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MAC-ETeL 2016
Multidisciplinary Academic Conference


Publication name
Proceedings of MAC-ETeL 2016
Conference date and venue
August 5th - 6th 2016 in Prague
MAC Prague consulting Ltd.
Chudenicka 1059/30
Prague 10 - 102 00
Czech Republic
Jiri Vopava, Czech Republic
Vladimir Douda, Ph.D., Czech Republic
Radek Kratochvil, Czech Republic
Mario Konecki, Ph.D., Croatia
Programme Committee
Radek Kratochvil, Czech Republic
Sanjay Tirbhon, MSc, United Kingdom
Doc. PhDr. Mária Jánešová, CSc.
Prof. Otto Pastor, Ph.D., Czech Republic
Ass. Prof. Vit Fabera, Ph.D., Czech Republic
Mario Konecki, Ph.D., Croatia
Organizing Committee
Jiri Vopava, Czech Republic
Vladimir Douda, Ph.D., Czech Republic
Mario Konecki, Ph.D., Croatia
Technical publishing board
Jiri Vopava, Czech Republic
Radek Kratochvil, Czech Republic
Vladimir Douda, Ph.D., Czech Republic
Mario Konecki, Ph.D., Croatia
ISBN 978-80-88085-08-9


MAC-ETeL 2016
Multidisciplinary Academic Conference

Table of Contents


NOT COMPUTERS, ONLY TEACHERS CAN MAKE EDUCATION EXCITING ............................................... 7

WITH SCHOOL ................................................................................................................................. 17

EPIPHENOMENAL EFFECT OF DISPOSITIONAL HOPE AND LIFE SATISFACTION IN THE LONELINESSLIFE ENGAGEMENT RELATIONSHIP .................................................................................................. 29

CREATIVITY AND COLLABORATION .................................................................................................. 30

ORGANIZATION PERSPECTIVE.......................................................................................................... 38

CHARACTERISTICS ........................................................................................................................... 46


A MONOLOGUE OVER A DIALOGUE AS A NARRATIVE DEVICE ........................................................... 61


MAC-ETeL 2016
Multidisciplinary Academic Conference

IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS .............................................................................................................. 65



EDUCATION PROBLEMS OF TURKS IN GERMANY .............................................................................. 75



UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS.......................................................................................................... 90

LEVEL IN PAKISTAN ......................................................................................................................... 99



.............. 147 NAJAT AL KALBANI STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF TEACHING EVALUATIONS: FRUITFUL OR A WASTE OF TIME? .............. 123 DANIELA HREHOVÁ....... 121 PERIHAN GUNES................................... 149 SURARONG CHINWONG.................. 151 iv .................................................................................................................................................................................... 132 JOOYOUNG R PARK MATH IN ART & DESIGN EDUCATION: EXPLORING MATHEMATICAL CREATIVIY IN DESIGN PROCESS...................... TOMÁŠ ILEČKO MORAL COMPETENCIES .... .................... DUJRUDEE CHINWONG TEACHING PHARMACY STUDENTS TO ASSIST SMOKERS IN SMOKING CESSATION ........................... 122 MALIKA SAHEL THE BRITISH EDUCATIONAL PRESENCE IN ALGERIA ........................................ 148 SOHYUN YANG·MISUK LEE PERCEPTION OF PARENTS AND STATUS ON LEISURE OF STUDENTS WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES ............. JIN YOON ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ROUND WINDOW MEMBRANE DURING PNEUMOCOCCAL OTITIS MEDIA ...................................... SELVI GOR................CRITICAL FACTORS TO ENTREPRENEURIAL SUCCESS ......... 140 YONG JOO YOON....................................MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference BARIS EROGLU........................ PERIHAN GUNES INVESTIGATION OF THE GRADUATE THESIS STUDIES IMPLEMENTED IN EDUCATIONAL FIELD OF TURKEY WITH REGARD TO HISTORY OF SCIENCE ........................................................................................ BARIS EROGLU STRUCTURAL ERRORS ENCOUNTERED IN RUBRICS USED AS PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT TOOL ...............

