chain performance to fully achieved, human
behaviour and its complication needs to be understood.
Research in the 90s on relationships in supply chain management suggested a need for
empirical investigation directed towards trust in supply chain relationships since trust has
been acknowledged as an important factor in these relationships, (Sako 1992 and Handy
1995). However, organisations are reluctant in relying heavily on trusting parties in supply
chain relationships because of its unexpected consequences. Sako (1992) opines that the
reason for the increasing interest in promoting trust between organisations is because it is
believed to enhance business performance. The next paragraph will throw more light on what
trust is and whether or not it improves organisational performances.
2.7: Oil and Gas Industry

The raw materials of the oil are raw petroleum and regular gas. The creation of raw petroleum
can either be found in seaward regions or profound underground (Hussain et al., 2006). Oil is
the second greatest consumable assets on the planet, second just to water (Nnadili, 2006).
“Oil and gas is a piece of individuals' everyday exercises that will be difficult to quit
developing its worldwide essentialness (Yargin, 2008). In the blink of an eye oil and gas are
one of the imperative assets on the planet and since oil is a product that is nearly interlaced
with national techniques and worldwide governmental issues and power (Nolan and Zhang,
2003; Yargin, 2008; Garbie, 2011). Oil and gas industry has declared enthusiasm for building
up their nations through enhancing their assets to be more focused (Garbie, 2011) and oil is a
48

vast generator of riches for people, organisations and the whole countries. 'Out of the main
twenty organisations in the Fortune 500, seven are oil organisations' (Yargin, 2008, p. 13).
Around the globe, the territorial circulation of world oil and gas stores, generation and
utilisationare exceedingly unequal (Nolan and Zhang, 2003). Along these lines, this clarifies
the motivation behind why nations with a colossal store of unrefined petroleum are among
the wealthiest countries in the world. Moreover, open controlled oil and gas organisations are
around three-quarter of the world's oil creation while private part organisations' rank in the
main 10 amongst the world's oil organisations and rank in the main 10 of all companies
(Yargin, 2008).”
Since the usefulness of the cutting edge social orders relies on upon proficient supply of oil
(Brigs et al., 2012); no present day society can get by without oil and gas. Additionally, oil
and gas are profoundly requested in ventures for business and local purposes, and the items
are utilised for driving of apparatuses to the creation of plastics and manures (Hussain et al.,
2006). The amount requested of oil and gas items made its mining and creation cost one of
the most noteworthy on the planet (Aspen innovation, 2005; CRINE Network, 1999).
Increments in the expense of oil and gas items influence the expenses of different wares in
the business sector. As a result makes it vital to managing the expense of oil and gas with a
specific end goal to guarantee that the expenses of different products and administrations are
kept at the ideal (Yargin, 1991).
In addition, each oil organisation started from various nations and has a long history of
acquisitions, mergers and different changes. In any case, their central business is the same,
their observations on trust issues may accordingly be formed by their recorded roots. These
dissimilarities may likely shape their corporate structure and values (Schweitzer et al., 2011).

Oil industry has encountered numerous developmental stages and worldview changes in

going from low generation in light of interest to large scale manufacturing as a consequence
of expanded business sector requests, then to incline creation (to diminish and/or control oil
costs), to lithe oil creation (Garbie, 2011) and to reasonable generation in the twenty-first
century.“Moreover, 'they are likewise attempting to keep up an abnormal state of
responsiveness to accomplish deftness and to stay focused in the worldwide commercial
centre particularly after insecurity of oil costs and worldwide money related emergency's
(Garbie, 2011, p. 203).

49

2.7.1: Oil and Gas Industry Supply Chain
Production network in the petroleum business resembles the store network of some other
industry with little contrasts, oil and gas inventory network include complex substances that
stretch out from the oil fields to the petrol stations. Along these lines, it comprises of
upstream, focal firms and downstream exercises (regularly demonstrated as crude material
sourcing, creation and conveyance of oil items attempted by suppliers, makers and
wholesalers). This categorisation is like different businesses production network structure
involving suppliers, maker and clients spoke to in the oil and gas supply chains (Peters and
Hood, 2000). In any case, the upstream petroleum production network is more mind boggling
contrasted with different procedure businesses, for example, pharmaceuticals.
Occasions at the upstream end of the oil and gas store network can be decayed into two
sections: the first is the manufacture of the gear to be utilised as a part of oil generation and
the second is the creation of gas and raw petroleum. For the benefit of oil administrators, oil
hardware is frequently delivered by temporary workers, and suppliers of specific gear and an
undertaking type of association areutilised as a part of oil hardware creation. Besides,
arranging to embrace the exercises of raw petroleum generation include three layered players;
administrators, temporary workers, and suppliers (Adeyemi, 2009). Correspondingly, another
typical for toward the ocean oil and gas production industry is the proximity of the extensive
number of players gathered inside a portrayed geographic region (Hallwood, 1990).
Hallwood (1991) kept up that cases develop in which oil chairmen decay to execute with
affiliations that are not found close to their operations.
Oil and gas have been organised as like products. Along these lines, their supply frameworks
ought to focus on costs (Miles and Snow, 1987; Fisher, 1997). Incidentally, the past game
plan looks last thing (for instance gas and other refined petroleum things) at the reason for
usage just, yet does not consider the multifaceted extent of activities and associations
required in the examination and making of crude petroleum - which is the unrefined material
for refined petroleum things. Without a doubt, the social event of grungy petroleum is an
instance of overpowering cutting edge development in which the creation strategy is brain
boggling. It was watched that the era system supported by overpowering endeavours is
known as emerging creation (from this time forward OKP) (Tu, 1997). He described the oil
and gas examination to be OKP as an after-effect of the resemblances between components of
toward the ocean “oil and gas industry operations” and regular properties of the OKP.
Besides, it was expressed that the OKP generation technique changes over the client's
improvement thoughts or prerequisites into an item by a “once” fruitful methodology
50

restrained by a "basic conveyance date, expense and quality” (Tu, 1997: 272). Instability and
high intricacy are normal of nature in which high esteem designer torequest (ETO)
exceptional (OKP) items are made. High esteem OKP are generally itemised by the client and
fabricated by a specialist to request organisations, where the primary request winning
measure is wellness for a reason through inventive item plan and improvement (Little et al.,
2000). They also noted the propensity for clients to change their prerequisites over the season
of the assembling of high esteem ETO item. As needs be, the capacity to react to the
advancing adjustments is a precondition for accomplishment in numerous ETO firms and
requires surprising readiness and additionally confide in the store network. The fundamental
components of high esteem architect to arrange OKP are as per the following (Tu, 1997):

Optimal or target utilisation of advances and resources.

Prototype-based transformative and synchronous system of thing change and creation.

Distributed control and between progressive self-run the show.

Virtual association structure and overall creation.

Adaptive creation masterminding and control.

Thus, basic achievement variables for associations require the inventory network to be spry in
order to meet client prerequisites successfully. Besides, keeping in mind the end goal to be
focused associations must incorporate their supply chains all the more adequately and team
up with their clients and in addition supplies all the more rapidly (Tolone, 2000).
Supply systems have been concentrated widely (Hakansson and Snehota, 1989; Harland,
1996; Johnsen et al., 2000. However, lamming et al. (2000) observe that “these explanations
have typically explored particular industries…automotive industry; managers in other
industries dealing with some different business problems, consequently lack theoretical
underpinnings for managing their particular kinds of supply chains” (Lamming et al., 2000;
676).Supply chain management practices are perceived as “an opportunity to improve
performance when the scope for cutting internal costs and re-engineering business processes
has been drained. (Ernst and Steinhubl, 1997; 145)”.
Thus, taking after the pattern officially set in different areas (Ramdas and Spekman, 2000)
and despite the requirement for more prominent inventory network administration practices
to align their production network execution with different parts, proof recommends that
around 80% of oil organisations have questions about the adequacy of their supply chains and
not as much as half know about procedures and instruments to improve their supply chains
(Ernst and Steinhubl, 1997). Moreover, noticed that industry pioneers believe that an
imperative piece of oil and gas exercises will be sourced from the store network throughout
51

the following ten years, stressing the requirement for better comprehension of the cooperation
crosswise over oil and gas supply chains and the creating multifaceted nature(Ernst and
Steinbuhl, 1997). Consequently, as oil organisations outsource the vast majority of their
inward operations, more noteworthy incorporation and SCM capacity gets to be critical.
The structure of the petroleum upstream production network is more particular than that of
different enterprises inventory network; since oil and gas store network incorporating
autonomous operations beginning with investigation and logistics required in exchanging and
reaching out to variable method for transportation, which rely on upon source to the refining
procedure (Nolan and Zhang, 2003; Garbie, 2011). Oil and gas store network starts with

worldwide investigation and extraction of unrefined petroleum. Furthermore, vertical section,
firms transport unrefined by pipeline or tanker. Thirdly, the oil achieves a refinery, generally
one of the closest refinery. Fourthly, in the wake of refining the unrefined petroleum into
engine petrol, the item moves, for the most part by pipeline to the wholesale holders. Fifthly,
trucks convey it to closest fuel stations. Sixthly, customers buy and pump the petrol into
private and business enlisted engine vehicles for mechanical and private use (Mansur, 2010).
Also, oil and gas industry inventory network is isolated into three: the upstream, midstream
and downstream part (Briggs et al., 2012; Briggs and Tolliver, 2012). Regardless of this
characterization, significant oil organisations occupied with investigation and extraction,
transportation, refining, wholesaling and retailing (Yarrow, 1991; Mansur; 2010).
Accordingly, oil and gas industry inventory network is isolated in six generation procedures
of investigation, creation, refining, promoting and purchase. The connections demonstrated to
show the primary store network association in the oil and gas industry. The connections
additionally demonstrate the interface amongst organisations and materials that course
through the store network. In this way, oil and gas organisations use the gathering of sellers to
keep their frameworks persistently re-supplied, and in every stage, there are numerous
operations (Chima, 2007).”

Fig.2.5: Supply Chain of the Oil and Gas Industry
52

Source; Chima, 2007
Fig.2.5 demonstrates that oil and gas supply chain begins with the investigation and
generation of raw petroleum, which thusly is transported to the refinery where it is refined
into various items, for example, petrol, diesel, fly fuel, power, and also petrochemicals and
afterward transported through pipelines to capacity terminals for circulation to end clients.

2.7.1.1: Gas Supply Chain and Up Stream Sector Oil
“Upstream oil” area alludes to the looking for and the recuperation and additionally the
generation of unrefined petroleum and characteristic gas (Weijermars, 2010). Also, the
upstream of the oil business is worried about the investigation and extraction of unrefined
petroleum and common gas starting from the earliest stage the pipeline (OPITO, 2002;
Weijermars, 2010; Schweitzer et al., 2011). The upstream petroleum industry is marked by
every now and again shared resource proprietorship, a broad universal supplier industry ruled
by three or four worldwide organisations (Acha, 2000). For the most part, the upstream
segment has a remarkable impact on the operation of the general store network since it can
"push" vast amounts of unrefined petroleum through the chain (Brigs et al., 2012). Besides,
the upstream inventory network exercises include different operations, for example,
investigations for potential underground or submerged oil and gas fields; which include
seismic, geographical and geophysical studies. While creation operations include boring,
generation, office designing and in addition repository.
.

53

Fig.2.6:Physical Value Chain Oil and Gas
Source: Weijermars (2010)
Besides, operations at the “Upstream oil and gas stock system” can be secluded into two. To
start with is the creation of the hardware to be utilised as a part of oil generation and
afterward the second is the creation of raw petroleum and gas; oil gear is produced by
temporary workers, and suppliers of particular hardware in the interest of oil administrators
and a task arrangement of association areutilised as a part of oil gear manufacturer.
Investigation: This stage includes geographical and seismic, attractive, electrical and gravity
operations (Chima, 2007; Garbie, 2011). Thus, once disclosures are made, the corporate will
search for field headway wander support, which can be obtained from confirmed government
workplaces. The examination is a hard system and subsequently needs the organisation of
authorities in the field. Also, information development accepts enter parts in the examination
or looking of foul petroleum remembering the ultimate objective to successfully discover new
grounds where oil is arranged with a particular true objective to utilise it (Jenkins and Wright,
1998; Stabell, 2001).
Production: This stage is the place the misuse of the unrefined petroleum from the supply is
completed by boring. In this manner, generation operations incorporate; boring, store,
creation and offices are building. Penetrating contractual worker is required, and around
forty-five or more diverse administrations are required to bore and finish every well (Chima,
54

2007). Creation requires very qualified building work and it likewise connections to different
exercises, for example, transportation and acquisition (Ribas et al., 2011). So also,
penetrating requires extensive oil field administrations, for example, seismic administrations,
petrophysical and information obtaining, strength concoction creation, preparing and
breaking down administrations. In any case, in the penetrating procedure, mechanical or
electrical blunders may exist where assorted fields of building experts must be accessible.
Therefore, extend specialists ought to have far-reaching information and foundation in each
field to guarantee operability, unwavering quality and viability (Ribas et al., 2011). Similarly,
correspondences inside colossal designing fields are vital to all operations and creation. At
the seaward operations, there are extra confinements that must be viewed as, for example, the
climate conditions, and the profundity of the water and the separation of the logistical base.
Also, a boring could cost an organisation normal of hundred thousand dollars day by day till
the penetrating procedure achieve the oil and gas store, then the generation is finished (The
oil and gas industry, 2014).
Besides, in investigation and creation, the vast majority of the exercises are dull. The item is
likewise precisely the same for all contending firms in oil and gas with exceptionally slight
distinction. Thusly, a large number of the organisations can't separate themselves from each
other by presenting another item. Anyhow, investigation and generation organisations can just
separate themselves on the capacity to financially discover and create oil and gas more
capable than their rivals. In spite of the fact that, investigation and creation organisations are
particular in numerous regards. A separating component lie on the capacity to adjust a sound
inventory network administration program (Chima, 2007). Also, investigation and boring
exercises are distinctive and solid on the kind of climate. As there is a seaward and coastal
operation, architects and researchers need to consider danger, unpredictability and other
characteristic exploratory components. So also, investigation, extraction and pipelines require
noteworthy ventures and transportation advancements in blend with a spatial example of
wellsprings of free market activity. This implies there is impressive resource specificity; for
instance, pipelines must be built to serve specific gas fields and specific clients or gatherings
of clients (Yarrow, 1991).
2.7.1.2: Midstream Sector Oil and Gas Supply Chain
Midstream is a second area called midstream (despite the fact that as a rule is considered in
the upstream division), midstream contains the dispersion framework (Schweitzer et al.,
2011; Ribas et al., 2011; Brigs et al., 2012). In this manner, shows that midstream area of oil

55

and gas industry is not a creation procedure. This is so since it doesn't change or modify the
petroleum in any structure however just transport it by pipelines or oil tankers to the
terminals for capacity. From where it is either transported specifically to the refinery or sent
out to other organisations' refineries.
Transport and Storage: Transport is par excellence one of the fundamental processes of the
logistics strategy of an organization, this component is a priority attention in the design and
management of a company's logistics system, since it is usually the single element with
greater weight in the consolidated of the logistics costs of most companies.
Transportation of petroleum items pulls in higher costs (Briggs and Tolliver, 2012) and this
expense changes relying upon the circumstance and nature of the unrefined petroleum. Oil
stockpiling tanks are generally fit as a fiddle, and they involve control framework instrument.
The limit is to control the expectation of extraction or irregularity of the tank in stacking or
exchanging frames due to over or under pressurising Hydrogen or Sulphuric Acid utilisation.
Softened customary gas tanks (LNG) are commonly alive (Schweitzer et al., 2011). A
substantial volume of the oil that reaches the markets is transported by tankers. Compared
with passenger ships, oil tankers may appear small because, when they are shipped loaded
only a small part of them appear above the waterline: but larger tankers can mobilize more
than half a million tons (508,025, exactly, carry the larger ones now in navigation). In
general, tankers far exceed the carrying capacity of all ships in navigation.
Oil tankers carry the propulsive engines located at the stern to prevent the propeller shaft
from passing through the oil tanks and as a protection against the risk of fire. In modern
tankers, the command bridge and crew accommodation are also located aft. This sector is
separated from the tanks by watertight compartments, hollow spaces that by way of partitions
extended from one to another band offer additional protection. Another similar compartment
separates the bow section from the tank assembly. Logically, some large tankers find it
difficult to dock in common ports that lack the proper draft or do not have special springs. In
these cases, special buoys are anchored at a convenient distance from the coast - sometimes
several kilometres, where the depth is adequate. The buoys are provided with special pipes,
connected to land terminals that allow large tankers to moor and unload oil without having to
enter port. The oil discharged in port enters the refineries where it is submitted to processes of
conversion that are described later. The distribution of petroleum products, in particular
automobile gasoline, gas oil and aviation kerosene, require a complex system of polypipelines, terminal storage facilities receiving it and special transport trucks to be distributed
and delivered to the final consumer.
56

Pipelines: Pipelines move in sizes, and the oil composite in one domain to zone rely on upon
the measure of oil and gas going to be pumped. Right when presenting pipelines courses,
engineers perceive the most constrained partitions from the era zone to the end customer so
as to enable a straightforwardness stream in shorter time and detachment. Pipelines could be
secured under the sea, underground to stack and for movement. From storage tanks at the
sites, crude oil is transported through internal branches to trunk lines of oil pipelines where it
is pumped - sometimes for long distances to ocean terminals or refineries.
As petroleum is generally at great distances from consumption centres, oil pipelines make up
a significant part of the financial resources that companies must allocate for their capital
investments. Many pipelines are buried below ground level, and all require special processes
to protect them from corrosion. Steel pipe is the most costly element of an oil pipeline, and
can represent between 35 and 45 percent of the total investment. Special steels with high
tensile strength have been developed which allow the construction of thinner and lower cost
pipes. Aluminium and plastic material were also tested, although those of special steels
remain the most commonly used. In addition to the conventional pipelines, exclusively
destined to the transport of crude oil, the polyducts exist, able to transport a variety of
petroleum products already processed in refineries. Given the enormous volumes transported,
the levels of contamination only reach a fraction of 1 percent, which allows - without the
costs affecting the operation - to degrade the fraction that passed through the pipeline to the
level of the lower quality product. It is usually the case that one of the large sizes contains
four or five different products at different points along the way, for delivery to the receiving
terminal or to intermediate stations along the route. Petroleum items are transported from
numerous points of view: pipelines, sea transportation, railroads and freight boats. Polyducts
can transport different types of crude oil, kerosene, naphtha, gas oil and liquefied gases. The
transport is carried out in successive bumps, according to pre-established schedules
controlled by computer centres, in charge of regulating the pressures and the speed of
displacement of each particular product. Provided that certain standards are met, the level of
mixing of successive products passing through the polyducts reaches only a few tens of
meters. Along these lines, ISO and API have certain scales to take after when arranging and
acquainting the pipelines so as with keep any fire, disintegration or gap issues (The Oil and
Gas Industry, 2010).

57

2.7.1.3: Downstream Sector Oil and Gas Supply Chain
Downstream operations include the refining/planning, transportation, publicising and spread
of petroleum things (Briggs and Tolliver, 2012). This part movement incorporates refining,
promoting, supply, exchanging and transportation and also circulation of oil items. The
downstream area of the business is the portion that straightforwardly relates with the
purchasers (Hussain et al., 1998; OPITO, 2002). A portion of the items got from the refining
of raw petroleum may include; gas, manures, radiator fluid, plastics, diesel oil, condensed
petroleum gas (LPG), black-top, petroleum coke, rubbers, pesticides, manufactured elastic,
plane fuel and some more (Hussain et al, 1998; Bala, 2012). Additionally, offices required in
this segment incorporate oil refineries, common gas conveyance organisations, petrochemical
plants, retail outlets and the end clients (Jenkins and Wright, 1998; Schweitzer et al., 2011).
The downstream expressly serves two distinct clients i.e. the wholesale, and the retail clients.
The wholesale client'sincorporate enterprises, for example, petrochemical offices, carriers,
shipping organisations, power plants and other modern clients; while the retail clients
included purchasers basically for household warming and transportation (Brigs et al., 2012;
Briggs and Tolliver, 2012). In the downstream parts of the business, national transmission,
neighbourhood and local dispersion, and offers of gas were kept up as a fused imposing
business model (Briggs and Tolliver, 2012).
Refining: in downstream area, the main stage is the refining procedure which depends on
interest anticipating. This triggers the acquirement and the logistics exercises so as to supply
raw petroleum to the refinery and disseminate its by-items to the clients (Jenkins and Wright,
1998). Refining is an esteemed stage where raw petroleum gets warmed up and regarded in
order to be isolated from water and to deliver concoction items, for example, lamp oil, gas,
plane fills and other force supplement items, private and different chemicals that are utilised
as essential modern assembling. Refining is a mind boggling, all around arranged procedure
that includes the transformation of the raw petroleum into various sorts of subsidiaries in light
of interest determining.
Thusly, Refining has a tight connection to the showcasing exercises furthermore includes
stock administration. In refining, unrefined petroleum gets pumped through channels with a
predetermined weight and the oil goes into the heater with super-warmed steam. At that point,
it goes into a refining segment in order to empower the breaking of the particles (Hussain et
al., 2006). At that point, it goes into breaking and Alkylation process where they get broke
from Hydrogen or another sort of particles. Fuel gas, condensed petroleum gas, lamp oil and

58

naphtha is a few case of the fundamental byresults of the raw petroleum which are then
exchanged to the refineries as a feedstock (Consumer Energy Report, 2010).
Advertising: this is the wholesale dissemination of definite petroleum items to variable
business needs going from the government, open clients, private purchasers and different
organisations all inclusive. Showcasing manages to offer diverse raw petroleum by-items to
the right clients (Chima, 2007). Anyhow, promoting petroleum items relies on upon exact
learning about the present stock level and refinery exercises in order to deal with its deal
capacity. Petrol and lamp fuel administration stations handle the volume of the wholesale
procedures and oil enterprises disseminate oil items specifically to assembling, power plants,
aviation ventures, autos, marine administrations and other related petroleum items customers
(Prescott, 2005; the oil and gas industry, 2014). The oil and gas business is controlled by
political conditions and fiscal, financial matters. Along these lines, investigation, creation,
promoting, transportation, appropriation and utilisation of oil and gas are maintained by a
capital escalated resource base. The possibility of sensible and reasonable rates of
profitability in its benefit base clarifies the development of the regular gas industry
(Weijermars, 2010).
Also, in oil and gas industry, immensely critical operations are arranged before time, and
along these lines, the entire procedure can be controlled and balanced. The point of inventory
network administration is to give most extreme consumer loyalty at the least cost. In oil and
gas industry inventory network, investigation operations make esteem through seismic
examination and recognising prospects. Generation operations turn into the clients that
utilisation the yield of the investigation. In the same way, refining is the client of generation
while promoting is the client of refining and the client of refined items, for example, fuel,
lamp oil and diesel is the last client. Likewise, sorts of shipments made contrast generally
from gloves to funnels, valves, cranes, chemicals, bond, steel and penetrating apparatuses and
so on. (Chima, 2007) and innovation assumes vital part in the advancement of a petroleum
organisation. The execution of new advances will “focus on the accompanying: utilisation of
versatile apparatuses (e.g., jack-ups, semi-submersibles, drill ships) in inland and seaward
(shallow and/or profound water), capacity to actualize new investigation and penetrating
innovation, the most recent accessible adjustments, nature of usage boring procedure,
applying preventive support of gear to make machines more dependable, utilize new material
taking care of framework in moving and transporting oil, capacity for inner configuration
changes, simple access to data innovation all through procedures on the shop floor etc.”
(Garbie, 2011, p. 207).
59

These products are fundamental and shape part of the inventory network relationship. Supply
of tubular products is a procedure through which oil field tubular merchandise, for example,
pipes, tubing and packaging are requested, fabricated, put away, transported, readied and after
that conveyed to the well site for altering into a well. Delays in the supply of this
merchandise can consequently bring about broad apparatus downtime, and in like manner,
theincrement is working expenses. Along these lines, if suppliers could be more solid and
reliable, there would be less requirement for inventories of crude materials, quality
assessment frameworks, revamp and other non-esteem including exercises bringing about
incline creation (Chima, 2007).
2.8: Oil and Gas Industry Shareholders

Various types of organisations exercises rely on upon an assortment of partners. A partner is
anyone who can influence or is influenced by an association, system or venture emphatically
or adversely. Eden and Ackermann (1998, p. 117) placed that “partners are Individuals or
little gatherings with the ability to react to, arrange with, and change the key fate of the
association.”While Walker (2003) and OPITO (2002) characterise partners as people or
gatherings, who have a worry in the choices made by an association or some part of rights or
possession in the task and can add to, or be influenced by, either the work or the results of the
venture. Likewise, partners are not equivalent to their rights and interests on association’s
exercises. An organisation's clients are qualified to reasonable exchanging hones however
they are not qualified for the same thought as the organisation's workers. Industry partner’s
advantage from a systemic worth system examination since it finds out key territories in the
quality system where impediments and open doors for enhancements emerge (Weijermars,
2010). The key partners government, government offices, proprietors (shareholders),
suppliers, unions, financial specialists, clients, NGOs, loan bosses, account holders,
executives, representatives, business accomplice, temporary workers, oil industry,
investigator, the universal and neighbourhood group where oil organisations draw their assets
and deal their items (BP, 2011; Statoil, 2013).
Transporting natural gas, as any network infrastructure, has a character of natural monopoly,
4 it presents economy of scales, major (" economies of scope ") and joint production. In that
sense, significant economies of scale are observed in the construction and operation of
pipelines. The Fixed costs are very high and relatively low variable costs. Most fixed costs
are irrecoverable because the pipelines have limited alternative use. Operating costs are low
because transport gas through pipelines is easy and inexpensive. In addition there are
economies of scale multiproduct characteristics associated with transport services. A
60

transportation company can offer various services according to the customer, among others,
receipt and deferred delivery service interruptible or not interruptible, heating value and inlet
and outlet pressure. Under these conditions it is not economic which two or more companies
to develop their own systems to supply the same area geographical; It is better than a single
firm acting. However, when the size of the market are considerable, there may be one or more
carriers. Meanwhile, natural gas storage can provide great flexibility to the network
transportation of natural gas. Generally both are built together, it is more economic store gas
at high pressures than at low. Storage facilities allow administration of demand uniform gas
deliveries, balance loads to the daily and monthly fluctuations in the market and cover peak
demands, to meet the demands during peak hours. The most common methods of gas storage
are: use of depleted gas fields, salt caverns creation and use of aquifers. It is also may be
stored in liquid form as LNG.
In the early stages of development of the natural gas industry and until a few years ago,
wholesale trade was conducted generally in an integrated manner to transport activities and
distribution. In Europe, a group of distribution companies could agree to buy large quantities
of gas to a producer country and build the pipeline was needed to drive the hydrocarbon from
the place of production to consumption centres. The transaction is embodied in a contract of
long-term supply. In the United States and Canada the situation it has been a little different
due to the high presence of individual producers. In these countries, long-term contracts were
disappearing with the reform process, while being He developed a "market spot" where
participating producers, traders wholesalers ("Traders"), distribution companies and large
consumers. Similarly, the sale of gas to the end consumer has traditionally been an activity
carried out by the distribution company, charging a price "package", i.e. without distinguish
measurement costs, delivery, connection, billing and product. In new models industry
organization, the distribution company is not necessarily the company that supplies the gas;
additionally they have developed specialized companies in the measurement and collection.
The final bill is disaggregated to identify transparent charges for each of the services.
Accordingly, in oil and gas industry the central partners are the administrators. The central
administrators in the upstream segment of oil and gas production network are Baker Hughes,
Schlumberger; Baker Hughes are organisations that are specialists in high-innovation
penetrating instruments; investigating and these award establishment of hardware of oil and
gas investigation early stages (Acha, 2000: BP Global, 2004).

61

2.9 Competitive Advantage of the Firm

Upper hand ascends from the courses in which a firm contends in the commercial centre and
the sorts of business sectors it takes after (Hayes and Wheelwright, 1984; Porter, 2004;
Quinn, 1992). The focused targets on which associations base their operations are numerous
and different. They incorporate minimal effort, speed, adaptability, item customisation,
quality, reliability, development, conveyance and proactivity. Ideally, an organisation would
battle towards the synchronous achievement of an extensive variety of aggressive targets
even as the trade-off disorder endures in many organisations (Vokurka and Fliedner, 1998;
Ward et al., 1998; Rosenzweig et al., 2003; Gonzalez-Benito, 2005; Zhang and Sharifi, 2007).
All things considered, imaginative strategies, for example, simultaneous designing TQM, and
JIT have prompted essential advances in cost, quality and pace. They additionally empower a
movement in the position of the aggressive trade from the greater part of the essential
destinations, for example, expense and quality to higher request targets, for example, rate and
item customisation (Ward et al., 1998; Gordon and Sohal, 2001).
In this way, in light of quick changes in business sector necessities, relative conspicuousness
set on aggressive destinations is central to business execution (Vokurka et al., 2002; Lau and
Hurley, 2001). Also, this is notwithstanding methodical augmentation of aggressive
destinations past quality and expense to higher request goals, for example, development,
adaptability, item customisation and constancy (Hayes et al., 1988; Li, 2000). In the end, an
organisation ought to enhance its trust and dexterity as far as improved capacity to contend
from all fronts all the while.
Variety taking into account ease is the most fundamental upper hand. It seeks after cost funds
by means of institutionalised machines, economies of scale, and gauge items with moderately
stable life cycles, most extreme work usage, bring down overhead costs, standard gear
support, long generation runs, and right first time rehearses (Edwards, 1996; Silveira and
Slack, 2001). The quality goal takes after minimal effort. It highlights item certainty through
quality confirmation, parts accessibility, serviceability, ensures, warrantees, serviceable client
plans, and incremental increases to item includes. Creative projects, for example, TQM, JIT,
QFD, SMED, consistent change, simultaneous building and computerised process control of
value have succeeded in decreasing customary bargains amongst expense and quality (Flynn
et al., 1995a; Flynn et al., 1999; Curkovic et al., 2000).
Taking after expense and quality is constancy. It implies dedication to and consistency with
the terms and conditions prior expected or concurred with by the client. Such terms
incorporate persistent acknowledgement of reasonable or concurred costs and in addition
62

cancel amounts or conveyance dates. Nonetheless, steadfastness is affected by relative
dependability in sourcing inputs, facilitated operational procedures and generation streams
and additionally workforce, machine and gear unwavering quality. Likewise,dependability
requires without a moment to spare change in authoritative and moral commitments and
additionally plans and terms (Ling X, 2000). The accentuation on constancy has expanded
because of extraordinary unsteadiness in the aggressive environment (Gordon and Sohal,
2001).
In addition, while it is vital for makers to convey on ease, quality and steadfastness
destinations, and phenomenal flimsiness in the business environment has centred
consideration on rate and item customisation (Browne et al., 1995; Jagdev and Browne, 1998;
Browne and Zhang, 1999). Speed implies suitable satisfaction of booked requests and
growing new replies in front of contenders. Enhanced operations speed requires disposal of
contentious connections, dangerous interfaces, lines, operations forms, breakdowns, gear and
frameworks and ineptitude in supply chains (Gordon and Sohal, 2001). Data innovation has
turned into the principle instrument for propelling velocity as plant agents could assess
prerequisites continuous, pretty much as clients' databases can be entered questionably for
data on stocks and potential requests. As needs be, bunching, booking and directing can be
begun progressively. Moreover, firmly identified with rate is the aggressive goal of item
customisation. It tries to fulfil unmistakable client needs, oblige outline change calm, and
backing a more extensive scope of item arrangements as a method for contending in mass and
specialty markets (Lampel and Mintzberg, 1996; Khalil and Wang, 2002; Brown and Bessant,
2003; Yusuf et al., 2003; Squire et al., 2006). On the off chance that energised through lithe
store network organises, the possibility to increase the value of current items and clients is
indispensable for surviving business sector shakiness (Dove, 1995; Dove, 1996)).
In addition, as item customisation gets to be reinforced, request size necessities per custom
item will tend to fall (Yusuf et al., 2003). In any case, an organisation ought to have the
capacity to change limit and fabricate any size of requests at the same unit cost. A mass item
might be modified for low volume supplies in particular business sector specialities pretty
much as the essential qualities of a low volume redid item can be institutionalised for large
scale manufacturing. Moreover, adaptability is the capacity to change outfits rapidly and
whimsically from standard to custom product offerings, to make any request amounts, and
alter limit at no additional cost in order to suit the requirement for regular changes sought
after (Stevenson and Spring, 2007).

63

Accomplishing adaptability can represent a test for an association, in that, in spite of the fact
that production network systems administration can prompt cost reserve funds, fast
conveyances, quality change and quick customisation, capacity in adaptability appears to rely
on upon inside ability of an association only as far as procedure and workforce. Subsequently,
the procedure ability is demonstrated by the creation arranging and control productivity. The
most essential are grouping and directing adaptability so custom requests can be prepared in
parallel, while the workforce ability relies on upon specialist's aptitudes (Breu et al., 2002).
Notwithstanding the simplicity of activating, shedding and reconfiguring incredible
generation assets are considerably less on smart machines and innovations.
Ward et al. (1994) characterisedreactiveness in operational terms and demonstrated the effect
of assembling proactiveness and execution. This and comparative studies (e.g. GonzalezBenito, 2005) set up the significance of a proactive stance for assembling and the connection
between assembling reactiveness and great business execution. In any case, customary
assembling administration has to a great extent been receptive (Yahaya et al., 1999), in spite
of the fact that a proactive framework will blend with clients and recognise their issues and
necessities and secure capacities only in front of need. In this manner, proactivity offers
preferred vital standpoint for contending in a business sector considered by confusion and
uncertainty.
In the light of the previously mentioned examination, it was normal that trust among
inventory network accomplices would generally affect on aggressive goals. It was
additionally expected that positive impact on the focused goals would decipher into
considerable increases in authoritative execution measures.
The effects of focused goals on hierarchical execution measures have been accounted for in
various works (Swamidass and Newell, 1987; Droge et al., 1994; Li, 2000; Gordon and
Sohal, 2001; Lau and Hurley, 2001). Such concentrates totally utilised money related
measures of hierarchical execution for the most part deals turnover, net benefit, proportion of
working wage to resources and rate of profitability (Li, 2000). Monetary measures are
prominent as transitory pointers of the potential prize to financial specialists. All things
considered, they might be lacking as markers of the level of exercises, long-haul survival and
venture legitimization in circumstances of persistent change. Subsequently, an adjusted score
card of execution measures-budgetary, business sector and natural is fundamental in assessing
the effects of progress activities (Flynn et al., 1995).

64

2.10Concept of Trust

This part of the thesis explores literature on trust in supply chain relationships. It will define
trust and identify characteristics of trustworthiness in supply chain relationships.
Furthermore, it will provide us with why trust is important to organisational performance as
well review the risk involved in trust relationships.
2.10.1 Definition of Trust
A few studies have given distinctive ideas of trust. The most widely recognised meanings of
trust are recorded in the sequential request in Table 2.4. From a watchful investigation of
these definitions, it can be noticed that trust connection infers the support of no less than two
gatherings, a trustor and a trustee. The trustor is the gathering who places him or herself in a
defenceless circumstance under instability, and the trustee is the gathering on whom the trust
is set, who has the chance to exploit the trustor's weakness. Similarly, there are two surges of
ideas of trust in the writing. The primary stream of ideas depends on the contention that trust
is established inside the trustor (sentiments, feelings and perception) not in the trustee. For
example, in brain science explore, the oftentimes utilised meaning of trust originates from
Rotter (1967). In his definition, trust was conceptualised as a conviction, feeling or
anticipation that is profoundly established in identity and has its causes in an individual's
initial psychosocial advancement. The social perspective of trust contended that individuals'
yearning to keep up aware relations (Young, 1992) as a hope held by a person that the
conduct of someone else or a gathering would be unselfish and by and by helpful (Frost et al.,
1976). McAllister (1995) trusted trust is a psychological judgment about another's ability or
dependability and an enthusiastic obligation of an individual towards the other individual
(and alluded to as ''influence based trust''). Along these lines, this flood of contentions set that
trust is about an individual's (trustor's) demeanour to believe the trustee with unrestrained
choice and kindness.
Table 2.4: Definitions of Trust
Authors
Deutsch (1958)

Definitions
“Trust is the non-rational choice of a person faced with an uncertain

Wrightsman

event in which the expected loss was greater than the expected gain.”
“Trust is an expectancy of how people behave; trust worthiness

(1964)

represents the extent to which one believes that people are basically

Rotter (1967)

honest, as opposed to immoral and irresponsible.”
“A generalised expectancy held by an individual that the word, promise,

Zand (1972)

oral or written statement of another can be relied on.”
“Trust is an individual decision, based upon optimistic expectations or
65

confidence about the outcome of an uncertain event, given personal
vulnerability and the lack of control over the action of others.”
Schlenker et al. “Trust is reliance upon information received from another person about
(1973)

uncertain environmental states and their accompanying outcomes in a

risky situation.”
Arrow (1974)
“Trust may function as a lubricant of relationship.”
Frost
et
al. “Trust is expectancy held by an individual that the behaviour of another
(1976)
person or a group would be altruistic and personally beneficial.”
Luhmann (1979) “Trust is a risky engagement.”
Matthews and “Trust is a response by which persons commit themselves to possible
Shimoff (1979)
loss depending on the subsequent behaviour of other persons.”
Larzelere
and “Trust is to rely upon benevolence in the expected future.”
Huston (1980)
Cook and Wall “The extent to which one is willing to ascribe good intentions to and
(1980)
Schurr

have confidence in the words and actions of other people.”
and “The belief that a party’s word or promise is reliable and that a party

Ozanne (1985)
Zucker (1986)

will fulfil its obligations in an exchange relationship.”
“Trust is a set of social expectations shared by everyone involved in an

economic exchange based on theperson, processed and institution.”
and “The customer believes that what the salesperson says or promises to do

Swan

Trawick (1987)

can be relied upon in a situation where the failure of the salesperson to

Jarillo (1988)
Gambetta

be reliable will cause customer problems.”
“Trust may function as glue in relationships.”
“Trust is a particular level of subjective probability with which an agent

(1988)

expects that another agent or group of agents will perform a particular
action, both before he can monitor such action (or independently of his
capacity ever to be able to monitor it) and in a context in which it

Hawes

affects his own action.”
al. “Trust is reliance upon information from another person about uncertain

et

(1989)

environmental states and outcomes in a risky situation.”

Michalos (1990)

“Trust is a relatively informed attitude or propensity to allow oneself
and perhaps others to be vulnerable to harm in the interest of some

Boon

perceived greater good.”
and “Trust is a state involving confident expectations about another’s

Holmes (1991)
motives with respect to oneself in situations entailing risk.”
Lagace
and “Trust is an attitude that leads someone to commit to a possible loss
Gassenheimer

contingent on the future behaviour of the other person.”

66

(1991)
Moorman et al. “Trust is a willingness to rely on exchange partner in whom one has
(1993)
Lagace

confidence.”
and “Trust is a person committing to a possible loss contingent upon the

Marshall (1994)
Barney

subsequent behaviour of a specific.”

and “Trust is the mutual confidence that no party to an exchange will exploit

Hansen (1994)
Ganesan (1994)

another’s vulnerabilities.”
“Willingness to rely on an exchange partner in whom one has
confidence. Two distinct components: objective credibility, belief that
the other has the expertise to perform the job; and benevolence, belief
that the other has motives beneficial to the target when new conditions

arise for which a commitment was not made.”
and “Trust is a state involving confident, positive expectations about

Lewicki

Bunker (1995)
another’s motives regarding oneself in situations of risk.”
Mayer et al. “Trust is the willingness of a party based on the expectations that the
(1995)

other party will perform a particular action important to the trust or,

Hosmer (1995)

irrespective of the ability to monitor or control the party.”
“Trust is the reliability by one person, group, or firm upon a voluntarily
accepted duty on the part of another person, group or firm to recognise
and protect the rights and interests of all others engaged in a joint

endeavour or economic exchange.”
Bhattacharya et “Trust is an expectancy of positive outcomes that one can receive based
al. (1998)

on the expected action of another party in an interaction characterised

Cumming

by uncertainty.”
and “Trust is an individual’s belief or a common belief among a group of

Bromiley (1996) individuals that another individual or Group.”
Strutton et al. “A willingness to rely on an exchange partner with whom the customer
(1996)
Bidault

has confidence.”
and “Trust believes that the other party will behave in our best interests.”

Jarillo (1997)
Rousseau et al. “Trust is a psychological state comprising the intention to accept
(1998)

vulnerability based upon positive expectations of the intentions or

Wicks

behaviour of another.”
al. “Optimal trust is an embedded construct suggesting that it is determined

(1999)

et

in context shaped by variety of factors such as trustworthiness of the
agent local and broader social norms regarding trust and other features
of the social structure(s)”
67

Lippert (2001)

“Technology trust is an individual’s willingness to be vulnerable to the
technology based on expectations of predictability, reliability, and utility

Blomqvist

and influenced by an individual’s predisposition to trust technology.”
“Trust is actors expectation on the capability, goodwill, and self-

(2002)

reference visible in mutually beneficial behaviour enabling cooperation

Medlin (2002)

under risk.”
“Trust can be viewed as a psychological construct, generated within
social structures (i.e. firms and relationships) by individual and group

Halliday (2003)

interpretation of past events.”
“Trust is best conceived of as theme, providing an approach for
proceeding in conditions of uncertainty and as a rich and complex

Soroka

concept.”
al. “Trust is a belief that other people will honour obligations in varying

et

(2003)

context in an open commitment to promoting social welfare through to

mere conformity with conventions.”
Riegelsberger et “Trust is a device to reduce complexity, a shortcut to avoid complex
al. (2003)
decision processes when facing decisions that carry risk.”
Svensson (2004) “Trust is an important factor in business relationships since people
manage the business activities.”
and “Trust is an individual’s willingness to be vulnerable to the technology

Lippert

Swiercz (2005)

based on expectations of predictability, reliability, utility and influenced

by an individual’s predisposition to trust technology.”
and “Trust is not primarily dispositional or an individual attribute or

Michael
Rowe (2006)

psychological

state,

but

is

constructed

from

a

set

of

interpersonalbehaviours or from a shared identity. These behaviours are
underpinned by sets of institutional rules, laws and customs.”
and “Trust is perceived usefulness, perceived security, perceived privacy,

Chen

Barnes (2007)
Kim

et

perceived good reputation, and willingness to customise are the
important antecedents to online initial trust.”
al. “Trust is a complex and multifaceted construct.”