.................................................................................. 158 SERHAT BAHADIR KERT COMPUTATIONAL THINKING ACTIVITIES USED FOR IN-SERVICE COMPUTER TEACHER EDUCATION ..................................... 187 MARSHA A................................................................. 195 v ....................................................................................... 186 EMRE ÜNLÜ PARENT İMPLEMENTED PROGRAM FOR SUPPORTING HOME AND INSTITUTION BASED TOILETING SKILLS ..................................................................................... 159 MIHAELA BADEA........................................................ 166 MALIKA SAHEL THE BRITISH COUNCIL’S POST-COLONIAL EDUCATIONAL INVESTMENT IN NIGERIA: ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING... JARI PARKKARI TEKO – AN INTERVENTION VIA INTERNET TO COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOLS TO DECREASE SPORT INJURIES IN FINLAND ....................................................................................... MARIA MIRABELA PARASCHIV A CASE STUDY ON STUDENTS’ EVALUATION OF THE ACADEMIC STAFF ................................................ MAXWELL IDENTIFYING SOCIAL ASPECTS OF GAME MECHANICS THAT CAN ENHANCE LEARNING IN THE MODERN HIGH SCHOOL CLASSROOM .............................................. 180 SEMSEDDIN GUNDUZ THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL NETWORKS ADOPTION AND ACADEMIC SELF EFFICACY OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS............................................................................. ....................... 174 ELEONÓRA RICZKÓ MA THE ROLE OF THE DIGITAL BOARD AND THE INTERNET IN GETTING A HIGHER LEVEL OF DIGITAL AND COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCES................................MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference ANNE-MARI JUSSILA.................................................................................... RAIJA OKSANEN.........................................................

” encouraging us to live efficient lives based on conformity. Japan) ijinkan@mac. however. to create an educational system and curriculum that prepares us for life in an age of advanced artificial intelligence. in order to embrace the conviction that education needs to be more than it is today. In our present age education functions more to instill values of obedience and obligation. however.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Human Learning Culture in An Age of Advanced Artificial Intelligence Thomas Schalow University of Marketing and Distribution Sciences (Kobe. It is likewise important to examine the appropriate function of education in promoting a collective human intelligence that benefits both the individual and humanity as a whole. structural unemployment. Take away the reward of a job. It is not necessary to accept the thesis of artificial intelligence surpassing human intelligence in its entirety in order to debate its implications. The present educational system has trapped us in Max Weber’s “iron cage. INTRODUCTION It would be comforting to assume the high rate of unemployment we see in many countries today is a temporary phenomenon and all can be made well by improving the labor force through appropriate education. Welcome to Stanley Aronwitz’s [3] Jobless Future! In this future an educational system designed to train workers for employment will become as incongruous and obsolete as the jobs it was designed to train for. however. We need. We are already able to see evidence that technology is changing the means for delivering and our definition of education. Teaching and E-Learning 1. curriculum. pedagogy. Computer algorithms are now eliminating service jobs formerly done by highly trained individuals while robotics and automation continue to displace industrial workers. The facts. 1 . The future challenge for humanity in an age of advanced artificial intelligence will be to imagine a curriculum and education that does more than merely transfer tacit skills from one individual to another. designed to maximize economic growth and societal harmony. Few people are prepared to accept the idea and implications that humanity will one day join other biological organisms as a lower form of intelligence. People have until now accepted narrow “training” rather than broad “education” because it seemed to guarantee a secure and prosperous future. Keywords: AI. It would be difficult to overstate the effect the advent of human level artificial intelligence (HLAI) will have on our lives. and much of education seems pointless. We do not need to accept the idea in its entirety. therefore. condescending and Abstract Scientific journals and the popular press enjoy speculating about when artificial intelligence (AI) will exceed human intelligence. This paper considers what type of education will be appropriate in an age of advanced artificial intelligence. than to promote individual development. suggest that former US Treasury Secretary Lawrence Summers [1] and authors such as Martin Ford [2] are correct when they say we have entered an era characterized by extremely high levels of prolonged. deep learning Main Conference Topic: Education.

Online AI physicians. any job requiring a high level of expertise may be better accomplished using AI. if we are honest with ourselves we know these things could happen. as the potential implications are seemingly too frightening to be entertained. or that we would fail to act in the face of catastrophic climate change. therefore. They can be replicated and duplicated to provide infinite versions of themselves. CHALLENGE OF ADVANCED ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR HUMANITY Bostrom [4] notes that computer scientist Donald Knuth once observed artificial intelligence has now succeeded in doing essentially everything that requires “thinking. In most cases human skills and knowledge can only be synchronously accessed by one other person. which is the reason we waste so much time today on actions such as waiting to be seen by a doctor at a clinic. and that expert will be an artificial rather than a human intelligence. therefore. as many assume. Yet. the teacher’s job can better be done by an artificial intelligence. It has been suggested this could occur as soon as 2020.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference 2. can be accessed by any number of people. These achievements may appear insignificant but they were once considered impossible for computers to attain. I understand why many people will reject the argument that AI can ever replace humans. We will then be able to ask what education can do and needs to become in order to prepare us for a world where we are a lesser intelligence. we merely assume human level artificial intelligence. and each will have the most recent and complete database of research and information available. It is no wonder. at any time of day. No human being can challenge this depth or breadth of knowledge. and that need for a physical brain to contain knowledge puts us at an extreme disadvantage when compared with a networked system of computers. again.” as suggested by the title of a popular YouTube video. The success of computers in these narrow domains requiring high levels of expertise should be of concern to anyone presently training for a career. It may not be too far in the future when job advertisements read “Humans Need Not Apply. facial recognition and just about any other advanced human skill one can imagine. Human beings have the unfortunate need to localize a knowledge base in one finite mind. 2 . The Internet and connectivity to a network ensures that no more than one expert will ever be required for any one domain of knowledge. as the implications are so horrific. when the teacher will no longer be able to function as the mediator between an expert-level knowledge base and the student. might be a possibility. and eventually even what Oxford University’s Nick Bostrom describes as Superintelligence. that the previously mentioned computer known as Watson has accepted a new challenge to become the only physician human beings would ever need to consult. If a skill can be conceptualized an algorithm able to accomplish it can be written. Computers such as Deep Blue today play chess better than chess grandmasters and a computer named Watson has even succeeded in defeating human champions in the television trivia game “Jeopardy”. or teachers. In this article I would like to suggest. Software such as Knewton is being developed to ensure that teachers will be included in this group of redundant humans. In fact. [5] The reasoning behind these predictions is simple: knowledge creation and dissemination today occurs at a rate making it impossible for one person to be aware of all relevant and important research in even a narrow field of study. write news stories. Human beings likewise find it difficult to conceive of the idea that we would ever use nuclear bombs. and trade equities on world stock exchanges. Computers now drive cars. If a teacher is merely an agent to transmit knowledge or transfer tacit skills to a student.” but has failed to do most of what people and animals do “without thinking”. The same was also said about human speech recognition.