(2009)
Source: Laeequddin et al., 2010
The second stream of an idea depends on the contention that trust is dug in inside director.
Guardian need not mean the other individual. Guardian could be competency, capacity, mark,
a bit of gear, innovation, counts, institutional framework, or security and so forth, contingent
upon the setting of trust (Frost et al., 1976). Case in point, Rousseau et al. (1998) translate
trust as far as saw conceivable outcomes and propose that in an information-based economy,
68

a trustee's fitness, capacity, and aptitude turn out to be progressively imperative as a pointer
of his/her/or its capacity to go about not surprisingly. Thus, the behavioural appraisals are
done taking into account the observations made by the other accomplice; trust requires an
appraisal of the other party's believability and kind-heartedness(Donéy and Cannon, 1997).
Henceforth, one gathering must have data about other gathering's past practices and
guarantees. People compute the additions, which may come about because of their choice to
believe another person before they really settle on their choice to believe each
other(Coleman, 1990). Between hierarchical trusts is particularly reliant on and encouraged
by the institutional system in which the relationship is established(Bachmann, 2001).
Innovation trust is an individual's readiness to be powerless against the innovation in light of
desires of unwavering quality, utility, and consistency and affected by an individual's
inclination to trust innovation(Lippert, 2001). In this way, trust is a state including certain
positive assumptions about another's intentions with respect to oneself in circumstances of
danger (Lewicki and Bunker, 1995). Shapiro et al. (1992) recommended that the people
demonstration in a dependable way as a result of the apprehension of the outcomes of trust
infringement. The higher the punishment, the hypothesis proposes, the more noteworthy the
probability that performing artists will be dependable. As demonstrated by this surge of
thought trust is about how trust praiseworthy the trustee is additionally to some degree aftereffect of trustor's capacity to study the trustworthiness of the trustee.
Additionally, from both thoughts, it can be seen that trust is the trustor's choice, either
recognising or non-practical. Deutsch (1958) portrays trust as a non-ordinary choice of a man
stood up to with an unclear event in which the typical incident is more imperative than the
ordinary expansion or a reasonable choice based on confident longings or assurance about the
after-effect of a flawed event, given individual powerlessness and the nonattendance of
control over the action of others (Zand, 1972). Subsequently, a dyadic affiliation exists
among demographics and brands and, in this manner, trust is required remembering the
ultimate objective to enable both sides to keep up and in a perfect world develop this
relationship by discarding the clear precariousness and peril that are incorporated into
purchasers' buying conduct (Elliott and Yannopoulou, 2007).
Therefore, when the stock system people have section to complete information around a
trustee's money related matters, capacities, results, controls, and if trustor is certain that there
is no shakiness or threat required in the relationship then trust has no significance; finish data
ousts the prerequisite for trust anyway it can be there. On the other hand, when the people
require information about the trustee and the trustor is in the state of the total carelessness of
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future after-effect of the relationship there can be no inspiration to trust, and it requires not be
there, as risk triumphs. Trust can't exist in a circumstance of certification, in case it did, it
would be unimportant (Bhattacharya et al., 1998). Some level of powerlessness is crucial for
trust to create (Dasgupta, 1988). Hence, trust is a for the most part taught manner (an adjusted
choice) or liking to allow oneself and perhaps others to be unprotected against naughtiness in
light of an honest to goodness sympathy toward some clear more imperative awesome
(Michalos, 1990) and thusly it is a perilous engagement (Luhmann, 1979). The threat taking
act is both substance and association subordinate. Finally, as battled by Laeequddin et al.
(2009) trust is an edge level of a store system part's (trustor's) threat bearing farthest point
related to thetrustee. Past the trustor's threat bearing breaking point the subject of trust
changes into risk organisation as opposed to a matter of trust and a vital conflict of this
thought is that trust can be only dyadic in nature. For instance, if a maker trusts its provider
moreover its provider in a chain it doesn't mean a triadic trust. It is basically a dyadic trust
between the maker and its provider and moreover the producer and its provider.
Furthermore, and in general, trust has been theorised in three ways. First, as an input in
exchange relationships that reduces transaction costs, improves accountability and
performance in an organisation, it also strengthens civil society (Dasgupta, 1988; Misztal,
1996). Secondly; it is a structural characteristic of networks and relationships that reflects the
strength (or weakness) of a relationship and the degree to which actors are mutually
connected to achieve organisational performance (Granovetter, 1985; McEvily et al., 2003).
Third, as a socially constructed phenomenon that emerges through rational calculations and
evaluations of risk and profit, it also emerges through relational processes where
performances, emotions, material objects and moral judgments play an important role (Jones,
1996; Yamagishi, 2001).
Trust is a critical element for supply chain effectiveness (Johnston 2004) and a key for
alliance success (Doz & Hamel, 1998) Mutual trust and long-term pledge are an element of
successful relationships among supply chain partners (Mirani et al. 2001). It is obvious that
real partnership cannot exist in supply chain relationships without meaningful trust. There are
numerous definitions of trust in supply chain partnerships, some of which are as thus: Trust is
an expectation that the word of an individual or organisation can be relied on (Rotter 1967).
Trust is the ability to rely on a business partner in whom one has confidence in (Morgan and
Hunt 1994).
Confidence in supply chain relationships involves reliability, competency, honesty,
objectivity, responsibility, accountability and predictability (Lamming 1996). Trust is the
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degree to which partners perceive each other as credible and honest (Donéy and Cannon
1997) and is expected to have a positive effect on the degree of partnership in supply-chain
relationships. Trust is the belief that a partner’s promise is reliable and that such partner will
accomplish his/her duties in an exchange relationship (Schurr and Ozanne 1985). Trust is the
organisation's belief that another organisation will undertake actions that will give positive
results for the organisation, as well as not take actions that would yield a negative result for
the organisation (Anderson and Narus 1990).
It is a known fact, and a growing body of research approves that joint relationships are a
crucial instrument used by organisations to develop new products and services. Because of
short product lifespan, technological is also on the rise and customers ever changing needs;
organisations no longer wait to have full skill continuously develop new products and
services. Therefore, to improve on services, organisations need to partner with other
organisations. With the growing impact of supply chain management, management scholars
are paying utmost attention to inter-organisational relationships to create closer relationships
and cooperation which in turn is providing significant potential for corporate success
(Landeros and Monczka 1989). 0rganisational trust also contributes to exchange benefits in
inter-organisational relationships, like reduced negotiation costs, risk of betrayals, transaction
costs and search costs (McEvily et al., 2003)
Though the evidence of the positive exchange benefits is acknowledged in most literature,
there is also a recent event that shows that trust may also bring costs and risks. Although this
position is relatively under-researched, academic literature evidently points out negative trust
effects such as overconfidence, considering of alternatives, lack of objectivity, inhibited
creativity and ignoring of evidence speaking against one’s partners’ trustworthiness (Gargiulo
and Ertug, 2006; Patzelt and Shepherd, 2008; Yavuz and Ucbasaran, 2006)
Trust is widely acknowledged, by scholars and researchers alike, as a crucial element for
businesses to operate effectively and efficiently (Noteboom, 2000). When trust exists
between individuals to achieve a common goal, it allows them to save extensively on control
mechanisms that would have been needed to ensure that both parties deliver what is expected
of them. While trust is undoubtedly also beneficial in transactions within organisations
(Rickards, 2000), the focus of this research is precisely on the inter-organisational aspect of
trust. One of the complications with the concept of trust is that it refers both to interindividual and inter-organisational relationships, which is between individuals and between
“organisations” (Perrone et al., 1998).

71

No one organisation is an island in today’s market, with the ever-changing customer needs.
Organisations are not only trying to provide economic value but also to trying hard improve
the services they render. Many organisations have realised the significance of supplier
relationships so as to remain competitive. The awareness that organisation’s ability to flourish
often relies on the collective collaboration is on the rise (Brown et al., 2005). Though
organisations have long acknowledged the value of genuine coordinated effort and
organisation of key business works and have just as of late risen through supply chain
administration (Ganesan et al., 2009). In nature today, supply chains will probably go up
against other supply chains as opposed to individual associations rivalling each other
(Vickery, at el. 2004). In this manner, supply chain achievement depends on the quality of the
connections between associations.
Supply chain administration includes the greater part of the exercises that convey an item or
administration to the market (Vickery et al., 2003). Supply chains influence between
hierarchical connections that allow clients to get an item on time put, and available (Mentzer
et al., 2007). Above all, a high-performing supply chain is made out of a progression of cosy
connections among various associations (Cooper et al., 1997). By joining forces with other
supply chain individuals, an association can oversee vital supply chain capacities,
acknowledge larger amounts of client administration and cut down on general cost (Stank et
al., 1999). associations that are fruitful in building up these sorts of long haul joint
connections can accomplish a practical upper hand (Mentzer et al., 2000) that is hard for
contenders to copy or uproot (Day, 2000).
The premise of a between association supply chain relationship is based upon fundamental
qualities. Trust is one of the crucial attributes that drives fruitful between association
connections (Mohr and Spekman, 1994) and advances joint effort (Min et al., 2007). Trust
likewise works as a predecessor to the helpful practices that in the long run prompt to upper
hand (Mentzer et al., 2000). Hence, supply chain accomplices are not prone to acknowledge
ideal joint execution comes about without trust. Some propose that trust is significant to the
point that any relationship will come up short without it (Lambert, Emmelhainz, and Gardner,
1999). Despite the fact that examination recommends that trust is the premise of a
relationship and is decidedly identified with joint connections, regardless does trust truly
exist in an authoritative organisation and would it be a good idea for it to be considered all
the while? In the event that both individual sorts of trust ought to be considered, do the
relative levels of trust between every gathering have any kind of effect at the level of between
association relationships?
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Before highlighting the trust building process in organisational relationships, it is essential to
highlight the attributes that lead to the development of trust by exploring trustworthiness
attributes.
2.10.3 Enablers/Trust driver’s/Trust attributes within Organisational boundaries
Trustworthiness attributes explore ways of defining trust existence, as one of the aims of this
research to investigate how trust promotes organisational performance, it is very important to
identify the attribute of trust so as to understand organisational relationships and the extentto
which trust is used in different levels. In addition, trust is characterised in terms of the
willingness and expectations of the trusting party engaging in a transaction (Rousseau et al.,
1998), and also the features of trust depend on the trust context (Sloman, 2004). The
following discussion defines and clarifies these characteristics.
Benevolence
Trust is considered as a dynamic concept that evolves over time forming in the minds of
consumers based on the characteristics of the company and its behaviour. This concept plays
a key role in the field of sales since multiple studies affirm that in order to achieve customer
loyalty it is necessary to previously have their trust. In addition, trust allows people to live in
complex situations, reducing the number of options to be taken into account in a given
situation, allowing cooperation between individuals, being key therefore for the success of
transactions, i.e. in the process of trading. According to Larzelere and Huston (1980), trust
can be defined as dyadic because they expected trust happens in light of a man view of
someone else kind-heartedness and in addition genuineness. Accordingly, Benevolence
comprises of the opinions of fellowship and the feeling of diffuse individual responsibility
which happens between gatherings occupied with a business relationship (Perry et al., 2002).
Thus, generosity proposes that the trustee has some particular connection to the trustor.
Seeing someone, kind-heartedness’ positively affects uncovering closeness (Hansen, 2003).
Furthermore, Solomon and Florés (2003) utilised the term kind-heartedness to concentrate on
a positive and particular association with a trustor. Thus, it is viewed as the impression of a
positive introduction of the trustee toward the trustor. It is the degree to which a trustee is
accepted to need to do great to the trustor, aside from a conceited benefit reason and it can be
communicated in a number of routes, for example, reliability and steadiness (Wintoro and
Mulya, 2005). Hence, in-store network associations it alludes to the view of a trade
gathering's goodwill toward the other party in the relationship.
Honesty

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Scarnati (1997) set that trustworthiness or honesty is coming clean, adjusting words to reality.
In this manner, when a trustee gives a guarantee it recommends guarantee trust without
changing or deceiving. It implies that the trusting party in a relationship rely on the
relationship accomplice being reliable (Walter et al., 2000). Asacker (2004) characterised
trustworthiness as an identity estimation which implies finding a mining approach to express
what individuals think or feel. Thus, in inventory network associations trustworthiness
alludes to satisfying a guarantee or acting as per one's words and be terrified of the outcomes
of not doing as such. In this point of view, the believing party's ability to trust will be founded
on the apparent genuineness of the trustee that makes the trusting party feels sure that the
other party will satisfy the expressed undertaking or part in the inventory network exchange.
Also, trustworthiness is characterised as the initial phase of building a trust relationship and
without seeing validity in the trustee, the excitement to trust lacking (Ganesan, 1994; Donéy
and Cannon, 1997; Liljander and Roos, 2002). Therefore, it is basic for trust occasion, and it
passes on earnings drawn by a trustor party in light of past experience about another party.
Competence
Another property of trust is competence. Jaques (1976) opined that competencies the limit
and readiness to look long ways ahead as a long haul time introduction. Along these lines,
Jaques' perspective of ability includes individual expertise and experience in order to
anticipate what's to come. Additionally, Hamel and Parhalad (1994) characterise capability as
a mix of abilities and advancements, and Morden (1997) supports this view in defining
competence. Also, the capacity of a party to meet responsibilities, as characterised by
Handifiled and Bechtel, is apparently identified with the aptitudes, information, experience
and advances that are probably going to be set up by the party to meet the duties. Thus,
competence can be characterised as a heap of abilities and experience, innovations and in
addition notoriety for learning. In this manner, competence can be characterised as the
capacity to execute of course to meet responsibilities through conveying had abilities,
learning, and knowledge, and advances reasonable to a relegated errand or part.
Commitment
Relationship commitment can be characterised as a trade accomplice trusting that a
continuous association with another is so vital as to allow concentrated endeavours to look
after it; that is to say, the conferred party trusts the relationship merits are taking a shot at to
guarantee that it always endures (Morgan and Hunt, 1994).Furthermore, Commitment infers
greater reliance of channel individuals on their accomplices (Ganesan, 1994). It is a

74

trustedstandard, and it implies that individuals consider their work important without any
reservation (livonen, 2003).
Credibility
Credibility depends on the degree to which a trusting gathering trusts that the other party in
the relationship has the required know-how to play out the undertaking successfully and
relentlessly (Ganesan, 1994). Validity is the trustworthiness of the present goal in view of the
notoriety of an individual or association (Herbig and Milewicz, 1995). Besides, Herbig and
Milewicz (1997) describe believability as the agreeableness of an individual's objectives at a
particular moment in time, and they go further to say that acceptability is time sensitive and it
can change from perceived credibility on a previous or future date. They contended further
that credibility exists when one can confidently use past actions to forecast future behaviour,
and it is highly related to perceptions of the individual's actions. It is reveal in the literature
that honesty is firmly connected with believability, as appeared before in the meaning of
genuineness given by Walter et al. (2000). Nations (2005) underlined that the administration
measurement of validity has appositive and huge effect on information picking up traits of
arrangement and control.
Expertise
Expertise alludes to aptitude, capability, data and master information. Braunsberger and
Munch (1998) characterised expertise as having a high level of aptitude/learning of a specific
branch of knowledge that is gotten through some sort of formal preparing. Likewise, Bender
and Fish (2000) characterise expertise as particular, profound information and comprehension
in a specific field, which is far above unremarkable. Sveiby (2001) posited that describing
knowledge is difficult by using words because an “auto pilot” guides the actions. Expertise is
characterised as inferred information; inferred information is learning of practices that
individuals have figured out how to do, however, which they can't unambiguously depict
(Karhu, 2002). Van de Heijden (2001) stressed that expert expertise includes the distinctive
sorts of learning that are characteristic for a specific expert field. In another article, Van de
Heijden (2003: 83) battles that "Word related expertise can just achieve its potential in a
circumstance where a worker can offer or endeavour the information and aptitudes with
which he or she is furnished and where the level of trouble of the errand, level of power,
measure of time accessible, and the measure of moral obligation are adequately testing.
Thus, expertise is named as word related or expert expertise, and it is associated with the
capacity to apply had learning and aptitudes in order to finish or play out a particular
assignment in specific circumstances. In this way, Expertise, as a dependability property,
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suggests that a trusting gathering tends to exchange trust with another gathering who has
word related or capable ability by a method for the impression of aptitude and expected a
result that may be created through trusting this present gathering's had skill.
Reliability
It can be characterised as anticipation held by a person that the accomplice's composed
explanation (Ganesan, 1994). A trusting gathering, to see the unwavering quality of a trustee
in a relationship, needs to assess a base or experience of the trustee's dependability. As
demonstrated by Handifiled and Bechtel (2004), it is a level of sureness, and reliable quality
saw through repeated correspondence and time. Thusly, to this degree, Delgado-Ballester and
Munuera-Aleman (2005) put forth that dependability has a fitness based or concentrated
nature, including the limit and avidness to keep certifications and satisfy customers' needs s.
Subsequently, reliability happens as certainty about future fulfilment event, and this certainty
is seen through rehashed cooperation and time with a trading party. Additionally, it is
surveyed on the premise of the past conduct and execution of the party.
Goodwill or Intentionality
The literature demonstrates that purposefulness is found in trust connections through two
aspects. The principal perspective of deliberateness is characterised as a partiality to partake
in a trust relationship. In this perspective, Ganesan (1994) kept up that purposefulness is
insufficient for relationship event and subsequently, aims to trade trust are required.
Moreover, Papadopoulou et al. (2001) portray deliberateness as the initial phase during the
time spent trust event, and they allude to it as the expectation of a party to participate in a
relationship. They allude to purposefulness as availability to partake in a relationship and
without cooperation in a relationship the deliberateness speaks to the presence of readiness.
Therefore, in this view, deliberateness is comprehended as a pre-organize or an arrangement
to a trade relationship and the motivations to partake on this trust relationship depend on the
believing party's desire. This importance of deliberateness is identified with the impression of
a trade party's reliability, a dependability property that recommends view of certainty
bringing about a penchant for taking part in a trust relationship. Accordingly, this perspective
of deliberateness is not in itself a dependability ascribes, however, a propensity to fabricate
trust in light of an apparent reliability quality.
The second feature of deliberateness is identified with the expectations of a trading party
towards another in a relationship. As appeared by the writing survey, deliberateness in its
right sense as a reliability quality is known as goodwill. Smith and Ven (1994) contended that
when uncertainty exists then purposefulness speaks to confidence in the goodwill of others
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and this starts with past encounters of dealings with those others or with that party. Along
these lines, it is the capacity to conjecture the other party's future activities in view of
valuation of this present party's past conduct and level of minding amid the relationship.
Furthermore, Heffernan (2004) battles that deliberateness or goodwill alludes to
accomplishing more than is formally anticipated.
From the previous examination, the writing on goodwill demonstrates that it is profoundly
identified with saw altruism of a trading party, which involves nature of care. Thus, the
goodwill of a party starts to shape in a relationship when a trading party sees through past
experience of repeating communications the kind heartedness of the other party.
Integrity
It can be described as obeying to some course of action of characteristics or principles
(McFall, 1987). Organizations promote confidence in the management and care about
creating a climate of integrity and justice organizational, they will benefit less cynical and
distrustful employees, and more committed and satisfied. Working with respectability
suggests carrying on reasonable and unsurprising (livonen, 2003). Furthermore, Integrity is
related to the openness of an exchange party in a relationship, and it is the fulfillment of
certifications under conditions that incorporate reward and train.

Confidence
Confidence, analysed from the organizational point of view, presents characteristics
similarities in its modelling that can be grouped to generate much more robust models that
help to understand the complexity of such relationships and generate lines of future work in
this important field of organizations. Among these similarities are: the trustor, the trustee, the
domain to which the relationship is applied, the inherent risks of the relationship and the
factors that condition the relationship of trust in any of the levels to which it belongs. In this
article, a review of the main models was made, grouping them at different levels
(interpersonal, person-organization, interorganisational and man-machine) and presented the
common elements of such models. Luhmann (1988) segregated trust and confidence by
saying that trust diverges from confidence since confidence requires an earlier engagement on
a man's part. Confidence is alluded to as an eagerness to count on a trade accomplice
(Moorman et al., 1993). Morgan and Hunt (1994) and Fairholm (1994) kept up that
individuals conceptualise trust as existing when one party has confidence in a trade
accomplice's reliability and in addition integrity. Thusly, eagerness to depend on a trade
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accomplice is a key to trust happening. In any case, they contended that in the event that one
trusts that an accomplice is trustworthy without being willing to depend on that accomplice,
trust is deficient.
Ability
A few researchers characterised ability as an arrangement of capabilities or aptitudes that
permit a person to perform in some range (for example, Butler, 1991; Mayer et al., 1995;
Mishra, 1996). In this viewpoint, the gathering of competencies and abilities create qualities
that empower a party in a relationship to have an impact on some particular range. These
creators (Mayer et al., Butler, and Mishra) contended that in a relationship the trustee might
be trusted to perform explanatory assignments identified with the trustee's had competencies,
aptitudes and attributes. All things considered, the trustee in this relationship is essentially
trusted inside the particular ability (aptitudes, competencies, and attributes) domain. This
view is upheld by William (2001) who likewise fights that the individual may not be trusted
more remote than the region of saw ability.
Consistency
Consistency is identified with the consistent quality of an individual's conduct. Trust can be
held through consistency of lead. Along these lines, underway system associations,
consistency as a trustworthiness acknowledge recognises for the perspective of immovable
nature of an exchange party's perspective and trust in this ordinariness achieves trusting the
party. Loyalty is assumed as the goal of the new millennium. Loyalty, trust, satisfaction,
values and quality in service are the elements studied by Harris and Goode (2004). The views
reflect the perspectives taken in the discussions about trust and include organizational theory,
psychology, and trust theory among others. The Harris and Goode (2004) model proposes
trust as a factor that generates loyalty from shared values, quality of service and customer
satisfaction. The emerging relationship paradigm contributes to the importance of trust in the
seller-buyer relationships of the industrial sector. The buyer-seller concept and the
relationship architecture concept emphasize the aspects of Just-in-Time Theory, linking the
link with sellers and customers. Shared information and trust are part of the supply chain
(Narasimhan and Nair, 2005).
Predictability
Predictability is effectively identified with results of relationship as a significant part of the
writing has a tendency to liken predictability with trust. Trust must go past predictability to be
reminiscent, (Deutsch, 1958 referred to by Mayer et al., 1995). In any case, predictability
appears not to be sufficient to describe the ordinary importance of trust (Huemer, 2004). A
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rudimentary contention for why predictability is not adequate is, along these lines, that view
of positive inspiration, or altruism, are required if prospects of trust are to happen (Huemer,
2004). Predictability depends on conduct. In any case, if an individual continues changing
qualities and schedules, then predictability will be irrelevant, and trust will be harder to set
up.
Fairness
Fairness is alluded to as equity. The writing demonstrates that fairness is characterised into
two sorts: procedural fairness and interactional fairness (Ruyter and Wetzels, 2000).
Procedural fairness is portrayed by Thibaut and Walker (1975) as the procedure that prompts
to a specific result. Then again, Bies and Moag (1986) portrayed interactional fairness as the
way in which the individual is dealt with as far as pride, respectfulness and regard.
Independent of the procedural or interactional grouping of the region it happens in, fairness is
characterised by Oliver (1997) as rightness or deservingness in contrast with different things,
whether individual or aggregate, genuine or fanciful, individual or non-individual. Moreover,
in business, fairness depends on the observation that administration will be as unprejudiced or
impartial as could reasonably be expected (O'Brien, 2001). It can be characterised likewise as
the absence of predisposition in techniques and tenets (O'Brien, 2001).
The characterised trustworthiness traits speak to methods for distinguishing trust seeing
someone. The writing assigns trust as far as two sorts of connections which are interpersonal
connections and hierarchical connections. The accompanying segment demonstrates
advancement and improvement of trust.
2.11 Evolution/Development of Trust

This section looks at the evolution and trust development among the organisation. Before
delving into trust development, trust in interpersonal relationships is reviewed in detail.
2.11.1 Classifications of Trust in Interpersonal Relationships
The literature offers arrangements of trust in both interpersonal and authoritative connections.
In interpersonal connections, a few creators have recognised diverse sorts of trust. In this
regard, Solomon and Florés (2003) characterise two sorts of trust, to be specific, basic trust,
which is underestimated and when double-crossed and can't be re-established, and visually
impaired trust that is unrestricted and in light of recognition. Solomon and Florés'
characterization is constructed for the most part in light of the approach of instilling trust in
the relationship and underscores the qualities of trust. Axelrod (2004) contends that there are
two sorts of interpersonal trust: particular trust that happens inside specific conditions and
general trust where individuals tend to trust everybody unequivocally. Axelrod in this
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characterization is practically supporting Solomon and Florés' order. In this unique situation,
Sonnenwald (2004: 82) declares the presence of two successful sorts of trust and
characterises them as subjective, concentrated on judgements of competence and reliability,
and full of feeling, concentrated on interpersonal securities among people and organisations.
The literature demonstrates that the interpersonal sorts of trust distinguished by the specified
creators are for the most part in view of individual connections, which are not quite the same
as hierarchical connections. Trust in hierarchical connections is characterised and
conceptualised in view of trustworthiness qualities, characterised before in the section 2.4.2.
As specified beforehand, the literature demonstrates that the characterised trustworthiness
characteristics are methods for conceptualising trust. To conceptualise trust event in a
production network relationship, then, the traits are characterised into trustworthiness
characteristics and trust measurements. The accompanying area talks about this grouping and
builds up a theoretical model of trust.
2.11.2 Trustworthiness Attributes and Related Trust Dimensions
The literature on trust arranges the trustworthiness traits characterised above into
trustworthiness properties and trust measurements. As indicated by Chatterjee and Pearson
(2002) the large-scale level wellsprings of trust can effectively shape the miniaturised scale
level strengths of integrity, kind-heartedness and competence. In this specific circumstance,
the literature on production network connections demonstrates, in client provider
connections, there are three fundamental instabilities confronted by clients in inventory
network communication. The principal instability is identified with the satisfaction of clients'
desires, and it is alluded to as saw competence. The second vulnerability is identified with the
readiness to follow the store network exchange and duty, and it is alluded to as saw integrity.
The third instability in the store network relationship is identified with deliberateness to take
part in a trade relationship and to decidedly persuade the exchange in the production network
relationship which is alluded to as perceived kind-heartedness.
In inventory network connections, Sako (1992) ordered three sorts of trust, in
particular,“contractual trust”, “competence trust”, and “goodwill trust”. “Contractual trust” is
identified with the apparent uprightness of a trading party, while “competence trust” is
identified with saw competence and the consideration of a trade party result in “goodwill
trust”. Realised integrity, competence and kindness are the after effects of mixes of different
trustworthiness characteristics (Chong et al., 2003). With respect to characterization of
trustworthiness properties, genuineness, fairness, believability, confidence, and duty are

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delegated qualities in charge of the development of the apparent integrity trust measurement
Nicholson et al., 2001; Heffernan, 2004). Expertise, ability, reliability, and consistency are
named trustworthiness qualities that speak to the presence of the apparent competency trust
measurement in the relationship (Sako, 1992; Smith and Barclay, 1997). Then again,
perceived kind-heartedness is a trusted measurement that creates from view of deliberateness
or goodwill and predictability trustworthiness traits in a relationship (Sako, 1992; Donéy and
Cannon, 1997; Green, 2003). In this research, the three trustworthiness attributes and their
dimensions are conceptualised as a model of trust. The trustworthiness attributed; perceived
integrity, perceived competence and perceived benevolence encompass the trusting party's
perception of the dimensions of these attributes. We have now characterised the three
measurements of trust and related trustworthiness qualities in hierarchical connections and
especially in production network connections. Taking after from this, the following segment
demonstrates phases of trust improvement conceptualised on the premise of the arranged trust
measurements.
2.11.3 Stages of Trust Development
The concept of trust admits multiple definitions which, in turn, their application in different
contexts. Although some are accepted here the concept of trust is not in agreement with the
propositions. The literature on trust demonstrates that trust advances after some time through
rehashed cooperation between gatherings in a relationship. In connection to the grouping of
sorts of trust showed in the past area, Lewicki and Bunker (1996) proposed three phases of
trust improvement: analytics based trust, learning based trust, and recognisable proof or
transference-based trust. Portage et al. (1998) battle that there are four phases of relationship
improvement where trust culture advancement gets to be conceivable: the pre-relationship
arrange, the exploratory stage, the creating stage, and the looking after the stage. These four
phases of trust are likewise highlighted by Lewicki et al. (1998) in recognising trust and
distrust. Trust has been studied in many disciplines, but each one does Reference to it
according to its context, and puts it in operation of different ways. Therefore, there is a lack
of consistent principles to define it in all its manifestations, such as the traits of relations
Commercial buyer selling. In order to provide an overview and illustrate the variety of
approaches that define it, examples are provided of philosophy, psychology, sociology,
economics and applied areas of Business management and marketing that deal with it.Making
an enthusiastic bond between individuals is viewed as the initial step of trust event and trade
(Wicks et al., 1999).

81

In business connections, right correspondence is alluded to as the initial phase in creating
trust. Henriott (1999) underlines that in production network connections, openness and data
sharing are essentials for trust advancement. Agarwal and Shanker (2003) contended similar
phases of trust advancement characterised by Lewicki and Bunker (1996). Along these lines,
the phases of trust improvement as characterised by Agarwal and Shanker appear in Fig.2.7.

Developing relationship based on experienceIII II Stage I:Transference-based trust development
Calculus based trust development
Stage II:
I Information based trust
development

Information-based trust development
4
Stage III:
ed on experience
I Transference based trust
k
developmentII I
on-based
Calculus-based trust development
:lopment
Reduce sensed of uncertainty and risk

Presence of risk
and vulnerability

Fig.2.7: Stages of Trust Development modified from Ba (2001)
Source: Agarwal and Shanker, 2003
Trust advancement and opens entryways in the relationship to empower view of the other
trust measurements, which are the apparent competency and the apparent kindheartednesscharacterised beforehand. The literature demonstrates that the improvement of
every trust measurement in a production network relationship is connected with the
arrangement of a kind of trust that is straightforwardly identified with that created trust
measurement. These sorts of trust are delegated appeared in the literature as phases of trust
advancement.
Recognition, openness, fairness, and care and concern concentrating on gatherings' welfare
and prosperity are behavioural ascribes that prompt to trust improvement between gatherings.
With various inventory network parties, trust creates through notoriety. The notoriety of the
party's apparent integrity then gets to be in charge of
82

2.11.3.1 Calculus-based Trust
Calculus-based trust creates on a premise of objective computation of the conceivable
favourable circumstances and drawbacks anticipated from the relationship. This judicious
estimation, as per Luhmann (1988), prompts to trust if the favourable position one looks for
seems more prominent than the conceivable harm. In connection with this phase of trust
improvement, Morgan and Hunt (1994) explain that trust creates and gets to be set up in a
relationship when one party has confidence in a trade accomplice's integrity. Consequently,
saw integrity is the measurement that prompts to the principal phase of trust improvement. As
showed some time recently, view of integrity is profoundly identified with the trustworthiness
of a tradingparty, and consequently, in this stage, a risk of discipline as an outcome of
neglecting to satisfy a guarantee is probably going to be a more critical help than a guarantee
of a reward (Lewicki and Bunker, 1996). Consequently, parties in math based trust take part
in a trust relationship based on the notoriety of the trustee through the party's openness and
genuineness that structures potentially for building up a reliance relationship between the
groups (Agarwal and Shanker, 2003). Perceived integrity, characterised some time recently, is
the predominant trust measurement in this trust advancement stage and trust happens based
on the impression of trustworthiness ascribes that prompts to this measurement, as
highlighted some time recently.
2.11.3.2 Information/Knowledge-based Trust
Learning based trust is the second phase of trust. Gulati (1995) concentrated on that the
impression of the unwavering quality and consistency of a party in the midst of this stage
depends on upon prior contact with this party or experience through repeated affiliation.
According to Rawling (2000) the organizations of this new millennium are versatile,
operating structurally both horizontally and sideways, through organizational functions and
boundaries. Workers are experts in the expectations for the distribution of knowledge, work
towards organizational goals and cross-procedures and synergy (association of various bodies
for the production of work) as part of these works. This requires that all employees in the
organization work towards a high level of collaboration in the work groups and functions. To
operate in a structured group, leaders ask more about their own value system, they believe in
leadership, organization, and group members. Group work is characterized by efficiency,
collaboration of work processes and high levels of trust and participation.
Recently, trust within organizations was focused on understanding trust efficiency and growth
(Lewicki et al., 1998). Because organizations are going through processes of uncertainty,

83

complexity and change, globally, these processes impact confidence and distrust in
competitive relationships.
Challenges to the growth of competitiveness both at the organizational level, globalization
and expansion towards the strategic alliance are also important. In addition, other challenges
can be encountered in the ability to ferment development, effective, maintaining partners,
partnering with competitors, and maintaining multicultural / metalinguistic relationships (Cox
& Tung, 1997; Lewicki et al., 1998). The quality of trust in relationships between employees,
partners, functional groups, temporary groups, alliances, strategies, social groups; is critical
to success in collaboration and trust (Sheppard, 1995; Lewicki et al., 1998).Trust depends on
point by point information about the trustee which depends on observed competency.
Information about the party's past lead and assurances through reiterated joint effort make
certainty around an exchange party (Sahay, 2003).
2.11.3.3 Transference-based Trust
“Transference-based trust” is the third phase of trust improvement. As proposed by Lewicki
and Bunker (1996) this third phase of trust creates in light of individuals' certainty and
conviction that the other party will act to their greatest advantage. In this way, it creates on
view of a trade gathering's generosity (Wintoro and Mulya, 2005).
The literature on the phases of trust improvement, as outlined already in Fig.2.7, assigns that
the advancement of trust in the relationship includes nearness of hazard and weakness. The
literature on trust in production network connections uncovers that numerous creators in this
field declare that trust decreases chance (as demonstrated in Fig.2.9). Anyhow, different
creators negate this view. Therefore, other than the way of life, the perspective of the result of
trust in-store network relationship could likewise influence the embracement of trust between
inventory network parties. The following area talks about the two prospects of the survey the
trust in connection to hazard and weakness; the possibility of trust decreases chance and the
opposing prospect that cases trust is a wellspring of hazard.
2.12 Trust Relationships and Vulnerability to Risk

Trust in inventory network relationship and powerlessness to hazard is one of the issues that
request understanding in connection with production network execution and in addition
association execution. The event of hazard frequently affects the execution and the inventory
network parties for the most part look for a lessening of hazard. In this circumstance,
numerous creators consider trust to be a component required for minimising danger and some
of the researchers.

84

The literature demonstrates that nature of data importantly affects association business and
hazard event. The examination literature demonstrates that one route in which trust may work
to decrease chance and reinforce connections is through the advancement of practices, for
example, data sharing (allude to Fig.2.9). Mirroring this perspective, Konrad et al. (2001:403)
contended that “data on the relative charm of administrative exercises can help associations
adjust their impetuses and preparing, helping supervisors to centre endeavours on
exceedingly imperative exercises, including those they may consider ugly.” Therefore, data is
a main basic impetus for coordinating directors' consideration. Consequently, deceptive data
could misdirect the chiefs. In view of this view, the possibility that data sharing diminishes
hazard is repudiated in the literature through the likelihood of hazard event from trading
erroneous data. The literature shows that hazard could happen in light of trust, when a
gathering takes data for business use without addressing and investigating its unwavering
quality, in view of the trust relationship. - Misleading supervisors by giving false or lacking
data or not offering delicate data to accomplice associations in the inventory network is
suspected of bringing about hazard or undesirable circumstances.
The creators that repudiate the view that trust lessens hazard consider trust to be a wellspring
of hazard. For instance, Swan et al. (1985: 204) show that "z/a businessperson neglects to be
tried and true or solid, the purchaser will endure a misfortune". To this degree, Mayer et al.
(1995) state that hazard exists in business connections that include trust. McLain and
Hackman (1999) bolster this view and fight that at whatever point associations choose to
trade trust in a relationship; then hazard is included in that relationship. Subsequently, they
clarify the event of hazard as the likelihood of negative results to a choice and present a
hypothetical
relationship
amongst
trustLowself-actionLow
and hazard as appeared
Fig.2.8.
Sharing
the riskHigh
Trust
Risk in
High

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Fig.2.8: Influences of Trust on the Degree of Allocation of Risk in a High Control
Situation
Source: McLain and Hackman, 1999).
Technology possesses a huge part in business exercises. Nonetheless, technology is viewed as
another consider that proselyte trust store network connections to the hazard. Gallagher
(2001) clarifies that this hazard happens if the technology is viewed as a trade for the
relationship rather than a method for relationship upgrade. In such manner, and as Gallagher
shows, hazard going out on a limb event depend on the individual's qualities and business
variables. The misconception of how different variables, for example, technology fit into
business can diminish the significance of trading trust and fall apart the trust relationship and
change over it to the hazard. Truth be told, by alluding to the phases of trust advancement
highlighted in a past area, the hazard in trust store network connections is reflected in
analytics based trust, where a level-headed computation is completed by gatherings preceding
inclusion greetings a trust relationship. As showed some time recently, greetings this
estimation, the gatherings measure the normal preferences and conceivable undesirable
dangers and take part in a trust relationship in the wake of measuring a psychological and
practical inspiration to partake in a trust relationship.
Consequently, the likelihood of hazard event in trust store network relationship, as
demonstrated by the literature, is relied upon to be low. The prior segment demonstrates the
two features of trust in production network connections with respect to weakness to the
hazard. Other than the view that trust diminishes chance and the contradicting view that trust
is a wellspring of hazard, the literature demonstrates that trust is accepted to have financial
esteem. The following area talks about this perspective of trust in production network
connections.
2.13 Beliefs of Economic Value of Trust

Previous researchers demonstrate that trust between get-togethers in a business relationship is
dependably acknowledged to have monetary esteem. In return connections, trust has been
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estimated to be a significant economic resource (Dyaer and Chu, 2003). Fukuyama (1995),
trust is A valuable asset strongly linked to economic success. Trust is conceived as "the
Expectation of a part (person, group or company) about a composition ethically justifiable in
an economic mutual reciprocity "(Hosmer, 1995). On the other hand, authors like Moorman,
Deshpandé and Zaltman (1993) consider it "the willingness to depend on the Partner of the
economic exchange based on the expectations of what has been Paid in relation to the benefit
that the entrusted party will obtain.” Economic analysis is contemplated as a transaction of
expectations between two parties that show interest in establishing relationships of trust in the
achievement of a common benefit. These expectations lead to a process of relational
decision-making, whereby each party seeks the cooperation of the other to obtain greater
benefits (Black et al., 2003). Within the economic literature, Williamson and Craswell (1993)
proposed in a general classification of trust: calculative, relational and institutional. The
calculating confidence depends on the ability to evaluate the reliability of the Trust and the
propensity to trust the party entrusted to him (Black Et al., 2003). It also equals calculated
risk (Williamson and Craswell, 1993). Relational reliance is based on the concept of
reliability or legality The part in which it is trusted, which tends to meet the needs and
Concerns of the user beyond the limits established in some institutionalized or agreed upon
(Johansen and vonLampe, 2002).. From this point of view, Fynas et al. (2005) demonstrate a
connection between data sharing and effective inventory network connections. Interestingly,
low trust or distrust and dread are accepted to add noteworthy cost to the production network
handle (O'Brien, 2001).
The developing enthusiasm for investigating the economic value of trust has driven a few
scientists to research the impact of trust on exchange cost. Therefore, it is demonstrated that
trust amongst purchasers and providers lessen exchange costs in car producing associations
(Sako, 1998; Dyaer and Chu, 2003). In any case, these outcomes depend on research done in
a vehicle industry setting and with an emphasis on the impact of trust between gatherings on
exchange costs. The degree of effectiveness upgrade and the relevance of these studies'
discoveries to other industry settings are interested being referred to. Thusly, assistanceto
explore has been suggested by the scientists who did these studies, to clear up this vagueness
in connection to the impact of trust on exchange cost. This recommendation is seriously taken
by this research and the research, through its aims and objectives, will investigate the trust
between supply chain parties, in order to explore its impact on the supply chain performance
and the organisation performance in different industry settings.