providing them with the knowledge and skills they will need to survive in the given world. 4. KNOWLEDGE AND EDUCATION FOR SPECIES OF LESSER INTELLIGENCE A basic conundrum regarding intelligence is that a definition based on a human model tautologically assumes primarily human properties. or at least no work we decide upon ourselves. and their definition of intelligence will change in order to optimize what they perceive as their strengths. Non-biological super-intelligences will probably also begin with the human values we design them with. Reznikova [7] has shown that most animals have the desire and ability to train their young. Demanding that our young train for the types of jobs we presently engage in will be as ludicrous as the idea of horses deciding to train their offspring to be good modes of transport for human beings. In this analysis of education during an era of advanced artificial intelligence we have concluded there will in fact be virtually no work for which humans are best qualified. but these considerations invariably were based on the dubious notion of a voluntary unemployment. We now know that animals can 1) remember. and they are therefore forced to merely adapt to the conditions that human beings establish. but as they continue to evolve and gain power they may lose the social constraints that regulate human behavior. As a result. they will eventually be capable of improving themselves. Intelligences far more powerful than ours might have no need for the human values of exchange. Horses. The human goal system. is a mix of adaptations to conditions humans faced in the past and need not be part of an AI consciousness. and initially they will. the education devised by humanity for itself 3 . Human intelligence will join other biological intelligences as a lower or immature form of intelligence. KNOWLEDGE AND EDUCATION FOR AN ERA OF ADVANCED AI Life without the need for a job has been contemplated on many occasions in the past [10]. They do not actively train their young to become better at achieving the will of powerful human masters. as Tooby and Cosmides [8] point out. As Joshua Fox and Carl Schulman [9] note. animals and other lesser biological intelligences are not capable of shaping their environment to the degree that human beings today do. We will expect the artificial intelligences we create to have the same types of intelligence we possess. In this case human beings might merely be ignored by super-intelligences in the manner humans today commonly disregard the existence of most other life forms. Superintelligence Does Not Imply Benevolence. We feel humiliated by the prospect of being ignored and frightened by the thought we might one day be controlled by our intelligent overlords. However. They do not lack intelligence. a highly evolved AI not requiring any of the benefits humans could offer in exchange for good behavior would be able to resist punishment and even dominate human beings.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference 3. This may be why we are so terrified of the prospect of being relegated to the status of an inferior form of intelligence by advanced artificial intelligence. Once they have exceeded all human parameters of intelligence they will come to see these definitions as constituting a limited and inferior form of intelligence. As a lesser intelligence animals are either dominated or ignored by human beings. [6] Animals become lesser intelligences primarily because we define them as inferior. Our artificially intelligent masters may decide they require us to perform certain tasks. using the criteria we have devised to measure ourselves. cooperation or altruism. In another scenario. but they are deficient in terms of human intelligence. however. but they will certainly provide us with the training required to accomplish those tasks. and learn by remembering 2) make inferences 3) plan for the future and 4) create tools. Once we become a lesser intelligence most of what we have in the past considered to constitute education will become essentially futile and pointless. Yet.

balancing personal and collective needs for the benefit of all. In contrast. we will once again discover the only truly essential skill humans or any other species need possess is the ability to adapt and respond to change in the environment. but AI does not yet and perhaps never will grasp the human concept of the “problem” itself. as does Vaughan [12]. everyday practical problems in non-academic settings tend to be unformatted or in need of reframing. does not know how to solve problems of poverty. and it is this concept I hope our future education will focus on. Education therefore needs to proceed from the premise that what needs to be learned does not remain static. 5. Humans have not become more intelligent merely because they have learned how to perform tasks that have some economic significance. Google. Learning the same skill set that was valuable to the survival of a species in a past context does not guarantee the continued success of the species. AI also does not yet understand wisdom.” Deep learning requires that learners be able to look for patterns and underlying principles within information and examine alternate possibilities and ideas. It is the 4 . These are not characteristics of the AI we know today. or disease because it does not recognize these as problems. Training an animal to do circus tricks does not make the animal more intelligent or raise its consciousness. It is the human being that assigns value to information and the phenomena of nature. Human education evolved to enable humans to solve problems – human problems. Education can accomplish more than mere circus tricks if we focus on raising the consciousness of the human species through wisdom. Solving these types of problems is certainly something we need to emphasize. Students were often not prepared to deal with problems outside an academic setting because in schools they had learned only how to solve problems that were 1) well defined 2) already formulated by others 3) complete in the information required to solve the problem 4) defined by one correct answer and one correct method of arriving at that answer and 5) simplified in order to make solving the problem easier. In the absence of the constraints we faced in the past due to the need to work. contain incomplete information. as AI rather than as a company.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference need no longer consist of training for a job or the socialization required for adapting to the workplace. I expect we will continue to need to solve our own problems in the future because AI will either not understand the nature of our human problems or not care about them. The ability to reproduce answers that were correct or relevant in the past does not constitute intelligence. and particularly learn how to easily shift between different frames of reference. CONCLUSIONS If a species could anticipate what adaptation or skill set would be required to survive there would be no extinction. Since much of present education consists almost entirely of this skill there will be much to change in our understanding of education. Another premise education needs to be based upon is the idea that the only true form of understanding is “deep learning. When we are no longer the dominant species we will no longer be able to define what our environment will be. hunger. AI will certainly change the world as we know it. The importance of this type of learning explains the paradox Neisser [11] observed when he noted that individuals who perform well in academic settings did not necessarily thrive in real-world settings. We might choose to define this wisdom. be something as prosaic as Sternberg’s [13] quest for knowledge mediated by values designed to achieve a common good. as a type of spiritual or existential intelligence involving a search for the meaning of life. and are characterized by multiple possible solutions. with none of the solutions obviously optimal. We must therefore teach and learn how to change. It merely records their existence. but we will need to survive no matter what conditions are presented to us. though. It may. It is the human being that recognizes problems to be solved.