87

The literature on the stages of trust development of trust indicates that the development of
trust between the supply chain parties could be affected by the organisation culture or the way
the organisation accomplishes its tasks (norms, values, and beliefs). The following section
reviews the literature on the effect of culture on trust relationships.
2.14 Trust and Culture

The literature shows that the stages of trust development among the supply chain parties, as
stated above, are affected by the organisational culture, which could be affected by the
regional or national culture. The literature on culture displays that culture is classified into the
regional or national culture as well as organisation culture (Morden, 1999; Steenkamp, 2001).
National culture relates to a set of norms, beliefs and customs shared by nations in a country.
On the other hand, organisation culture relays to a set of norms, beliefs and customs shared
by a group of people within an organisation. Although culture and its effect on trust
development in supply chain relationships or partnerships are not the subject of study of this
research, rather, it aims to examine the trust between supply chain parties and its effect on
supply chain performance and organisational performance. Culture and its effect on trust
development have been explored by other researchers like Sako (1998) and Dyaer and Chu
(2003). Therefore, this section of the literature review aims to give an overview of the effect
of culture on trust in supply chain relationships. It begins with a literature review on country
culture and then moves to review organisation culture.
2.14.1 Culture Differences between Countries
The idea of "nation" and that of "culture" are hard to separate as agnation is regularly utilised
as a helper for culture. In any case, numerous cultures are multinational, and numerous
nations are multicultural (Schneidir, 1989). A survey of past research has affirmed nation
bunches that report comparable values and convictions (Ronen and Shenkar 1985). These
similitude in cultures among nations are resultant of dialect, topography, religion and history
(in the same place). In this way, the suspicion here is that, in spite of inside nation contrasts,
the between-nation contrasts are vital. Henceforth, while components of one nation might be
found in another, all things considered, more prominent contrasts will be obvious. These
distinctions, in any case, will be less among nations with related cultures (Schneidir, 1989).
National cultures allude to philosophical convictions, practices and values which are shared
by the tremendous dominant part of individuals having a place with a specific country
(Haimes, 2003; Martin, 2002). Building this social guide requires the change of a pyramid of
issues and presentations; beginning with the focal issues basic to all cultures which

88

incorporate a view of what are correct and great instead of the powers of wrong and
malevolence (Low and Shi, 2001). Also, this is trailed by blame and pride, reasonableness
and equity and feeling of having a place and reliability. These are predominant feelings that
can bring about perplexity and in the most pessimistic scenarios, harm when tested
straightforwardly; in this way, associations in a supply binds connections should know
(Howes and Tah, 2003).
Also, Hofstede (1980) reviewed that the critical parts of national culture can be gathered
direct from the general issues and resulting qualities which shape the introduction of all
societies. Arrangement of summed up national social estimations is speculatively similar to
Schneidir and Barsoux's (2003) model of shrouded suppositions however with emphasis on
right versus wrong and awesome versus shrewd. The general issue of right or wrong that is
genuinely settled in culture gives the basisfor ethics and morals which are deciphered
contrastingly by individual societies (Triandis, 1995). The explanations of good guidelines
which are various and moral qualities which are seen as aggregate in nature are basic for
seeing each culture (Hofstede, 1980).
2.14.2 National Culture and Strategic Formulation
National culture assumes an essential part in system detailing since it creates from
presumptions seeing associations with the earth and additionally individuals (Schein, 1985).
Schneidir (1989) battled that these suspicions impact how data is assembled and how that
data is translated inside the association. As the utilisation of data is settled in social standards
and achieves metaphorical value as an element of a specific arrangement of convictions in a
specific arrangement of cultures (Feldman and March 1981), the methodology definition
prepare can't be considered 'without culture (Schneidir, 1989). What's more, nation contracts
can be relied upon in ways to deal with technique detailing and these distinctions is
demonstrated in checking conduct, inclinations for types and wellsprings of data, strategies
for understanding and approval, and measures for building up needs. Consequently, it helps in
suspecting international rivalry, ways to deal with development and mechanical change and
in addition transactions (Schneidir, 1989).
Moreover, national or regional culture can have an influence on organisation culture. The
regional culture can be different from country to country based on the norms, values and
beliefs related to the nation in each country. Cultural differences between countries in an
organisational context can be explained in terms of power distance, uncertainty avoidance,

89

individualism, and masculinity (Hofstede, 1980). Specific descriptions of the dimensions
include:
(a) Power Distance Culture
Power distance refers to human inequality in the area of prestige, status and influence in each
culture. The extent of acceptance of uneven power is culture-based, and it reflects the
hierarchical power relationships. Thus, power distance varies from country to country and
results in high power distance and low power distance societies. In relation to trust, in
societies with low power distance cultures, basic suspicion between the powerful and the
powerless seems to triumph, whereas in high power distance cultures, there seem to be higher
levels of internal agreement (Hofstede,1980; Pagell et al., 2005).
(b) Uncertainty Avoidance Culture
Uncertainty avoidance is related to avoidance of risk-taking entrenched in unpredictability
(Trompenaars, 1994). In terms of countries' culture, it measures the degree to which countries
deem the pursuit of certainty important. Low uncertainty avoidance cultures accept informal
actions and are willing to take risks, while expectedness of rules, work arrangements and
relationships depicts high uncertainty avoidance cultures.
(c) Individualist Culture
The individualist culture is contrary to collectivism, and it considers the importance of
individual responsibility for actions rather than group shared responsibility (Pagell et al.,
2005). Relationships in this culture are thoroughly linked with social norms, and it is not a
matter of ways of living together. Therefore, the nature of the relationship between a person
and the organisation to which he\she belongs will be strongly affected by the society's norms
for individualism.
(d) Masculine Culture
The masculine culture is opposite to the feminine culture. This dimension of culture takes
into consideration differences in gender as well as differentiation of roles in society according
to gender and gives males more power and independence. Families, religion, schools, peer
group and media are responsible for this pattern of culture. The masculine culture is central in
business organisations, though it varies according to the organisation's country of origin and
works group norms and beliefs.
Trust is socially established and affected by cultural affinity (Child, 1998). Culture is
recognised as one of the most important variables influencing ethical decision-making. The
difference in norms and beliefs of groups of people results in a different culture, and this
produces a variety of cultures. The literature on trust and country culture shows that country
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culture and organisation culture influence the level of trust between management and
employees in the organisation. Morehead et al. (1997) found that in Australia employees,
particularly within the public sector, have a very low level of trust in managers. Also, Davis
and Landa (1999) conducted a survey in Canada and found that three out four Canadian
employees do not trust their management. These cultures of trust exchange with management
are affected by country culture, which is embedded in organisation culture. The next section
reviews organisation culture.
2.14.3 Organisation Culture
It is essential for oil and gas firms to comprehend their own culture regarding procedures,
dispositions and practices, at the end of the day their organisational culture (Alkhamali et al.,
2010). Organisational culture is a noteworthy component that separates the effective firms
from the others since it is the most intense element, the particular major element, and the
most upper hand in picking up achievement (Cameron and Quinn 1999). Endeavours to
characteriseorganisational culture demonstrated irregularity in the idea. For instance, Schein
(1992) categorized association culture as an example of shared fundamental presumptions
that the individuals learned as it addressed its issues of outside adjustment and inside
coordination and has functioned admirably enough to be viewed as legitimate and;
consequently, to be educated to new individuals as the genuine approach to sense, reason and
perceive in connection to those issues. In any case, Hofstede (1997) characterised it as the
aggregate mental programming that separates the individuals from one association from
another.
Besides, one of the principal purposes of the dominating interest and acknowledgement in
organisational culture comes from the debate (or suspicion) that specific organisational
cultures prompt to prevalent organisational money related execution (Ogbonna and Harris,
2000). Rahman and Kumaraswamy (2003) kept up that fundamental achievement variables
for oil and gas organisations are the 'adaptable organisational cultures' of the associations
included, with the goal that they may adjust and add to the advancing venture culture.
Consequently, this will, thus, open up the associations to retaining back positive culturebuilding components that will conjointly bolster into an enhanced execution situated oil and
gas industry culture.
All things considered, numerous specialists quality great execution, achievement, and
organisational viability of oil and gas associations to their solid organisational culture
(Barney, 1986; Deal and Kennedy, 1982; Denison and Mishira, 1995; Hoecklin, 1996;

91

Schein, 1992). In this manner, it is discerning that organisational culture will stay identified
with the prevalent execution just if the culture can conform to changes in ecological
conditions (Denison, 1990). Similarly, association culture alludes to the most profound level
of convictions, practices, essential suppositions and values that are shared by individuals
from an association (Martin, 2002). Subsequently, Fellows et al., (2002) expressed that these
arrangements of convictions and presumptions can originate from various sources such as
1. National i.e. British or Nigerian
2. Professional i.e. quantity surveyor or engineer
3. Functional i.e. finance or marketing and organisational
These qualities can encounter constrained, sensational and uncontrollable change when beat
administration presents new states of mind and convictions. Therefore, every association has
its own particular extraordinary culture which is not the same as others (Tone, 2005).
2.14.3.1 Levels of Organisational Culture
Cultures are perplexing, unavoidable and profound situated (Tone, 2005). Nonetheless, as
indicated by Schein (1992), one can't comprehend organisational learning, advancement and
arranged change, unless the culture is considered as the prime wellspring of imperviousness
to change. Schein guaranteed to assist that if oil and gas businesses don't get to be aware of
the cultures in which they got themselves, those cultures will oversee them. Furthermore, he
expressed that culture at the same time exists on three levels: at first glance are ancient
rarities, underneath antiques lay upheld values and at the centre are essential suspicions.
Artefacts are the noticeable, capable of being heard and substantial after effects of movement
grounded in values and suppositions. Values are social objectives, standards, models and
rationalities considered to have characteristic worth. Suspicions imply underestimated accepts
about human instinct and reality (Schein, 1992). Every layer varies in its permeability to
pariahs and its mindfulness among individuals, with the external layers being simpler to
recognise and measure in research (Guldenmund, 2000; Schein, 1992).

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2.14.3.2 Dimensions of Organisational Culture
As indicated by social scholars (Hofstede, 1980; Mead, 1998), organisational cultures are
impacted by the national culture as well as then other natural components, for example, work
put hones. The overwhelming business culture of an association can impact how chiefs and
representatives direct and maintain good manners at work and in business dealings (Hofstede,
1997). In this manner, distinguishing these distinctions can help association on the most
proficient method to make down to earth business conformities in order to suit situational
components to accomplish fruitful results (Tone, 2005). Table 2.5 presents an examination of
the distinctions in organisational cultures that might be experienced in inventory network
administration.
Furthermore, Corporate or organisation culture is defined as norms and rules that influence
the way of doing business shared by organisation members (Johnston and Marshal, 2005).
Organisation culture is heavily influenced by the industry in which it operates and hence it
has many definitions. Organisation cultures have several key elements: they include
organisation vision, adaptability and adjusting to external conditions. Additionally, in most
organisations the culture is consistent, and change of culture is very difficult.
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Table 2.5 Identifying Different Organisational Culture
Dimensions and Descriptions
“Process

oriented

(i.e.

means). Against

Concerned with the way things are

“Result oriented (goals). Concerned
with outcomes of decisions.”

done.”
“Closed system: concerned with an Against

“Open

unwillingness to accept new members

willingness to accept new members of

of the working unit quickly.”

the working unit quickly.”

“Normative: concerned mainly to Against

“Pragmatic:

follow procedures and rules to the

practical and results; even if it means

letter.”

violating procedures and rules.”

“Job oriented: concerned with getting Against

“Employee oriented: concerned with the

the job done.”

well-being of employees.”

“Tight control: concerned with formal Against

“Lose

policies and rules. And close control

informality and a lack of bureaucratic

of both money and time.”

procedures.”

“Parochial:

concerned

with Against

system:

concerned

control:

“Professional:

concerned

with

mainly

concerned

concerned

a

is

with

with

employees who derive their identity

employees who derive their identity

largely from the organisation for

largely from the type of work they

which they work.”
Source: Hofstede (1997).

perform.”

The literature shows that an organisation culture cannot exist without prevalent employee
support. For instance, to realise an organisation's vision, it needs to be supported by
organisation values reliable with the organisation's aims and aligned with the personal values
of organisation members. It is mostly embraced in the manner of employees' interactions at
all levels. in addition, main and sub-cultures can both exist in one organisation. The main
culture is the foremost one which is strongly embraced by organisation members (Sadri and
Lees, 2001). The main culture distinguishes the organisation from other organisations. It is
the factor that differentiates between organisations in the manner of innovation and risk
taking, outcome orientation, people orientation, team orientation, aggressiveness, attention to
details and concern for stability in contrast to growth (Appelbaum et al., 2004).

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The optimum organisation culture is the culture that incorporates capabilities that realise the
organisation's aims and objectives. An organisation with a positive culture is likely to enjoy
many benefits, comprising employees enjoying a work environment with high morale and
increased the level of teamwork (Goffee and Jones, 1996). The literature shows that
organisations cultures have been categorised into different types. Sonnenfeld (1988) defines
four types of cultures: the academy, the club, the baseball team, and the fortress. According to
Sonnenfeld, the academy culture exposes employees too many different jobs, and through job
rotation, the employees can move around within the organisation. The club is concerned with
how employees will fit into the organisation. The baseball team is about team talent and
concerned with how employees will work in a team in the organisation, and how they will be
rewarded for their accomplishment. The fortress is concerned with organisation survival and
how the organisation achieves prosperity.
Moreover, another categorisation of culture is offered by Goffee and Jones (1996). They
classified four cultures based on levels of sociability and solidarity. Sociability refers to social
activities, and solidarity refers to organisation members' team spirit. The four cultures are
communal, mercenary, fragmented, and networked cultures. The communal culture is
characterised by high sociability and solidarity levels. The mercenary culture has a high
solidarity level but a low sociability level. The fragmented culture is low in both solidarity
and sociability. The networked culture is characterised by high sociability but low solidarity.
The foregoing review in this section shows that organisation culture could have an impact on
organisation relationships. Hence, the culture of the organisation could have possible effects
on the trust building process in the supply chain relationship. The impact of culture on the
trust building process has been investigated by previous researchers. In relation to this
particular research, the trust built in the supply chain relationships, not the trust building
process, is the most significant issue. The research aims to investigate the effect of trust (the
built trust) in the supply chain relationship on both the supply chain performance and the
organisation performance. This aim is based on the reviewed literature that indicates the
requirement for research to clarify the impact of trust (the built trust) on performances. The
research, through its findings, could provide motivation or inhibition to the trust building
process between parties in supply chain relationship. The motives or the inhibitors are based
on the proved effect of the trust as a factor in the relationship between the performances of
the supply chain and the organisation.
The benefit of collaborative relationships, shown previously in the discussion of supply chain
development, increases the worldwide interest in supply chain development. In terms of
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technology, the developing countries' organisations are new to the market and have less
experience than developed countries' organisations. Nowadays, besides the supply of
commodities like oil and minerals, the Arab Gulf Countries started to develop their
manufacturing techniques to upgrade their handicrafts from the small business size that uses
primitive production tools to organisations that adopt technology and work according to
organised structures. Organisations in the Arab Gulf countries are either local or international
and generally both types employs multinational workforce. Relations management became
one of the new challenges in these countries' organisations supply chain practices. In fact,
improvement of Supply chain performance is dominant goalto prove competency in front of
changing market circumstances and ever changing rules of the market game.
As mentioned before, organisations in these countries adopt international business strategies
and import experience from developed countries through employing international skilled
people from developed countries such as UK, France and the USA. Hence, the organisation
culture in most of these countries' organisations is multicultural that works according to
international norms and values regardless the territory difference.
The research did not consider developed countries like UK and USA because the role of trust
between suppliers and buyers in such countries was considered by previous researchers such
as (Sako, 1998 and Dyaer and Chu, 2001). Additionally, Burchell and Wilkinson (1997) had
considered trust, business relationships and the contractual environment in Italy, Britain and
Germany.
Moreover, Fynas et al. (2005) had considered the impact of supply chain relationship quality
on supply chain performance and chosen manufacturing companies in the electronics sector
in the Republic of Ireland as population for research which is very close to Britain and part of
the European Union. In their research, they considered trust as one dimension of the supply
chain relationship quality. The literature shows some researchers in the European countries
that considered trust among supply chain parties. On the other hand, the literature shows that
in the Arab Gulf Countries there are no or rare researchers considered trust between supply
chain parties and its role or impact on supply chain performance or organisation performance.
The shortage of researchers in these countries motivated the researcher to bridge this gap in
the literature of the field of supply chain performance and management. Referring to the
goals and objectives of this thesis, studying trust in supply chain relationships in some of
these countries organisations and its influence on supply chain performance and organisation
performance enriches the supply chain literature. The main aim of this study, as mentioned in
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chapter 1, is to investigate trust in supply chain relationships to identify and clarify through
practical evidence the effect that trust has on supply chain performance and on organisation
performance. The literature review indicates that the performance could be the determinant of
the business success or failure in the era of fierce competition and volatile market
environment. Therefore, improvements in supply chain performance and organisation
performance are the pivots of improving the business competitiveness in the market.
2.15 Nigeria’s Logistics and Supply Chain Review/Research

The research investigates organisations in Nigeria and considers oil and gas companies
domicile in the country. This section reviews the literature on the supply chain in Nigeria. It
focuses on the types of supply chain adopted in the country and supply chain researchers in
the light of trust between supply chain parties.
The literature demonstrates that the developing countries are struggling to get income from
exchanging or exporting commodities (Carl, 2001). Therefore, the Nigeria organisations, as
part of the developing countries, are facing new challenges in terms of the supply chain
management as well as the globalisation of the supply chain. As, it is economically oil rich
country that mainly depend on oil productions, a variation of production became a strategy
followed by this country so as to avoid the threatening risk of oil diminution and
consequently facing poverty. As a step in reducing the development gap, a developing
country often finds it quicker and cheaper to import knowledge through foreign direct
investment by multinational organisations (Robertson, 2003). Moreover, the increasing and
high costs of global assignments are now demanding global organisations to search for more
strategic means of cross-border communication (Bender and Fish, 2000). In this situation,
organisations in the developing countries became more interactive with global organisations
and realised the need to use an appropriate supply chain which involves co-operation with
suppliers and customers.
In the meantime, since logistics is almost a new field in the developed world's business
studies; hence to cope with development in this field the developing countries organisations
(Nigeria inclusive) adopted changes through imposing logistics divisions in their
management structure. Furthermore, the Nigeria national petroleum corporation (NNPC)
established logistics department so as to provide knowledge and assistance to oil and gas
organisations in Nigeria regarding logistical issues. In terms of the type of supply chain
adopted in this country, Wood (2005) showed that organisations in Africa, as part of the

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developing countries, are mostly adopting traditional and lean supply chain patterns. The
traditional supply chain was the main type of this country’s business.
According to Wood, the supply chain in these countries developed from traditional to the lean
supply chain that is germane to commodities markets. The search for supply chain
performance improvement and supply chain development was concerned as vital to compete
locally and internationally as well. However, the traditional supply chain is still in use in
these developing countries in small organisations such as foodstuff retailers. Nevertheless, the
lean supply chain is the principal supply chain pattern in their medium and large size
organisations.
Moreover, the benefit of collaborative relationships, presented previously in the discussion of
supply chain development, upsurges the worldwide interest in supply chain development. In
terms of technology, the developing countries' organisations are new to the market and have a
smaller amount of experience than developed countries' organisations. Currently, besides the
supply of commodities like oil and minerals, the developing Countries started to develop their
manufacturing techniques to upgrade their abilities from the small business size that uses
primitive production tools to organisations that adopt technology and work according to
organised structures. Additionally, Organisations in developing countries are either local or
international and generally both types employs international workforce. Thus, relations
management became one of the new challenges in these countries' organisations supply chain
practices. In fact, improvement of Supply chain performance is the main goal to prove
competency in front of changing market conditions and ever changing rules of the market
game.
As mentioned before, organisations in these countries embrace international business
strategies and import experience from developed countries through engaging international
skilled people from developed countries such as the USA, UK, Italy and France. Therefore,
the organisation culture in most of these countries' organisations is multicultural that works
according to international norms and values notwithstanding the territory difference.
However, the research did not study developed countries like UK and USA because the role
of trust between suppliers and buyers in such countries was considered by earlier researchers
such as (Sako, 1998 and Dyaer and Chu, 2001). Moreover, Burchell and Wilkinson (1997)
had looked at the trust, business relationships and the contractual environment in Italy, UK
and Germany. Likewise, Fynas et al. (2005) had measured the impact of supply chain
relationship quality on supply chain performance and selected manufacturing companies in
the electronics sector in the Republic of Ireland as population for research which is very close
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to Britain and part of the European Union. In their research, they considered trust as one
dimension of the supply chain relationship quality.
Thus, the literature shows some researchers in the European countries that considered trust
among supply chain parties. On the other hand, the literature shows that in developing
Countries particularly Nigeria, there are no or rare researchers considered trust between
supply chain parties and its impact or role on supply chain performance as well as
organisation performance. Therefore, the shortage of researchers in these countries
encouraged the researcher to bridge this gap in the literature of the field of supply chain
performance and management. With reference to the goals and objectives of this thesis,
studying trust in supply chain relationships in this country (Nigeria) organisations and its
influence on supply chain performance and organisation performance enhances the supply
chain literature.
The central aim of this study, as mentioned in chapter one, is to examine trust in supply chain
relationships to clarify and identify through practical evidence the effect that trust has on
supply chain performance as well as on organisation performance. The literature review
indicates that the performance could be the determining factor in the business success or
failure in the period of severe competition and unstable market environment. Consequently,
improvements in supply chain performance and organisation performance are the fulcra of
improving the business competitiveness in the market.
The next chapter, after the summary of this chapter, considers the supply chain performance
and the organisation performance. It shows performance measures and identifies the
measures that will be used by the research in measuring supply chain performance and
organisation performance in the process of discovering the effect of trust on each
performance.
2.16 Summary

This chapter provided a literature review on supply chain relationships and trust in supply
chain relationships. Furthermore, supply chain management was defined as an organisational
function responsible for the management and review of supply chain practices. Also, the
review discussed supply chain development and identified three types of the supply chain;
traditional supply chain, lean supply chain, and the newly developed agile supply chain.
Then, supply chain parties were defined and classified as suppliers, organisation, as well as
customers to the organisation.
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Trustworthiness attributes were defined as a way of defining trust occurrence and diverse
trustworthiness attributes were identified. The literature classifies three main trustworthiness
attributes; other trustworthiness attributes can be viewed as dimensions of the three main
trustworthiness attributes. The trust was hypothesised on the basis of the classification of the
three trustworthiness attributes and trust dimensions. This conceptualisation of trust signifies
measures of trust between supply chain parties and different types of trust were then clarified.
Also, the literature reviewed defined different stages of trust development as well as the risk
in trust relationships.
The reviewed literature identified previous work in the supply chain relationships.
Additionally, the literature identified culture in the form of national culture and organisation
culture and explained the relationships between trust building process as well as culture.

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CHAPTER 3
Supply Chain Performance and Organisation Performance
3.1 Introduction

This chapter explores findings from the literature review on supply chain performance and
organisation performance. The review commences with the literature on supply chain
performance, organisation performance alongside their measures. It begins the literature with
an explanation of supply chain performance and then it proceeds to description of
organisation performance. Then, it introduces performance measures for both the supply
chain performance and the organisation performance. It explores financial and non-financial
organisation performance measures and supply chain performance measures. Furthermore, it
highlights models developed to view supply chain relationships and trust in supply chain
relationships in the light of the reviewed literature. After that, the chapter provides research
questions in light of the reviewed literature. Then, it moves on to interlink the research
independent and the dependent variables in terms of cause and effect in an integrated model
that forms the research framework. Finally, the chapter ends with a summary of the reviewed
literature.
3.2 Supply Chain and Organisation Performance

This section reviews performance in terms of supply chain performance and organisation
performance. The review also includes performance measures for the supply chain as well as
organisation performance measures that are selected to be used by the research
3.2.1 Supply Chain Performance
Researchers argued that the driving force for many developments in supply chain
management is the idea of outstanding performance (Burman, 1995; Cullen et al.,
1999).Competition drives organisations in order to look for and organise new competitive
advantages. This is so because competition continues to be a characteristic of business and
markets and developing new competitive advantages in business appears to be a never-ending
trend. These days, organisations that wish to stay competitive in a competitive market
environment strive to improve efficiency through perfecting supply chain operations. Chopra
and Meindl (2001) posited that improving supply chain performance in terms of efficiency
and responsiveness requires testing transportation, inventory, facilities and information.
Consequently, these are the drivers of supply chain performance. Therefore, in order to gain
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competitive advantage through the supply chain, managers must recognise and control the
factors that influence the performance of the chain in the procurement, processing and
distribution areas (Prasad and Sounderpandian, 2003).
Moreover, supply chain efficiency development results in higher performance in the form of
decreased operations cost, contributing to decreasing production cost (Yue et al., 2004). By
this, it means satisfying customers with lower price products and hence; represents a
significant competitive advantage to price-aware customers. Tiernan (2004) and Farrell
(2004) maintained that research shows that these competitive advantages of supply chain
improvement result in retaining and attracting new customers. Concerning high supply chain
performance in the form of decreased operations cost, Chauhan and Proth (2005) back Yue's
view that it contributes to decreased production cost. Consequently, this improves the
organisation's profitability and certainly is a great contribution to the organisation's business
survival. Thus, improving supply chain performance is of economic value to supply chain
parties.
Furthermore, the relationship between supply chain parties has a significant influence on
supply chain performance. As reviewed in chapter 2, the improvement of store network
examples is grounded on changing the connections between the accomplices. Anyhow, when
the example is one of the inexactly connected gatherings, the production network execution is
low, and it is less competent to give upper hands in an unsteady market. Production network
joining, talked about prior to section 2, thinks about better connections between the
association and its inventory network parties. Additionally, the lean supply chain is criticised
for not involving human integration; in this way, organisations have come to understand the
impact of the sort and quality of the relationship between the gatherings on production
network execution.
Supply chain performance is one aspect of the organisation's performance. As a result,
measures of supply chain performance are presented in agreement with organisation
performance in this section of the literature review. Nevertheless, supply chain performance
is often exposed to the occurrence of a phenomenon called the bullwhip effect. The next
section discusses the bullwhip effect on supply chain performance in detail.

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3.2.1.1. Bullwhip Effect on Supply Chain Performance
According to Lee et al. (2004), bullwhip effect or whiplash effect is defined as a phenomenon
that occurs when the variance of orders is larger than that of sales, and the alteration has a
tendency to increase as one move upstream. Hence, the bullwhip effect occurs when orders to
the supplier tend to have larger discrepancy than sales to the buyer which causes demand
distortion that spread upstream in an enlarged form to cause variance amplification. De Kok
et al. (2005: 38) confirmed this definition by saying that: "The bullwhip is the symbol for the
phenomenon that variability increases as one moves up a supply chain". Additionally,
definitions found in the literature, with regard to bullwhip effect in the supply chains tend to
be the same and target the same phenomenon (Hull, 2005; Meixell and David Wu, 2005;
Kaipia, Korhonen and Hartiala, 2006). Consequently, the definition stated above will be used
throughout this research. Also, the causes of the bullwhip effect have received attention with
the aim of reducing or if possible removing its existence in the supply chain. The following
section studies the causes of the bullwhip effect.
3.2.1.1.1 Causes of the Bullwhip Effect
Bullwhip effect study in the supply chain goes back to the year 1958 when Forrester
maintained that management must discover the fundamental principles which unite its
separate aspects, for a far better understanding of the vibrant, ever-changing forces which
shape a destiny of a company. Forrester thereforeidentified two causes of the bullwhip effect
in the supply chain which are demand processing and lead times. These two causes are
largely related to the effectiveness of order handling and time delays. Burbidge (1985) and
Lee et al. (1997a, b) argued that order batching is the cause of bullwhip and this supports
Forrester's argument. In addition, the above-mentioned causes, determined by Forrester,
Burbidge and Lee, lead to many problems in the supply chain, such as unfilled orders and
delivery problems as well as high and fluctuating inventory. This forces parties upstream in
the supply chain to keep inventory so as to respond to fluctuating demand and to sacrifice
quality to fulfil orders. Material costs, transportation costs, lead time and overtime expenses
are expected to increase, leading to noteworthy deterioration in the supply chain.
Doubt due to price variation is another cause of the bullwhip effect (Houlihan, 1988; Lee et
al. 1997a, b). Indecision is a major cause of bullwhip, and as it is claimed by Hull (2006),
uncertainty occurs as the fear of limited supply by chain members’ results in over-ordering to
ensure that they receive adequate supplies. This in turn results in unnecessary and highly
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fluctuating inventories and the problems is enlarged as one moves back up the supply chain.
This cause of the bullwhip effect reinforces the view of demand as stochastic (subject to
random fluctuations) instead of stationary based on the product life cycle (an introduction
phase, a mature phase, and an end-of-life phase). Though, the most important element in
Hull's explanation of this cause of the bullwhip effect is the intrusion of the supply chain
parties and their relationships, which leads to such problems. Moreover, and in addition to the
aforementioned causes of the bullwhip effect, Lee et al. (1997a,b) stated rationing and
gaming as another cause of bullwhip effect. Organisations engage in rationing and shortage
gaming in order to secure the amount they want in the case of shortage, so as to compete in
the event of an unanticipated product deficiency. The previously mentioned fear of limited
supply on the part of chain members, debated by Hull (2006) is highly entrenched in this
cause, and hence it can be regarded as the uncertainty that leads to this particular practice.
3.2.1.1.2 Elimination of Causes of Bullwhip Effect
The bullwhip effect has a major impact on parties upstream in the supply chain and thus the
efficiency of the whole supply chain. Therefore, elimination of the bullwhip effect is an
obligation to build an efficient supply chain and use it as a competitive value in the
organisation's business operations. Kaipia et al. (2006) argued that sharing downstream
demand information is considered as one of the main means of eliminating the causes of the
bullwhip effect but, information-sharing is bound to some organisational practices and
therefore the extent to which relevant and correct information is provided during the sharing
stage is expected to have some impact on the shared information as well as the supply chain.
Nevertheless, trust between supply chain parties can strengthen their relationships and may
result in the removal of the bullwhip effect. Consequently, this study aims to examine the role
of trust among supply chain parties and its effects in the elimination of the bullwhip effect in
the supply chain. In this segment, the bullwhip effect has been identified as an occurrence
that arises in the supply chain when information-sharing between supply chain parties is
weak, insufficiently or inadequate detailed to be used as a tool for predicting future customer
need or when the downstream parties face difficulties in satisfying the upstream requirements
in a supply chain, as a result of unexpected customer demand. As shown in this section, it is
believed that elimination of the bullwhip effect needs strengthening of information-sharing
between supply chain parties that is through trust.

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3.2.1.2 Trust and Supply Chain Performance
Various empirical researchers, which recognize the commitment of the “New Institutional
Economics” (NIE) to store network relations, recommend that the principle variables
impacting productivity in inventory network incorporate casual components, which include
trust, standards or models that bolster trade relations paying little heed to legally binding
commitments and power relations, which are utilised all through the inventory network by the
individuals who have better power in connection than the market or data (Cullen and
Hickman, 2001). Ramdas and Spekman (2000) utilised six factors that reflect distinctive
ways to deal with measuring store network execution. These involved stock, time, quality,
client centre, arrange satisfaction, and consumer loyalty. Their outcomes demonstrated that
power adjust emphatically identified with collusion execution and the more one accomplice
controls the cooperation through power advantage, the more prominent the probability that
the partnership would perform inadequately.
The collaboration amongst trust and power shows that the presence of trust influences the
relationship between power to adjust and execution. On account of the relationship between
power adjusts and execution, it is presented that trust diminishes the positive relationship.
Trust and power conform serve to some degree as substitutions for each other in the desire of
relationship execution. Appropriately, where a firm can trust its associate, the conforming of
force is not as essential for upgrading execution. Teegen and Doh, (2002) agreeing with
Ramdas and Spekman (2000) reason that trusting associations are seen to propel organisation
execution and that the proximity of force favoured angle adversely influences union
execution, which is further exacerbated by the nonattendance of trust. Milford (2002) in an
examination of the state of the esteem chain in the Australian Sugar Industry, found that plant
administrators see the level of trust among plant administrators and makers to be better than
the points of view of cultivators and gatherers. Milford credited the impression of
nonattendance of trust by cultivators and gatherers to the poor execution of the business some
time recently, pride on makers' part and saw power and information sporadic qualities.
A study by Medina-Munoz and Medina-Munoz (2002) with respect to trust in the middle of
hierarchical associations' control and accomplishment develop that all the unmistakable sorts
of trust used as a part of the examination were basically and positively associated with the
achievement of the relationship between visit chairmen and settlement associations. In this
way, this suggests trust is connected with the accomplishment of the relationship. Tregurtha
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and Vink (1999) in an investigation of trust and inventory network connections utilising the
“South African Breweries” (SAB) and the Taung grain extend as contextual investigations
found that the productivity of grain generation in Taung Fig.out if the trust relationship
between the agriculturists and “SAB” will proceed. They kept up that trust can't make an
economically awful relationship great, yet whatever it can do is improve a decent
relationship. The “SAB”highlighted that sound economic standards decide the long haul fate
of their contribution with the agriculturists.
3.2.2 Organisation Performance
The notion of managing organisational performance is widely adopted and accepted all over
the world. It spread swiftly from the private sector to the public sector in the developed world
and has recently found its way in many developing countries. Also, new initiatives and
legislations continue to being issued as a sign of governments’ doggedness on following the
new focus on performance orientation. Also, improvement in organisation performance has a
very important effect on the organisation's economy, and it determines its economic health
(Dixon et al., 1990). Investigation of trust between supply chain parties and impact on
organisation performance is one of the main objectives of this research, and as such, this
section defines organisation performance and clarifies its importance to the organisation.
Organisation performance is the umbrella of the entire organisation activities. The supply
chain and its performance discussed in the preceding section is a part of the whole
organisation activities. The supply chain includes all activities associated with the flow of
goods and services (Ee, 2001) and it accounts for a large percentage of the organisation's
activities, as shown in the section on the supply chain. Consequently, the discussion of
organisation performance in this section holds the supply chain performance. Business or
organisation performance is the way of executing activities that which add substantial and
insubstantial value to the organisation. As a result, organisation performance is of competitive
advantage to the organisation's business. As an organisation is made up of different functions
and activities, organisation performance is the result of the overall performance of
organisation activities and functions. In this regards, Castellano et al. (2004) posited that
organisations are systems in the form of networks of independent processes that work
together so as to realise the organisation's goals and objectives. Thus, organisation systems
include the supply chain, and hence supply chain performance influences the organisation's
performance.
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The preceding discussion shows that organisation performance is the accrued result of the
performance of each of the independent organisation systems. Managing organisation
performance involves undertaking possible controls and corrective actions for performance
improvement so as to meet the planned performance and resolve performance deviations at
the right time. According to Weatherly (2004), significant investment in time, effort and
resources can be made by organisations through making a resolute commitment to
performance management. So, an organisation will make more of its time, reduce effort and
save resources through managing organisation performance and these are important outcomes
to organisation business.
Moreover, organisation performance acts as a measure of organisation efforts, and it shows
the extent of success in achieving the organisation's goals and objectives. Also, organisation
performance is a significant aspect in evaluating organisation functioning. The literature
designates that organisations with unhealthy economy represented by low performance and
are certainly expected to face more problems in a market with an extremely competitive
environment than organisations in the same market with higher performance. Performance, be
it supply chain performance or organisation performance, could be measured through
performance measures. These measures aim to analyse performance so as to improve it
further or to portray the functioning of the implemented activities and resources. The next
section highlights performance measures.
3.3 Performance Measures

This section discusses literature on supply chain and organisation performance measures so
as to facilitate selection of appropriate research measures for this research. Based on the
research objectives highlighted in the first chapter of this study, the research focuses on
measuring organisation performance and supply chain performance through study of trust in
relationships between supply chain parties. The supply chain, as discussed in a previous
section, is a part of the organisation performance. Thus, supply chain performance is regarded
as micro performance, in this research, and organisation performance as the macro one. The
research focuses on supply chain performance and considers it as a portion of overall
organisation performance. Consequently, supply chain performance and organisation
performance are what will be measured by the research. This section begins with a definition
of performance measures, then a literature review on supply chain performance measures and
organisation performance measures.
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3.3.1 Definition of Performance Measures
Performance could be said to be about doing the work and also being about the results
achieved. It can be defined as the outcomes of work because they provide the strongest
linkage to the strategic aims of an organisation, customer satisfaction and economic
contributions. The term “Performance Management and Measurement” denotes any
integrated, systematic approach to improving organisational performance as well as supply
chain performance to achieve strategic aims and promote an organisation’s mission and
values. In that sense,Organisational Performance Management is quite different than
individual Performance Management which explicitly targets the personal performance of an
employee although the latter comprises an important part of the overall organisational
performance framework.
As a matter of fact, a Performance Management system aims at improving the results of
people’s efforts by connecting these to the organisation’s goals and objectives. Ideally, it is
the means through which employees’ performance can be improved by safeguarding suitable
recognition and reward for their efforts, and by improving communication, learning as well
as working arrangements. Many Performance Management systems utilise or borrow from
some of the new approaches such as Balanced Scorecard, Business Process Re-engineering
(BRP), Total Quality Management (TQM) and best practice Benchmarking. Thus,
performance Measurement must be considered as part of the overall Performance
Management system and can be regarded as the process of quantifying the effectiveness and
efficiency of actions.
3.3.2 Supply Chain Performance Measures
Hoole (2005) posited that supply chain performance could be significantly impacted by the
supply chain management practices, supply chain parties' relationships, organisation, physical
and material flows and information needed to make decisions and support leading practices.
Thus, improvement in these areas leads to improvement in supply chain performance and
supply chain analysis for improvement is becoming increasingly important. Additionally,
analysis of performance through performance measures can proffer practical support to the
development of customer relations (Van Hoek, 2001). The analysis of supply chain
performance helps the organisation to produce insight into system performance, and this
enables it to evaluate its supply chain objectives with regards to its supply chain capabilities.
In addition, supply chain performance can be analysed or measured by many methods.
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Benchmarking is one method of analysing supply chain performance, and through this
method, an organisation compares its business performance or supply chain performance with
other organisations' performance. This technique serves as a means of identifying
improvement opportunities. Also, qualitative performance measures are often preferred to
analyse the performance of systems such as the supply chain (Beamon, 1999) while the
quantitative measures are financial measures. Hadley (2004: 28) argued that ‘in particular, the
opportunity exists to greatly improve many financial and operational measures such as1.
Inventory2.Cost of goods sold, 3. Cash-to-cash cycle time, 4. Revenue per fixed assets, 5.
Asset utilisation, and 6. Revenues’. These measures can be maintained from organisation
financial systems and financial records.
With regard to the above-mentioned financial measures, an ineffective supply chain could
increase the inventory cost, increase cost of goods sold, lead to longer cash to cash cycle
time, reduce revenue from fixed assets as a result of increased cost, reduce the opportunity of
asset utilisation, and cause reduction in revenue due to suffer of high supply chain cost.
Therefore, improvement in supply chain performance leads to improvement in these financial
areas. Analysis of each of these financial measures helps an organisation to recognise its
actual supply chain performance and compare it with its planned performance. Thus, helps
the organisation to identify and correct digression in the supply chain in the case of
underperformance in the system; while in the case of over-performance, the analysis helps the
organisation to buttress its supply chain strategy or improve it to a further level.
However, financial measures are not the only method to measure supply chain performance.
The quality of product and service, responsiveness to customers, customer satisfaction and
lead time are also drivers for supply chain improvement. These features of supply chain
process represent qualitative measures to assess supply chain performance.
3.3.2.1 Supply Chain Performance Measures for the Research
The literature review helps the selection of measures to be used in this research. The
measures selected for the research are those that have the ability to provide extensive insight
of the performance. Thus, these supply chain performance measures are as follows:
(I) Bullwhip Effect Perspective
The literature review shows that information sharing and information transparency in the
supply chain relationships with regard to customer demand and available resources in the
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supply chain is expected to put forth significant impact on the bullwhip effect occurrence in
the supply chain. This means that the bullwhip effect incidence has the ability to allow a
signal of the level of information sharing between the supply chain parties. The bullwhip
effect occurrence in the supply chain has a direct effect on the supply chain lead time as well
as the supply chain cost as indicated in the previous section. In terms of measuring the
bullwhip effect occurrence, the literature shows that it could be measured by the ratio of
variances of lead time demand to that of customer demand and increased supply chain cost
incurred so as to fulfil such demand in contrast to fulfilling similar demand on a normal
supply chain lead time. Based on the literature reviewed, the bullwhip effect has
disadvantages where it forms a challenge to supplier supply unpredicted demands on
demanded time. Inadequate preparation by the supplier as a result of weak information
sharing with the customer was regarded as the main reason for this bullwhip effect
occurrence and accordingly the fulfilment of such demand within the customer demanded
lead time could require extra resources as well as extra cost to be incurred by the supplier in
the supply chain (Dejonckheere, 2002; Ravichandran, 2006; Warburton et al., 2004).
Consequently, identification of frequent bullwhip effect occurrence in the supply chain entails
low supply chain performance because it brings about the supply chain to perform under
pressure in order to deliver the unanticipated demand within satisfactory demanded lead time
to the customer. As a result, this research would consider the bullwhip effect occurrence in
the supply chain as an indicator of supply chain performance.
(ii) Cost Saving Perspective
One of the measures that are used to measure supply chain performance is cost saving
(Richardson, 1997; Labro, 2006). As shown in the reviewed literature, trust among parties in
supply chain relationships has the likelihood to reduce the costs (Miles, 1996; Sako, 1998;
Wicks et al., 1999; O'Brien, 2001; Dyaer and Chu, 2003). Therefore, achievement of cost
saving in the supply chain indicates improvement in carrying out the supply chain processes
with regards to cost efficiency in the chain. Consequently, selecting cost saving as an
instrument to measure supply chain performance in this research enables the researcher to
show the effect of trust on the supply chain performance from this viewpoint.
(iii) Risk
As indicated in chapter 2, trust in supply chain relationship is viewed from two angles. The
first is that trust in supply chain relationship reduces supply chain risk while the second
perspective argued that the trust is a source of risk in the supply chain. Hence, trust in supply
chain relationship and its impact on risk occurrence in the supply chain was investigated by
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researcher so as to clarify the role of trust on supply chain risk. Thus, risk occurrence in the
supply chain was utilised as a measure to indicate the supply chain performance.
(iv) Information sharing
The literature indicates that the level of information sharing in supply chain relationships is
believed to be influenced by the level of trust among supply chain parties (Tomkins, 2001).
With regards to the importance of information sharing in the supply chain, Narayanan and
Raman (2002) maintained that the process of information sharing is required so as to line up
interest in the supply chain through shared information with all parties in the supply chain
relationship. Hence, sharing demand information upstream in the chain has the possibility to
improve supply chain lead time (de Treville et al., 2003). Principally, as indicated before,
information sharing in supply chain relationship is believed to reduce bullwhip effect
occurrence in supply chain and therefore reduce risk as well as the cost that could be incurred
as a result of bullwhip effect occurrence (Lee et al., 2004; Kaipia et al., 2006).
With regards to trust in supply chain relationships, the literature indicates that trust is
believed to make easy information exchange between supply chain parties, networks and
alliances (Dressier and Muller, 2003; Fynas et al., 2005). For this reason, the use of supply
chain information sharing as a measure of this research enables the researcher to utilise this
significant measure in order to maintain critical insight about the supply chain performance.
(v) Return on Investment (ROI)
Return on Investment (ROI) is one of the tools that could be used to measure supply chain
performance as shown in the literature reviewed. Thus, achievement of ROI maximisation in
a supply chain is suggestive of high supply chain performance (Vesset, 2003). The literature
reviewed shows that, ROI indicates the performance of the supply chain in terms of gained
return from invested capital. As a result, this measure is directly related to supply chain
financial functioning. This is so because it has the capacity to open up the supply chain
potential to achieve its financial targets. Therefore, the selection of the supply chain ROI to
measure supply chain performance allows the researcher to identify the degree of supply
chain successfulness in contributing to activities and efforts exercised by the supply chain
parties. Therefore, this measure has the ability to yield significant advantages in measuring
supply chain performance in relation to trust between supply chain parties.
(vi) Lead Time
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Lead time in the literature is defined as the time required for processing an order placed by
customer and it starts with placing the order and ends with delivering the ordered product or
service to the customer. De Treville et al. (2003) showed that lead time could be improved
through sharing demand information upstream in the supply chain. Lyons et al., (2006)
maintained that achieving short lead times in meeting customer orders are indications of high
supply chain performance and success. Accordingly, the utilisation of the lead time by this
research as a supply chain performance measure has advantages to portray the capability of
the supply chain in fulfilling the demanded lead time by customer and assists in
understanding the activities coordination between supply chain parties.
Furthermore, lead time assists in providing an explanation regarding trust in supply chain
relationship and the ability of the supply chain in achieving desired lead time in relation to
the demanded by the customer. Moreover, supply chain performance and based on its aims
and objectives, the research, considers organisation performance. Hence, measures relevant to
this purpose are reviewed in the next section.
3.3.3 Organisation Performance Measures
The section before presented literature on supply chain performance measures and this
section discuss performance measures that are applicable to measure organisation
performance in order to facilitate selection of measures for this research. According to Yeo,
(2003), the traditional perspective of organisational performance centre on financial
performance. Also, in this traditional viewpoint, the financial benefits of organisational
performance are the determinants of organisational success. However, according to Dixon et
al. (1990: 142) "Performance measures must assess, reinforce, and reward improvements".
Consequently, performance measures begin with the appraising performance but end up with
reinforcing and rewarding improvements to the evaluated performance. Similarly, the
traditional performance measures (financial) have been criticised as tending to be very
limited, because they are based on financial transactions, fail to incorporate the less tangible
factors of performance such as product or service quality and are poor predictors of future
performance (Walker, 1996; Parker, 2000; Tangen, 2003, 2004, 2005). Also, financial
statements fail to measure and show intangible capitals: human capital, organisational capital,
and customer capital (Kannan and Aulbur, 2004).
Business performance indicators are not only financial data but also nonfinancial ones
(Eccles, 1998). Changes in organisational have become unavoidable; nevertheless financial
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measures do not indicate the suitability of the organisation setting to the change. This is so
because analysis of non-financial performance such as type of competition and developing
marketing strategies is important to measure an organisation's position in the market.
Therefore, a balance between financial and non-financial measures of organisation
performance is the best way of measuring organisation performance (Dixon et al., 1990).
Furthermore, incorporating financial and non-financial measures was a topic of significant
interest to authors and researchers for most of the 1990s. It is widely considered necessary
that an organisation's performance measures are linked to its strategic objectives as well as its
competitive environment (Lynch and Cross, 1995; Kaplan and Norton, 1996; Brander Brown
and Harris, 1998).
Some authors and operations management researchers over the last fourteen years have
developed performance frameworks or models for measuring organisation performance as
better alternatives to the traditional financial indicators. Examples of these models are a highlevel framework proposed by Keegan et al. (1989), a multi-dimensional model proposed by
Azzone et al. (1991), broad framework proposed by Anthony (1965) brought up by Rouse
and Putterill (2003), the results and determinants model proposed by Fitzgerald et al. (1991),
and the balanced scorecard model proposed by Kaplan and Norton (1992). However,
Anthony's model is criticised because it focuses on the management control level and ignores
the strategic planning and operational control levels. The high-level framework is not specific
and is criticised for its multiplicity. Azzone's model encompasses quality, innovation, cost,
and time dimensions of organisation competitiveness and it is criticised for focusing on time
as a dimension for measurement (Rouse and Putterill, 2003). Moreover, and in addition to the
above-mentioned models, Likierman (2005) claimed that organisation performance could be
measured through comparison with others, through comparison of the objective to actual and
through comparison with what is possible. Measuring performance through comparison with
others is referred to as benchmarking while measuring performance through comparison with
what is possible is based on opportunities and threats in the business environment as well as
strengths and weaknesses of the organisation in terms of strategy, compatibility and
capability.
Therefore, the two important organisation performance measures are the results and
determinants model proposed by Fitzgerald et al. (1991) and the balanced scorecard model
proposed by Kaplan and Norton (1992). The results and determinants model, shown in Table
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3.1, is one of the important examples of the current development of performance
measurement frameworks (Atkinson and Brander Brown, 2001). Thus, this model considers
performance dimensions in the form of innovation, flexibility, resource utilisation,
competitiveness, quality of service and financial performance. The model, as shown in Table
3.1, offers suitable measures to appraise each of these dimensions and the model classifies the
performance dimensions into results and determinants. It looks at the organisation's
flexibility, resource utilisation, innovation, and quality of service as determinants of the
organisation's business competitiveness and financial performance.

Table 3.1: Results and Determinants Model

Source: Atkinson and Bawder Brown, 2001
The other significant contribution to the development of performance measurement is the
Balanced Scorecard by Kaplan and Norton (1992). The balanced scorecard explains the
organisation's strategy and mission into a set of measures around four perspectives: financial,
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customer, internal business, learning and innovation (Kaplan and Norton, 1992). The four
perspectives in the balanced scorecard model encompass most aspects of the organisation.
The financial perspective measure intends to measure the organisation's financial
performance, and the financial measures have the advantage of being objective and precise
(Parker, 2000). These measures look at the shareholders' value. Kaplan and Norton (1998a,
1998b) explain the customer perspective as customer concerns, and they declare that these
tend to fall into four categories: time, price, performance and service, and quality. The
internal business perspective comprises ability of organisation technology, manufacturing
excellence, design productivity, and new product or service introduction. The innovation and
learning viewpoint refers to human resources and comprises leadership, manufacturing
learning, technology, product focus, and time to market.
The preceding discussion shows that a balance between the financial and nonfinancial
measures is the best way of measuring organisation performance. Through the inclusion of
the customer, internal business, and the innovation and learning perspectives; the balanced
scorecard achieves a balance between financial and non-financial measures. There is no
concord on what criteria the selection of performance measures should be based on (Tangen,
2003). Therefore, results and determinants model and the balance scorecard model are both
applicable for the research. Moreover, the balanced scorecard, through the four perspectives
of organisation performance, takes financial and non-financial measures into account and
looks into internal organisation performance, as well as employees. Parker (2000: 64) argued
that "The balanced scorecard is a useful predictor of future performance and has shown
successful results in many private-sector companies, as well as in some government
organisations." Consequently, the balanced scorecard model is a trustworthy method of
performance measurement. In this perspective, in order to investigate and explore the impact
of the trust relationships on organisation performance, the research used the balanced
scorecard model. Owen et al. (2001: 17) proclaim that "The scorecard provides a multi-level
view of the organisation which balances the internal and external perspectives, current versus
future needs, as well as leading versus lagging indicators."
The above view is also supported by Ahn (2005). Hence, the use of a balanced scorecard to
measure organisation performance brings about the comprehensive view of the performance.
As a result of the highlighted advantages involved in the balanced scorecard model, this
research utilises it to explore and investigate the impact of trust in supply chain relationships
115

on organisation performance and supply chains performance. Thus, the four perspectives of
the model will be highlighted here in the light of the reviewed literature.
3.3.3.1 Financial Perspective
Kaplan and Norton (1992) posited that the financial performance measures are intended to
reflect the needs of stakeholders, and in addition to the reflection of the stakeholders' needs,
the preceding discussion shows that the financial measures evaluate the shareholders' value.
Also, Thurbin (1994) argued that the financial measures indicate the organisation's financial
success. Therefore, in order to measure organisation financial performance, this research used
some measures that are of substantial importance to the organisation's financial success, and
these financial measures are return on investment, earning growth, profitability, cost saving,
and market share.
The previous section shows that these financial measures are quantitative measures and they
can be collected readily from organisation financial records as well as the organisation's
financial systems. The financial measures selected for the research are available in most forprofit organisations, however, the literature reveals, that some financial measures cannot be
used for all organisations. For instance, if an organisation is a family business and limited to
its shareholders, without shares in the stockmarket, then share price movement not a useful
measure for such an organisation. Financial performance measures will be used in this
research to designate the financial performance of the organisations selected for the study.
The next section of this study reviews the selected financial measures.
3.3.3.1.1 Financial Performance Measures for the Research
The discussions below the display in detail the financial performance reflect in this research.
(a) Return on Investment
Return on investment (ROI) is one of the financial measures selected by the researcher for
indicating organisation performance. The literature shows that ROI takes into consideration
organisation's net income (NI) and the book value of assets. With regards to its usefulness,
the literature shows that ROI offers a useful overall approximation of the success of a firm's
past investment policy by providing a summary measure of the ex-post return on capital
invested (Drury, 1998; Vessel, 2003). Thus, the use of ROI as an organisation performance
measure is useful so as to indicate the amount of capital organisation invested and return or
income gained from this investment. Riahi-Belkaoui and Picur (1998) maintained that high
return on investment increases the organisation's growth opportunity. Consequently, in the
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context of performance measurement, high return on investment indicates high financial
performance and therefore, this measure is helpful to indicate the organisation performance.
(b) Earnings Growth
Earnings growth is used by this research as financial measure selected for indicating the level
of organisation performance through its earnings. It is defined in the literature as the annual
growth rate of earning for an organisation. The literature shows that it can be evaluated in
different ways however the most common is to calculate the average annual growth rate over
the past 5 years eliminating extraordinary items (compounded annually). Earnings are used
by organisations' boards and institutional investors to measure enterprise performance and
quality of management (Lev, 2003). According to Barnett (2003), high earnings growth
shows high-level of sales, lower interest rate and improved gross margins. Thus, earnings
growth is an effective financial measure so as to evaluate organisation performance.
(c) Profitability
The third financial measure that has been used to indicate the organisation performance is
profitability. Supply chain management via supply chain development aims to improve
organisation profitability and return on capital through cost reduction (Chauhan and Proth,
2005). In private organisations, profitability is the key to long-term growth and survival
(Noone and Griffin, 1997). Moreover, Profitability indicates the organisation's performance
in the market as it shows the relationship between the organisation's product or service
quality and customer satisfaction. In this background, profitability is a determinant of
business growth. According to Glancey (1998), there is a positive relationship between
organisation profitability and its reputation in the market. Higher organisation status in the
market allows it to earn a higher margin on sales, which results in higher organisation
profitability. As discussed in the review of trust literature, organisation reputation is a
dimension of trust that is likely to lead to trust occurrence between business parties, together
with supply chain parties. Therefore, organisation reputation in the market is believed to have
significances on trust building in the supply chain relationships, and it is supposed to increase
the organisation profitability. Consequently, organisation's profitability is an effective
indicator of the organisation's financial performance.
(d) Cost Saving

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Seines (1992) argued that profitability is not enough to measure organisation performance
and cost saving as a measure of organisation performance needs to be used in combination
with profitability. Analysis of organisation profitability and its cost gives a wider view of its
performance. Using cost saving as a means for organisation performance has the capacity to
show the cost that the organisation incurred to achieve a given profitability. The literature
shows that cost saving is referred to as cost reduction or cost minimization. It compares
organisation productivity and operations as against organisation incurred cost such as
production and operation cost, administration cost or marketing cost. Organisation operations
include employee cost.
Barber (2005) emphasises that there is a relationship between productivity and employees'
cost. As a result, and regarding the use of this measure in indicating organisation
performance, the literature shows that organisations with high employee cost and low
employee productivity are characterised by low organisation performance in terms of cost
saving. Therefore, organisations with high productivity and low operations cost are
organisations with high performance. Hence, this measure was selected to be used in this
research on the foundation of the identified effective it has on measuring the organisation
performance.
(e) Market Share
For this research, the last financial measure to be considered is the market share. It indicates
the percentage of market share obtained by the organisation, and it describes the
organisation's position in a market. Fraering and Minor (1994: 27) posited that "The
relationship between market share and profitability is too weak to achieve market share
dominance." As a result, profitability as an organisation measure is inadequate to reflect an
organisation's market share. Market share shows the organisation's performance in the
market, and it entails that the bigger the market share, the more successful the organisation
(O'Regan, 2002). Thus, the use of market share as a measure of organisation performance is
helpful to generate awareness into the organisation's performance in the market.
As shown before, the financial performance measures are useful for indicating the financial
functioning of the organisation been studied. In other words, as designated by Kaplan and
Norton (1992) the financial performance measures are intended to reflect the needs of
stakeholders. As emphasised in the preceding section, in combination to the financial
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perspective; the balanced scorecard model considers non-financial measures of organisation
performance through considering internal business perspective, customer perspective,
innovation and organisation learning perspective. The non-financial perspectives allow the
researcher to draw an all-inclusive view of the organisation performance. The following
section reviews these viewpoints in regards to this research aims in measuring organisation
performance.
3.3.3.1.2 Non-Financial Performance Measures for the Research
The following discussions look at the non-financial performance measures in this study
(a) Customer Perspective
The Customer perspective is very important to be considered by business organisations as it
concerns product and service reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy
(Parasuraman et al., 1988). Kaplan and Norton (1998b) also supported this view as they
assert that the customer perspective refers to customer satisfaction. Many business
organisations today are racing to rebuild their connections to new as well as existing
customers, so as to boost long-term customer loyalty (Chen and Popovich, 2003). Thus,
customer satisfaction is a precondition of customer loyalty (Lee et al., 2003) and leads to
customer retention (Stauss et al., 2001; Ryals and Knox, 2005). Also, it extends the
relationship between the customer and the organisation and is an indicator of high
organisation performance (Van Triest, 2005). Kaplan and Norton (1998b) maintained that
customer satisfaction could be measured through a percentage of sales from branded
products, the percentage of sales from new products, an on-time delivery which is defined by
customer, share of key accounts' purchases, and a number of cooperative engineering efforts.
Kaplan and Norton (1998b) looked at measures of customer perspective from inside the
organisation as the customer perspective can also be measured from the customer's point of
view. Parasuraman et al. (1985) argued that customer satisfaction can be assessed by
comparing customers' expectations and their perception of the actual product or service
delivered. However, this view was criticised by Teas (1994), Cronin and Tayler (1994) and
Smith (1995) as they posited that customer perceptions alone need to be measured to analyse
customer satisfaction. Consequently, the customer perspective indicates the organisation
performance from the perspective of the customer in relation to the level that the organisation
achieved in satisfying its customer.

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(b) Internal Business Perspective
Another non-financial performance measure is the internal business perspective. Kaplan and
Norton (1998a) refer to the internal business perspective as organisation thinking. It refers to
the organisation internal processes as well as operations. According to Kaplan and Norton
(1998b), the internal business perspective concerns quality, employee skills, cycle time, unit
cost, and productivity. The internal business viewpoint refers to the organisation's internal
performance, and this perspective can be measured through analysis, which concern business
prosperity. Therefore, for an organisation to thrive, it has to be customer driven, responsive
and consistent in meeting its promises to customers (Evans and Castek, 1999). Cycle time is
the time taken to provide a service or produce a product. According to Ng et al. (1997),
organisations' competitive priorities are now changing from quality to improved customer
response time through focusing on delivery speed and reliability. In this perspective, cycle
time reduction is a competitive advantage to organisation business. Furthermore, unit cost
refers to activity based cost and allows organisations to realise the true cost-to-serve for their
customer (Davila and Wouters, 2003).
However, the high unit cost has negative consequences on the organisation's business; as it
influences the organisation's overall productivity cost and reduces profitability which is an
indication of low organisation internal performance. Also, quality of product and services, as
shown in the discussion of customer perspective, is one of the customers' concerns. The
quality of product and services reveals the organisation's internal capabilities and shows high
internal business performance while employee skills reflect employee capability. Owen et al.,
(2001) maintained that the right people in the right roles with the right manager’s result in
sustainable high performance. Consequently, employee skills enable the employee to execute
tasks with efficiency related to the possessed skills. Productivity refers to the rate of business
production. Measurement of productivity helps to create potential for internal business
improvement and make the organisation responsible for the state of productivity (Sahay,
2005). Moreover, the literature shows that the organisation that seeks to improve its internal
business perspective is often concerned with innovation and organisational learning
perspective. The succeeding subsection highlights the innovation and organisational learning
perspective as organisation performance measure.
(c) Innovation and Organisational Learning Perspective

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This non-financial performance measure addresses significant practices directed toward the
creation of high-performanceworkplace and a learning organisation. In a severely competitive
business environment, organisational learning is found to be an important absorptive process
driven by innovation (Zhang et al., 2004). Therefore, an organisation can, through innovation
and learning, make frequent improvement to its processes, products and services. Learning to
innovate suggests the development of something new and it can happen in technical and
administrative, organisational aspects. Technical innovation refers to a new product, service
or technology, while administrative innovation is in the form of new policy, procedure and
organisational form. Additionally, "get innovative or get dead" has become a concept in
current business organisations. Moreover, technical innovation influences organisation
success and the ability of a new product to solve the customer's problem is a significant
indicator of the organisation's success in innovation (Studt, 2005).
Similarly, before the end of the 1980s, there was a developing vital writing on the origination
of the “learning association” (Ashton, 1988; Garratt, 1987; Jashapara, 1993; Nonaka, 1991;
Pedler et al., 1991; Senge, 1990). All things considered, this procedure is uncovered in
Deming's quality control framework utilising quality circles, “statistical procedure control”
(SPC) (Wang and Ahmed, 2003). Garratt (1999) kept up that the idea of authoritative learning
and learning association did not rise until the 1980s, but rather its standards are embedded
into numerous point of view of administration, and its practices perceive an extensive variety
of variables, for example, absorptive limit, representative interest, association society,
structures, technique, critical thinking capacity among others; deciding the learning comes
about. The contention on authoritative learning open up through the works of a few scientists,
for example, Single-circle, twofold circle and triple-circle learning thought bargirls and
Schon's (1978), Senge's (1990) the fifth follower, and Peddler et al., (1991) learning
organisation model. Besides, as indicated by Wang and Ahmed (2003), hierarchical learning
has immediately created to cover different part of the authoritative administration. Five
centres of the idea were recognised by them which include: concentrates on individual
learning, procedure or framework, persistent change, information administration and society
or illustration.
Table 3.2 Summary of Organisational Learning Concept and Practices
Focus
Individual

The concept of organisational learning
“Organisational learning occurs when individual within an

Practices
“Staff training

learning

organisation experience a problematic situation and inquires

development.”

121

and

into it on the organisation behalf” (Argyris and Schon,
Processor

1996)
“Organisational

system

organisations manage and understands their experiences.”

information

(Glynn et al., 1992 cited in Wang and Ahmed, 2003)

processing

learning

is

the

process

whereby

“Enhancement

of
and

problem-solving
“A learning organisation should be viewed as a metaphor

capability.”
“Creation

rather than a distinct type of structure, whose employees

maintenance

learn conscious communal processes for continually

learning

leveraging, generating and retaining individual and

involvement,

collective learning to improve performance of the

employee

organisational system in ways important to all stakeholders

empowerment

and

and by improving and monitoring performance” (Drew and

collaborative

team

Knowledge

Smith, 1995)
“Organisation learnings the adjustment in the condition of

working, etc.”
“Facilitation

management

information (Lyles, 1992, 1998). It includes learning

interaction

procurement, dissemination, refinement, creation and

strengthening of the

usage: the capacity to secure assorted data and to share

knowledge base.”

Culture

or

metaphor

and
of
culture:

of
and

basic seeing so that this information can be misused
(Foil,1994) and the capacity to create learning, bits of
knowledge and to relate to past and future exercises” (Foil
Continuous

and Lyles, 1985)
“A learning must be purposefully and deliberately given to

“The

improvement

the help of individual learning so as to ceaselessly change

TQM practices.”

adoption

of

the whole association and its specific circumstance” (Pedler
et al., 1991)

Source: Wang and Ahmed, 2003.
Additionally, authoritative learning was likewise characterized as “the location and revision
of mistake” (Fuller et al. 2007, (referred to in Argyris and Schon, 1978); yet hierarchical
adapting needs to go past recognizing and remedying mistakes (twofold circle) and into
looking existing procedures, items and frameworks by deliberately asking where the
association ought to remain later on commercial centre (triple-circle) (Opoku and Fortune,
2010; Wang and Ahmed, 2003). In this way, hierarchical learning is broadly recognised as
holding the way to organisations' flourishing and survival (Opoku and Fortune, 2010) and can
enhance authoritative execution (Lopez et al., 2005).

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Also, hierarchical learning is a successful method for adjusting to natural variations and
making utilisation of past understanding (Berends et al. 2003) and it is contemplated that best
association create successful learning forms at all levels of their association. Due to
ineffectively or improper created information fulfilment frameworks in the oil and gas
industry, information and encounters picked up by various firms are at the individual level
and not at the authoritative level (Barlow and Jashapara 1998) subsequently, hierarchical
learning ought to be a reclamation procedure of changing practices keeping in mind the end
goal to empower an association to accomplish change and development (Murray and
Chapman 2003). What's more, the oil and gas industry is at the cutting edge of the practical
change program and issues of the various group (Muller and Siebenhuner 2007); in this
manner, the capacity of oil and gas associations to handle such change and issues requires
hierarchical learning (in the same place).
3.4 Summary

The part had taken a gander at writing in-store network execution and association execution.
It focused on the execution measures for the store network and the association and
demonstrated the measures that have been chosen to be utilised by this examination. The
following section will take a gander at exploration strategy.

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CHAPTER 4
Research Methodology
4.1 Introduction

The research strategy is about picking the suitable approach to address the examination
questions raised through analysing the suggestions announced after the writing audit. As an
outcome, scientific classification of the examination cycle that incorporates clear,
clarification and testing were exhibited (Meredith et al., 1989). Besides, this part likewise
includes introducing the decision of technique for gathering and dissecting information, from
a pragmatic perspective, looking at relative points of interest and detriments of another option
strategy that might be pretty much reasonable to the foundation of this study. Additionally,
this part distinguishes the examination philosophical suppositions that coordinated choice
about the exploration approach received and with regards to these suspicions, the support for
the utilisation of quantitative methodological examination methodology was made
Sekaran and Bougie (2001) set that exploration is a sorted out, orderly, basic, objective and
investigative investigation into a particular issue complete with the point of discovering
answers to the examination inquiries or answers for the issue. In addition, research system is
a methodology, plan of activity, outline or process that shapes the decision and utilisation of
particular techniques and connecting the decision and utilisation of strategies to wanted
results (Croty, 1998). Also, Bazza and Vandibe (2009) characterise research philosophy as a
blueprint for analyst's movement which indicates how the scientist plans to complete
exploration from a starting to an end. So also, as indicated by Creswell (2012), research
technique is a procedure of information gathering, information investigation and translation
that analyst performs amid exploration work. Research technique is additionally associated
with various sorts of examination configuration/methodology (Brymman and Bell, 2011).
The part starts by showing the exploration procedure that has been trailed by the specialist. At
that point, it keeps on clearing up the purposes behind the procedure took after by the analyst
by presenting the exploration ideal models and methodologies on the premise of the checked
on writing and it elucidates the chose methodologies and philosophies for this examination.
Likewise, the section continues to distinguish the examination information accumulation
techniques and afterwards, it highlights the exploration test and illuminates purposes behind
the determination of the predetermined examples utilised as a part of this examination.
Moreover, it clears up pilot testing of the exploration surveys and shows explanations behind
appointing time scale for the polls. After that, it considers approval of the examination
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information and highlights methods followed in investigating the gathered information of this
exploration.
4.2 Ontology (Theoretical Perspective)

Thomas (2004) cited that philosophy is a Greek word signifying “on” or “being”; as “it is
investigation of being”. It is concerned with “what is”, with the method for nearness, with the
structure of reality in this manner' (Croty, 1998, p. 10) and it imparts a technique for
understanding, which is the reality that authority looks at (Croty, 1998; Wisker, 2008). Logic
is a central part of the force that attempts to answer address. The most elevated amount of
being is the human; this is so since individuals have cognizance, feeling of thinking,
mindfulness, trade implications (through dialect), produce craftsmanship, writing and music
while others can't (Brymman and Bell, 2007; Croty, 1998; Thomas, 2004).
Moreover, the ontological plan has a few epistemological ramifications as every level of
being can be known by the plans which are most suitable to that level (Brymman and Bell,
2011; Thomas, 2004). Ontological suppositions portray diverse epistemological and
procedural points (Morgan and Smirich, 1980). Some philosophers guaranteed that reality
exists, which we may not know as a result of our restricted perceptual gear i.e. that the truth
exists, however, we have no complete information about it. Others kept up that lone openly
discernible marvels are to be viewed as genuine and mental states are held not to quality
(Croty, 1998; Thomas, 2004; Wisker, 2008). Therefore, from the prior, philosophy could, for
the most part, be arranged into objectivism (authenticity) and Interpretive (constructionism)
(Brymman and Bell, 2007; Burrell and Morgan, 1979).
4.2.1 Realism (Objectivism)
Analysts have contended that authenticity has been the overwhelming methodology in
sciences and sociologies research for over 30 years (Sayer, 1992, 2000; Maxwell and
Mittapalli, 2010).Hence, authenticity keeps up that reality exists free of our recognitions or
our speculations about them (Brymman and Bell, 2007; Maxwell and Mittapalli, 2010); that
is genuine is mind boggling and stratified (Robson, 2011). To such an extent that articles and
reality can exist autonomous. Social on-screen characters have no power over social marvels
and their implications (Creswell, 2012). Therefore, researchers' conceptualisation is basically
a method for knowing the truth (Brymman and Bell, 2007) and in authenticity, social and
common sciences can utilise comparative kind of methodology in information accumulation
and investigation (Brymman and Bell, 2007; Schwandt, 2007). Subsequently, the errand of
the analyst is to build theory about such instruments and search out their belongings'

125

(Brymman and Bell, 2007, p. 628) and the directing portrayals are of structures and
components instead of wonders and occasions.
An association speaks to social request and individuals to take after the prerequisites of the
association; that is to say, an association contained reliably genuine process and structures
(Brymman and Bell, 2007; Creswell, 2011). “In both association and society, the social
substance being referred to appears to be something outer to the performing artist and as
having verging on the unmistakable reality of its own and it has attributes of an article and
subsequently of having a goal reality” (Brymman and Bell, 2011, p. 15). Hence, it is
conceivable to view research outlines as substances not just a model for exploration but rather
likewise as genuine conceptualisations and practices utilised in a particular study.
Besides, connections amongst specialist and members in a study can likewise be seen as
genuine part of design–in theutilisation of a study, for the reason that it is basic to real
working of study (Maxwell, 2005 referred to in Maxwell and Mittapalli, 2010). Thusly, realist
point of view and methodologies can make vital commitments to blended strategies research.
These commitments include general viewpoint in which quantitative and subjective
techniques and suppositions can better be joined and particular mindfulness and systems that
empower blended strategies scientists to comprehend the connections and procedures they
concentrate on (Maxwell and Mittapalli, 2010).
4.2.2 Subjectivism (Constructionism/Interpretive)
This is often called constructionism or interpretive. “Social wonders and their suggestions
are conveyed through social relationship and in addition, they are in a predictable state of
change” (Brymman and Bell, 2007, p. 23). Along these lines, Thomas (2004) kept up that
individual's conduct must be comprehended if the scientist comprehends those significance
and such importance must be translated by in which they happen. Therefore, a member's and
specialises individual, social and recorded experience impacts their translation of 'reality'.
In addition, there can be whatever number substances or implications as could be expected
under the circumstances as there are members and analysts on a solitary marvel (Creswell,
2011; Robson, 2011). 'Our experience, considered reality and/or reality itself are an element
of the specific system/calculated plan (society, dialect, and worldview) in which we live and
that distinctive theoretical plans yield incommensurable comprehension of experience and
reality' (Schwandt, 2007, p. 40). Scientists constantly display particular variant of social
reality, as opposed to that can be viewed as unequivocal, demonstrating that learning is seen
as unverifiable (Brymman and Bell, 2007). “Constructionism” is a reasonable point of view

126

and most research under it use subjective examination prepare to a great extent inductive with
the specialist creating significance from the information gathered in the field' (Creswell,
2011, p. 9). The specialists use perception and meeting strategies which give various points of
view (Robson, 2011) and the more opened the scrutinizing, the better, as the analyst listen
deliberately to what individuals say or do in their life setting (Creswell, 2011).
Brymman and Bell (2007, p. 26) kept up that “an association is a socially developed item, a
mark utilised by people to understand their social experience, so it can be seen just from the
perspective of people who straightforwardly includes in its exercises”.
4.3 Epistemology (Philosophy)

The epistemology is often confused sometimes with the methodology, philosophy of science
and epistemology more recently, since all these sciences have in common studying the
process of knowledge construction. However, epistemology has differences that make it
unique, being an indispensable tool for the analysis of science and its forms of development
in general. The role of epistemology is to crystallize, i.e. clarify what are the circumstances
that could be found and what are its limits, i.e. determining the scope and validity of
knowledge. It uses as a means to determine the validity or invalidity of knowledge
arguments. They can be demonstrative, intuitive, using resources of authority, among others.
The word epistemology is composed of "episteme", a term derived from Greek and refers to
knowledge or science. In ancient times, classical thinkers used the term "episteme" to
differentiate it from the "tekne", the latter referring to the notion of technique, to instrumental
knowledge. It was also distinguished from the "doxa" or general knowledge and in many
cases associated with the plebs. Moreover, the term epistemology has the suffix "logos"
which refers to the study of a subject or thing. Thus we can conclude that epistemology is the
study of knowledge. We will delve further into this question below. “The Cambridge
Dictionary of Philosophy” (1999) depicts epistemology as the division of logic which
concentrates on the way of learning. It is about comprehension and procuring information
(Solem 2003), while metaphysics concerns the way of reality or nature of learning as it is
characterised as “the way of being, its major components and standards”. As it were,
cosmology is our impression of the world and hence our perspective. Consequently, It is a
major issue in an examination for it is about how we know paying little respect to whether
any case; including our own, made about the wonders we are possessed with, is legitimized.
That is to say what do we mean by the thought "truth" and how might we know paying little
heed to whether some case is substantial or false? In a manner of speaking, what is our
speculation of truth?' (Saundars et al., 2009, p.191). It is the examination of the method for
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data, its likelihood, expansion and general preface and it oversees how we make new learning
or affirm the present learning.
In this way, the point is to give philosophical establishing to choosing what sorts of learning
are conceivable and how we can affirm that they are sufficient and true blue (Maynard,
1994). Creswell (2009) kept up that philosophical thought have an extraordinary impact on
exploration hones and in this manner they should be recognised. Thusly, epistemology
recognises information from feeling, conviction or deception (Creswell, 2009) and gives
support to approach (points, capacities and presumptions of strategy) (Schwandt, 2007; Croty,
1998). Additionally, it set out the relationship between the specialists and the truth (Maynard,
1994 referred to in Croty, 1998). Despite the fact that metaphysics manages the way of being
(the nature of reality/learning) epistemology manages how to gain and comprehend the
information (Guba and Lincoln, 1994). Sociologies research epistemology is by and largely
separated into two: induction/positivism and realism/constructionism (Creswell, 2012). The
following segment takes a gander at a brief record of positivism suppositions.
4.3.1 Positivism
Thomas (2004) stressed that the term positivism was coined by Auguste Comte in 19 th
century. It is also called exploratory system or doing science look into, positivist/postpositivist examination, and correct science (Niglas, 2010; Creswell, 2011). It is an
epistemology associated with common sense, behaviourism, naturalism or legitimate status to
the social investigation (Wisker, 2008; Robson, 2011). Correspondingly, unique researchers
see it as a particularly asked for universe made up of atomistic, discrete and unmistakable
events (Blaikie, 1993; Croty, 1998). The hypothesis of Positivism is that genuine learning is
those that are procured particularly for a reality or exploratory recognition (Croty, 1998).
“The world is fundamentally identifiable; that is it includes instructed substances; and that, if
we ask the right question in the right way, use the right research techniques, do the right kind
of examinations and methods, we will discover these facts or truths” (Wisker, 2008. p. 65).
The world is gigantic factors net of sorts and these factors particularly and interconnect to
each other (Thomas, 2004). Positivists' social specialist handles typical sciences methods for
doing research where results are conveyed on observational hypotheses (Cohen et al., 2007;
Walliman, 2011). Subsequently, in positivism, human direct is focused on an
indistinguishable way from standard inquiries, for instance, stones or fishes (Thomas, 2004)
and subject to settled laws, lead can be determined, and there is no space for different

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illustrations (Wisker, 2008). The pro is an onlooker of social reality and can't control the
eventual outcome of the examination (Cohen et al., 2007).
Besides, Positivism by and large uses quantitative data got from the utilisation of strict
models and philosophy (Robson, 2011). Every now and again use test, recognition, diagram
and bits of knowledge to assemble and dismember data (Neuman, 1997) and data got from
examination and studies are used to exhibit the associations between factors. In which a
couple of factors are restricted, and their associations are viewed, and additionally utilise
correlation methodologies to locate their verifiable associations. Through these techniques
direct of the net orbit of it, decided for study can be elucidated, appreciated and foreseen.
Recognitions are imparted as delineations; depictions are only significant in case they evenhandedly show the properties of the article and bar any segments that can't be affirmed by
different observers (Thomas, 2004). In this way, there is truly sharp division among
speculation and examine, and the piece of investigation is attempting theories (hypothesis)
and giving material to the advancement of laws (Brymman and Bell, 2007, 2011). Therefore,
associations are seen as solid elements from which information can be gathered (Brymman
and Bell, 2007).
4.4 Epistemological Perspectives in Social Sciences

Epistemology as a discipline that studies the nature, possibility, invention and essence of
knowledge, not only analyses the relationship between a subject and an object but also that
encompasses social processes, factors and circumstances of reality that needs to know
Epistemology questions how man knows and how the object is given to us by analysing
theories of science, its methods and procedures. “A specific issue in this setting is the subject
of regardless of whether the social world can and ought to be examined by same systems,
standards and theory as the normal sciences” (Brymman and Bell 2011).The interpretation of
social facts requires a method but the human sciences do not use the same scientific method
as the natural sciences. Piaget classifies the human sciences as those that have as object of
study the man. Sociology or cultural anthropology as sciences that seek to establish laws.
History and literary criticism as the disciplines that seek to reconstruct and interpret the past.
Law or politics as the disciplines that seek to establish norms and metaphysics and ethics as
the philosophical disciplines that meditate on the totality of experience and human existence
Positivism ruled inquires about sociologies. Moreover, somewhere around the 1940s and
1950s, quantitative exploration overwhelmed sociologies and in mid-1960s, while
quantitative viewpoint keeps on getting sociology research acknowledgement; there was
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uncertainty on positivism control on sociologies research and the clear break between human
social frameworks and scientific rationale developed (Newman and Benz, 1998; Thomas,
2004). Accordingly, "new epistemologies began to build up that perceived the quality stacked
nature of human social associations. That person create reality for themselves and that
learning itself is transmitted in social ways were beginning to be acknowledged. Thus,
addresses emerged about the validity of applying the characteristic technique to these
intricate human elements” (Newman and Benz, 1998, P. 5) and this demonstrates subjective
examination strategies began from quantitative exploration in sociologies. Subsequently,
'having both quantitative and subjective techniques on the ground; the verbal confrontation
starts of which is more investigative: the deductive strategies for the intelligent positivists
(quantitative analysts) or the inductive techniques for the naturalists (subjective specialists)?
Can the consequences of subjective exploration be summed up similar to the after effects of
quantitative examination? On the other hand, can science be worth loaded (subjective) or just
suitable if esteem free (quantitative)? What epistemological presumptions are disregarded by
embracing one worldview or the other? (Newman and Benz, 1998, P.7). There, the
interdisciplinary character of these sciences and disciplines is put in mind. Epistemology as a
theory of knowledge has an interdisciplinary character whose theory is based on adapting
thought to reality in a process of interaction between subject and object. In a study of the
problems of man and society, an articulation between the human sciences and the formal or
natural sciences, such as mathematics, is pertinent. Sociology as a discipline that studies man
or groups in the whole of their social relations, needs to be articulated with economics or
anthropology. In the same direction, psychology, which in turn needs to be articulated with
sociology or biology, and so on. All this leads to determine that there is sometimes no need to
establish for the human sciences a method other than that of the natural sciences, while in the
human sciences calculation, mediation or statistics are also relevant. Nonetheless, it is social
problems that condition a method and strategies for approaching social facts with a
methodology that involves the staging of a procedure such as measurement, statistics,
interpretation, etc. Epistemology in the social sciences is based on a critical analysis of their
theories in order to problematize them and to question the scientific method in the study of
man, so that considering man as object of study causes disagreements and resistances. The
theories of structuralism, functionalism, behaviourism, psychoanalysis applied in the study of
human behaviour have in the perspectives of epistemology a critical dimension of their
postulates and theories that question the scientific character that can have to analyse

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behaviour Human relations as the social behaviours of groups or individuals in the whole of
their interactions, relationships and structures.
In the study of the world of the social the epistemology has in the relations and interactions of
the individuals with the society another critical dimension of its postulates and theories. In
this direction the social sciences study the social group as the relationship between
individuals and society at the level of their praxis or their psychology under an
epistemological dimension where the positivist, rationalist or relativistic theories that are
immersed in their analyses are subjected to criticism. Now, the social sciences under an
epistemological dimension must be open to other currents and theories of modernity that
allow them to have a theoretical instrument for the analysis of social reality. In contemporary
social sciences new sciences and disciplines have emerged which attempt to understand the
cognitive processes of the mind and create systems of control of society such as cybernetics,
information theory, structural linguistics, artificial intelligence, general theory of Systems,
socio-biology. The nature of the object of the social sciences, the relationship between subject
and object, neutrality and objectivity have been under epistemological analysis as the basis
for establishing the scientific method of the social sciences but it is pertinent to delve deeper
into research on problems Social that in our days have taken to the society to a process of
dissolution as the deterioration of the quality of life or the ethical decomposition with its
factors generating of violence and death; That a president reform the Constitution to re-elect
himself is the most immediate precedent of a small civil dictatorship that wants to establish in
society with the argument of security and other sophisms. While in other Latin American
countries the people are voting for progressive or nationalist governments, here in Colombia
we are doing it by far-right governments, the social sciences can clarify because we are
misreading our political reality that prevents peoples from being free. In this way, Solem
(2003) contended that techniques to be utilised as a part of a study are controlled by our
impression of the world and that these strategies are utilised to obtain information, which is
an issue of epistemology. Since our view of the world impacts our decision of strategy,
metaphysics along these lines decides our epistemology.
For instance, in Fig.4.1, the cosmology of an exploration could be characterised as subjective
or target. The appropriate epistemology will be interpretive or positivist individually.
Similarly, the relating technique will be quantitative or subjective individually. In addition,
given that the way of information or data and learning (philosophy) required in production
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network examination is quantifiable and quantifiable, a positivist epistemology is more
proper. Also, the exploration worldview is positivist because of the way that it depends on
writing audit to decide hypothetical ideas took after by examination questions era (Forza,
2002). The examination inquiries depended on accepted connections between the studies
develop to in a theoretical structure. The exact study tests for approval of the inquiries
utilising the information gathered from the field study.