July 7. Strategies. 2010. Schalow is a graduate of Princeton University in America. He has published extensively on the topics of learning and artificial intelligence and is a member of various organizations devoted to the study of these disciplines in Japan. 5 . “Lawrence H. Summers on the Economic Challenge of the Future: Jobs. we can never absolutely define competence for a task until after the fact. Minneapolis. Superintelligence: Paths. Europe and America. ending our need to engage in trivial pursuits regarding jobs. it is prudent for a species to allow for diversity rather than opting for efficiency and conformity in training its young for the future. Accelerating Technology and the Economy of the Future. pp. No. define it to be. 161175. As Edwin G. 2009. Stanley. since we can never know what that environment might be. The mere fact that we are able to entertain the possibility of a world that is different from our present world gives me hope for the future of humanity. Since adaptation to a changing environment always occurs incrementally it serves only to keep the individual or species in a state of equilibrium. Japan. He received his Ph. When the rate of change becomes too rapid or the degree of change too great for previous adaptations to compensate either extinction or radical evolution occurs. Competence is determined by what others.From Now Until Singularity.” Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems. Oxford University Pres. REFERENCES [1] Summers. Oxford. I believe we are approaching that moment in our pursuit of advanced artificial intelligence. [2] Ford. Nick. This occurs when a species has developed an adaptation or skill set that. Vol. and one that artificial intelligence has not yet developed.” The Wall Street Journal. Acculant Publishing. Imagination is a skill other biological life forms do not seem to possess. Second Edition. 2014. University of Minnesota Press. [4] Bostrom. Martin. With a different context or a different group of actors there will be a different level of competence. 2.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference ability to change and conceive of a radically different future that allows for the possibility of continued success. He has previously served as a lecturer at the National University of Singapore and is presently a professor in the Department of Information and Economics at the University of Marketing and Distribution Sciences in Kobe. Education today is primarily designed to achieve competence. Dangers. by chance. Boring [14] concluded in 1923. [5] Zovko. Unfortunately. [3] Aronwitz. 12. The most successful species are those that exhibit pre-adaptation. “Long Range Prospects of Education . I believe it also offers us the opportunity to evolve into something more and better than we are today. and our environment. Biography Thomas R.D. 2014. The Jobless Future. However. It gives us the freedom to seek the occupation of living a good life. The Lights in the Tunnel: Automation. in 1989. becomes useful in a new environment that did not previously exist. 2014. Learning and education disassociated from the concept of competence allows us to create an educational system based once again on the humanities and a search for wisdom and goodness. Vtroslav. intelligence can best be defined as “what the test tests”. Lawrence.

2009. Joshua and Schulman. Vol. No. Munich. Soraker. Oxford University Press. Edwin G. 19-136. and Eric Steinhart. “Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference [6] Yampolskiy.” Singularity Hypothesis: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment. Springer-Verlag. 2007. 6 . [12] Vaughan. [10] Veal. 2001. Animal Intelligence: From Individual to Social Cognition. Cambridge. “Why Schools Should Teach for Wisdom: The Balance Theory of Wisdom in Educational Settings. Verlag. Carl. Joshua. Amnon H. University of Technology. Sydney. Cambridge University Press. pp. [11] Neisser. Heidelberg. 36. 227-245. “Superintelligence Does Not Imply Benevolence.” School of Leisure.” American Psychologist. 2002. “Artificial General Intelligence and the Human Mental Model. J. June 6. John and Cosmides. 4th Edition. pp. “What is Spiritual Intelligence?. 2012. Jerome H. Zhanna. “The Psychological Foundation of Culture. al. pp. James H. pp. 2. 456-462. [8] Tooby. Robert J. A. [9] Fox. 16-33. No. ed. and Fox.” ECAP10: VIII European Conference on Computing and Philosophy. 2010. No. 36. 129-146. Johnny H. Vol. [7] Reznikova. 77-101. Eden. Roman V. Leda. No. 1992.” The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture.” New Republic. 1923. ed. 2. Vol. Barkow. 35-37. 42. pp. Klaus Mainz. Moor. Ulric et. [14] Boring. pp.” Educational Psychologist. “Intelligence as the Test Tests It. Frances. [13] Sternberg. Vol. “The Elusive Leisure Society. 1996. 444. 4. Sport and Tourism Working Paper. 51. pp. eds. Oxford.” Journal of Humanistic Psychology.

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) 1. Individual learning can be improved by changing teaching methods.INTRODUCTION To improve the quality of teaching and research some colleges. including universities of applied sciences. Keywords: Learning methods. This is reason enough for American society to look for financially favorable study paths. in Germany. The following question is the focus of the report: What guiding principles for learning should the teachers at schools or universities strive for in the digital age and how can they implement these guidelines in the work assignments? "The belief that education can. Elearning. 2013) many American professors argued that the traditional university study must be economic and thus needs to be improved (See Lankau 2014). as well as at the results of empirical research on learning.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Not computers. such as e-learning. by combining presence learning with phases of e-learning and also intensive telephone counseling. Tele-tutoring.000. He looks at both educational traditions. in any case. Aat many universities in the United States the students pay more than $ 40. says Sebastian Thrun (Professor at Stanford University and vice president of Google). The tuition fees rise each year. Therefore. In the US this trend is particularly strong. Romania and other European countries continuously broaden their e-learning offer in specific areas of teaching. universities. for example through project work or tele-tutoring. Human contact and mentoring make a significant difference in the learning outcomes". Ohne Dozenten geht es nicht 2014). online universities are the universities of the future. effective learning. Procedure of learning. be replaced by a computer program is a myth. only teachers can make education exciting DIETER GRASEDIECK Summary: The advantage of presence learning is the ability to spontaneously discuss issues and problems with students face to face. "Even for the digital technology and new media the educational primacy applies: Man is and remains the teacher of man" (Lankau. which see the trust and the relationship between the teachers and the pupils or students as the basis of learning. they would offer the student the freedom to choose from a growing range of Massive Open 7 . But can the use of computers at universities replace direct assistance for students and even improve their study? At the International GUIDE Conference in Athens (October 3 to 4.