Fig.4.1: A classification of epistemology and ontology(Morgan and Smircich, 1980; 492)
4.5 Research Designs/Approach

Polit and Beck (2010) contended that the exploration plans/methodology of a study layouts
the essential systems that specialists use to answer their examination questions. Furthermore,
Brymman (2012) contended that in selecting an exploration approach, the nature of the
apparent association between hypothesis, epistemology and the examination inquiries would
be persuasive. In doing social research, a decision must be made among the three options
research techniques, which are: quantitative, subjective and blended strategies research
(MMR). However, these exploration systems accept independently amazing and inverse
example; there is confirmation of the certain level of a blend of two ideal models in every
examination work (Jha, 2008). The succeeding segments take a gander at the different option
research strategies in point of interest.
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4.5.1 Qualitative Research Methods
Subjective exploration techniques started from Institution of higher education in the late
1960s, especially in human science and humanities (Schwandt, 2007; Newman and Benz,
1998). Subjective exploration focused on the phenomenological premise of a study, which is
a multifaceted depiction of "signifying" of a marvels or culture under study (Newman and
Benz, 1998). Additionally, it has developing procedures that may alter after the specialist
starts to gather information (Creswell, 2003, 2009). In addition, the subjective request is an
arrangement of numerous practices in which words in philosophical and methodological
vocabularies

procure

distinctive

implications

in

their

utilisation

or

specifically

demonstrations of talking about the importance of the practice. These diverse methods for
talking structure something more like a gathering of challenged practices than a coordinated.
However, “there are numerous sources and sorts of debate yet, for the most part, they include
distinctive methods for thinking about the point of a subjective request originating from
various customs of thought” (Schwandt, 1997, p. xiv).
The reasons for Qualitative examination are finding and comprehension implications
individual or gathering provide for an issue or issue (Creswell, 2009). The specialists through
watching member's practices or partaking in their exercises decipher wonders as far as
implications individuals provide for. Anyhow, the specialists' experience, history, culture,
thinking and experience impact their elucidation (Creswell, 2009) and this sort of exploration
is led on one subject or question, one case or one unit over a drawn out stretch of time (Cohen
et al., 2007; Newman and Benz, 1998).
In addition, subjective exploration utilises numerous techniques, for example, individual
experience, thoughtful, life history, exact, materials-contextual analysis, meeting,
observational, chronicled, collaborations and visual content (Denzin and Lincoln, 1994).
These strategies are intuitive and humanistic, and information gathering techniques are
developing and include dynamic association by members (Creswell, 2003). Subjective
exploration hypotheses include“naturalism”, “ethno methodology”, “emotionalism”, and
“postmodernism” (Gubrium and Holstein 1997). Also, subjective exploration can either be
inductive, productive or interpretive (Brymman and Bell, 2007) and 'the hypothesis emerged
from the information; it is not forced on the information' (Patton, 1990, p. 278). Also,
Newman and Benz (1998, p. 17) contended that 'hypothesis does not rise free of the
individual deciphering the information and information don't create hypothesis; individuals
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do'. Along these lines, this implies the specialist builds up a grounded hypothesis by entering
field work with no theory; depicting what happens; taking into account the perception define
clarifications on how and why the occasion happens (Patton, 1990). By and by, there is no,
for the most part, acknowledged method for examining subjective information, as the
techniques are not deliberate (Tesch, 1990).
Moreover, based on the approach and theoretical view, Creswell (2007, 2009) characterised
qualitative research into five; action research, grounded theory (explore processes, activities,
and events); case study, narrative, ethnography (study culture-sharing behaviour of
individuals or groups) and phenomenology (the study of individuals). The next sections look
at these various groups of qualitative research in brief.
4.5.1.1 Action Research
According to O'Brien (2001), action research is known by various other names, including
collaborative inquiry, emancipatory research, participatory research, contextual action
research and action learning; however, all are variations on a theme. Simply put, action
research is “learning by doing” and it involves an understanding of the framework, values
and ethical norms within which it is used in a particular context i.e. it involves authentic
relationships (participation) between the members of the client system and the action
researcher.
4.5.1.2 Grounded Theory
Grounded theory is a research approach that was developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967)
cited in Krauss (2005) as a general methodology for developing theory. The foremost features
are context sensitive, practical reality, empirical in nature, and it is linked to action (Lester,
1999). Furthermore, the result of a Grounded theory study is the generation of a theory,
comprising a set of reasonable relationships proposed among concepts and groups of
concepts and can be considered by either induction or deduction (Saundars et al., 2007). This
differs from other ethnographical methods as the information is often presented with little
comment from a researcher.
4.5.1.3 Case Study
Yin (2009) contended that a case study is an empirical inquiry that investigates a
contemporary phenomenon in depth and within its real life context especially when the
boundaries between context and phenomenon are not clearly clear. For example,
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organisations may use a single, double or multiple case studies to understand problems,
processes and effects of a new strategy in an organisation. According to Yin (1994), case
study researchers have two different philosophical dimensions i.e. inductive or deductive case
studies. Inductive case study mainly involves observation of a specific phenomenon in a
study whereas deductive research studies are theory driven, developing a research question
and hypothesis.
4.5.1.4 Phenomenology
According to Lester (1999); Cameron and prince, (2009), phenomenology is a method that
recognises phenomena and enhances the precise through how they are observed by the
performers in a situation. In the human scope, this usually translates into gathering deep
perceptions and information through inductive, qualitative methods such as participant
observation, discussions, and interviews and representing it from the perception of the
researcher.
4.5.1.5 Ethno methodology
An ethnomethodology is a research approach first sustained by Harold Garfinkel (1967)
(cited in Brant 2008). It focuses on how social order is formed through practices by making
sense of what others are doing and understanding their actions. Ethno methodology is a basic
proposal of sociology that offers a Particular perspective on the nature and inquiry of the
social order. Ethno methodologists study what is taken for granted, the practices of Common
sense through which the members of society coordinate, Structure and understand their daily
activities. Through practical actions Located, people are responsible for creating and
sustaining social order. In essence, ethno methodology is interested in social action,
Intersubjectivity, and linguistic communication-topics found in the Heart of pragmatics. Apart
from producing, in its own right, a wide range of penetrating and novel studies, ethno
methodology It bases, to a great extent, the analysis of the conversation. The intuitions And
foundational ideas of ethno methodology can be detected every time More in ethnography,
social psychology, cognitive science, and in Language research and social interaction.
However, in spite of the Influence in such areas, ethno methodological writings can be
notoriously difficult to address, particularly by the uninitiated. Due to a general resistance to
theorizing about their own procedures and discoveries of non-conventional research, to the
absence of a Conception of "theory" or "method" (in the ordinary sense of the term), and A
predilection for a condensed and sometimes incoherent prose, 1 the Ethno methodology has
135

acquired and maintained the position of a Sociological marginalized, and commonly
misunderstood. Garfinkel (1967) began with a problem which he spotted in efforts to create a
hypothetically informed scientific sociology and the dominant theoretical framework at this
time was Parsons’ social theory.
4.5.2 Quantitative Research Methods
Quantitative exploration techniques commanded sociologies scrutinised and raised positivism
and post-positivism in the late nineteenth and twentieth century .
Also, the decrease to an ungenerous arrangement of variables, firmly controlled through
configuration or factual investigation, give measures or perceptions to testing the hypothesis,
where the hypothesis or ideas were tried and considered its acceptance or disconfirmation by
the outcomes (Newman and Benz, 1998; Brymman and Bell, 2007; Robson, 2011). The
hypothesis is a system for the whole concentrate, for example, information accumulation
strategies and examination (Creswell, 2011). Newman and Benz (1998) placed that the study
initiates with the proclamation of hypothesis from which the speculations are inferred. Posttest measures are taken, a factual examination uncovers finding of the treatment's belongings,
and to bolster repeatability of the discoveries, one test is generally led. Measurable strategies
are utilised to decide the likelihood of the same contrasts happening again and again. At last,
these trial of measurable importance result in discoveries affirms or counter the first
speculation. Anyhow, the issue is best tended to by understanding what components or
variables impact the result. This is so since examination issue is one in which understanding
the components that disclose or identify as a result helps the analyst to comprehend and
clarify the issue (Creswell, 2009; 2011).
Besides, quantitative exploration techniques procedures include: test ponders, semiexploratory studies, pre - test and post-test plans, self-controlled survey, organised meeting
plans and organised perception plans (Creswell, 2009, 2011; Schwandt, 2007; Brymman and
Bell, 2007). Likewise, it has four particular preoccupations that are: estimation, causality,
speculation and replication. Estimation and evaluation are focal; exactness and precision of
estimation are required in quantitative exploration (Brymman and Bell, 2007, 2011).
Quantitative specialists likewise every now and again address implications and a far-reaching
incorporation of inquiries concerning dispositions in overview proposes that quantitative
analysts are occupied with matters of significance (Brymman and Bell, 2007 p. 630). Study
research practices of approaching respondent's purposes behind their activity propose that
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quantitative analysts are worried to find issues of significance (Marsh, 1982 referred to in
Brymman and Bell, 2007). Furthermore, to study implications, quantitative analysts much of
the time use state of mind scales (e.g. Liker scaling procedure) and another comparable
strategy (Brymman and Bell, 2007).
Although, quantitative research has numerous advantages but Collins and Hussey (2003)
maintained that there is a lack of objectivity associated with this technique in conducting
research. Therefore, they warned that it could lead to loss of crucial points and a low quality
of research outcome. More critically, Onwuegbuzie and Johnson (2006) argued that there are
more than 50 threats of validity in quantitative research both from internal and external
procedures from research design stage to data interpretation of the result.
4.5.3 Distinction between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods
The distinction amongst qualitative and quantitative exploration happens at the level of
techniques. It doesn't happen at hypothetical points of view and epistemology level. What
happens back at those celebrated levels is a qualification between subjectivist/constructionist
research, on the one hand, and objectivist/positivist examination on the other. In any case, as
a rule, it is subjective and quantitative looks into that are set against each other at inverse
bearing (Croty, 1998). In addition, subjective and quantitative explores have philosophical
roots in the naturist and the positivistic methods of insight separately. About every subjective
analyst, paying little respect to their hypothetical contracts, mirror some kind of
phenomenological viewpoint while quantitative examination approaches paying little heed to
their hypothetical contracts tend to accentuation that there is a typical reality on which
individuals can concur (Newman and Benz, 1998).
Moreover, contrast amongst quantitative and subjective exploration depends on what the truth
is and regardless of whether it is quantifiable. That is contrasts of conclusion about how one
can best comprehend what one know, whether through the target (authenticity) or subjective
(constructionism) techniques. Subjective scientists contended that reality could be developed
from various perspectives while quantitative specialists trust that the truth is one and can
without a doubt be characterised. Thusly, from one marvel various substances can exist (Seale
and Barnard, 1998). Moreover, subjective exploration utilises portrayals and clarifications of
issues in subtle element and inside and out, in light of the fact that they utilise systems and
approaches. While, quantitative examination use institutionalised and factual measures, so
that distinctive reactions and encounters of individuals can fit into the foreordained reaction

137

classifications to which numbers are relegated (Patton, 2002). Subsequently, Table 4.1
outlines a portion of the contrasts amongst subjective and quantitative explores.
Table 4.1: Some Common Disparities in Methodological Literature

Source; Niglas, K. (2010, p. 220).
In the qualitative examination, scientists and the subject collaborate with each other and
impact each other; along these lines, the exploration is quality bound.
The subjective techniques commonly create comprehensive data about the much lesser
number of individuals and cases (Micro) while quantitative strategies measure reactions of an
expansive number of individuals utilising aset of inquiries, along these lines encouraging
correlation and a factual total of information. Accordingly, give wide, generalize able
arrangement of discoveries (full scale) (Brymman and Bell, 2007; Patton, 2002). Subjective
exploration methodologies are an underclass of ethnography while quantitative examination
138

strategies are under the classification of experimental studies. Accordingly, in quantitative
exploration speculation (finding) is made, while in subjective examination working
speculation is made from which hypothesis is created (grounded hypothesis) (Seale and
Barnard, 1998; Patton, 2002).
Subjective examination starts at experimental level (information gathering) to reasonable
level while quantitative exploration begins from calculated level to exact level; (Newman and
Benz, 1998). At last, in subjective exploration coding, logical affectation and grounded
hypothesis (words) are utilised to make the vast volume of information effectively
comprehensible though in the quantitative examination measurable (number) investigation is
utilised as a part of decreasing the measure of the information gathered.

4.5.4 Similarities between Qualitative and Quantitative Research
Notwithstanding the numerous contrasts between subjective exploration and quantitative
examination, Brymman and Bell (2011) kept up that subjective and quantitative scrutinizes
have some normal components which are expressed as takes after:
Subjective examination and quantitative exploration are both worried with information
lessening as specialists gather, investigate and translate information to make it important and
straightforward. Additionally, both examines are worried about noting research questions. In
spite of the fact that exploration questions asked in subjective and quantitative examination
contrasts; both sorts of investigates are worried about noting questions about the way of
reality.
Besides, both subjective and quantitative scientists are worried about how to relate their
discoveries to existing writing. In both kinds of examination, the analysts endeavour to find
and afterwards to speak to varieties that they find i.e. the two are intrigued on investigating
how associations contrast and what elements are associated with varieties.
Thus, in both looks into the scientists try to be clear about their examination methods and
how their discoveries were touched base at. That is clearness in both sorts examination is
imperative. Along these lines, empowers others to judge the quality and significance of their
work. Additionally, in both looks into, examination strategies ought to fit the exploration
questions. That is scientists affirm that they select exploration strategies that are fitting to the
examination question.
Both scrutinize worried in what individuals do and what they think. Subjective examination
reasons 'individuals' conduct' as far as standards, values and culture of gatherings or

139

association being referred to, while quantitative exploration uses sizes of various sorts to
report the conduct of individuals. Accordingly, the extent to which conduct versus
significance balance harmonises with subjective and quantitative exploration ought not to be
exaggerated.
Besides, looking at contrasts and similitude amongst subjective and quantitative exploration
demonstrates that there is a propensity for subjective and quantitative examination (Brymman
and Bell, 2011).
4.5.5 Limitations of Qualitative and Quantitative Research
The inquiries have a few inadequacies as Table 4.2 uncovered. The table demonstrates that
while quantitative research constantly copies what was constantly known; subjective
exploration is not orderly. Besides, the quantitative examination has restricted the extent of
learning while subjective exploration has constrained speculation ability to a bigger gathering
of individuals. To finish up, while quantitative examination has greatest inductions past the
information; subjective exploration has least surmisings. Likewise, the quantitative
examination is investigative exploration where the variable is seen impartially and are
measure as they are introduced to the specialist. The subjective examination is a greater
amount of survey marvels taking into account human emotions and elucidation.
Table 4.2: Limitations of Quantitative and Qualitative Research
Quantitative

Qualitative

“Proves what one already believes.”

“Less systematic.”

“Limited range or scope of knowledge.”

“Limited

generalisations

to

broader

groups of people.”
“Restricted demonstration of the meaning “Barely replicable findings.”
of findings to people's lives.”
---- ---- ---- --- --- ---

“Minimized possibility of inferences
beyond the data.”

4.5.6 Mixed Methods Research (MMR)
It is also called quantitative and qualitative methods, coordinating, blended procedure,
consolidate technique, amalgamation, numerous methods, union and all the more as of late
blended methods research (Brymman, 2006; Tashakkori and Teddlie, 2003). Blended
methods research (MMR) appeared in 1959 when Campbell and Fisk utilised multi-method
as a part of an investigation of legitimacy in mental attributes and urge different researchers
to utilise their multi-method framework to look at various ways to deal with information
gathering (Creswell, 2012). As a result, after their work, methodologies, for example,
140

meetings and studies were joined in one research (Sieber, 1973). Previously, researchers
expected that qualitative and quantitative researches are perfect inverse of each other (in any
case, MMR rose up out of triangulation literature, which is generally connected with a
meeting of results (Tashakkori and Teddlie, 2010). In the mid-1990s, blending research
moved from seeking after conjunction to really coordinating the other two types of research
(Creswell, 2012).
4.5.6.1 Features of Mixed Methods Research
Methodological Eclecticism: This is to synergistically coordinate and select best strategies of
quantitative and subjective techniques to consider a wonder of interest all the more
comprehensively.
Worldview pluralism: this implies assortment of ideal models serves as crucial logic for
MMR. That is an assortment of reasonable introduction is connected with MMR, for
example, basic hypothesis, authenticity, sober-mindedness, persuasion position and so forth.
MMR emphasizes upon a variety at all levels of research enterprise. It concurrently addresses
the different scope of exploratory and corroborative inquiries. Along these lines, gives a
chance to a gathering of various conclusions and surmising because of the multiple-sided
quality of wellsprings of information and investigation included.
MMR is set of Basic Signature: research plans and logical procedures may, by and large, be
settled upon, which have distinctive names and diagrammatic representations. Case in point,
parallel blended outline, simultaneous, concurrent, and triangulation.
MMR is Reliance on Visual Representations (Diagrams, Figures) and Common Notational
Systems: MMR outline, information accumulation strategies and expository procedures give
themselves to graphic depictions, which can streamline troublesome interrelationships among
components inalienable in those procedures.
4.5.6.2 Types of Mixed Methods Strategies
MMR system has been classified into six concentrating on sequencing and status of
information accumulation techniques Creswell (2011);
Consecutive Explanatory Design: it is considered by accumulation and examination of
quantitative information in the first stage took after by gathering and investigation of
subjective information in the second period of exploration that expands on aftereffect of
beginning quantitative exploration. However, more importance is given to quantitative
information and result, and subjective discoveries are utilised to accept the quantitative result.

141

Consecutive Exploratory Design: this begins with subjective information gathering and
examination in the first period of examination took after by quantitative information
accumulation and investigation in the second period of exploration. More inclination is given
to subjective discoveries, and quantitative discoveries are utilised to approve subjective
discoveries.
Consecutive Transformative Design: in this sort of MMR, one strategy goes before another. It
has an introductory stage (quantitative or subjective) trailed by the second stage (either
subjective or quantitative) that expands on prior stage. However, this outline is guided by a
hypothetical foundation.
Simultaneous Triangulation Design: under this plan, the scientists gather both quantitative
and subjective information at the same time and contrast them with figure out whether there
is merging, contrasts or blends.
Simultaneous Nested/Embedded Design: this configuration includes accumulation of both
quantitative and subjective information all the while. Given less significance to the auxiliary
strategy (quantitative or subjective) is settled in inside the transcendent technique
(quantitative or subjective).
Simultaneous Transformative Design: this strategy is guided essentially by the particular
hypothetical foundation and also simultaneous accumulation of subjective and quantitative
information. In this way, it depends on methods of insight, for example, basic hypothesis,
promotion, participatory exploration or an applied/hypothetical system.
4.6 Triangulation

Triangulation started from the area looking over, and it reinforces research by joining
techniques. Likewise, it utilises diverse sort of methodologies or information and
incorporates both subjective and quantitative methodologies (Patton, 2002). Moreover,
triangulation is a framework that includes looking at and joining information gathered
through quantitative techniques with information gathered through subjective strategies in the
investigation of single marvel (Newman and Benz, 1998; Brymman and Bell, 2007). It
depends on trust that 'nobody technique ever sufficiently takes care of the issue of adversary
causal elements on the grounds that every strategy uncovers distinctive parts of experimental
reality, subsequently various strategies for perceptions must be utilised' (Denzin, 1978, p. 28).
In addition, triangulation incorporates utilising diverse techniques to gather information, for
example, surveys, meetings, perception and archives (Caughlan and Caughlan, 2002; Denzin,
2006).

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The consequence of an examination utilising technique connected with one exploration
methodology are cross-checked against results utilising technique connected with another
examination system (Brymman and Bell, 2007, 2011). Accordingly, triangulation is used to
operationalize research question and builds. This is accomplished by ensuring that the
examination inquiry is obviously engaged and that strategy picked are suitable and correlative
for the way of wonder being contemplated (Seale and Barnard, 1998). Triangulation depends
on the suspicion that all strategies have qualities and shortcomings and shortcoming of one
strategy can be repaid by the quality of another technique (Seale and Barnard, 1998).
Denzin (1970) and Patton (2002) kept up that triangulation can be grouped into four sorts
concerning research techniques and plans as takes after;
Information Triangulation: this alludes to information gathering from various information
sources/sets, and it includes consolidating quantitative and subjective information in single
exploration outline.
Specialist Triangulation: this is the utilisation of exploration gathering rather than one analyst
or utilizations a few distinct scientists or diverse evaluators in one examination.
Theoretical Triangulation: this refers to use of multiple theories/perspectives rather than one
theory to interpret data.
Methodological Triangulation: this is the use of numerous methods to study the single
problem or program.
4.7 The Methodology Adopted in this Research

This section described the main components of the research methodologies used in this study.
It begins with a philosophical stand of this research to survey types, questionnaires design
and administration among others.
4.7.1 Philosophical Position of this Research
As indicated by Creswell (2011), analyst's reality perspectives are moulded by the control
range of the understudy, the convictions of the counsellors and the staff of the understudy's
territory and past exploration encounters. In operations administration, the principle
ontological conviction is that reality exists outside from the analyst. This is so on the grounds
that the scientist trusts that the truth exists autonomous of the agent. Moreover, objectivism
strategies offer an opportunity to look for reasonable examination techniques in a more
extensive degree and urge specialist to get experimental learning by considering differing
information gathering techniques. The centre of this study is to fathom what is going on and

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how it is occurring and that there are causal components and structures that create watched
occasions.
Case in point, great trusting connections inside association and among associations and
additionally store network accomplices lead to hierarchical achievement. Trust inside
association is the interior components while the organisation as an element is the structure
while trust among the supply chains accomplices is the outer systems. Consequently, the
structure is an arrangement of inside related items outer to human personalities and is free of
human sense; encounters and instrument are the methods for acting (Sayer, 1992). The point
is to recognise these structures and instruments through experience and clarify perceptible
wonders by a method for hypotheses which portray the crucial structures and components
(Lawson, 1994). Besides, among the attractions of objectivism is the capacity to embrace
quantitative or subjective methods for doing social examination (Lipscomb, 2008).
Objectivism is held onto in this study as it is predictable with the examination approach,
which is quantitative exploration. Quantitative examination worldview is an exploration
methodology of positivism/post-positivism (Robson, 2011) and it includes creating and
testing speculation or noting research questions (Saundars et al., 2003). This exploration is
quantitative as a study by a poll technique for information gathering was upheld (Forza,
2002). The examination is exact in nature where experimental methodology was entirely
taken after and the discoveries were summed up to oil and gas industry. This is so on the
grounds that Easterby-Smith et al. (2002) placed that positivist worldview and quantitative
strategies can give the wide scope of the scope of circumstances, as they can be quick,
prudent and especially when measurements are amassed from huge examples, they might be
of impressive pertinence to arrangement choices. Besides, trust and store network traits are
both variable and quantifiable. Thus, when an exploration includes quantifiable properties, a
study by the survey is especially reasonable (Moser and Kalton, 1979; Collins and Hussey,
2003). Furthermore, a study by the survey is by and large utilised when the examination traits
can be obviously characterised and ordinarily comprehended (de Vaus, 1999).
This depends on the suspicion that trust enhances the execution and aggressiveness of an
association. Research inquiries were produced from writing which is then replied from the
information gathered, and separation was kept up between the analyst and members with the
end goal that the scientist is an eyewitness of social reality. Being objectivist investigation,
the information accumulation technique received is an overview by survey and the
information gathered was broke down with the guide of SPSS 21.

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4.7.2 Survey Method
As per Forza (2002), there are three sorts of study examination and which incorporates
exploratory, corroborative and engaging which have been utilised by scientists. Consequently,
a brief clarification of the three types of review examination is given as takes after:
Exploratory review examines: this is the principal stage in an examination procedure in
which it is utilised to increase introductory understanding on a point and is utilised as a
premise for further more far-reaching concentrates on the subject.
Corroborative review examines: this is the overview method in which an endeavour is made
at hypothesis testing through systems, ideas and relational words. This examination strategy
is embraced when learning in a range has developed to the degree that a speculation
connecting builds can be proposed and information gathered to check or renounce the
linkages.
Engaging study inquires about: this is utilised to comprehend for instance the selection of a
wonder and give the depiction of the circulation of the marvels in a populace. Despite the fact
that it doesn't go for hypothesis advancement, the truths depicted can be valuable for
hypothesis building and change.
Thusly, and in view of Forza (2002), exploratory study examination was embraced in this
study. As needs be, in planning the poll to embrace the overview a broad audit of the writing
on trust, store network associations, production network administration and authoritative
execution was completed. The point of the writing audit was to gather data about trust
qualities, production network traits and the effect of trust on inventory network and
authoritative exhibitions.
4.7.3 Sampling Frame
Organisations in oil and gas industry are of various foundations and additionally
organisations of various sizes and exercises. For occurrences, there are three sorts of
organisations as indicated by their sizes; theseare little, medium and extensive scale
organisations. Orders as respects to the exercises of the organisationsare administrators (oil
organisations), temporary workers and suppliers. Hence, oil organisations (administrators) are
clients while contractual workers and suppliers give merchandise and administrations to the
administrators and the temporary workers and suppliers speak to different ventures. Assorted
qualities of temporary workers and suppliers are of significance to this exploration in order to
reduction outside legitimacy issues, which are frequently connected with particular industry
studies. As needs be, the participants for this investigation were obtained from administrators

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of oil and gas firms, temporary workers and suppliers and as far as size, medium and
extensive scale organisations were focused on.
Sekaran and Bougie (2009) characterised test outline as a physical depiction of all
components. This examination utilised an online database/professional resource of oil and gas
organisations in Nigeria and acquired a point of interest data of all oil and gas organisations
in Nigerian petroleum industry. This database gives a profile of oil and gas organisations in
the Nigerian petroleum industry, for example, organisations' name, email addresses, postal
locations, fax numbers, phone numbers, and the item and/or administrations delivered by the
organisations. Besides, in selecting respondents (organisations) from test outlines,
straightforward irregular examining was embraced, and this is on the grounds that each
organisation had broken even with opportunities to be chosen into the specimen. Test ought to
be chosen as haphazardly as could be allowed in order to control partiality (Flynn et al., 1990;
Saundars et al., 2003). Accommodation examining systems were utilised in selecting
respondents from inspected organisations, and it includes picking closest and most
advantageous individual to go about as respondents. This procedure proceeds until required
specimen size has been acquired (Saundars et al., 2003; Robson, 2011). In addition,
accommodation examining is regularly utilised amid an exploratory period of examination
venture and is possibly an ideal method for getting fundamental data productively and rapidly
(Sekaran and Bougie, 2009). CEOs of oil and gas organisations were selected as study
objects, because of the fact they are in better position to clarify the position of trust among
supply chains parties in their organisations. The test must be of genuine agents of the
populace (Walliman, 2011) and CEOs are constantly the right delegates of oil and gas
organisations. It is the point of this examination is to make speculation from test to the
populace.
4.7.4 Survey by Questionnaire
Poll is said to be a pre-detailed composed arrangement of inquiries to which respondents
record their answers, generally inside rather firmly characterised choices' (Sekaran and
Bougie, 2009). It is the most all around composed information gathering device when
scientist knows precisely the variables of interests and the requirement of the study (Sekaran
and Bougie, 2009). Besides, the poll is mainstream information accumulation instrument that
is generally utilised as a part of numerous parts of human life research (Seale and Barnard,
1998). A study by poll was occupied with this exploration to gather and break down essential

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information from respondents for the most part (CEOs); as CEOs are viewed as most
appropriate witnesses in regards to firm-level exercises.
A study by poll is most suitable if research includes analysing causal connections between
variables (Sounders, et al., 2003). A study by poll was utilised as a part of this examination in
light of the fact that the point is to analyse the connections between trust among oil and gas
organisations and inventory network associations and in addition to deciding their effect on
hierarchical execution. Also, a study by the survey is picked in this examination as it is most
every now and again utilised exploration outline as a part of generation and operations
administration research. It relies on self-reports of truthful information, and in addition
conclusion. One technique is to manage an overview to a gathering which is standardised, for
example, industry or utilise a typical innovation' (Flynn et al., 1990, p. 257). The reception of
overview by poll is educated in light of the fact that this investigation is positivist (Whisker,
2008). Besides, as positivist examination plan, the objective of this exploration is to make
speculation on the populace from the test result. At the point when the center of examination
is generalizability to whole populace, managing review to a vast example is a more
appropriate methodology (Flynn et al., 1990). A study by a survey by and by, added further
comprehension to learning base of the examination by permitting the specialist access to oil
and gas organisations who are in inventory network associations.
4.7.4.1 Questionnaire Design
Survey is a homogenous rundown of inquiries where wording and request of inquiries have
been deliberately arranged (Seale and Barnard, 1998). Poll licenses specialist to compose
addresses and get answers without fundamentally conversing with respondents (Walliman,
2011). Furthermore, it assembles data specifically by approaching individual inquiries and
utilising reactions for information investigation (Sekaran and Bougie, 2009). Survey gathers
data on three essential variables which are feeling, conduct and state of mind (Dillman, 2007
referred to in Saundars et al., 2009). This examination work goes for surveying level of trust
in oil and gas organisations in the Nigeria among their supply chains parties which
additionally connections to supply chains execution and authoritative execution.
Poll plan includes far-reaching approach in planning forms (Walliman, 2011, Brymman and
Bell, 2003) and this is known as aggregate configuration technique (TDM). Absolute outline
strategy (TDM) requires the expansive arrangement of inquiries to be asked, considering
research questions, kind of information and examination to be tended to (Nachmias and
Nachmias, 1992). TDM contains 18 stage process including irrational succession,

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redundancy, staying away from awful organising, undermining and twofold barrel questions
(Walliman, 2011). Different matters which are considered while outlining the survey
comprise of:
1) Questions were made basic and simple, which could help respondents to portray levels of
drivers of trust inside and over their associations. The dialect of the survey must be proper to
thelevel of comprehension of respondents (Sekaran and Bougie, 2009; Robson, 2011).
Additionally, addresses asked were particular and direct that gives respondents chance to
clarify sorts of trust, associations and associations versus their connections.
2) Questions were direct and clear so respondents can portray thought of authoritative trust
inside the oil and gas store network settings. This is so in light of the fact that confounding
inquiries can make it troublesome for respondents to see precisely what the inquiry implies
(Sekaran and Bougie, 2009).
3) Leading and stacked inquiries were, however, much as could reasonably be expected
maintained a strategic distance from. This is to dodge been a predisposition. Driving inquiries
recommend certain answers and stacked inquiries propose socially attractive answer or are
candidly charged (Sekaran and Bougie, 2009; Zikmund et al., 2010).
4) Open finished inquiries had been stayed away from as it makes survey fulfilment
troublesome, tedious, and testing to break down and to contrast and reactions from different
respondents (Robson, 1999). Most inquiries in the survey were shut finished inquiries, the
reason been that they take less time to finish and are anything but difficult to react (Sekaran
and Bougie, 2009). Exertion was made to make the inquiries and option reactions steady
preceding information gathering. Managing elective reactions to address gives anequivalence
of answers; empower coding, organising and simple elucidation (Zikmund et al., 2010).
5) The length of inquiries was exact and short to the specific variable being asked, this will
motivate more respondents to finish the poll. Short and straightforward inquiries are desirable
over long ones. As a general guideline, articulation or inquiry in the survey must not surpass
20 words or surpasses one full line in print (Oppenheim, 1992).
6) A form of the survey (paper duplicate, messaged archive, on-line structure and so on.) and
the way it was regulated was additionally thought about. The choice taken was to circulate
the survey by post in the type of paper printout.
7) so as to break down information effectively, twofold barreled inquiries were kept away
from. 'At the point when different inquiries are asked in one question, the outcomes might be
outstandingly hard to decipher' (Zikmund et al., 2010, p. 346)

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8) All inquiries in the poll were set in a manner that they give answers to research questions.
Scientist's essential assignment is to connection research inquiries and survey questions
(Robson, 2011).
9) Avoidance of grave inquiries as they may errand respondent's memory (Zikmund et al.,
2010).
10) Questions Sequence; request of inquiries in poll ought to be from channel approach. “The
movement from general to particular inquiries may imply that the respondent is initially made
inquiries of a worldwide nature that identify with the association and after that is asked more
sharp inquiries in regards to the particular employment, office and like” (Sekaran and Bougie,
2009, P. 203). Channel methodology was actualized in this exploration in order to keep up
respondents' collaboration and certainty. On the off chance that opening inquiries are easy to
comprehend and simple to answer respondents' certainty, collaboration and association can be
kept up (Zikmund et al., 2010).
11) Survey questions took perceptual information utilising relative scores on a 1-5 Likert
Scale (Oppenheim, 1992). For a large portion of the inquiries, one (1) remained for firmly
concur, 'Most imperative' or 'Sharp increment'; too, three (3) spoke to "Nonpartisan" or
"Unobtrusive" while Five (5) signified 'emphatically deviate', 'minimum critical' or 'sharp
lessening'. This exploration accepts that each element, in rising and diving request has
measured up to significance or weight. Additionally, change in components had a level with
effect crosswise over organisations and after some time. It additionally accepts that bearing is
as vital as the greatness of progress, and that progressions had risen to affect independent of
current acknowledgement.
4.7.4.2 Pilot Testing
Pilot testing is an essential piece of poll configuration as it gives supposition on how simple a
survey is to be finished. Moreover, it uncovers which ideas are hazy or out of respondents'
scope of information or obligation. Flynn et al. (1990) kept up that by managing the pilot
study in individual, the analyst can Fig.out if there are deliberate contrasts between the ways
the specialist sees particular measures versus the respondents. Therefore, poll ought to be pretried keeping in mind the end goal to foresee any issue of understanding or another
wellspring of perplexity (Whisker, 2008; Walliman, 2011). Moreover, a pilot test is completed
to enhance the survey so that the respondents will have no issues in noting the inquiries and
there will be no issues in recording the information. Moreover, it empowers one to acquire

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some evaluation of the inquiries, legitimacy and the imaginable dependability of the
information that will be gathered (Saundars et al., 2009).
Accordingly, before the principle study, a pilot test was done in order to redesign the survey
in a manner that respondents will have practically no issues in reacting to the inquiries.
Additionally, to guarantee that there will be no issues in recording the information and also in
acquiring some evaluation of the inquiries' legitimacy and the possible unwavering quality of
the information that will be gathered (Saundars et al., 2003). The drafted poll was pre-tried
utilising a few scholastics, who are specialists in the field of a survey study. They were
politely welcomed to finish the poll and were invigorated by clarifying the motivation behind
the review and how the outcomes could be of advantage to the general environment. Hence,
the input got from these individuals helped with reshaping the poll to its present level (see
reference section 2).
The perceptions got from the pilot test educated the correction of the poll. Thus, the remarks
made by the specialists that are incorporated into the last drafted survey include: firstly, one
variable was included the poll. The variable included was the sorts of organisations (Sole
proprietor,

Partnerships,

boundless

obligation

organisations

and

constrained

risk

organisations). As indicated by the master, this will give the scientist elective alternatives to
make more factual investigation between some essential examination variables and the way
of the organisations. The inquiry included is inquiry 5 (index 2: study poll).
Also, address 4 alternatives were at first set as 10 – 50, 51 – 100 . . . . . ., it was encouraged to
be changed to: up to 50, 51 – 100 . . . . . .
Question 6 choices were set as under £5m, £6m - £10m . . . . . .Additionally, was proposed to
peruse as Up to £10m £11m - £50m . . . . . .
Thirdly, Question 8 was at first set without others (please determine) alternatives among the
thought of hierarchical trust in oil and gas settings and was proposed to be incorporated.
Fourthly, address on trust sorts and sorts of the organisations were at first converged as one
inquiry. Anyhow, it was suggested that the inquiry is isolated into 2 autonomous inquiries.
One inquiry on trust sorts and the other inquiry on organisations (see Questions 12 and 13 in
supplement 2: overview poll).
Fifth, elective responses to question 14 were recommended as:
Table 4.3: Alternative Answers to Question 14
Measures
Bullwhip effect
Cost saving perspective
Risk
Information sharing
Return on investment (ROI)

Yes

150

No

Lead time
TO:
Table 4.4: Alternative Answers to Question 14
Measures

Very

important

important

Moderately
important

Little
Important

Not
important

Bullwhip effect
Cost saving perspective
Risk
Information sharing
Return on investment
(ROI)
Lead time
4.7.4.3 Questionnaire Administration
Sekaran and Bougie (2009) contended that there are four procedures of appropriating poll and
which incorporate mail (postage), phone, individual meetings and online reviews through the
web. Besides, specialists kept up that postal surveys have points of interest over the phone or
online poll; as postal polls have minimal effort and its capacity to achieve huge populace at
the brief time (Creswell, 2011). By and by, postal survey's significant inadequacy is low
reaction rate (Brymman and Bell, 2007). Additionally, the decision of a specific strategy to
disperse survey relies on upon costs, speeds, proficiency, utilisation and web accessibility
(Sekaran and Bougie, 2009).
This examination received mail survey in the dispersing poll to respondents as it is simple,
shabby and effective. Real thought in this exploration was effectiveness because of time and
finances limitations and proficiency indicate to finishing numerous polls in brief timeframe
(Robson, 1999). In this way, a mail survey was utilised in light of the fact that it is proficient
as a part of dealing with scientist's chance and exertion and postal poll can be most effortless
and extraordinarily effective at giving an extensive measure of information in brief timeframe
(Robson, 2011). In addition, the nature of this exploration did not require accumulation of
delicate information and in this way mail poll was appropriate. Nonetheless, utilising survey,
respondents may not openly uncover delicate issues about their organisations (Bell and
Brymman , 2007; Sekaran and Bougie, 2009).
Surveys were presented specifically on CEOs of inspected organisations. Postal polls require
a commitment to go on posted survey nearby different sends tended to CEOs. Each wrap
presented on CEO's comprising a covering letter and survey questionnaire, and post-paid
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envelopes to facilitate the respondents to send the questionnaires back. The University
letterhead was utilised for the covering letter (De Vaus, 2002).
4.7.4.4 Response Rate
Two hundred (200) surveys were posted. They were presented on locations of respondents
taken from an online database/professional listing of oil and gas organisations in Nigeria. The
surveys were tended to the CEO's of oil and gas organisations. On the off chance that they
were not allowed to finish the poll (taking into account work weight or different reasons),
they were prescribed in the introductory letter to pass it to the suitable worker of the
organisation to finish it for their sake, particularly the store network chief.
Out of 200 organisations examined and posted polls, 110 organisations finished and gave
back a duplicate of the survey giving reaction rate of 55%.
Of the 110 polls returned, 102 were useable and regarded reasonable for study, while the rest
of the 8 surveys were barred from the examination since they were either halfway filled, or
they were returned unfilled. Despite the fact that ineffectively finished surveys still give a few
information, analysts frequently avoid such polls in order to decrease the occurrence of
missing information in the measurable examination and additionally enhance the unwavering
quality of results (Brymman and Bell, 2007; Creswell, 2007).
Besides, there action rate of 55% was accomplished through sending extra letters, encasing
self-tended to stamped return conceals and keeping the poll brief and straightforward
(Sekaran and Bougie, 2009). Also, strategies used to build the reaction rate in this study
include: Firstly, stamp tended to envelope was fixed off with the survey. Also, classification
of reactions was ensured. Thirdly, update surveys were conveyed toward the end of third and
fifth weeks of conveying beginning polls. Fourthly, follow up phone calls were additionally
made at interims. Fifthly, the covering letter and articulation made by the DOS in the
covering letter, that reactions will be utilised for exploration purposes just, and consequence
of the examination will be made accessible to the respondents in the event that they are
intrigued. In this way, these practices may induce respondents to finish the survey, assuming
that by finishing the poll, the overall population might know about their trusting relationship
in their inventory network, which may build their societal acknowledgement.
4.8 Conceptual Model of Trust in Supply Chain Relationship with Links to Performances

This segment portrays a reasonable model that composes the vital variables of trusting
connections in-store network organisations. A reasonable model is a decent beginning stage
for observational exploration; as it gives the premise to creating speculations (Robson, 2002).

152

It could likewise mean a graph delineating the variables concentrated on and the proposed
connections between them. It additionally offers a persuading join between hypothetical
speculations supporting exploration and pragmatic ramifications of the examination regarding
direct connection with reality. In this exploration, the segments of the applied structure are
empowering influences of trust/trust properties, sorts of trust, store network execution and
hierarchical execution. In this manner, the structure will be utilised to translate interval
research speculations. The theories will be approved utilising the overview information from
the exact study. And also the reasonable structure for this study, the exploration outline
required for accepting the system was introduced in past areas. By the by, before portraying
the proposed structure, it will be advantageous and proper to repeat the exploration questions
so as to give the right connection to this segment. The examination inquiries are as per the
following:
1. What are the notions of organisational trust within the oil and gas supply chain
settings?
2. What are the enablers of trust within and across organisational boundaries?
3. What are the inhibitors (risk) of trust in supply chain partnerships?
4. What are the types of trust, partnerships and organisations vis-à-vis their
relationships?
5. How to operationalize trust across supply chains
6. What the type of trust has the most prominent impact on supply chain performance
and organisation performance?
4.8.1 Development of the Conceptual Model
Generally, a conceptual framework is a model demonstrating the factors concentrated on and
representation of the speculative connections between them. There are four develops to be
examined in this exploration, and they include empowering agents of trust/trust traits, sorts of
trust, supply chain execution and hierarchical execution. Fig.4.1 demonstrates the conceptual
model of trust in supply chain connections/organisations portrayed by four boxes. These are
the empowering influences of trust/trust traits, sorts of trust, supply chain execution and
hierarchical execution. Furthermore, the course of circumstances and end results between the
constructs is demonstrated by arrows to and from the boxes.

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Fig.4.2: Conceptual Model for the Research

Supply Chain Performance
1. Inventory (Bullwhip effect)
2. Cost Saving
3. Risk occurrence
4. Information-sharing
5. Return on Investment (ROI)
6. Lead time

Enablers of Trust /Trust Attributes
Integrity
Competence
Benevolence
Level of risk
Information sharing
Honesty
Commitment
Credibility
Expertise
Reliability
Good intention
Ability
Consistency
Predictability
Fairness

Type of Trust
Perceived Integrity
(Calculus-based trust)
Stage 1

Impact of Trust

Perceived Competency
(Knowledge based trust)
Stage 2

Perceived Benevolence
(Transference based
trust)
Stage 3

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Organisation Performance
Financial Perspective
a. Return on investment
b. Earnings growth
c. Profitability
d. Cost saving
e. Market share
Customer Perspective
a. Lead time
b. Quality
c. Cost
d. Performance and service
Internal Business Perspective
a. Cycle time
b. Quality
c. Employee satisfaction
d. Productivity
e. Inventory
Innovation and Organisational
Learning Perspective
a. Technical innovation
b. Administrative innovation

In Fig.4.1, the first box corresponds to enablers of trust/trust attributes, while the second box
is the types of trust. The relationships as shown by the arrow indicate that a supply chain
within trusting relationships will have its trust types enhanced due to the openness of the
supply chains parties. Furthermore, the trust and trust exchange in the supply chain
relationship happens through the perception of trustworthiness attributes indicated and
clarified in the literature review in chapter 2. As presented in the literature the perceived trust
has been classified into perceived integrity, perceived competency, and perceived
benevolence. Consequently, the enablers of trust or trustworthiness attribute considered in
this research work are Honesty, Fairness, Credibility, Confidence, Commitment, Expertise,
Ability, Reliability, Consistency, Intentionality (Goodwill) and Predictability.
The second box corresponds to types of trust. The literature emphasised trust building process
and showed trust stages where the parties in trusting relationship perceive the trustworthiness
attributes in accordance with the reached trust stage in the relationship. And these stages are
classified in the reviewed literature as calculus-based trust (stage 1), information/knowledgebased trust (stage 2) and transference-based trust (stage 3).
Moreover, it was identified in the literature that the strength and weakness of trust in supply
chain relationships are determined by the number of trustworthiness attributes in the
relationships. Thus, the perception of these attributes forming together trust dimensions and
the strength of each of these dimensions is highly dependent on the number of attributes
forming each dimension; therefore, the higher the number of attributes available in the
relationship the stronger is the formed trust dimension and in turn the stage of trust in the
relationship. Consequently, the reason behind the arrow from trustworthiness attributes to
trust types in Fig.4.1. Additionally, the literature reviewed stages of trust development in
relationships that could be measured, through the development of trustworthinessattributes
over time of supply chain relationships.
The literature revealed that trust in a relationship is expected to develop through three stages
from calculus-based trust built on the basis of perception of integrity to knowledge-based
trust that forms the foundation of perception of competency and could reach to transferencebased trust based on the perception of benevolence among the parties. Domination of each of
the three trustworthiness-attributes in the trust relationship determines the stage of trust that
encompassed in the relationship. Furthermore, based on the research literature, the stages of
trust illustrated in the above model in Fig.4.1 represent the strength of trust level in the supply
chain relationship. Hence, the level of trust when moves from the calculus-based trust to
knowledge-based trust then it moves from a relatively weak level to a stronger one. As the
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model reveal, the higher level of trust could be realised in the supply chain relationship when
the stage 3 of trust exists and become in the exchange among the supply chain parties.
Box 3 of the conceptual model shows the supply chain performance. Referring to the research
aim and objectives, the research aims to investigate the influence that trust could have on
both supply chain performance and organisation performance. As indicated previously in the
selection of the performance measures for this particular research, the supply chain
performance measures used in the model include Inventory (Bullwhip effect), Cost Saving,
Risk, Information sharing, Return on Investment (ROI) and Lead time. Also, there is an arrow
linking enablers of trust and supply chain performance.
In box 4 of the model shows the organisational performance. The literature reviewed defined
organisation performance as the umbrella of the entire organisation activities and the way of
executing activities which add tangible and intangible value to the organisation. In addition,
the organisational performance measures for this research was based on the
B. Organisation Performance Measures Relevant to Each Perspective of Four Perspectives of
Balanced Scorecard Model as shown below:
1. Financial Perspective
 Return on investment
 Earnings growth
 Profitability
 Cost saving
 Market share
2. Customer Perspective
 Lead time
 Quality
 Cost
 Performance and service
3. Internal Business Perspective
 Cycle time
 Quality
 Employee satisfaction
 Productivity
 Inventory
4. Innovation and Organisational Learning Perspective
 Technical innovation
 Administrative innovation

156

4.8.2 Justification of the Proposed Conceptual Model
The first segment which examined Fig.4.1 shows how this exploration clarifies and builds up
the connections among the various factors that have been recognised from the writing as vital
to the dialogue of trusting connections in supply chains organisations. The conceptual
framework depends on the writing audit embraced in the past two sections. The dialogue in
this area concentrates on factor part definition and clarification and the outline of the reason
hidden the predefined connections.
Empowering influences of trust or trustworthiness ascribes are relied upon to directly affect
the sorts of trust and supply chain execution and in addition authoritative execution. The
writing on trust demonstrates that trust creates after some time through rehashed cooperation
between gatherings in a relationship. Furthermore, trust in supply chain relationship and
helplessness to hazard is one of the subjects that request understanding in connection to
supply chain execution and association execution. The measure of hazard regularly affects the
execution and the supply chain parties generally look for a decrease of hazard.
Along these lines, a top notch relationship is required to accomplish trust between supply
chain parties. In this unique circumstance, Fynas et al. (2005: 341) showed that "adjusting to
one relationship may upgrade the capabilities and allure of a specific provider/client".
Henceforth, in supply chain connections, trust suggests sharing force, which implies sharing
obligation. In this circumstance, numerous specialists trust that including trust in supply chain
connections enhances supply chain execution.
Additionally, the writing distinguishes the association execution as an umbrella that includes
supply chain execution and change in supply chain execution recommends achange to
association execution. In connection to trust between gatherings, Tetlock (1985) referred to
by Curtis et al. (2005), stresses that when individuals are trusted they are made in charge of
their activities. Thusly, this demonstrates trusting individuals makes them answerable to
deliver expected result from them which shows that placing trust in individuals enhances
their execution. In this manner, trust seeing someone is accepted to impact execution.
Likewise, it is sensible to express that fulfilment of higher trust and exhibitions (i.e. supply
chain and association) is specifically identified with the level of selection of empowering
agents of trust. Along these lines, the bolts that start from the trust value ascribes to join the
containers named sort of trust and supply chain execution and in addition hierarchical
execution are reasonable.
The preceding argument vindicates the conceptual framework in Fig.4.1. Furthermore, the
basis for the corresponding arrows as presented in Fig.4.1.
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4.9 Summary

This part talked about the speculative part of research, which are techniques to set out on
when leading exploration. The section likewise sketched out research strategies embraced in
this study including the ontological and epistemological places of research and their defences.
In addition, the section likewise obviously expresses the philosophical position of this
exploration, the testing outline and the overview by the survey. The avocations for utilising
review by poll alone were additionally cleared up and which was followed by the strategy
utilised as a part of the survey organisation. The reaction rates were clarified, followed by the
revelation that the reaction rate is satisfactory floated by some past research reaction rates.
The last a portion of this part exhibits a reasonable model of research and how the model was
created. The factors and bolts interfacing the crates were likewise illuminated, and the part
was finished up by the legitimization of the model of the study.

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CHAPTER 5
Survey by Questionnaire
5.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the planning, administration and results of the
survey. Questionnaires were used as a means of mediation to gain a wideranging variety of opinions from the oil and gas companies in Nigeria on
how trust influence supply chain management and organisational
performance. Furthermore, the survey, for the most part, assembled
information with a view to investigating and testing the connections
determined in the conceptual framework and research destinations
displayed in section one. Subsequently, to accomplished the examination
goals expressed in section one, connections and connections among the
exploration

builds

comprising

of

drivers/inhibitors

of

supply

chain

administration, sort of trust association, how trust impact association
exhibitions inside and among associations and how trust increment
hierarchical competitiveness were resolved.
A survey was carried out to gain an understanding of trust in supply chain relationships and
its impact on supply chain performance and organisation performance within MO and LO.
Hence, study strategy was thought to be a fitting exploration technique as a method for
researching professionals' assessments on developing ideas and practices of supply chain
administration (Malhotra and Grover, 1998; Curkovic et al., 2000). Thus, overview being a
deductive research strategy instead of the inductive technique run of the mill of subjective
procedure, was viewed as proper all together look at trust and hierarchical fit and how to
operationalize trust crosswise over supply chains.
Though, there were plenty researchers on organisational trust (see
Ganesan et al., 2009; Noteboom, 2000; Perrone et al., 1998; Rickards,
2000) supply chain management (see Christopher, 1998; Cooper and
Ellram, 1993; Ellinger et al, 2012; Kotzab et al, 2012; Mentzer et al, 2001;
Power, 2005). There is no research that has been conducted to examine
the impact of organisational trust in the Nigerian Oil and Gas supply chain.
Thus, this empirical research is undertaken to examine the drivers and the
inhibitors of organisational trust in the Nigerian Oil and Gas supply chain
and its effect on organisational performance.
159

Therefore, the survey data was designed to provide the basis for achieving
research aim and objectives. In any case, keeping in mind the end goal to
diminish mistake and enhance the legitimacy of results, formal systems of
overview plan, organisation and information investigations were done
(Brymman and Bell, 2007; Creswell, 2012; Nachmias and Nachmias, 1992;
Robson, 2012).
5.2 Questionnaire Design

The literature on questionnaire design highlights the need for a broad approach to
questionnaire design and this is at times referred to as the “Total Design Method” (TDM)
(Nachmias and Nachmias, 1992). TDM includes a wide arrangement of inquiries to be asked,
Vis-a-viz information sorts, and examination, and research inquiries to be tended to. All
things considered, the study instrument (survey) joined in Appendix 1 is partitioned into five
areas containing 24 principle questions. The sections are:
Section A: General company information
Section B: Notion of organisational trust within the oil and gas supply chain
Section C: Drivers/Enablers and Inhibitors/Barriers of supply chain management
Section D: Types of trust, partnerships and organisations vis-à-vis their relationships
Section E: Operationalization of trust across supply chains
Section A, describes demographic structures of the participating organisations. “The
background information” includes information on the name and rank of the respondent, the
length of time the organisation has been in operation, assessments of the quantity of workers,
yearly turnover and primary product offering of the organisation. Hence in this section, both
numeric and textual data are generated, and it covers questions from 1 to 7.
Section B deals with notions of organisational trust within the oil and gas supply chain, and it
consists of question 8. The given factors are the reason for a trusting relationship between one
organisation and the other organisations within their supply chain. The factors provided
include desire to reduce cost, desire to enhance profit, desire to achieve competitive
advantage, desire to improve organisational performance, desire to increase market share
among others.
Section C of the questionnaire seeks information on drivers/enablers, and inhibitors/barriers
of supply chain management and it consist of questions 9 to 11. Question 9 and 10 deals with
drivers of supply chain management within and across organisations while question 11deals
with inhibitors of supply chain management. Different drivers of supply chain management
160

were provided for the respondents to indicate their level of important within the organisation
and their (i.e. driver’s attributes) relationship with major firms; additionally gave, were
selective inhibitors of supply chain administration for the reacting organisations to indicate
what disheartens their organisation from receiving supply chain administration. The writing
of supply chain administration keeps up that there are scope of drivers and obstructions that
impact/influence associations in their endeavours in supply chain operations (Chopra and
Min et al., 2007; Mentzer et al., 2000; Mentzer et al., 2007; Mohr and Spekman, 1994).
Section D deal with types of trust, partnerships and organisations vis-à-vis their relationships
variables and it consists of question 12, 13 and 14. Question 12 is of the types of trust as it
affects organisation performance and the type of trust listed includes Perceived integrity
(Calculus-based trust), Perceived Competency (Knowledge-based trust) and Perceived
benevolence (Transference based Trust).

Additionally, questions 13 and 14 deals with

partnerships and relationship between trust and supply chain performance while questions 15
and 16 deals with the relationship between trust and organisational performance within an
organisation and among organisations. Different organisational performance variables were
listed for respondents to rate how they are important with regard to trust. Variables such as an
increase in market share, growth, profitability, productivity, cost saving, customer’s loyalty,
employee satisfaction, quality among others were enumerated.
Section E deals with how trust is operationalization across supply chains i.e. competitive
priorities and loyalty with customers as well as organisations. It consists of questions 17 to
20. Question 17 seeks to determine whether trust Vis-a-viz organisation performance
attributes leads to improved company’s competitiveness. This is so since writing keeps up
that there is a connection between's association execution measures and upper hands (Lynch
and Cross, 1995; Kaplan and Norton, 1996; Brander Brown and Harris, 1998).
Moreover, segment E contained question 23 and 24. Address 23 ask whether the organisation
will take an interest in a follow-up research including a visit to their organisation site and
question 24 bears an open door for respondents to remark unreservedly and by and large on
trust and supply chain administration hones in associations.
5.2.1 Questionnaire Administration and Response Rates
A total of two hundred (200) questionnaires were mailed out to the addresses of the
respondents taken from an online database/business directory of oil and gas companies in
Nigeria. Out of the 200 organizations inspected and sent a poll, 110 organizations finished
and gave back a duplicate of the study survey (see Appendix 1), for a reaction rate of 55

161

percent (%). This reaction rate is thought to be illustrative of studies on associations. A prior
experimental review of associations Ahmed et al. (1996) accomplished a reaction rate of
6.5%. Of the 110 polls returned, 102 were completely finished with the answers being
predictable. The 102 polls were esteemed usable and legitimate for the study while 8 surveys
were avoided from further examination. In spite of the fact that ineffectively finished polls
still give a few information; analysts frequently avoid such surveys in order to diminish the
rate of missing information in measurable examination and in addition enhance the
unwavering quality of results (Gill and Johnson, 2002).
Also, eight envelopes were come back with the polls because of powerlessness to the
addressees, as the organisations had moved. Table 5.1 reports the specimen, reaction and
usable rate rates per item gathering of the 200 organisations examined. Consequently, from
the general spread of the reaction among the business parts or item bunches, it can be
reasoned that there is no predisposition in the demographic arrangement of the reactions.
Table 5.1: Analysis of Response Rates across Product Groups
Business

sectors/Product

Sample

Rate %

Response

Rate %

36

18.0

19

18.6

6.0

12

11.8

22

11.0

8

7.8

43

21.5

16

15.7

39

19.5

16

15.7

27

13.5

20

19.6

and 21

10.5

11

10.8

0

0

0

groups
“Exploration and production”
“Bases,

Logistics,

Catering,

Transport, Storage and Allied 12
services.”
“Consultation

including

geographical services”
“Automobile and automotive
assembly and accessories.”
“Engineering
services
(reservoir,

drilling,

engineering,

well
facilities

engineering)”
“Marine, subsea services and
allied services”
“Electrical
and
equipment,

electronic

components

allied products”
Others

0

162

Total

200

100.0

110

55

Table 5.1 shows a number of questionnaires sent to each business sector and response rate per
business sector of the 200 companies studied. The result indicates diverse response among
respondents from different business sectors or product groups. Consequently, it can be
observed that there is no prejudice in the demographic composition of responses. Hence,
subsequent to watching the spread of reactions among business parts, the following area gives
a record of factual investigation complete on the information. The examination frames the
reason for approval to be completed to answer research addresses and to test connections
between and among research builds.

5.3 Statistical Results

The survey responses were a contribution to SPSS® rendition 21 for windows keeping in
mind the end goal to complete factual examination of the information gathered for the study.
The SPSS enables the computation of repeat, means, the standard deviation of the data
assembled from the study. Additionally, it enables inside and out quantifiable examination,
for instance, performing a relative examination of the data between the distinctive request of
the exploration subject so as to test for connection or complexities among the responding
relationship to the study.
5.3.1 Assessing Normality
Before carrying out inferential statistical analysis, it is critical to survey the attributes of the
appropriation of the information in order to Fig.out if the factors are normally dispersed.
Positively, the presumption of normality is an essential for completing multivariate
examination; that is to say if the circulation of scores onward variable is “normal” (Pallant,
2010). Besides, normal is utilised to depict a symmetrical, chime moulded bend, which has a
most noteworthy recurrence of scores in the inside with littler frequencies at the finishes
(Gravetter and Wallnau, 2004). There are various graphical methods of investigating the
presumption of normal conveyance in a dataset; theyinclude Histogram, Stem-and-leaf plot,
Boxplot, Normal dispersion plot and Detrended normal plot.
However, inside this study the trial of normality considered were the normal probability plots,
Shapiro-Wilks and the K-S (Lilliefors) tests.
In the SPSS software tool, there are several ways available to acquire these diagrams and
measurements. Two of these procedures are the ANALYZE and EXPLORE menu. However
163

the EXPLORE system is the most helpful, particularly when charts and measurements are
required at the same time. Thus, utilising the EXPLORE investigation technique test for
normality of every measurement appeared in the poll. Figures 5.1 – 5.5 show histogram, stem
and leaf plots, normal and detrended plots for a normally disseminated test of information for
the thought of organisational trust and drivers of supply chains factors. Also, table 5.2
demonstrates the consequences of the K-S test insights with Lilliefors centrality level and
Sharpiro-Wilks test measurements for normal circulation identifying with the thought of
organisational trust and drivers of store network administration.
Also, the histogram is a factual outline that is utilised to quantify the appropriation of a
dataset, and in such manner, Fig.5.1 demonstrates the histogram of the idea of organisational
trust and drivers of supply chains. Thus, it can be seen from histogram reported in Fig.5.1 that
the two factors have disseminations that will be viewed as normal. In any case, appraisal of
alternate attributes is key to have the capacity to finish up in the way of the dissemination.
Data about the state of the conveyance for a portion of the factors is likewise given by the
stem and leaf plot. The after-effect of the stem and leaf for two factors: the thought of
organisational trust and drivers of supply chains is appeared in Figures 5.2 and 5.3 separately
and the two appropriations exhibit that the dataset originates from a populace that is normally
conveyed. In addition, Figures 5.4 and 5.5 demonstrate the normal probability and detrended
plots for the idea of organisational trust and drivers of supply chains separately.
Likewise, the point of a normal probability plot (NPP) is to help in demonstrating the way of
dissemination of information, that is, whether it is normally circulated or not. Use of NPP
depends on the way that distinguishing normality from a histogram can be troublesome
particularly if the information set is not huge. The plot of the dataset is contrasted, and a
normal normally conveyed one, and if the two are comparable, then the dataset is steady with
expected testing from a normal dispersion. In perspective of that, the normal probability plots
appeared in Figures 5.4,and 5.5 show that the dataset is normally disseminated.
The detrended normal plots the factual deviation of the dataset from a straight line. As per
Coakes et al. (2006), if the dataset speaks to an example from a normal conveyance then there
is no example of the grouping of the focuses; the focuses ought to gather around a level line.
In Fig.5.6, box plots of a portion of the factors examined appear. These factors are for the
idea of organisational trust and drivers of supply chains on the left-hand side. The box plots
of the two factors demonstrate that the thought of organisational trust is normally
disseminated about the mean, while drivers of supply chains, despite the fact that two factors
are outside the upper and lower quartiles, is additionally normally circulated about the mean.
164

Mean =2.9142
N =102

Subsequently, the variable is normally appropriated in view of the perception that a variable

Drivers of supply chain

Frequency

is an anomaly in the event that it lies at 3 box lengths from the upper or lower quartiles.

Std. Dev. =0.44235

Mean =3.7902
Std. Dev. =0.4054
N =102

25
1.50

2.00

2.50

3.00

3.50

4.00

Frequency

20
15
10
5
0
2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00

Notionof organisational trust within the supply chain

Fig.5.1: Histograms for notion of organisational trust within the supply chain and drivers of
supply chain

165

Fig.5.2: Stem and Leaf Plot Notion of organisational trust within supply chain

Drivers of supply chain Stem-and-Leaf Plot
Frequency

Stem & Leaf

166

Fig.5.3: Stem and Leaf plot of drivers of supply chain

4.0

5.0

3.5

32

4.5

3.0

4.0

2.5

3.5

2.0

3.0
57

1.5

2.5

Box plot of notion of organisational trust
within supply chain

Box plot of drivers of supply chain

Fig.5.6: Box plot of notion of organisational trust within supply chain and drivers of supply
chain
Table 5.2 illustrates the Kolmogorov-Smirnova and the Shapiro-Wilks statistics with
Lilliefors significance test statistics computed for the notion of organisational trust and
drivers of supply chains. Coakes et al. (2006) placed that if the hugeness of the KS
measurements is more noteworthy than 0.05 then normality is expected. Along these lines,
the invalid theory that there is no noteworthy contrast between the appropriations of the
information from which the insights in Table 5.2 were figured and normal conveyance can't
be rejected. Along these lines, the trial of normality introduced in Table 5.2 and Figures 5.15.6 demonstrates that the information set fulfils the necessity for normal appropriation from
167

the study and it can be inferred that the specimen is drawn from a populace that is normally
conveyed.
Table 5.2: Kolmogorov-Smirnov(KS) statistics tests of Normality
Variables
Notion of organisational

KS statistics
Statistic
df

trust within supply chain
Drivers of supply chain

Sig.

Shapiro-Wilk
Statistic
df
Sig.

0.153

102

0.016

0.915

102

0.537

0.176

102

0.167

0.910

102

0.359

Despite the fact that two consequences of appraisal of normality were displayed here, this is
not to recommend that exclusive two factors were evaluated. The two reported results are
only for the outline as every one of the factors was evaluated for every one of the
measurements and they all met the prerequisites of normality which should have been
fulfilled before the further examination, for example, relationship and relapse investigation
could be completed. This is so because Table 5.5 shows the skewness and kurtosis, which is
another factual measure that evaluates normality, for every one of the factors concentrated on.
The skewness and kurtosis reported in Table 5.5 show that the information set is normally
disseminated since they don't leave essentially from somewhere around zero and one. Also,
the dataset contains a blend of positive and negative values inside the scope of values for the
two factors (see Tabachnick and Fidell, 2007).
5.3.2 Nonresponse Bias Analysis
Non-response predisposition is a misgiving toward analysts who used mail surveys (Lambert
and Harrington, 1990); in light of the fact that reaction rates to mail reviews are continually
low (Saundars et al., 2009). The reaction rate is a circumlocutory sign of the level of nonrespondent predisposition (Aschs et al., 1997). From this time forward, “Non-reaction
inclination is the refinement between the answers of the respondents' and nonrespondents”
(Lambert and Harrington, 1990, p. 5).As indicated by Fraenkel and Wallen (1993)
nonresponse can either add up to, where people are neglecting to give back the poll at all or
unit/thing nonresponse, where the overview instrument was returned fragmented. Surveying
nonresponse is testing given that, as a rule, the personality of non-respondents is not known
(Dey, 1997); when the creation of the non-respondents is altogether not quite the same as the
respondent gathering on attributes important to the study (Lambert and Harrington, 1990).

168

'Albeit a few powers demand to restrict the non-response rate to 5%, others would prescribe a
greatest of 20%.
However, practically speaking, conclusions are frequently in light of information acquired
from under 80% of the populace took after. Clearly, a "worthy" or "traditional" level of
response can't be summed up. Contingent upon the way of the study and the occasion under
scrutiny, even a little measure of bias may mutilate the outcomes' (Sheik and Mattingly, 1981,
p. 295-296). Nonresponse bias is a component of how associated response affinity is
identified with the qualities the researcher is measuring. In one review, Groves (2006) kept up
that diverse specimen evaluations can be liable to various nonresponse biases. On accepting
the consequence of their response, one-way ANOVA is done in order to test for difference
between respondents to the full survey and respondents to the abbreviated poll. Nonetheless,
this approach was not received in this study, inferable from the way that there was no
certification that this groups would react to the research, given that they declined to take an
interest in the primary study. The second technique includes testing for the likelihood of nonresponse bias in the information, which constitutes a test for measurable critical contrasts in
the responses of ahead of schedule and late rushes of returned studies. The last rush of the
overviews got was thought to be illustrative of the non- respondents. From there on, t-tests
were completed on the responses of the two waves and the consequence of the t-test is
appeared in Table 5.4. The t-test result yielded no measurable huge contrasts among the
overview things tried; in this way, Table 5.4 proposes that non-response bias did not
altogether impact the study.
Creswell (2012) kept up that nonattendance of non-response bias demonstrates that the
discoveries from the review can be summed up to different settings. Henceforth, research that
fulfils the non-response bias necessity by being illustrative of all the reviewed associations
can be summed up to various research circumstances from the one initially concentrated on.
This proposes when a similar research instrument is controlled to an alternate example from a
similar populace it should give indistinguishable results (Wisner, 2003).
There is a civil argument in regard to the type of information coming about because of
research completed in associations and the conflict about the information frame is between
subjective perceptual information and target information. Dess and Robinson Jr. (2002) and
Ward et al. (1994) performed an exact appraisal of the two information structures and
discovered the solid connection between's subjective view of the relative change in
organisational execution with target measures of the supreme changes in business execution
over a similar period. In like manner, the study demonstrates that top administrations'
169

observation about the execution of their associations (measured in subjective and relative
terms) adjusts to the genuine execution of their association. Accordingly, where target
information is or out of reach, perceptual subjective information offers a reasonable option;
thusly, in this study perceptual information was utilised, to a limited extent as a result of the
trouble of get to. This is so in light of the fact that since respondents were likewise mindful
that their rivals may partake in the overview, they were not willing to uncover target
information of their operations despite the fact that they were ensured the data would be
utilised for the scholarly reason just and strict classification would be kept up amid utilise.
5.3.3 Reliability and Validity Analysis
Forza (2002) contended that without surveying unwavering quality and legitimacy of the
research, it would be hard to represent the impacts of estimation mistakes on hypothetical
connections that are being measured. As per Saundars et al. (2009), unwavering quality and
legitimacy dole out to auxiliary information are elements of the methods by which the
information was gathered and the source, and for every single optional data, a point by point
evaluation of dependability and legitimacy include an appraisal of strategy or methods used
to gather information. Nonetheless, dependability and legitimacy of gathering methods for
overview information will be simpler to survey where a reasonable explanation of the
instrument used to gather the information are given, which will, as a rule, be a survey.
5.3.3.1 Reliability
In the reliability analysis we used two methods and three different tests. Methods Are, the
analysis of the coefficient of internal consistency and the test - retest. The three tests carried
out First, and prior to the launch of the new form, the analysis of the coefficient of internal
consistency of a selection of thirteen items from the previous form template that maintain an
equivalent wording in the new model. Second, the analysis of the coefficient of internal
consistency of the new survey form. And third and last, the repetition of the Test to the same
group of subjects under the same conditions. The information for this research was gotten
from scaled responses henceforth it is key to evaluating the unwavering quality of the scales
(Tracey et al., 2005; Curkovic et al., 2000). Besides, having affirmed measurably that the
survey information is free from random impacts, dependability tests were directed as a
measure of the inward consistency of instruments utilised to quantify ideas. Anyhow, for
instruments measuring an idea to be solid, they ought to be exceedingly associated.
Cronbach's coefficient alpha, which processes a normal of all conceivable split-half gauges, is
the most broadly utilised trial of inside consistency.
170

Analysis of internal consistency, with the object to give meaning to the questions of the
questionnaire. For this purpose, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient], which is based on the average
inter-element correlation and assumes that the items measure the same construct and are
highly correlated. The values of this coefficient range from 0 to 1, considering as a general
rule an acceptable coefficient when its value is equal to or greater than 0.70. Since this
statistic is not accompanied by no p-value (hypothesis testing). Further, it is advisable to
assess the value of the coefficient alpha Remove from the questionnaire each of the items
That it is composed, since it can be dispensed with Those in the ones being eliminated make
the Value of the coefficient increases. Cronbach's alpha is a dependability coefficient which
demonstrates how well the things in a set decidedly correspond to each other and has values
extending from 0 to 1. Besides, the nearer Cronbach's alpha is to 1, the more prominent the
inner unwavering quality while distinctive levels of dependability are required, contingent
upon the nature and reason of the scale. When all is said in done, Sekaran and Bougie (2013)
set that reliabilities under 0.60 are thought to be poor, those in the 0.70 territories are worthy
and those more than 0.80 great.
Also, information unwavering quality requires that instruments measuring a similar idea
ought to be adequately not the same as different instruments and all things considered they
ought to stack independently in a component examination (Swafford et al., 2006a). Thusly,
dependability tests were directed for the fundamental develops off the research instruments,
that is, demographic attributes, thought of organisational trust inside store network, drivers
and inhibitors of trust in production network associations, sorts of trust, associations and
associations with respect to their connections, operationalization of trust crosswise over
supply chains and also the whole survey. The unwavering quality test result for the research
instrument is accounted for in Table 5.3, which demonstrates that the Cronbach's alpha for the
general size of the overview instrument comprising of 80 factors was observed to be 0.904.
In addition, for each of the sub things the scale reliabilities were additionally registered once
more. The after effects of this examination demonstrate that for all the sub-things of the
research instrument the coefficient alphas surpass 0.70, aside from demographic information
that it is 0.582 and as per Pallant (2010), Cronbach's alpha value can be very little when there
are a little number of things in the scale (less than 10). Also, the internal reliabilities surpass
0.80; accordingly, the scales show both solid interior consistency and solid internal
unwavering quality. In this way, the unwavering quality of the research builds appeared in
Table 5.3 is the satisfactory value of 0.70. This is so since utilizing after effects of prior
experimental studies, Swafford et al. (2006) reported that while Cronbach's alpha at 0.70 or
171

higher is regularly used to build up dependability of a research develop, however there are
circumstances in which values of 0.6 or low are worthy (Forza, 2002), particularly for
comprehensively characterized develops like inventory network properties.
Table 5.3: Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient Reliability Test
Focus of Tests
Entire questionnaire
Demographic data
Notion of trust within supply chain
Drivers of supply chain management
Inhibitors of supply chain management
Type of trust and partnerships
Operationalization of trust across supply chains

Cronbach’s Alpha
.904
.582
.711
.810
.653
.856
.839

Number of items
80
4
10
15
5
17
30

5.3.3.2 Validity
The validity of a questionnaire can not be done by means of a statistical or mathematical test,
But must be done through an analysis of the content of the items and the verification of
hypotheses About its meaning. In many cases, the validity of a questionnaire is Valuation of
experts in the field. In the case of the evaluation of the quality of teaching, the validity of the
questionnaire is also subject, in a less technical but essential context, to its acceptance by
bodies with competence in teacher assessment, which includes Both to union representatives
and to the governing bodies itself .The validity of a research instrument, for the most part,
surveys the degree to which the instrument measures what it is intended to quantify (Collis
and Hussey, 2003; Saundars et al., 2009; Sekaran and Bougie, 2009; Robson, 2011). Validity
requires that the research instrument (that is things in the poll) ought to gauge effectively the
ideas under study. Additionally, it likewise implies that indistinguishable results ought to
emerge if research procedures were rehashed and along these lines an estimation scale ought
to have outside validity. Pallant (2010) kept up that the principle sorts of validity are build
validity, content validity and paradigm related validity.
(a) Construct Validity:“It includes testing a scale as far as hypothetically inferred
theories concerning the way of basic builds or factors. It is investigated by exploring
its association with different develops, both related (united validity) and disconnected
(discriminant validity)” (Pallant, 2010). Along these lines, this sort of validity shows
how well the outcomes got from the utilisation of the scale or measure fit with the
hypothesis around which the test is outlined as it is surveyed through localized
validity and discriminant validity.”The questionnaire and find out if the between the
three variables define a dimensional structure in the questionnaire that remains
172

invariant and can serve as a basis for the interpretation of The results in different
populations (Sekaran and Bougie, 2009).
(b) Content Validity: It alludes to the sufficiency with which a scale has examined from
the planned space or universe of substance (Pallant, 2010). This test affirms that the
survey incorporates a satisfactory arrangement of things that tap the idea and the more
the scale things speak to the space of the idea being measured, the more noteworthy
the substance validity (Sekaran and Bougie, 2009). To determine the degree of
understanding of the pre- Questions that the questionnaire contains. Is not usually
expressed quantitatively through of an index or coefficient but, in general, is
estimated subjectively or intersubjective.). In this manner, any research estimateon
scale ought to have outer validity.
(c) Criterion-Related Validity: This arrangement with the relationship between scale
scores and some particular quantifiable standard. Henceforth, it tests how the scale
separates people on a standard it is required to foresee (Pallant, 2010). This can be set
up by testing the force of the measure to separate people who are known to appear as
something else (Sekaran and Bougie, 2009). Standard related validity is further
separated into the simultaneous validity and prescient validity.
For this study, multidimensional actions were utilised to evaluate the effect of trust on supply
chain attributes and on aggressive capacities of associations in oil and gas. Along these lines,
to enhance the validity of the examination instrument, the scales were gotten from thorough
writing review of the middle issues tended to in the exploration. By then, an overseeing
hypothetical framework was proposed on which examine hypotheses were demonstrated, and
some control request were put in the survey. Therefore, completed surveys were analysed for
consistency and fulfilment before data examination. In the context of that, the instrument can
be judged to be of sound create validity (O'Leary-Kelly and Vokurka, 1998).
Additionally, this concentrate likewise utilised wave investigation to break down the validity
of the overview instrument. The survey was isolated into two gatherings. In light of the two
gatherings of the polls, validity investigation is done by looking at the difference of the
attributes of the survey as a feature of wave examination as appeared in Table 5.4. The rule of
wave examination is that the principal gathering of the returned polls are illustrative of those
eager to take part in the study while the last cluster of the returned surveys is illustrative of
the non-reacting associations. Also, the wave examination depends on the way that the real
non-respondents will at present not react to a consolidated poll, in order to get some

173

demographic data about them to empower doing a validity investigation of the review
instrument.
Table 5.4: Two-Wave Analysis of External Validity
Variables
Company

size

by

number

of

1st

2nd

2

wave
2.58

wave
2.87

sig.
.747

f
2

.392

9

employees

tail d

Levene’s
test
.225

3
Company size by sales Turnover

2.68

2.52

.266

3
2

.673

9

.760

3
Notion of trust within supply chain

4.25

4.21

.677

3
2

.686

9

.604

3
Drivers of supply chain management

2.89

2.98

.463

3
2

.458

9

.431

3
Inhibitors

of

supply

chain 2.47

2.63

management

.428

3
2

.454

9

.309

3
Type of trust and partnerships

2.76

2.92

.575

3
2

.412

9

.439

3
Operationalization of trust across

2.81

2.79

supply chains

.330

3
2

.714

9

.753

3
Organisational trust and competitive

2.19

2.13

advantage

.862

3
2

.507

9
3
3

174

.243

Table 5.4 shows the after effects of the wave examination between the early and late
respondents to the study as a substitution of non-response bias connected with the study
respondents. The components that were measured in the wave investigation were
demographic qualities thought of organisational trust, drivers and inhibitors of inventory
network administration, the operationalization of trust crosswise over supply chains and
organisational trust and aggressiveness. As appeared in Table 5.4 the two-tailed significance
values are all more noteworthy than 0.1 for every one of the components measured. Thus, the
invalid hypothesis that there is no huge distinction between mean values of the two waves of
responses can't be rejected. Additionally, Levene's test for the uniformity of change of the
deliberate qualities between the early and late respondents is displayed in Table 5.4, and
likewise, it tests the suspicion of fairness of fluctuation between two gatherings. Along these
lines, if Levene's test is significant. It exhibits that the two contrasts are in a general sense
phenomenal, however in case it is not colossal (for example at criticalness level more vital
than .05), then the two variances are not out and out one of a kind; inferring that the two
changes are for the most part proportional. Therefore, from Table 5.4 it can be seen that for
all the deliberate elements the invalid hypothesis that there is no critical contrasts between
mean values of the two waves of responses can't be rejected. In like manner, in light of the
two-tailed significance and the Levene's T test as appeared in Table 5.4 the instrument can be
affirmed to have an abnormal state of validity. Consequently the invalid hypothesis, that there
is no huge distinction between the non-respondents and those that reacted to the study as far
as size of the associations measured by turnover and number of workers can't be rejected.
5.3.4 Descriptive Statistics of Respondent Organisations
Descriptive and dispersion measurement are directed to fulfil the "suspicions" made by the
discrete tests. Suppositions testing include getting descriptive measurements of the chosen
research factors. Descriptive insights include the scope of scores, means, standard deviations,
Skewnesses and kurtosises (Pallant, 2010).
Positive kurtosis values demonstrate the conveyance is bunched at the inside (crested), with
long thin tails and where kurtosis value is beneath 0, it implies the appropriation is generally
level (excessively numerous cases at outrageous) (Pallant, 2010).
In the past sub-segments statistical tests for normality, unwavering quality and validity were
passed on as a major aspect of information examination and also to discover that the
information set fulfils the presumptions for parametric investigation. Moreover, the
information was examined for descriptive measurements. The descriptive and appropriation

175

insights including the mean and standard deviation of the research builds appear in Table 5.5.
The initial two segments in the table demonstrate the primary build and in addition the factors
individually while the following two sections comprising of the base and most extreme scores
are the responses to the survey (appeared in Appendix 1) got. From that point, the last four
sections comprising of the means, standard deviations, skewness and kurtosis individually
were figured from the most extreme and least scores. Standard deviations demonstrate that
there is a measure of scattering in the builds measured. The skewness and kurtosis have low
values, and there is an even dispersion of positive and negative values for the way of
circulation of the information. Furthermore, Skewness and kurtosis empower the
determination of the way of the conveyance of the builds in light of the responses to the
review responses. Table 5.5 means conveyance is normal. From the normality investigation
led in Fig.5.1, it can be determined that the information set fulfils the necessity for normal
circulation and that the example was drawn from a populace that is normally appropriated.
In spite of the fact that the mean, standard deviation and relationship are the normal essential
devices for factual investigation, they are insufficient for measuring the conduct and
determinants of a multi-dimensional idea, for example, trust and store network
administration. Subsequently, parametric systems like the t-test, relapse examination,
ANOVA, and component investigation offer a more thorough and capable apparatus for
investigating the nature and the focused effects of the production network empowering
agents. Also, there is a verbal confrontation on the suitability of the ordinal information for
parametric investigation (Hair et al., 2006); however parametric procedures are currently
broadly used to break down ordinal information. Subsequently, in this study, the view that
ordinal information can be utilised for parametric investigation was embraced.
Table 5.5: Descriptive and Distribution Statistics of Research Variables
Research variables

Min

Ma

Mean

x
Demography

Yrs. of establishment of

5

2.90

1.278

1

5

2.84

1.097

Sales Turnover (N)

1

6

3.49

1.520

Reduce Cost

1

5

3.03

1.222

Enhance Profit

1

5

2.96

1.218

Achieve Competitive

1

5

2.71

1.077

Organisation

organisational trust

of

176

Skew

dev.

1

Company
Number of Employees in

Notions

Std.

Kurtosi
s

.
100
.
134
-.05
0
.
009
-.09
1
.

-1.074
-.673
-.926
-.917
-.962
-.276

Advantage
Improve Organisational

1

5

2.49

1.150

Increase Market Share

1

5

2.57

1.165

Increase Sale Turnover

1

5

2.61

1.365

Increase Productivity

1

5

2.65

1.149

1

5

2.76

1.196

Improve On Service Delivery

1

5

2.61

1.136

Strengthen Partnership

1

5

2.75

1.191

Integrity

1

5

2.68

1.268

Competence

1

5

2.71

1.140

Benevolence

1

5

2.73

1.073

Level of Risk

1

4

2.54

1.050

Information Sharing

1

5

2.50

1.097

Honesty

1

5

2.59

1.155

Commitment

1

5

2.60

1.092

Credibility

1

5

2.74

1.116

Expertise

1

5

2.85

1.345

Reliability

1

5

2.85

1.285

Good Intention

1

5

2.75

1.048

Ability

1

5

2.38

1.144

Consistency

1

5

2.58

1.246

Predictability

1

5

2.71

1.157

Fairness

1

5

2.72

1.155

Customisation

1

5

2.75

1.191

Globalisation

1

5

2.86

1.219

Performance

Increase Employees
Effectiveness

Drivers

of

supply

chain management

Inhibitors of supply
chain management

469
.
423
.
406
.411
.
171
.
185
.
203
.
295
.
188
.
398
.
179
.
025
.
505
.
508
.
395
.
021
.
199
.
138
.
141
.
701
.
256
.
286
.
382
.
295
.
101

177

-.693
-.619
-1.065
-.721
-.935
-.607
-.964
-.996
-.651
-.438
-1.190
-.083
-.636
-.232
-.908
-1.136
-1.025
-.507
-.276
-.987
-.671
-.617
-.964
-.746

Types of trust

Gmfs

1

5

2.12

.859

Greening the supply chain

1

5

2.45

.852

Bureaucracy

1

5

2.45

.828

1

5

2.86

1.219

1

5

2.86

1.090

1

5

2.62

1.194

1

5

2.69

1.126

1

5

2.45

1.140

1

5

2.48

1.150

1

5

2.73

1.082

1

5

2.71

1.199

1

5

2.72

1.262

1

5

2.45

1.199

1

5

2.46

1.012

1

5

2.43

1.104

1

5

2.60

1.269

1

5

2.61

1.153

1

5

2.81

1.158

1

5

2.78

1.140

1

5

2.61

1.162

1

5

2.58

1.254

1

5

2.67

1.245

1

5

2.74

1.185

1

5

2.75

1.173

In colleagues
With other related organisation
With supplier
With customer
With supervisor
General trust

Partnerships

and

Increase in market share

organisational
performance

Growth
Profitability
Productivity
Cost saving
Customer’s loyalty
Employee satisfaction
Quality
Turnover
Performance

relative

to

competitor
Overall business success
Trust across supply

Increase in Market share

chains
Growth
Profitability
Productivity

178

.
724
.
254
.
479
.
101
.
044
.
320
.
479
.
389
.
528
.
188
.
168
-.01
8
.
469
.
899
.
470
.
473
.
541
.
061
.
313
.
274
.
295
.
285
.
131
.

1.077
-.048
.678
-.746
-.924
-.711
-.563
-.598
-.382
-.872
-.693
-1.290
-.612
.510
-.534
-.784
-.545
-.722
-.809
-.631
-1.030
-.825
-.898
-.699

Cost saving
Customer loyalty
Employee satisfaction
Quality
Turnover
Performance

relative

to

competitor
Overall business success
Trust
organisational fit

and

Suppliers are honest in their
dealings with us
Major suppliers deal with us
with equity and fairness
Suppliers are worth our
confidence
Supplier has been credible to
us
Suppliers are committed to us
Right skills required for our
business
supplier

has

the

consistent
suppliers

are

reliable

freely

and

exchange

information with us
suppliers have made sacrifices
for us in the past
supplier cares

about

4

2.47

1.002

1

5

2.23

.911

1

5

2.44

1.049

1

4

2.55

1.050

1

5

2.82

.938

1

5

2.73

1.136

1

5

2.74

1.334

1

5

2.56

1.077

1

5

2.46

1.050

1

5

2.54

1.050

1

5

2.50

.972

1

5

2.36

1.013

1

5

2.49

1.079

1

5

2.55

1.174

1

5

2.77

1.289

1

5

2.49

1.060

1

5

2.30

1.060

1

5

2.28

1.084

1

5

2.48

1.031

1

5

2.61

.997

1

5

2.33

1.102

1

5

2.36

1.217

right

proficiency required for our
business
suppliers

1

the

organisation’s welfare
We are able to predict our
supplier
supplier contributes to the
success of our business
supplier can be a source of risk
supplier helps in minimising
risk

229
.
082
.
336
.
657
-.15
8
.
362
.
478
.
245
.
136
.
236
.
601
.
231
.
500
.
364
.
236
.
291
.
281
.
327
.
977
.
302
-.06
0
.
570
.
613

179

-1.040
-.276
.004
-1.157
-.154
-.297
-1.249
-.920
-.734
-.035
-.396
-.385
-.497

-1.002

-.910
-.798
-.895
.651

-.662

-.792
-.540
-.540

supplier provides with lots of
feedback
customers are honest in their
dealings with us
major customers deal with us
with equity and fairness
customers are worth

our

confidence
customer has been credible to
us
customers are committed to us
customer has the right skills
required for our business
customer has
the
right
proficiency required for our
business
customers are reliable and
consistent
customers

freely

exchange

information with us
customers
have

made

sacrifices for us in the past
customer cares about the
organisation’s welfare
We are able to predict our
customer
customer has been contributing
to the success of our business
customer can be a source of
risk
customer helps in minimising
risk
customer
organisation

provides
with

lots

1

5

2.62

1.219

Length

of

our organisation
Supplier

relationship
Customer
Trust and competitive advantage

180

-.481

5

2.53

.920

.097

-.178

1

5

2.31

.860

.211

-.551

1

5

2.37

.880

.418

.282

1

5

2.14

.919

.704

.472

1

5

2.21

.885

.359

-.153

1

5

2.39

.702

1

5

2.30

.837

.127

-.554

1

5

2.32

.713

.199

-.076

1

5

2.32

.819

.142

.042

1

5

2.32

.858

.455

.056

1

5

2.09

.833

.781

.345

1

5

2.32

.762

.252

.509

1

5

2.33

.740

.469

.866

1

5

2.33

.752

.145

.474

1

5

1.91

.637

.289

.300

1

5

1.76

.524

1

5

3.95

2.31

feedback
customer keeps us informed
about events that might affect

573

1

our
of

.

1

5

2.43

1.173

1

5

2.49

1.233

1

5

2.32

1.204

-.08
7

-.21
5
-.31
8
.
225
.
638
.
565

-.272

-.218

-1.834

-1.176
-.385
-.820

5.4Demographic Characteristics of Respondents

Descriptive insights were utilised to break down the dispersion of the demographic and
financial elements of the response to the study. Table 5.6 demonstrates some fundamental
demographic attributes of the overview respondents including designation of respondents,
year of the foundation of association, the size of associations measured by a number of
representatives, the size of associations by turnover and important business parts of the
respondents to the review. Investigation of the outcome in Table 5.6 uncovers that the review
is illustrative as far as size, creation handle utilised and the designation of respondents.
Besides, the enterprises to which the respondents have a place as uncovered by the main
business divisions of Table 5.6, bolsters the view that the oil and gas industry inventory
network is served by associations from various mechanical segments. A detailed record of the
demographic qualities of the respondents listed above was given in the accompanying
segments.
Table 5.6: Demographic Characteristics of Respondents
Criteria
Respondents Designation
MDs, CEOs and or Directors
Supply chain management/Director
Procurement/Purchasing management
Others (please specify)
Total
Year of Establishment of Company
Less than 20yrs
21-40yrs
41-60yrs
61-80yrs
Above 80yrs
Total
Number of Employees in Organisation
Up to 50
51-250
251-550
551-2500
Above 2500
Total
Forms of Classification of Companies
Sole Proprietor
Partnership
Private Limited Company
Public Unlimited Company
Private Unlimited Company
Total

Percent
22.2
52.1
20.0
5.7
100
15.7
26.5
22.5
22.5
12.7
100.0
10.8
29.4
31.4
21.6
6.9
100.0
11.8
16.7
24.5
29.4
17.6
100.0
181

Size of company by annual turnover (in Millions of naira)
Less than N50m
12.7
N51-N100
14.7
N101-N250
21.6
N251-N500
23.5
N501-N1b
16.7
Above N1b
10.8
Total
100.0
Principal Business Sectors
Exploration and Production
19.6
Logistics, Catering, Transport, Storage and Allied
11.8
Consultation including Geographical Services
7.8
Automobile and Auto Motive Assembly
15.7
Engineering Services
15.7
Marine, Sub-Sea Service and Allied Services
18.6
Electrical and Electronic Equipment
10.8
Total
100.0
5.4.1 Designation
Table 5.6 depicts the designation of the respondents to the survey. A noteworthy issue with
organisational-level research is that senior and official level supervisors get numerous
solicitations to take an interest and these are the general population who have exceptionally
constrained time because of tight calendars. In any case, among the respondents, heads of
association, i.e. those with the designation of MD, CEO and Director constitute 22.2% of the
respondents. Production network directors and Procurement/Purchasing administrators each
constitute larger part at 52.1% of the respondents. Additionally, procurement/purchasing
manager constitute 20.0% while others i.e. line managers constitute 5.7%. In spite of the fact
that in this study, the most looked for after respondents were the CEOs; where the CEOs were
incapacitated then production network administrators were sufficient. This was so on the
grounds that the key data requested in the study is held by top supervisors, as they have a
better diagram of the issues that the study would like to address. In that capacity, the outcome
showed in Table 5.6 fulfilled the researcher's prerequisites on target respondents.

5.4.2 Year of Establishment of Company
Table 5.6 shows that 15.7% of the sampled organisations were established less that 20years
ago, 26.5% were established between 21-40 years, 22.5% were established between 4160years ago. Similarly, 22.5% of the organisations sampled were established between 6180years while 12.7% were established above 80 years ago. This result indicated that majority

182

of the sample organisations (57.7%) were established over 40 years ago and hence been
involved in the changing nature of supply chain management for a while.

5.4.3 Number of Employees in Organisation
Table 5.6 shows that 10.8% of sampled organisations have up to 50 employees, 29.4% of
responding companies had 51 to 250 workers, 31.4% have 251 to 550 workers, 21.6% have
551 to 2500 and 6.9% have workers above 2500. This outcome demonstrates that larger part
of the reacting organisations were large scale organisations (LOs) with a scope of respondents
crosswise over medium size organisations (MOs). 28.5% of the reacting organisations were
expansive scale organisations while 60.8% of the respondents were medium associations.
This hypothesis depends on a prior investigation of the oil business by Cumbers et al., (2003).
Hence, this satisfied the research justification put forward in the introduction chapter.

5.4.4 Forms of Classification of Companies
Table 5.6 displays that majority of respondent’s organisations are public unlimited companies
with 29.4%, followed by private limited liability companies 24.5%, the private unlimited
company has 17.6%. Equally, few numbers of organisations are sole proprietorships (11.8%)
and partnerships (16.7%) companies.

5.4.5 Size of Company by Annual Turnover
Table 5.6 likewise portrays estimate by yearly turnover of the associations that reacted to the
study and the table demonstrates that there are six classifications of the organisation yearly
turnover. As the table shows, the biggest class of the associations (23.5%) have turnover
between N251-N500M, trailed by organisations (i.e. 21.6%) with turnover between N101N250 around 43%), 16.7% of the organisations have a turnover between N501-N1B. others
organisations in the overview have a turnover of between N51-N100 (14.7%), under N50
(12.7%) and above N1B (10.8%). This outcome demonstrates that dominant part of the
inspected associations (51.0%) are extensive and medium associations, with turnovers of over
N500 million.
5.4.6 Principal Business Sectors
Table 5.6 additionally explains the organisations regarding the vital business divisions in
which the respondents were included. A noteworthy normal for test respondents is that
associations in the investigation and generation division are the most spoken to at 19.6%. It is
183

followed by companies operating in Marine, Sub-Sea Service and Allied Services at 18.6%.
Additionally, organisations involved with engineering services and automobile and
automotive assembly both constitute 15.7%. Similarly, logistics, catering, transport, storage
and allied constitute 11.8% while electrical and electronic equipment companies constitute
10.8%. It demonstrates there are a few companies that have embraced practices in the oil and
gas segment. Hence, underscoring the broadly subcontracted nature of the oil and gas
industry as it draws organisations from shifted mechanical foundations to take care of its
regular demand for products and ventures. Thus, bolsters the announcement that the oil and
gas industry is an interconnection of organisations from differing modern areas (Bower and
Young, 1995; Crabtree et al., 1997; Crabtree et al., 2000; Garbie, 2011; Schweitzer, 2011;
Yergin, 2008).
5.5 Inferential Statistics

To enhance our understanding of applicable components connected with the subject of trust
and inventory network and in addition, their effect on production network execution and
organisational execution correlation examination was done to test and investigate the
relationship between the variables explored. Thus, regression investigation was done to set up
cause impact connections between trust factors and production network factors. However,
correlation and regression are connected anyway they fill diverse needs. While correlation
measures the quality of connections between factors with the quality of the relationship spoke
to measure by the Pearson's correlation coefficient signified as r, regression decides the type
of the relationship which correlation set up, by foreseeing/evaluating the value of one
variable (named the reliant variable) in view of a given value of the free factor. Keeping in
mind the end goal to introduce the consequence of the measurable tests in an organised
example firstly the after effects of correlation examination will be exhibited, trailed by the
after effects of the regression investigation.
5.5.1 Research Questions
The research questions of this study include:
1. What are the notions of organisational trust within the oil and gas supply chain settings?
2. What are the enablers of trust within and across organisational boundaries?
3. What are the inhibitors (risk) of trust in supply chain partnerships?
4. What are the types of trust, partnerships and organisations vis-à-vis their relationships?
5. How to operationalize trust across supply chains

184

6. What the type of trust has the most prominent impact on supply chain performance and
organisation performance?

5.5.2 Notion of Organisational Trust within the Oil and Gas Supply Chain
The notion of organisational trust within the supply chain is complex. Trust is an arrangement
of socially learned and socially affirmed desires that individuals have of each other, of the
associations and organisations in which they live, and of the regular and good social requests
that set the basic understandings for their lives(Barber, 1983, p. 164). Similarly, Lewicki and
Wiethoff (2000, p. 87), who have an organisational behaviour theory background, described
trust as “an individual's belief in, and willingness to act on the basis of, the words, actions,
and decisions of another”. Also, social scientists Mayer et al. (1995, p. 712), and Schoorman
et al. (2007) defined organisational trust as the “willingness to be vulnerable to the actions of
another party or organisation based on the expectation that the other will perform a particular
action important to the trust or, irrespective of the ability to monitor or control that other
party or organisation”.
In the background of supply chain management, literature revealed that trust brings down the
exchange costs in the store network and gives organisations a wellspring of upper hand
(Barney and Hansen 1994; Donéy et al. 1998). Consequently, trust encourages long haul
connections between organisations (Ganesan 1994); along these lines, it is an imperative
achievement calculate long haul key cooperation (Gulati 1995)as well as facilitates the
alignment of partner interests (Maurer 2010). Also, trust additionally improves partner
fulfilment and backings the accomplishment of venture objectives (Maurer 2010).
Subsequently, trustworking in between organisational relations adds to a more viable
execution of system, more prominent administrative bearing and more viable work groups
(Aramo-Immonen 2010; Donéy et al. 1998).
Besides, an individual's capacity to trust another depends on one of three elements, the first
identity established as a part of one's identity and the conviction system created through one's
beneficial encounters is identified with trust. Additionally, these encounters are connected to
the social environment in which the individual has lived. Besides, the conviction system
might be founded on an arrangement of tenets and standards built up by foundations or
society. Thirdly, trust might be founded on encounters inside a given relationship. Society and
relations between two people are additionally subjected to social impacts (Lewicki and

185

Wiethoff, 2000). Trust in connection to the organisational personality and aggregate activity
is a noteworthy issue since it entwines a perplexing and mindful system, which shapes the
aggregate outlook required for dependable execution (Weick and Roberts, 1993; Senge, 1990;
Cox, 1996). Also, trust definitions can be grouped in view of their core interest. Firstly,
individual based, furthermore system based and thirdly trust definitions identified with both.
At one level, contemplated desires will be satisfied, and consistency is identified with past
encounters. Duty is the down to earth sign of the idea of trust. Practically speaking it can
likewise be a demonstration of dependability; as this happens when trust and duty are tried.
In supply chain management settings, relationship steadfastness is a component of
manageability. System based trust is implanted in unsurprising execution procedures,
contracts and institutional,organisational conduct. At one level, contemplated desires will be
satisfied. Consistency is identified with past encounters. On both the individual and business
level, trust is as much about something happening as not incident (Walker and Hampson,
2003).
The individual company’s position (its thickness or weakness) in the supply chain settings
and/or in the sourcing network is controlled by the accompanying standards: i) the
organisation's capacity to increase the value of the chain or system, ii) the reasonableness of
the organisation's centre fitness, iii) the position level from the central organisation's
perspective. The organisation's capacity to increase the value of the production network or
system is comprehended to imply that an organisation must include value either
straightforwardly or in a roundabout way for its end clients. This proposes a solitary
organisation must know the demands of the store network and know how to fulfil these
demands. For instance, when asked from the performers in the supply chain do they know,
what the end customer’s needs are. The answer was typically positive. However, when
investigated what these need to be assumed to be the performers in supply chain expressed it
in very general level: Customer wants us to build a vessel for example. In order to be able to
create added value, it would be necessary to develop the position of the focal company in
value creation process. The appropriateness of the organisation's core competence is the
principle precondition for the arrangement of an inventory network. Subsequently, every
organisation has the vital centreability, i.e., the fundamental association, individuals, and
especially the technology for the inventory network. An organisation needs to understand
how the provider's and the client's focal skill underpins the central organisation's business
idea (Cox 1996; Hamel 2000; Breite 2003).

186

Therefore, in this context the focal company (one economic actor according to Ramirez 1999)
is the company in focus of the study’. The position level from the central organisation's
perspective can be inspected in various ways: i) The organisation's aggressive position in
systems – which is comprehended to mean the organisation's ability to use the asset capability
of the system (Harland 1996; Cunningham 1994) ii) The meanings of the segments of
systems – the organisation is the on-screen character that performs exercises and controls
assets (Harland 1996; Gadde et al. 2003). iii) The organisation is a piece of the system
structure, the position of the organisation is characterised by virtue of its situation in the
levels (Harland 1996; Nishiguchi 1994). In any case, Maurer (2010) placed that trust assume
enter part in all the above standards to be satisfied as trust is the most basic calculates a
conferred and cooperative relationship between production network accomplices. Along these
lines, if trust is available, it can enhance the odds of a fruitful production network
relationship; if not, exchange expenses can ascend through poor execution (in the same
place). Associations require trust with a specific end goal to be adaptable and coordinated. In
any case, setting up at rust can be inconspicuous and much harder to keep up. It is
additionally genuine that trust is both individual and institutional and that trust in an
inventory network advances based upon shared characteristics among the accomplices and
can set aside persistence and opportunity to create.
It is found thathowever, different fields of studies have given distinctive ideas and definitions
in the trust literature there is by all accounts an accord on the estimation of trust. All the
scales have measured just the trustee's attributes. The research is, however, unique in relation
to past studies around there as it investigates the idea of trust by looking to build up
experimental connection between supply chains and organisational intensity. The information
was gathered from oil and gas organisations to the point of archiving the drivers and
inhibitors of trust on inventory network administration; associations, organisational execution
in oil and gas industry and the effects of trust on organisations' intensity. The findings of the
study are presented in succeeding sections.
Table 5.7: Notions of Organisational Trust within Supply Chain Settings
Notions

Very

important

neutral

29

24

important

Little

Not

importance

important

12

14

Desire to reduce cost

23

Desire to enhance profit

28

27

22

15

10

Desire to achieve competitive advantage
Desire to improve organisational

11
22

37
35

33
23

13
17

8
5

187

performance
Desire to increase market share
Desire to increase sale turnover
Desire to increase productivity
Desire

to

increase

20
27
25

33
28
34

27
18
20

15
16
17

7
13
6

16

31

24

23

8

24

37

14

6

38

18

24

8

316
31.0

246
24.1

166
16.3

85
8.3

employees’

effectiveness
Desire to improve on service delivery
Desire to strengthen partnership
Total
percentage

21
14
207
20.3

Table 5.7 shows that 31.0% of the responding organisations believed that the factors listed for
a trusting relationship between one organisation and the other organisations in a supply chain
setting are important, 20.3% believed is very important, 24.1% were neutral, 16.3% believed
there are of little important as to why they enter into a trusting relationship between
organisations in a supply chain while 8.3% believed is not important. Thus, shows that
majority of the respondents (51.3%) believed that the factors listed are very important reasons
why they enter into trusting relationship with organisations within their supply chain.
Furthermore, a correlation analysis is carried out on the notion of organisational trust in
supply chain settings so as to determine their relationship.
The correlation coefficient is a statistic that measures the extent to which two variables are
related or contrasted to each other. The coefficient of correlation (r)may have value from
negative 1 to positive one - 1 to +1. Therefore, a value of r nearing - 1 or +1 indicates solid
negative or positive affiliation individually which in reasonable terms it implies circuitous or
coordinate straight relationship separately between the factors. The nonattendance of
correlation demonstrates that no causality is available, in this way precluding the requirement
for undertaking regression examination.
Table 5.8 shows the result of the correlation analysis of the notion of organisational trust
within the supply chain. It is clear from the correlation coefficients that there is a critical
correlation between longing to lessen cost and yearning to upgrade benefit, craving to
upgrade benefit and craving to accomplish upper hand, craving to enhance organisational
execution and craving to improve benefit and also craving to accomplish upper hand, longing
to build piece of the overall industry and yearning to accomplish upper hand, craving to
expand efficiency and longing to build deal turnover. Other much corresponded factors are
yearning to build workers' viability and longing to expand efficiency, craving to enhance
188

benefit conveyance and yearning to expand representatives' adequacy. Likewise, it could be
seen from Table 5.8 that longing to reinforce association is unequivocally related with every
one of the factors, in this way demonstrates how the association is imperative in the supply
chain as no association or organisation is its very own highland. Anyhow, there is a noncritical correlation between longing to accomplish upper hand yearning to lessen the cost,
craving to enhance organisational execution and craving to diminish cost, longing to build a
piece of the pie and longing to decrease cost, yearning to expand deal turnover and yearning
to decrease cost among others. This outcome is edifying in that the literature on
organisational trust inside supply chain in an oil and gas area fights that there are profitability
picks up as an after effect of trust in supply chain associations (see Flynn, Huo, and Zhao,
2010; Sheth and Sharma, 2006).
5.5.3 Enablers or Drivers of Trust within and across Organisational Boundaries
Various researchers have characterised ascribes that prompt to the development and view of
trustworthiness (empowering influences of trust) in supply chain or business relationship.
However, literature research for this study identified many enablers of trust within and across
organisational boundaries and the understanding of which is vital to transforming supply
chain talk into reality. Consequently, these trust attributes were studied together as opposed to
individual studies stated above. The essence was to determine their impact on supply chain
performance and organisation performance. Thus, these trust attributes or drivers are
integrity, competence, benevolence, the level of risk, information sharing, honesty,
commitment, credibility, expertise, reliability, good intention, ability, consistency,
predictability and fairness.

Table 5.8: Correlations Coefficient of Notion of Organisational Trust within Supply
Strengthen partnership

Improve on service
delivery

Increase employees’
effectiveness

Increase productivity

Increase sale turnover

Increase market share

Improve organisational

189

performance

Achieve competitive
advantage

Enhance profit

Reduce cost

Chain

Desire to reduce cost
Desire to enhance

1
.473**

1

profit
Desire

NS

.565**

to

achieve

1

competitive
advantage
Desire to improve
organisational
performance
Desire to increase
market share
Desire to increase
sale turnover
Desire to increase
productivity
Desire to increase
employees’

1
NS

.297**

.541**

NS

.141

.363**

NS

.116

.163

.269

.478

.163

NS

NS

NS

.240

.596

1
1
1

.
391**

1
NS

NS

NS

NS

NS

.595**

NS

effectiveness
Desire to improve on

.
.180

service delivery

NS

.115

NS

NS

NS

.280

1

712
**

Desire to strengthen
partnership

.202*

.

.203*

.384

.432**

287*

.466*

.049*

.326

Significance at 5% level indicated by *, at 1% level by **

Table 5.9: Correlation of Enablers of Trust and Supply Chain Performance
Attributes

Bullwhip

Cost

saving

effect

perspective

Risk

Information

Return

sharing

investment

on

Lead
time

(ROI)
Integrity
Competence
Benevolence
Level of risk
Information

.113

-.039**

.142**

-.022

.467

-.014**

.415**

.890**

.741

.356

-.067
.
167**
.
270**
.
237**
.647

190

.287

.244**

.218*

.293**

.177

.077**

.413*

.188**

.254

.144

.128

.247**

.187

.226

.161

.591*

1

sharing
Honesty
Commitment
Credibility
Expertise
Reliability
Good
intention
Ability
Consistency
Predictability
Fairness

.218*
.219**
.637

.171
.074**
.381

.325**

.184

.259

.123

.269*

.209
.246*
.741
.
415**
.167
. NS

.NS
.325**

.222**

.877
.239

.010**
.173

-.082
.
415**
.890
.296

.191*
.280**
.135**

.336
.957**

.197*
.647*

.637

.859

.135

.073

.180

.152

.227*

.187

.078

NS
**

.226

NS

.353

.235

.323**

.272
.159

.247
.203

.135
.277

Significance at 5% level indicated by *, at 1% level by **
Table 5.9 is a correlation analysis between enablers or drivers of trust and supply chain
performance. As revealed by the table, there are a lot of significant relationship between the
trust enablers and supply chain performance. Similarly, the correlation coefficients indicate
significant positive correlations between the enablers of trust and supply chain performance.
This shows that supply chain performance is contingent on trust enablers, as the positive
correlation coefficient among the factors of trust enablers and supply chain performance
displays. The main conclusion to draw from this positive relationship among the various
factors of trust enablers and supply chain performance is that as one increase so do the other.
Hence, trust enabler factors bring about the increase in supply chain performance.
Similarly, the factors of trust enabler and organisation performance were correlated to
determine if the trust enabler’ factors bring about organisational performance. The reason has
been that supervisors are planning with organisations past their own. Thus, seeking after
better approaches to lower costs or enhance benefit through gadgets, for example, seller
oversaw stock, without a moment to spare booking and also picking up the trust of
accomplices (Ballou et al. 2000). In this way, anoint effort is required crosswise over big
business limits interfacing with outer providers, transporter accomplices and clients. Thusly,
trust is a limit traversing part with these outside clients too (Bowersox et al. 1988, Bowersox
and Closs 1996).
Therefore, Table 5.10 demonstrates the correlation coefficient and connections between
empowering agents of trust and organisational execution. From the table, it is obvious that of
the 165 correlations between the factors, 136 of the factors have critical positive correlations
between trust enablers and organisational performance while 11 of the variables have
negative correlations among the variables. Of the trust variables that correlated with
191

organisational performance, commitment integrity, competence, benevolence, the level of
risk, information sharing, honesty logged positive significant correlations with all other
variables related to the performance of the organisation. However, commitment variable has
the highest positive correlation organisational performance measures and as follows: .165**, .
163**, .193**, .272**, .414**, .503**, .269**, .216**, .281**, .251**and .339**.
Additionally, this result is in line with the literature. This is so because according to Dion et
al. (1992), responsibility infers that the exchanging accomplices will dedicate vitality to
maintaining this relationship. That is, submitted accomplices devote assets to facilitating and
maintaining the objectives of the supply chain and to a substantial degree, responsibility
makes it more troublesome for accomplices to act in ways that may antagonistically influence
general supply chain execution and organisational execution. Thus, with responsibility,
supply chain accomplices get to be incorporated into their real clients' procedures and more
fixing to their objectives.

192

Table 5.10: Correlation between Trust Enablers and Organisational Performance
In

Growt

Profitabilit

Productivit

Cost

Customer

Employee

Qualit

Turnove

Performance

Business

Market

h

y

y

Saving

Loyalty

Satisfaction

y

r

to Competitor

Success

Share
Integrity
.778
.028

.528**

.690**

.063

.040

.818**
.023

Competence

.797**

.637

.948**

.380**

.327**

.047
.427**

.007
.547

.088

.001

Benevolence

.026
.654

Level of risk

.045
.900

.080
.448

.060
.678**

.076

.042

Information

.013
.507

sharing
Honesty

.066
.600

Credibility

.316

.073
.440

.100
-.874

.904

.772

.012

-.029
.772

-.044
.786

-.077
.637

.016
.484

.029
.503**

.027

.047

.070

.414

**

.975

-.383

.985

.375

.082
.811

.003

.087

.002
-.613

.089
.756

.024
.967

.090
.477

.078
.464

.017
.545

.022
.209

.973

.051

.031

.004

.071
.457

.073

-.061

.125

.003

**

*

.415*

.384**

Expertise
Reliability
Good

.463

.002
.660

.053
Commitment

.307

.635

*

*

.342 .

.343

.257

.067
.371

.434

.868

.826

.074
.800*
193

.313*

intention
Ability

.048
.379*

000
.789

.000
.603**

.113
.474**

-.054

.192

.172
.478**

.010
.699

.071
.804

.039
.866**

.025

.017

*

Consistency

.322

**

.001
Predictability

.695

**

.485

Fairness

.927

-.039
.267

.070
.694**

.009

.111

.039

.025

.001

.000

.000

.570**

.655**

.016

.045
.341

**

.000

.392

**

.915

.086
.832

.327**

.011
.209**

.021
.304

.001
.314

.103

.001

.354

.035
.000
Significance at 5% level indicated by *, at 1% level by **

194

5.5.4: Inhibitors (risk) of Trust in Supply Chain Partnerships
Supply chain management is becoming of growing strategic importance, and literature
revealed that globalisation, customisation and bureaucracy as three major inhibitors (Man and
Burn, 2006; Markley and Davis, 2007; Zaheer et al. 1998) while others include genetically
modified foods (GMFs) and greening the supply chain. Additionally, various trust elements
can either serve to empower or repress supply chain administration relying upon the specific
situation and the path in which the element is used (Zaheer et al. 1998). Correspondingly,
there is both hazard and association in a supply chain relationship, and there must be a certain
assertion not to misuse the accomplice's vulnerabilities. This takes advancement,
trustworthiness and openness to be fruitful i.e. trust empowering agents.
Literature depicted that association, whereby firms exchange bits of vital information and
attract some suppliers–customers in longer-term contracts, has transformed into the edge
level of supply chain collaboration (Spekman et al. 1998). SCM depends on a foundation of
trust (Lee and Billington 1992, Kumar 1996) and the comprehension is that trust can
contribute basically to the whole deal security of an affiliation (Heide and John 1990,
Handifiled and Bechtel 2002). In this manner, trust is gone on through certainty, reliance,
conviction or trust in the supply associate and is viewed as the capacity to surrender the
sagacious lead. In this manner, trust is one's conviction that one's supply chain accessory will
act consistently and do what he/she ensures. It is the sentiment execution in friendliness with
objectives and cravings that keep inside appropriate limits one's fear of extremist lead as for
exchange people from the supply chain (Nooteboomet al. 1997).
Besides, the trademark trust components are construct and ward with respect to the shared
recognitions, positive or negative past encounters. For example, fitness is characterised as
how much clients see that the provider has required abilities and learning to supply the item.
Immediacy and dependability allude to the conveyance of the item or administration in a
convenient way and reliable (Parasuraman et al., 1985). So and Schill (2002) contended that
an accomplice is probably going to be considered as dependable by the other accomplice
when he creates trust through a steady and unsurprising act over an expanded timeframe.
However, unwavering quality is likewise regularly in light of the genuineness or honesty of
the accomplices and stable business environment. As per Svensson (2002), an accomplice's
anticipated activity, joined by a periodic ability to help the other party in a sticky situation,
will frequently prompt to a more profound feeling of trust by the other party and more
noteworthy duty. The words speediness, genuineness, kind-heartedness, decency (trust

195

properties) are frequently utilised as an equivalent word. These attributes can just portray the
forerunners of trust and drive the accomplice's inclination to trust or readiness to go out on a
limb, however, they don't mean a demonstration of trust. In any case, in the vibrant business
environment how much hazard a supply chain part can bring with the other part is reliant on
the accomplice's trademark and his level of eagerness to go out on a limb in light of clear
computations, destinations, innovative similarity and legitimate system to secure the outer
dangers to fit into either, responsive, proficient, incline or coordinated supply chains.
Literature uncovered that examining inhibitors of trust in supply chain association is vital in
light of the fact that viable organisation enhances diminishment of general stock level,
diminishes item oldness, bring down exchange costs, responds all the more rapidly to market
changes and reacts all the more rapidly to client ask for (Man and Burn, 2006; Markley and
Davis, 2007).Thus, the levels of collaboration and joining between accomplices builds brings
down costs, certainty and enhances proficiency and additionally viability, expands
benefit/income and piece of the overall industry (Vurro et al., 2000; Satyaveer and Proth,
2005). Subsequently, associations (providers, middle people and clients) with long haul
entomb business connections enhance upper hands through making client value (Langley and
Holcomb, 1992; Ellram and Cooper, 2009). Based on the above argument, this research
investigates inhibitors of trust in supply chain partnership and the result of which is stated in
Table 5.11. Accordingly, correlation analysis was carried out between trust inhibitors and
supply chain partnerships as shown below.
Table 5.11: Correlation between Trust Inhibitors and Partnerships
Customisation

Suppliers
.420

Intermediaries
.406

Customers
.379**

(.000)
.408

(.000)
.451**

(.000)
.259

(.000)

(.000)

(.008)

Globalisation
Genetically Modified Foods (GMFs)
Greening the supply chain

-.181**

-.102*
(.007)

Bureaucracy

(.068)
-.176**
(.077)
Significance at 5% level indicated by *, at 1% level by **

Table 5.11 shows the correlation between inhibitors of trust and partnerships and all except
genetically modified products (GMPs) registered some level of significant correlation with all
the partnerships parameters. This means that the surveyed organisations do not perceive
196

genetically modified products (GMPs) as an inhibitor of trust in supply chain partnerships.
Furthermore, customisation positively correlated with all the partnerships variables and this
finding is in line with literature in that the oil and gas industry has been seen as an industry
that requires an abnormal state of modernisation, particularly because of the need to deliver
from the profound seaward fields (Bower and Young, 1995; Crabtree et al., 2000; Cumbers et
al., 2003). Clearly, the discoveries from this research indicate a high occurrence of
customisation inside the business, to such a degree, to the point that capacity to convey
altered items is seen as an upper hand and inhibitor of trust in supply chain settings.
Additionally, in Table 5.11 it can be seen that the consequence of correlation coefficient
between greening the supply chain and organisations factors is a critical negative correlation.
This implies where the requirement for greening the supply chain is high; there is a low level
of organisations and the other way around.
This demonstrates there is a high inclination for standard items inside the business and
additionally redid items. This finding authenticates a prior study (Swafford et al., 2006b) in
which it was found that provider relations empower enhanced responsiveness and consumer
loyalty and that responsiveness and consumer loyalty can be achieved only if inhibitors of
trust in supply chain partnerships can be controlled (Cumbers et al., 2003).

5.5.5 Types of Trust, Partnerships and Organisations Vis-a-viz their Relationships
Existing literature maintained that it is obvious that trust only exists when both parties think it
exists, that it is critical to treat supply chain partners like they are important, information
needs to be shared freely, and that partners need to follow through with promises made.
Hence, to determine the relationship between types of trust and partnerships as well as types
of trust and organisational performance, a correlation analysis was carried out and the result
of which is presented in Table 5.12 and Table 5.13 respectively.
As Table 5.12 demonstrates, there is a positive significant relationship between types of trust
and partnerships except for perceived competency and customers. Also, the highest
correlation is between perceived benevolence and customers at .657** (.116). This result
shows that supply chain in oil and gas industry requires a high level of trust to exist among
supply chain partnerships especially trust between organisations and customers.
Table 5.12: Correlation of Types of Trust and Partnership
Perceived Integrity

Suppliers
.408** (.000)

Intermediaries
.451** (.000)
197

Customers
.259** (.008)

Perceived Competency
Perceived
Benevolence

.416** (.000)

.241 (.014)

.610** (.000)

.488** (.003)

.657**(.116)

Significance at 5% level indicated by *, at 1% level by **
Table 5.13: Correlation of Types of Trust and Organisational Performance

Increase

Perceived Integrity

Perceived

Perceived

(Calculus-based

Competency

Benevolence

trust)

(knowledge-based

(Transference-based

trust)

trust)

in

market share
Growth
Profitability
Productivity
Cost saving
Customer’s

.271** (.006)
.266**(.007)

.309* (.035)
.342*(.025)

.218* (.028)
.348** (.000)
.553* (.010)

loyalty
Employee
satisfaction
Quality
Turnover
Performance
relative

.199*(.045)
to

competitor
Overall business
success

.285**(.004)
.439**(.000)

.374(.000)

.457*(.000)

.568**(.000)
.675**(.005)

Significance at 5% level indicated by *, at 1% level by **
Table 5.13 shows significant correlations between types of trust and organisational
performance measures at growth, profitability, productivity, Turnover, performance relative to
a competitor and overall business success. This result indicates that when the Perceived
Integrity (Calculus-based trust) is achieved among supply chain partners, organisational
performance measures such as Profitability, productivity, performance relative to a
competitor and overall business success tends to improve. Similarly, when Perceived
Competency (knowledge-based trust) is achieved, the result shows that organisational
performance measures such as Profitability, productivity, turnover, performance relative to
competitor and overall business success improve while when the Perceived Benevolence

198

(Transference-based trust) is attained among supply chain partners in “Nigeria oil and gas”,
then organisational performance measures such as growth, profitability, productivity,
performance relative to competitor and overall business success improve. Additionally, result
in the table shows an increase in the scores of the organisational performance measures from
Perceived Integrity (Calculus-based trust), Perceived Competency (knowledge-based trust)
and Perceived Benevolence (Transference-based trust). For instance, profitability under
perceived integrity (Calculus-based trust) is .271** (.006), for perceived Competency
(knowledge-based trust) is .309* (.035) while for perceived Benevolence (Transference-based
trust) is .348** (.000). Similarly, this result shows that growth among supply chain parties is
attained when perceived Benevolence (Transference-based trust) is achieved.
This result is in line with literature in that trust in a relationship is expected to develop
through three stages from calculus-based trust built on the basis of perception of integrity to
knowledge-based trust that forms on the basis of perception of competency and could reach
to transference-based trust based on the perception of benevolence between the parties. Thus,
the level of trust moves from a relatively weak level i.e. calculus-based trust to a stronger one
i.e. knowledge-based trust and to a higher level which could be realised in the supply chain
relationship when the transference-based trust exists and become in the exchange between the
supply chain parties.

5.16 Examination of Trust and Organisational Fit and How to Operationalize Trust across
Supply Chains

There is a fairly general agreement to consider trust a construct Multidimensional (Doney and
Cannon, 1997, Ganesan, 1994, Ganesan and Hess, 1997; McKnight, Choudhury and Kacmar,
2000; Sánchez, Iniesta and Sáez, 1999). In Several papers on the subject (see, for example,
Fernández and Martín, 2006; Flavián and Guinalíu, 2006; Gilliland and Bello, 2002; Hewett,
Money and Sharma, 2002; Roberts, Varki, and Brodie, 2003) appear two basic aspects of
Trust: honesty and benevolence. Honesty refers to the belief that the other party will fulfil
their pro Tables and their obligations. It is believed, therefore, in the sincerity and the
maintenance Of the partner's promises (Doney and Cannon, 1997). This dimension matches
with confidence in the capacity and competence of the company, it is evident that the
company possesses the know-how, the experience Professional expertise that gives him a
mastery in his field. And put them in a position to do their job well Product or service with
199

promised quality (Ganesan, 1994; Mayer, Davis And Schoorman, 1995; San Martín,
Gutiérrez and Camarero, 2000 and 2004; Sirdesh Mukh, Singh and Sabol, 2002).
Benevolence is the belief that the other party is interested in Joint benefits and will not make
decisions or take action (Doney and Cannon, 1997; Raimon, 2000). Therefore, one side cares
about the welfare of the other (Sanzo et al. 2003) and has no intention of carrying out
opportunistic behaviour (Larzelere and Huston, 1980). While credibility corresponds to
confidence in the capacity And the competition of the company, benevolence concerns the
confidence in its Values, goals and intentions, which means that a similarity is recognized
between the parties (a set of values, priorities and Of behavior) and that an image of
seriousness is perceived in the company, Integrity, honesty, sincerity, and a willingness not to
initiate acts that could damage the relationship. Thus, benevolence, by focusing on the
partner's purposes, which includes the qualities, intentions and characteristics attributed to
He, rather than his particular behaviour, while honesty encompasses Consistency, stability
and control over the pattern of behaviour (Ganesan, 1994). Ganesan and Hess (1997) suggest
that, in the initial phases of the relationship, the foundation of trust can only reside in honesty,
and it will be then, with the progress of the relationship, when benevolence can develop Inc.
Along the same lines, Sako and Helper (1998) argue that confidence in professional
competence often leads to trust in goodwill. In this way, consumer confidence In the technical
and professional competence of the company to offer adequate The service required tends to
favour the appearance of a feeling of affection towards it and to take for granted its honesty
and Integrity, both in their motivations and values as in their good intentions.
The trust and trust exchange in the supply chain relationship happens through the perception
of trustworthiness attributes (e.g. honesty, fairness, credibility, confidence, etc.) as indicated
in literature review chapter. In addition, trust in supply chain relationships is determined by
the availability of amount of trustworthiness attributes in the relationships. The perception of
these attributes forming together trust dimensions and the strength of each of these
dimensions is highly dependent on the number of attributes forming each dimension; the
higher the number of attributes available in the relationship the stronger is the formed trust
dimension.
In supply chain management settings, trust brings down the exchange costs in the supply
chain and furnishes organisations with a wellspring of upper hand (Donéy et al. 1998; Barney
and Hansen 1994). Trust encourages long haul connections between organisations (Ganesan
1994); along these lines it is a critical achievement consider long haul vital cooperation
(Gulati 1995) and likewise trust may, for instance, encourage the arrangement of accomplice
200

interests (e.g. Maurer 2010). Moreover, trust upgrades partner fulfilment and backings the
accomplishment of venture objectives (Maurer 2010). Therefore likewise trustworking in
between organisational dealings adds to a more successful usage of procedure, more
prominent administrative co-ordination and more powerful work groups (Donéy et al. 1998;
Aramo-Immonen 2010).
In respect to organisational personality and aggregate activity, trust is a vital issue, since it
bonds together an unpredictable and mindful system, which frames the aggregate mentality
required for solid execution (Cox, 1996; Senge, 1990; Weick and Roberts, 1993). Moreover,
trust is the premise of nimbleness, of adaptability yet it's an unimaginable test to set up trust
and possibly harder to look after it. Consequently, fundamental the test is the subject of how
to organise trust amongst purchaser and provider.
The above quote highlights the trouble of truly understanding the measurements, nature, and
texture of trust in purchaser/provider connections. Trust is both individual and institutional,
and it develops in view of gatherings of shared characteristics among those in the supply
chain. This development is obviously a troublesome development prepare that demands
persistence, clarity of thought and objectives, and a will to succeed. There are elective
methods for conceptualising the trust develop. Riddalls et al., (2002) recommended that trust
requiresclear relevant limits instead of a general definition. In light of that point of view, they
characterise trust as a trade relationship, under states of hazard and association and
additionally is the conviction that a deliberately acknowledged obligation will win
guaranteeing that no gathering misuses alternate's vulnerabilities. Among the vital segments
of this definition is that 'no gathering abuses alternate's vulnerabilities.' To get to this point in
a relationship requires extensive advancement, openness, and trustworthiness i.e. trustworthy
characteristics. Subsequently, requires an introduction toward others and not a self-intrigue
attitude.
Then again, Wicks, Berman, and Jones (1999) impart the accompanying insights on trust:
Firms that over put resources into trust – trust an excessive amount of or put resources into
trusting connections that have little value for the firm – might twist valuable assets and/or go
for broke that could have a generous negative impact on firm execution. In like manner, firms
that under put resources into trust – trust pretty much nothing or don't put resources into
making trusting connections that have critical value for the firm – may pass up a major
opportunity for chances to make cost investment funds or create organisational abilities
imperative for the acknowledgment of firm targets.”

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The above conceptualization has clear ramifications for supply chain administration. This is
so since what amount of trust is an excess of or too small, contingent on the circumstances?
At the point when trust is seen as a “speculation”, it infers some distinct desires of profits or
profits. Is a provider worth putting resources into or is a client truly justified regardless of the
speculation of trust? These are troublesome computations to make, yet they are key to long
haul achievement of any association. However, to counter both overandunderinterest in the
trust, Wicks, et al., (1999) offers the term ideal trust as the trust "existing when one makes
(and keeps up) reasonable economic connections biased by an eagerness to trust. All the more
definitely, ideal trust is a dug in develop, showing that it is resolved in setting and formed by
an assortment of variables, including trustworthiness of the operator, nearby and more
extensive social standards with respect to a trust, and different elements of the important
social structure(s)." Conceptually, this approach powers supply chiefs to truly scrutinise the
value of particular sorts of connections, both inside and remotely. As an expansion of the
ideal trust dialogue, Wicks, et al., (1999) joins the distinctive levels of trust with various
levels of reliance seeing someone. They depict association as an element of how much both
sides are reliant on each other to accomplish their wanted results. The applied connection
amongst relationship and trust gets to be vital from the point of view of asset reliance. Trust
turns into the key component in overseeing interdependencies. Consequently, if supply chain
supervisors imagined their positions as 'chiefs of interdependencies,' significant down to earth
and administrative advantage would come about. Thusly, this calculated point empowers a
proactive and certain attitude in overseeing and encouraging both inner and outer
interdependencies for long haul shared pick up.
Hence, from above discussion, this research operationalizes trust across supply chain as
follows:

Trust exists just when both sides feel that it does i.e. both sides convey to the table
their conventional stuff, mentalities, recognitions and desires. At the point when the
gatherings to the trade procedure have a 'meeting of the brains,' trust will probably
come about. Despite the fact that, providers and buyers see similar wonders from
entirely unexpected perspectives

Treat supply accomplices like they are truly key i.e. that they truly do make a
difference. Supply accomplices ought to be dealt with like expansions of the
purchasing/supplying association. Accomplices ought to carry on in a way that
highlights their common interdependency.
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Share data transparently i.e. put the greater part of the cards on the table. This is so in
light of the fact that vital unions ordinarily oblige associations to put resources into
each other's capacities and to go an additional mile to help each other make larger
amounts of progress and shared trust is indispensable. Along these lines, data sharing
is a very valued scaffold to supply chain achievement. Trust is set up on the premise
of adjusted objectives and appropriate abilities and is bolstered by incessant, genuine
and open correspondence

Doing what one say, he would do constantly. Keeping guarantees is the sine qua non
of trust. A predictable example of keeping guarantees on both sides is completely
essential to the beginning and protecting of genuine trust.

5.5.7 Type of Trust and its Impact on Supply Chain Performance and Organisation
Performance
It is clear from earlier research that more prominent buyer–supplier connections achieve
enhanced execution of both provider and purchaser. For example, supply base lessening has
been found to give numerous advantages including better time-based and cost-based
execution (Russell and Krajewski 1992, Kekre et al. 1995, Bozarth et al. 1998, De Toni and
Nassimbeni 1999, Shin et al. 2000). Also, research has represented that larger amounts of
trust and responsibility apparent in long haul connections enhance the organisations'
execution. Various articles additionally indicate the centrality of correspondence at the end of
waste and moreover in the change of supplier's execution (Krause 1999, Lewis 2000). In
addition, cross-helpful gatherings have been perceived as basic benefactors to the
accomplishment of supplier decision (Burt, 1989) and supply chain execution (Burt and
Doyle 1993, Ellram and Pearson, 1993).Provider inclusion has likewise been found to give
numerous advantages, for example, decreased cost and enhanced nature of obtained
materials, lessened item advancement time, and enhanced access to and use of technology
(Primo and Amundson 2002).
Furthermore, provider execution is a key determinant of a purchasing association's
aggressiveness (Noordewier et al. 1990). Existing literature has additionally exhibited that
provider execution is one of the deciding elements for the organisation's operational
execution (Baxter et al. 1989, Davis 1993). Therefore, Table 5.14 and Table 5.15 present the
after effects of trust and supply chain execution and in addition organisational execution
individually.
Table 5.14: Correlation of Types of Trust and Supply Chain Performance
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Perceived

Perceived

Perceived

Integrity

Competency

Benevolence

(Calculus-based

(knowledge-based

(Transference-

trust)

trust)
.399**

based trust)
.606**

.000
.205**

.000
.408*

.038
.343*

.058
.755**

.000
Information sharing

.035
.957**

Return on investment .209*

.588**

.032
.741**

(ROI)
Lead time

.000

Bullwhip effect
Cost saving perspective

.209**
.035

Risk

.035
.205*

.185
.546*

.038
.000
Significance at 5% level indicated by *, at 1% level by **
The correlation scenario exhibited in Table 5.14 highlights the obvious impact of trust sorts
on supply chain execution. In particular, it demonstrates that trust impact supply chains
execution of the respondents to the study. Besides, particularly it can be seen that bullwhip
effect, cost saving perspective, risk, information sharing, return on investment (ROI) and lead
time all have a positive effect on various types of trust. Additionally, Perceived Benevolence
(Transference-based trust) posted the highest correlation with supply chains performance
measures, while with a correlation of 0.957** (.032) between Perceived Benevolence
(Transference-based trust) and information sharing posted the highest correlation. Finally, it
could be seen that Perceived Benevolence (Transference-based trust) has the most prominent
impact on supply chain performance. Similarly, correlation analysis was also run on types of
trust and organisational performance so as to determine the type of trust that has the most
effect on organisational performance.
Table 5.15: Correlation of Type of Trust and Organisational Performance
Perceived

Perceived

Perceived

Integrity

Competency

Benevolence

(Calculus-

(knowledge-

(Transference-based

based trust)

based trust)

trust)

204

Increase in Market share
Growth

.659**

Profitability

.237**

.240**

.044
.545**

.015

Productivity

.017
.288**

Cost saving

.003
.256**

Customer loyalty

.009
.287**

.865**
.025

.003

.061
.215*
.030
.984**
.031
.362**

Employee satisfaction

.765**

.091
.784**

Quality

.027
. 272 **

.030
.458**

. 110
.515**

.074
.810**

.065
.399*

.024
.634**

Performance

relative

competitor
Overall business success

to
.239**

.015
.003
.009
Significance at 5% level indicated by *, at 1% level by **
The result in Table 5.15 shows that out of a 3 by 10 matrix of correlations; there were twenty
significant correlations. For instance, Perceived Benevolence (Transference-based trust)
positively correlated with growth. Equally, the three types of trust of Perceived Integrity
(Calculus-based trust), Perceived Competency (knowledge-based trust) and Perceived
Benevolence (Transference-based trust) all correlated with profitability, cost saving and
overall business success. Furthermore, Perceived Competency (knowledge-based trust) and
Perceived Benevolence (Transference-based trust) correlated with Employee satisfaction,
quality and performance relative to a competitor. Hence, the result revealed that as trust
among supply chains partners increases so also organisational performance measures
improve. Finally, it could be seen from the table that perceived Benevolence (Transferencebased trust) have a positive relationship among all except Increase in Market share and
organisational performance attributes or measures. Therefore, this result shows that increase
in the level of trust is related to better organisational performance and thus, perceived
Benevolence (Transference-based trust) has the most prominent impact on organisation
performance.

205

This result is in line with literature in that existing literature revealed that while trust comes in
various forms such as Perceived Integrity (Calculus-based trust), Perceived Competency
(knowledge-based trust) and Perceived Benevolence (Transference-based trust), it is the
Perceived Benevolence (Transference-based trust) trust that significantly affect buyer–
supplier connections and, thus, supply chain execution and organisational execution (Costa,
2003). For example, Hill (1990) kept up that in spite of the hypothesis of exchange cost
economics (TCE) that advantage, by and large, portrays trade, connections in light of
collaboration and trust will probably get by in the commercial centre. Subsequently, it is
contended that the presumption that advantage portrays trade must be re-evaluated for one
that recommends that trust describes trade (Zaheer and Venkatraman 1995). In particular,
while lawful contracts are seen as the essential means for defending exchanges in Western
economics, elective means, for example, social trust has shown to be a proficient
administration component that lessens exchange costs by minimising look, contracting,
observing and implementation costs over the long haul (Dyaer 1997). Moreover, an abnormal
state of between organisational trust (i.e. Seen Benevolence or transference-based trust) is
observed to be identified with upgraded provider execution, brought down expenses of the
transaction and lessened clash (Zaheer et al. 1998).

5.5.8 Regression of Research Constructs

Multiple regression analysis gives a simple strategy to analysing connections between a few

factors. Likewise, it is a standout amongst the most broadly utilisedstatistical instruments for
breaking down information made out of a few variables. Regression examination is among
the multivariate factual methods used to test connections between a solitary ward and an
arrangement of autonomous factors. It is not quite the same as correlation examination in that
it gives count and explanation among research factors, thus helping supervisors in settling on
choices concerning the factors that influence their exercises the most. Besides, there are three
fundamental sorts of multiple regression investigations; these are standard regression,
Simple/stepwise and various levelled regression. The key contrast between these regression
investigation methodologies is in the way of determining the passage of the factors in the
regression condition. On account of the standard regression, all the autonomous factors are
gone into the condition simultaneously. For the straightforward regression display, the
researcher stipulates the strategy for a section of factors into the regression show. For the
straightforward regression method, the researcher gives the product an arrangement of

206

autonomous factors and the product decide the grouping of entering the factors. For the
progressive regression, the examiner physically enters the factors into the regression. For the
most part, the example of entering the factors is subject to the hypothetical conceptualisation
of the issue. Thusly, the principle distinction amongst basic and various levelled regression is
that in the previous, the example of contributing the factors is subject to the correlations
between the factors, which as a result blueprints the quality of the factors and it is the quality
of the variable that characterises the section into the regression examination. Therefore, a
variable with a high correlation coefficient will enter, to begin with, before factors with a
lower correlation. Then again, in progressive regression, the method for passage of the factors
into the regressions investigation is subject to the model and section into the regression is
done physically, while in the basic regression the passage into the regression is refined by the
product consequently.”
Furthermore, the essential method of regression investigation includes figuring a model of a
gauge of the proposed relationship in an example of information. In consequence of
regression investigation, three things are the most critical and they are:

The model summary

The table of coefficients and

The table of ANOVA

The fit of the model to the data is evaluated using summary statistics such as t, F and R2.
These variables are defined as follows:
β = is the slope of the regression line that estimates the data
t = is the t-test that is done to measure the difference between the variables in the
research.
F = F-statistics measures of the ratio of the least squares of the numerator to the least
square of the denominator.
R2 = the percentage of variability which is explained by the regression equation.
However, prior to undertaking multiple regression analysis,there are various suppositions and
measures that should be met. Thus, as a component of the state of different relapse
examination, there is the requirement for the factors to be of ordinary appropriation and there
ought to be no multicollinearity among the factors. Multicollinearity is the circumstance in
which there is a high connection between the factors in the relapse show. The test for
typicality embraced before in segment 5.5 demonstrates no considerable takeoff from
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ordinariness by the factors. Sako (2007) contended that in detailing methodologies for
building the trustful supply chain, there is the requirement for administration to comprehend
the components and interdependencies among the factors that empower and obstruct the
accomplishment of trust inside the supply chain. Subsequently, relapse investigation of the
principle factors was completed in order to decide the way of connections between the length
of association with the significant provider (which is the needy factors for this situation) and
the autonomous factors, which are supply chain execution and authoritative execution.
Hence, sample results of the regression analysis are reported in Tables 5.16 and 5.17.
Prior to carrying out the regression investigation, the correlation framework of the
autonomous factors was confirmed. The after effects of the correlation coefficients between
the arrangements of factors were all low, being under 0.5. In this way, multicollinearity is not
an issue in the regression examination. Various researchers have made proposition as to
multicollinearity. For example, Tabachnick and Fidell (2007) set forward that for correlation
with coefficients under 0.7 there is no issue of multicollinearity in the regression
investigation. They state facilitate that multicollinearity turns into an issue when there is a
correlation in the district of 0.7 to 0.9 between the factors. In addition, it has been presented
that a more grounded pointer of multicollinearity is high values of R 2 consolidated with
measurably unimportant coefficients when all the free factors are relapsed against each other
(Flynn and Flynn, 2004). Subsequently, the two free factors of supply chain execution and
organisational execution were relapsed against each other. The consequence of the regression
investigation appeared as takes after: R2 = 0.338, F statistics = 8.082 (0. 013), β = .245, t =
2.761 (0.013) all being significant at the 5% level shows that there is no multicollinearity in
the data. As a result, the results of the regression analysis shown in Tables 5.16 and 5.17
supports the nonexistence of multicollinearity as none of the conditions stated by Flynn and
Flynn (2004) are satisfied.
Like the models in Tables 5.16 and 5.17 shows, there are hypothesised relationships between
the lengths of relationship with the major supplier and organisational trust gives one’s
organisation a competitive advantage on the supply chain performance as well as the
performance of organisations. Therefore, multiple regression analysis used to verify the
model. The model is based on the evidence that lengths of relationship with a major supplier
are an exogenous variable which impact on the performance of organisations, with trust being
an interceding variable that follows up on the causal stream between the exogenous variable
on the execution of associations. Hence, straightforward regression was performed to test the
connections in the model.
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The first model, shown in table 5.16, is the regression analysis of lengths of relationship with
the major supplier and supply chain performance, while Table 5.17 is the regression model of
the lengths of relationship with major supplier and organisation performance. Table 5.16
shows that the characteristics of the regression model are as follows: R 2 = 0.438, while the F
change is significant at the 1% level. Likewise, regression analysis of lengths of relationship
with major supplier and organisation performance was assumed with the outcome of the
analysis presented in table 5.17. Table 5.17 shows that the R-squared is 0.294; this means that
lengths of relationship with major supplier account for 29.4 percent of changes in
organisational performance. Whereas as table 5.16 shows lengths of relationship with major
supplier explains 43.8 percent variation in supply chains performance.
Table 5.16: Model Summary for length of relationship with major supplier and supply
chain performance
Change Statistics
R Square

F

Sig. F

Model
R
R Square Change Change
df1
df2
Change
a
1
.661
.438
.402
12.318
1
101
.000
a. Predictors: (Constant), lead time, bullwhip effect, information sharing, risk, cost
saving perspective, ROI b. Dependent Variable: length of relationship with major
supplier
Table 5.17: Model Summary for length of relationship with major supplier and
organisational performance
Change Statistics
R Square

F

Sig. F

Model
R
R Square Change Change
df1
df2
Change
1
.542a
.294
.208 3.412 .
11
90
. 001
a. Predictors: (Constant), overall business success, cost saving, employee satisfaction, an
increase in market share, turnover, profitability, customer’s loyalty, performance relative to a
competitor, quality, productivity, growth
b. Dependent Variable: length of relationship with major supplier
The synthesis of the literature demonstrated that the trust happens in the supply chain
connections in consent to the desire of every gathering's conduct. Consequently, the potential
outcomes of trust trade in supply chain relationship boost with the length of the relationship
and the picked up experience of about each other. This suggestion is guaranteed on the

209

premise that as providers and clients acquire involvement with each other through continuous
connections, they turn out to be more averse to utilise formal measures in understandings
(Gulati, 1995). Lately, Rinehart et al. (2004) relate this improvement is seeing someone trust
advancement between the gatherings; trust creates when solid advantages appear to both sides
from the business relationship. Thus, trust level ends up increasing with length of supply
chain relationship when get traded in the connections.
5.6 Summary

This section reported the outcomes of a study by a questionnaire completed to answer
research questions on the drivers and inhibitors of trust on supply chains partnership as well
as supply chain performance and organisational performance in Nigerian oil and gas sector.
Prior to inferential statistic, various normality tests were carried out to determine the
normality of the responses from the respondents. Accordingly, the various tests confirmed
that the responses pass normality test and hence, the inferential statistic can be performed on
the data.

In light of the observational confirmation, there were various notion of

organisational trust within the oil and gas supply chain settings and that organisation enter
into trusting relationships with their supply chain partners for different reasons. Also, the
drivers of trust were seen to have positive significant relationships with organisational
performance measures within and across organisations in the oil and gas sector. Furthermore,
inhibitors of trust were also correlated with supply chain partnerships and the result showed
that there was a positive correlation. Moreover, and consistent with existing literature, the
results of the empirical study support the link between types of trust, partnerships and
organisations vis-à-vis their relationships. This means that organisations establish trust among
supply chains partners in order to improve professional performance as well as competitive
advantage. It was indicated by the correlation between types of trust with partnerships and
organisational performance measures.
Furthermore, the result from this study determined the relative impacts of trust on supply
chain performance as well as organisational performance. Also, these were shown by the
correlation between types of trust and supply chain performance as well as organisational
performance. Though; previous studies displayed relationships between supply chain and
organisational performance, this study endeavoured to demonstrate the impact of the drivers
and inhibitors of trust on supply chains partnership as well as supply chain performance and
organisational performance in Nigerian oil and gas sector. Consequently, the difference
supported here is that the study has proposed a clear link between trust and its impacts on
supply chain performance and organisational performance, in a way that the managers can be
210

directed in making choice of a planned competitive effect based on the performance of supply
chains partners. The next chapter is chapter six which provides a summary, conclusion and
recommendations of this research.

211

CHAPTER 6
Conclusion
6.1 Introduction

The supply chain relationships in oil and gas sector in Nigeria were analysed in the previous
chapter of this thesis for the level of trust in the supply chain relationships and to explore the
enablers/inhibitors of trust on supply chain relationships as well as the effect of trust on the
supply chain performance and the organisation performance. This chapter opens by are
statement of the research aims and objectives, research methodology and key tasks
undertaken. After which, the chapter proceeds to provide conclusions and discuss the
conclusions in the context of the literature. Additionally, by a method for the conclusion,
research questions and the justification for their approval and acknowledgement are rehashed.
Then, it highlights the research contributions both theoretically and practically as well as
counts the limitations of the research. After that, recommendation and suggestion for future
research in the domain of supply chain management was carried out. Finally, the chapter ends
with a summary.
6.2 An Overview of the Research

The main aim of this research is to investigate drivers and inhibitors of trust on supply chains
partnerships in the Nigerian oil and gas industry. Additionally, the research recommended
examining the impact of trust on supply chains performance and organisational performance.
Five elements of trust and supply chains relationships were discussed in this thesis and the
includes notion of organisational trust within the oil and gas supply chain settings, enablers of
trust within and across organisational boundaries, inhibitors (risk) of trust in supply chain
partnerships, types of trust, partnerships and organisations and type of trust that has the most
prominent impact on supply chain performance and organisation performance. The research
is different from previous studies as it determines the enablers/inhibitors of trust on supply
chains relationships by linking up observational connections amongst trust and supply chains
attributes and additionally organisational execution.
An extensive literature review was carried out so as to trace the development of trust and
supply chain management. In the literature, trust is said to be the foundation of strategic
relationships (Spekman, 1988) and trust in supply chain relationships was defined by Sako
(1992) as a perspective with respect to a desire held by one exchanging accomplice (trustor)
about another (trustee) that the last will carry on in a specific and commonly worthy way.
Accordingly, Sako in this definition points to the initiation of the trust relationship between
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the parties, and she clarifies this initiation in the form of expectations held by one party about
another. Hence, the trust exists in the relationship between the parties based on estimated and
predictable behaviour and the planned outcome from the relationship. To this extent Sabel
(1993) pointed out that trust is the shared confidence that no party to an exchange will take
advantage of another's vulnerability. As a result, trust ensures the security of each party based
on moral principles and through the expectation that the other party will obey to such
principles. Furthermore, trust in relationships according to O'Brien (2001), is conceptualised
as a renewable asset that includes power, simplicity and flexibility). This point out the regainability characteristic of trust and recognises that mutual trust in a relationship is an individual
value. Similarly, Tomkins (2001) posited that trust could be offered by one and rejected by
the other relying upon the way of the relationship and one or both sides' desires. In this way,
not all connections between gatherings are trustedconnections, and for gatherings to develop
a trust relationship, then, both sides need to see trust of each other. In terms of trust
development, the literature revealed that that trust evolves over time through frequent
interactions between parties in a relationship. Hence, Lewicki and Bunker (1996) proposed
three phases of trust improvement which are analytics based trust, information based trust,
and recognisable proof or transference-based trust. Ford et al. (1998) fight that there are four
phases of relationship advancement where trust culture improvement gets to be conceivable
(Lewicki et al., 1998). However, it is argued in the literature that the stages of trust
development proposed by Lewicki and Bunker appear to be more suitable to distinguish trust
improvement between the parties in a supply chain relationship.”
Moreover, the literature also shows that the supply chain started as supply channels in the
form of a loosely linked group of independent businesses, denoted as the traditional supply
chain. The traditional supply chain is mainly for protection, and it was established as a pushbased supply chain strategy in which production and distribution are based on long-term
forecast (Sochi-Levi et al., 2003). Thus, it is based on establishing long-term relationships
with vendors, distributors and retailers with high inventory, long lead time and fixed margins.
The long-term projection of production and distribution require market stability, bring about
by high market certainty.

In this day and age and owed to continuous technology development and market research and

innovations, change has occurred in the market, and the market has become volatile,
characterised by an extraordinary increase in market instability and high market uncertainty;
consequently, it becomes difficult to rely on long-term forecasts. Since this strategy is
embedded in the traditional supply chain, it becomes obvious that this type of supply chain
213

lacks the mechanism to cope with the fast market environment and the literature indicates that
the isolation of suppliers and other entities in the traditional supply chain is regarded as
constraining business growth and competitiveness. As a consequence, to improve
competitiveness, organisations began to realise that more collaborative relationships between
supplier and the other supply chain entities are important. This consequently, led
organisations to realise the importance of supply chain management integration, and
integration of supply chain management came to be recognised as a core competitive strategy
(Ee, 2001). This form of supply chain according to Bowersox and Gloss (1996) implies that
the organisations in the supply chain, in order to improve supply chain performance, pledge
cooperation with other organisations in their supply chain.”
The literature on enablers of trust in supply chains setting maintains that trustworthiness
attributes are the enablers/drivers of trust in supply chains relationships. A number of
researchers have characterisedattributes that prompt to the development of trustworthiness in
the supply chain or business relationship. While inhibitors of trust in supply chains
partnerships as revealed in the literature include Customisation, globalisation, genetically
Modified Products (GMPs), greening the supply chain and bureaucracy.”
Furthermore, three types of trust exist in supply chains partnerships which are Perceived
integrity (Calculus-based trust), Perceived Competency (Knowledge-based trust) and
Perceived benevolence (Transference based Trust). Calculus-based trust creates with respect
to a premise of sensible figuring of the conceivable favourable circumstances and weaknesses
anticipated from the relationship. This sensible figuring, as per Luhmann (1988), prompts to
trust if the favourable position one looks for looks more noteworthy than the conceivable
focal points. In connection to this kind of trust improvement, Morgan and Hunt (1994) clarify
that trust creates and gets to be built up in a relationship when one gathering has trust in a
trade accomplice's genuineness. Subsequently, saw respectability is the measurement that
prompts to the main phase of trust improvement. Consequently, parties in calculus-based trust
take part in a trust relationship in view of the notoriety of the trustee through the gathering's
openness and genuineness that structures potentially for building up a reliance relationship
between the gatherings (Agarwal and Shanker, 2003). The second sort of trust is learning
based trust, and Gulati (1995) contended that the impression of the unwavering quality and
consistency of a gathering amid this stage relies on upon earlier contact with this gathering or
experience through regular communication. The advancement of this phase of trust in a
relationship depends on data as opposed to deterrence (Lewicki and Bunker, 1996).
Moreover, in this phase of trust, data sharing among the groups happens through formal and
214

casual interchanges. Formal correspondence takes more readiness and execution to catch
input, and it is justified regardless of the exertion, in any case, casual correspondence helps in
rolling out improvements and tending to issues speedier and manageable (Beslin and Reddin,
2004).
Finally, the literature review supply chains performance and organisational performance. The
driving force for many developments in supply chain management is the view of first-class
performance (Burman, 1995; Cullen et al., 1999). This is so because competition drives
organisations to look for and deploy new competitive advantages and because competition
continues to be a characteristic of business and markets, developing new competitive
advantages in business seems to be a never-ending task. Nowadays, organisations that wish to
stay competitive in an aggressively competitive market environment seek to improve
efficiency through adjustment in supply chain operations. Supply chain efficiency
improvement results in higher performance in the form of decreased operations cost,
contributing to decreasing production cost (Yue et al., 2004). As regards high supply chain
performance in the form of decreased operations cost, Chauhan and Proth (2005) support
Yue's view that it contributes to decreased production cost. Subsequently, this improves the
organisation's profitability and surely is a great contribution to the organisation's business
existence. Therefore, improving supply chain performance is of economic value to supply
chain parties. The literature review also includes discussion of supply chain performance
measures because supply chain performance can be greatly impacted by the physical and
material flows, supply chain management practices, supply chain parties' relationships,
organisation, and information needed to make decisions and support leading practices (Hoole,
2005). Therefore, this research considers the following supply chains performance measures
which are Inventory (Bullwhip effect), cost saving, risk, information sharing, return on
Investment (ROI) and lead time.
Moreover, improvement in organisation performance has a significant effect on the
organisation's economy, and it is a determinant of its economic health (Dixon et al., 1990).
Examination of trust between supply chain parties and impact on organisation performance is
one of the main objectives of this research, as shown in the research aims and objectives of
this thesis. Organisation performance is the umbrella of the entire organisation activities. The
supply chain and its performance, which discussed above, is part of the whole organisation
activities. Consequently, the literature revealed that organisation performance is of
competitive advantage to the organisation's business. This is so because it acts as a measure
of organisation efforts and it indicates the extent of success in achieving the organisation's
215

goals and objectives. he literature indicates that organisations with morbid economy
represented by low performance and are certainly expected to face more problems in a market
with a highly competitive environment than organisations in the same market with higher
performance. In this context, certain measures were selected in the light of the reviewed
literature to serve as organisational performance measures, and they include: Increase in
market share, growth, profitability, productivity, cost saving, customer’s loyalty, employee
satisfaction, quality, turnover, performance relative to competitor and overall business
success. This justification of which was given in the literature reviewed.
Additionally, oil and gas industry supply chains were, likewise, examined. Oil and gas

industry is included in a worldwide supply chain that incorporates national and international
transportation, stock permeability and control, requesting, materials handling, and
import/send out assistance and data technology. Subsequently, the industry offers an
exemplary model for executing trust on supply chain connections . As per Chima (2007), in a

supply chain, an organisation is connected to its upstream providers and downstream
wholesalers as materials, data, and capital course through the supply chain. The oil industry is
comprehensively isolated into three sections: “upstream”, “midstream”, and “downstream”.

The upstream includes investigation and generation; the midstream is the dissemination

system, comprising of tankers and pipelines that convey unrefined petroleum to refineries.
And the downstream part incorporates refining, advertising and retail dispersion, through fuel
stations and comfort stores (Schweitzer, 2011).

This research received quantitative research strategy in information accumulation and
examination. Overview by poll was utilised to gather essential information from CEOs of oil
and gas organisations in Nigeria. SPSS 22 was utilised as help as a part of information
investigation. A theoretical model was proposed comprising of five develops to be specific,
drivers of trust, inhibitors of trust, and sorts of trust, supply chain execution measures and
organisational execution. The outline of the reasonable model is that trust qualities execution
is fundamental for supply chain and organisational exhibitions. In view of this, “six research
inquiries” were proposed in order to test the validity of connections indicated in the
reasonable structure.
To test the effect of trust on supply chains execution and organisational execution, an
overview by poll was embraced. The aggregate number of survey controlled was 200of which
110 was gotten back. Reacting organisations are chosen randomly from an extensive variety
of ventures, the examination and consequences of which were utilised as a reason for making
deductions and achieving conclusions. The survey collected data from companies on their
216

notion of trust in oil and gas companies, enablers/inhibitors of trust in supply chain
relationships, types of trust, partnerships and organisations in terms of their relationships as
well as types of trust and their impacts on supply chains performance and organisational
performance. Prior to statistical analysis, the responses were checked through various
normality tests and the results confirm that the data distribution is normal. Moreover, the
overview comes about approved every one of the parts of the five research questions, and
additionally, parts of focal contention received in the theoretical model. The study comes
about affirmed that an oil and gas companies entered into trusting relationships based on
different supply chains notions. Similarly, a significant relationship between the variables of
the research was evident. The analysis revealed that perceived benevolence (Transferencebased trust) has the most prominent impact on supply chain performance and organisational
performance.
6.3 Conclusions

This section aims to provide conclusions on the basis of the research questions and findings.
The research questions formulated so as to achieve the research aim and objectives as well as
findings generated through the results of the quantitative analyses supported by the factual
evidence maintained from responding organisations and its supply chain parties are used in
conclusions. However, as stated in section 6.1, the research questions and findings were used
in conclusions as follows
6.3.1 Research Question one: What are the notions of organisational trust within the oil and
gas supply chain settings?
This question was proposed to determine the various ways oil and gas companies view trust
in supply chains settings. The result of the correlation between notions of organisational trust
on supply chains settings shows that there is appositive relationship at desire to reduce cost,
desire to enhance profit, desire to achieve competitive advantage, desire to improve
organisational performance, desire to increase market share, desire to increase productivity
and desire to increase sale turnover. Similarly, desire to strengthen partnership is strongly
correlated with all the variables, thus shows how the partnership is important in supply chain
relationships. Literature revealed that the notions of trust are a complex one as trust
definitions can be classified based on their focus in supply chain settings. Additionally, in
supply chain management frameworks, confidence in the relationship is a component of
supportability. Both individual trust and system-based institutional trust are required in the
supply setting as individual trust is a base for purposeful duty. However, it is helpless and

217

reliant on individual on-screen characters. System based trust is established in unsurprising
execution procedures, contracts and institutional,organisational conduct (Walker and
Hampson, 2003).
6.3.2 What are the enablers of trust within and across organisational boundaries?
The question was asked so as to determine the drivers of trust within and across
organisational boundaries. This is so because literature revealed that the key drivers notifying
supply chain relationship are the trust among all parties (Akintoye et al., 2000). Additionally,
trust leads to other factors such as integrity, competence, benevolence, reduce the level of
risk, information sharing, honesty, commitment, credibility, expertise, reliability, good
intention, ability, consistency, predictability and fairness. These further factors are the trust
attributes; hence, the trust enablers. Organisations must be watchful so as to improve these
empowering influences of trust as it can take assets from different parts of the supply chain
(and dangers) to build up this. Thus, they should be mindful so as not to over or under put
resources into creating trust. The value of the particular relationship should first be clarified
with the goal that it can be resolved what exertion will be advanced in building up this trust.
Moreover, these attributes were correlated with supply chain measures, and a number of
positive relationships were observed. This shows that oil and gas companies adopting these
drivers or enablers of trust within their organisation improve or increase their performance.
Similarly, the enablers of trust were correlated with organisational performance and result
revealed that enablers of trust in supply chains adoption bring about improvement in
organisational performance.
6.3.3 What are the inhibitors (risk) of trust in supply chain partnerships?
It is revealed in literature that there is both vulnerability and reliance in a supply chain
relationship and there must be an understood assertion not to misuse the accomplice's
vulnerabilities. This takes advancement, genuineness and openness to be effective. Thus,
some factors tend to inhibits trust in supply chain partnerships and this question brings out
the various inhibitors of trust so that oil and gas companies can be aware of and contributes to
the body of knowledge. For this study, the inhibitors of trust considered to affect supply
chains partnerships are Customisation, globalisation, genetically Modified Foods (GMFs),
greening the supply chain and bureaucracy. These were correlated with supply chain
partnerships of supplier, intermediaries and customers. The result shows that there were
positive significant relationships among the variables. Thus, goes to say that oil and gas
companies need to improvise ways into controlling these inhibitors of trust in supply chains
218

partnerships. This is so because literature revealed that growing need for better execution in
angles like cost diminishment and item advancement drives organisations to concentrates on
supply chain accomplices and supply mix (Flynn, Huo, and Zhao, 2010; Sheth and Sharma,
2006). Besides, Mentzer, Myers and Stank (2007) demonstrated that the up and coming era of
the upper hand might originate from viable associations with supply chain accomplices when
firms understand that joint business connections enhance their capacity to react to new
business situations. This happens by permitting them to concentrate on their central business
and to diminish costs in business forms. Consequently, in conclusion, firms need to control
the effects of inhibitors of trust on supply chain partnerships.
6.3.4 What are the types of trust, partnerships and organisations vis-à-vis their relationships?
In order to answer this question, a correlation analysis between types of trust and partnerships
as well as between types of trust and organisational performance was carried out. The result
demonstrates that there is appositive relationship between types of trust and partnerships as
well as types of trust and organisational performance. Thus, the result shows that supply
chain in oil and gas industry requires a high level of trust to exist among supply chain
partnerships especially trust between organisations and customers. Similarly, this result
shows that the level of trust moves from a relatively weak level i.e. calculus-based trust to a
stronger one i.e. knowledge-based trust and to a higher level which could be realised in the
supply chain relationship when the transference-based trust exists and become in the
exchange between the supply chain parties.
From the foregoing, the conclusion that can be drawn is that it is importance for supply
chains partners to show' willingness in developing the trust. Furthermore, this conclusion
makes the parties aware that the trust level does not necessarily move to a higher one, but it
can either move to a lower level or get eliminated from the relationship. Consequently, the
parties to get their trust relationship moves to a stronger level the existence of trust in the
relationship needs to be justified and assessed in the form of contributions that each of them
shows toward the objective of the trust existence and exchange.
The result of this study also provides a realistic view to the supply chain parties in
understanding the behaviour of trust building process in the supply chain relationship. It
shows that when the objective of trust become often realised by the supply chain parties, then
this represents reasons to the parties to exchange higher trust in the relationship. Hence, this
provides thorough insight about the future of the trust in the supply chain relationship and the
expected level of trust based on the outcome of the trust relationship between the supply

219

chain parties. Therefore, the trust adaptation in the supply chain has to be counted on the
advantages of this trust in the relationship through the benefits gained from this relationship
and the disadvantages caused by it. This conclusion provides a highlight to the supply chain
parties and assists them in the process of predicting the next level of trust and the behaviour
of the advancement of trust level expected in the supply chain relationship.
6.3.5 How to operationalize trust across supply chains?
In the literature, trust is conceptualised in different ways by different authors. This is so
because relative to organisational attention and co-operative action, trust is an imperative
issue since it bonds together an intricate and mindful system, which frames the aggregate
mentality required for reliable performance (Cox, 1996; Senge, 1990; Weick and Roberts,
1993). Additionally, trust is the premise of dexterity, of adaptability yet it's a staggering test
to set up trust and perhaps harder to look after it. Consequently, fundamental the test is the
subject of how to standardise trust amongst purchaser and provider? To answer this question,
the work of Wicks, et al., (1999) was put into perspective. The researchers bond the diverse
levels of trust with various levels of reliance seeing someone. In addition, they portray
relationship as a component of how much both sides are reliant on each other to accomplish
their sought results. The calculated connection amongst association and trust gets to be
essential from the perspective of asset reliance. In this manner, trust turns into the key
component in overseeing interdependencies. Thus, if store network administrators expected
their positions as “supervisors of interdependencies,” impressive down to earth and
administrative advantage would come about. Hence, this study operationalize trust in supply
chains settings as follows among others:

Trust exists only when both sides feels positive about its existence. When the parties
areintending to do business with trust “meeting of the minds,” it is more likely to
result. Despite the facts that both suppliers and purchasers may have a different point
of views regarding profits in business.

Treating partners in a good manner are very crucial. Supply accomplices must be
dealt with like augmentations of the purchasing/providing association. Accomplices
ought to act in a way that highlights their shared interdependency.

6.3.6 What the type of trust has the most prominent impact on supply chain performance and
organisation performance?
This question clarifies the relationship between trust development and performance
improvement and allows the supply chain parties to have firm confidence on the significance
220

of exchanging trust to realise higher supply chain performance and organisation performance.
To answer this question, correlation analysis was run between types of trust and supply chain
performance as well as types of trust and organisational performance. The result revealed that
transference-based trust is the type of trust that has the most impact on supply chains and
organisational performances. Therefore, the study concludes that the supply chain parties
need to see the importance of the transference-based trust. As proved by this study, if the
parties are in this level of trust in their supply chain relationship then they work in the supply
chain together as one team responsible for the success and distinguishing the output of the
supply chain. Attainment of the transference-based trust in the supply chain relationship
implies an exchange of benevolence and ability to predict each party future action. It allows
the parties to become an agent for each other and complement the role of each other. This
conclusion suggests that the trust level when it is at this level then the transference of
responsibility in the supply chain process become more likely, which makes each party
responsible for the success of the chain and become motivated by the feeling of responsibility
to work harder towards the achievement of the chain goals and objectives. Consequently, this
conclusion determines to the supply chain parties the target level of trust they need to realise
in the supply chain relationship to gain more competitive advantages of the supply chain
performance.
6.4 Contributions of the Research

This study widely looks at the issue of trust in supply chain relationships. It brings about a
significant contribution to the development of the supply chain knowledge in terms of the
type of industry and territory as well as trust in supply chain relationships and impact on
supply chain performance and organisation performance. Hence, to maintain a better
understanding of the relationship between trust and performance, the research considered
trust in a triadic fashion. This section outlines the research theoretical contributions and
practical contributions. However, the theoretical and practical contributions were carried out
on the basis of the research findings.
6.4.1 Theoretical Contributions
The theoretical contributions of the research represent contributions to the development of the
supply chain theory. Thus, these theoretical contributions include:
i.

Trust has been found to have a motivating effect on the length of the supply chain
relationship as well as trust building process in the supply chain relationships within
the oil and gas sector of Nigeria.

221

ii.

The preparedness of the supply chain parties has been found to have the major role in
developing the trust in the supply chain relationships

iii.

The interpersonal exchange between supply chain parties has been found possible in
the absence of party's reputation, but the reputation of the party has been found to be a
pre-condition to exchange trust in the supply chain relationship among the supply
chain parties.

iv.

Trust in supply chain relationship is found to have appositive impact on supply chain
performance and organisational performance.

v.

Improvements in the supply chain performance, as well as the organisational
performance, happen in agreement with trust development in the supply chain
relationships.

vi.

Perceived benevolence (transference-based) trust is found to have the most significant
role in the improvement of the supply chain performance and organisational
performance.

vii.

Enablers/drivers of trust within and across organisational boundaries are found to be
positively related to organisational performance measures. The factors of trust
discovered in this exploration were in line with those accessible in the literature

viii.

Inhibitors of trust are found to be related to supply chains partnerships. Hence,
inhibitors of trust discovered in this research will increase the strength and quality of
inquiry in oil and gas industry in the literature in general and Nigeria in particular.

ix.

Bullwhip effect occurrence in the supply chain and the trust development in the
supply chain relationships are found to have relative behaviour. That is to say, the
bullwhip effect occurrence decreases with the trust development in the supply chain
relationships.

x.

The possibility of predicting the next level of trust in the supply chain relationships
has been found to be influenced by the level of performance achieved through the
supply chain relationship in relation to the parties' expectations. This is so because it
has been identified that the frequent fulfilment of the relationship objective motivates
the parties to develop a willingness to exchange trust. Hence, the trust level in the
supply chain relationship moves to a higher or lower level or remains at the same
level based on the achievement realised through the trust relationship that constitutes
the parties' readiness to develop the trust in the relationship.

xi.

Finally, this study provided judgment through evidence on whether trust in supply
chain relationship is a source of risk or not. As a consequence, it has been found that
222

the trust in the supply chain relationship minimises risk in supply chains and its
conceptualisation as a source of risk has been discarded on the basis of the research
empirical evidence.
6.4.2 Practical Contributions
The practical contributions provided in this section are based on the research findings that are
stated in the previous section and related to the impact of trust in supply chain relationships
on supply chain performance and organisation performance. These implications are presented
in this section in the form of managerial guidelines. Thus, these contributions include:
i.

Oil and gas sector should adopt trust to improve organisation performance and supply
chain performance.

ii.

Companies in oil and gas should realise the importance of the party's reputation in the
trust building process and adhere to achievement of high reputation in the market so
as to attain high trust in the trust building process

iii.

Oil and gas companies have to consider the calculus-based trust activities as a period
for developing knowledge about the party that they want to develop trust with. This
allows that parties to avoid the occurrence of trust violation and helps the parties to
forecast the benefit from the relationship.

iv.

For supply chain parties to increase the level of information sharing and reach to
transparency, they should exert extra trust in the relationship and assess previous trust
relationship based on the achievement of the organisation performance and the supply
chain performance and expected the outcome of the trusting relationship.

v.

Through trust relationship, supply chain parties can minimise risk in the supply chain
by debating the need for clear understanding about the predicted or expected threats
and work through trust relationship as one team responsible for the level of the supply
chain performance with regards to the predicted or expected risk.

vi.

Supply chain parties in managing the supply chain should bear in mind the drivers or
enablers of trust in supply chain relationships as it has an effect on organisation
performance and supply chain performance and, hence, efforts should be concentrated
on strengthening the trust relationship to reach to better performances.

vii.

Supply chain parties should be worried about the inhibitors (risk) of trust on supply
chains partnerships. Also, these factors should be taken into consideration because
they significantly influence the supply chain performance.

223

viii.

Oil and gas companies are often concerned about huge projects and profits. Therefore,
any negative deviation by any of the supply chain parties is expected to lead to
massive amount of cost and possible deterioration in the supply chain performance.
Also, within market crystallisation period and the tendency to build supply chain
partnerships or relationships based on the exchange of beneficial priorities, the supply
chain parties have to consider trust in the supply chain relationship in order to face
this difficulty.

ix.

The global market is usually faced with a shortage of resources and fluctuation price;
hence the supply chain will be readily affected. Therefore, it is suggested that the
supply chain parties have to adopt a stronger level of trust in their supply chain
relationship or partnerships to gain priorities of resources in the supply chain process
and to plan requirement during the period of crises so as to overcome any forecasted
market recession and fluctuation in price.

x.

Transference-based trust is the major type of trust in the supply chain partnerships that
has the main influence on the supply chain performance as well as the organisation
performance and thus, for the supply chain parties to gain optimum outcome they
should consider the optimal development of this type of trust in the relationship.

xi.

At present, the world faced an economic crisis that has a major impact on oil and gas
industries as the global price of barrels of oil keep dropping; supply chain parties need
to develop trust among them so as to overcome this risk and to drive the economy to a
better future. This is so because the research proved that trust among supply chain
parties could reduce supply chain costs and provides more flexibility to react and
stand firm in front of the winds of the economic crisis. As a result, and as proven by
this research through its findings, this will assist the core organisation and its parties
to act and stay better than an organisation that has no trust with its supply chain
parties. Additionally, based on the research findings, this doubtfully has major
advantages to help the oil and gas firms and its supply chain parties to moderate the
faced economic crisis and if possible to overcome it in the near future.

6.5 Limitations of the Current Research

This exploratory venture endeavours to respond to the inquiries that give rise to new
questions, and additionally the examination showing the research having some natural
constraints.

224

In this way, there are limitations that could emerge from the paradigm (methodological) that
moved forward the examination and by the suggestion of the sort of information gathered, the
instrument of exploration, and the organisation of the research.
Therefore, there can never be a flawless research methodological framework for directing an
examination, and there is surely no immaculate exploration that is free of the limitations.
Subsequently, this area introduces a study of the procedure and aftereffects of the study as it
is an evaluation of the degree the examination points were accomplished and an affirmation
of confinements characteristic in the exploration technique and the creating experimental
results.
In spite of the fact that the exploratory procedure was advocated keeping in mind a few trial
of legitimacy and dependability were done, the study had a few deficiencies in outline,
technique and results. The general issues of overviews by survey including the recurrence of
close-finished inquiries, legitimacy of relative scales with respect to outright scales and in
addition parametric examination of ordinal information were perceived in area 5.1.
Moreover, estimation mistake alludes to how well the calculated structure in Fig.4.1 tended to
every single applicable issue and the degree to which research instruments beginning from
the system caught significant information. In spite of the fact that the theoretical system was
defended, its natural impediment is that it rose up out of the analyst's translation and blend of
the existent writing on different ranges that were viewed as important to the subject. In like
manner, to minimise the event of estimation mistake, ideas were calculated by field-based
pre-testing of variables. The oil and gas industry is undergoing a dramatic transformation
with upstream players rapidly evolving towards depletion developments in deeper water and
unconventional areas. . The importance of regions once considered marginal or promising but only in the distant future - is growing and as a result are becoming leading production
basins, shifting the global balance of the oil and gas industry. Meanwhile, traders in the
middle and bottom of the industry value chain are reinforcing their strategic positioning to
reach growing consumer markets.
Operators throughout the value chain of the industry are launching large investment projects
and accelerating production, for example: through developments in marine and nonconventional areas in upstream industry activities; through logistical developments for
liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the middle of the chain, and through expansions in
downstream oil refining capacity. Active oil and gas players are facing increased pressure to
adjust their operating costs and production efficiency to growing capital requirements and to
technical complexity that has recently increased, among other challenges In the oil and gas
225

industry, it is critical to increase customer loyalty while maintaining the ability to respond
quickly to business opportunities as well as optimize costs and resources. A failure of
products or services can have serious consequences for the companies and industries affected.
Moreover, the examining casing was plainly characterised; an event of inspecting blunder
likewise conceivably emerges, as mistakes connected with respondents' client base being
differing and not constrained to the oil and gas. Anyhow, the requirements for arbitrary
testing being met since the organisations examined were chosen haphazardly from an open
database. In spite of the fact that the reaction rate of around 55 percent may be viewed as low,
notwithstanding, tests demonstrated that non-reaction predisposition was immaterial and
keeping in mind the end goal to build legitimacy of the examination discoveries and diminish
the peril of constructing conclusions in light of total information alone, triangulation of the
exploration results couldn't be completed. This is however because of the grant not conceded
by the college and also asset limitations as far as time and financing restricted the profundity
of examination for the most part in both phases of the exploration approach.
In addition, the nature of the reactions to the study and the outcome emerging it additionally
represents a conceivable confinement to the studies. This is so since information is gotten
from perceptual perspectives of respondents inside the business examined. Nonetheless, the
accompanying alerts must be distinguished in admiration of perceptual information.

They are liable to the subjective judgment of respondent which as a worry bears on

the decision and choice of a reaction.

Likewise, the reaction was achieved from a solitary respondent inside the association

i.e. the MD or inventory network supervisor.

Finally, the study was carried out in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria thus cannot be

summed up to other mechanical segments. In this way, the reaction rate and the segment
oriented study imply that the outcomes and conclusions ought to be translated with the alert.
6.6 Suggestions Further Research

The results of this research have different ramifications for further studies on trust and also
inventory network execution and hierarchical execution. For instance, in spite of the fact that
dangers were not concentrated on in this examination it was uncovered over the span of the
writing audit that dangers are having an effect on everything relying upon the way of the
market, and this affects the consumer-seller relationship. As a result, there is a need to study
the influence of risks on the trusting relationships among supply chains partners further
226

within all the domains of the oil and gas industry. There is also need to investigate the nature
of trust on supply chain partnerships and its impact on supply chains performance as well as
organisational performance in other industrial settings such as biotechnology, manufacturing
and automotive so as to decide the distinctive impacts connected with trust and supply chains
under various conditions. Defenders of trusting relationships (e.g. Sako, 1998)

claim the

element of trust are dependent upon the context. As a result, there are various possibilities
depending on the various industrial contexts and settings that would, therefore, showcase
context-dependent aspects of trust in supply chains to be relevant.
Moreover, this research was aimed to the inhibitors and driving force behind the supply chain
relationships, as well as its impact on organisational as well as supply chain performance; it
was generally concerned about the part of trust instead of the trust building process in the
store network relationship. This research considered the rise of trust and related issues in the
supply chain, the culture influence on trust is emphasised in the research literature review
was however not undertaken by this research, due to its vast scope. Additionally, this research
does not examine the cultural impact of the trust building processes in the supply chain
mechanism rather it investigated relationships between parties (i.e. supply chains) that
already exchange trust.
Deep understanding of the industry and its proven capabilities help oil and gas customers
cope with these challenges. Organisational culture could be related to the trust building
process and which can be affected by the national culture. Consequently, it is recommended
that other research is needed to study the effect of organisational as well as national culture in
regard to the organisation's territory on trust building process. Moreover, this research has
studied oil and gas organisations and their related supply chain parties within the same
country; other research could investigate the oil and gas organisations in one country and
compare with the supply chain parties in different countries. Furthermore, based on the
difficulty faced by the researcher in conducting interviews as a source of data collection for
the research, it is suggested that other research could triangulate the impact of trust on supply
chains relationships by combining both quantitative researchesin the form of questionnaires
and qualitative research in the form of interview. Thus, by doing so, will be able to reduce the
limitations of survey by questionnaire.

227

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