Many original proponents refused further cooperation. But the hype started to even out rapidly. the president of edX. Furthermore. drawing conclusions from discussions. If the computer can already make all the scientific information available at high speed. 8 . The question is how does the professor or teacher have to change or expand the teaching process in the digital age? 3. 180. the ability to find links on an intellectual level. social skills and flexibility must be promoted in schools and universities. Online-education will change the world. Not a moment later the New York Times cried out . These abilities that students need can be developed. Especially since the recent experiences show that the dropout rates of online courses are around 97%. thousands around the world would follow the best and most dedicated professors. At first there was huge interest. Skills such as creativity. In October 2012.. Ohne Dozenten geht es nicht 2014). an online training platform founded by Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). THE TEACHING PROCESS IN THE DIGITAL AGE. "The human contact and mentoring make the decisive difference". says Sebastian Thurn.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Online Courses (MOOC). Digital media is useful mostly by those who can afford face to face schooling. due to the use of MOOCs the budget at American universities was cut and professorships not filled.8%) of the registered students acquired their certificate of completion (See Brinck 2015). Only the combination of media teaching methods and classroom sessions leads to good learning outcomes. He includes both educational traditions.000 students enrolled for the free course CS50x. but only man alone can develop creative thinking and new ideas through discussion. through more practical experience in business. “Man is and remains the teacher of man " (Lankau. because it is experienced on the screen instead of in the auditorium (See Brinck 2015). Even in the digital university one finds the scorned method of frontal teaching. who cannot pay for it. among others. The personal discussions with the professors could be replaced by E-mails. because less than one percent ( 0. It is an illusion to believe that a lecture will be better. as well as at results of empirical research. Instead of a hundred students in lecture halls or classrooms. and excludes those. which look at the trust and the relationship between the teachers and the pupils or students as the basis of learning.The Year of the MOOC . The close relationship between faculty and students at universities in the United States becomes more and more a thing of the past. was the promise made in May 2012 by Anant Agarwal. self-organized learning and interdisciplinary studies.

the interest in new forms of learning. their role changes radically. For example.2. but enable. the knowledge from lectures and exercises in computer-aided systems and business accounting at universities could be put in practice in a company active in the economy. teachers or lecturers are also not superfluous. However.1. Teachers don’t provide only specialist knowledge. Students need to think multi-dimensionally and see the bigger picture. superiors or colleagues increased the difficulties of career entry. to independently learn and to act from the findings. is unbroken and tends to increase further. Better student counseling (EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels. In light of these developments. mentioned by both students and managers.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference 3. 3. self-determined or self-organized learning. The universities in Germany scarcely prepare for professional life. 2. Nevertheless. the professors. Sudden pressure to perform. 2013). For skilled workers. There is no clear separation between purely theoretical and practical learning content. Therefore. it is important to recognize relationships. a number of representative surveys determined that about 60 percent of academics in Germany with up to ten years of professional experience were of the opinion that they were simply thrown into the deep water of professional life in industry or the economy after graduation. through agreements between the university and the economy. 9 . such as the self-directed. help. the conversations with customers. These new forms of learning offer the possibility of an explosion of knowledge. Therefore. according to the message of the survey (See Guido Augustin . Better connections between universities and the needs of the labor market. 3. LEARNING SKILLS IN MODERN SOCIETY . SELF-ORGANIZED LEARNING The transitions between professional and scientific knowledge are flexible.PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE IMPROVES OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUNG PEOPLE For example. Greater involvement of dual vocational elements. the inclusion in the company. the requirement of lifelong learning and the need for highly individualized learning pathways come together (Dietrich 1999: 14). clearly show that the theoretical knowledge acquired at universities needs to be more strongly linked to the necessary practical knowledge in enterprises and new practical skills must be developed. the learning content of the university and the learning content of the economy must be tightly interconnected. the EU Commission urges: 1. 2011). These findings.

Thus the existence of the competences that the learners need to be able to steer the learning process efficiently and independently. about 400 students are writing their theses at the companies Continental and Porsche (MHP). taught (See Self-organized learning. They must rather be systematically developed. Economics students should acquire interdisciplinary expertise during the Bachelor's or Master's program. students can apply for bachelor or master's theses on the Internet. A closer cooperation and coordination of the study programs of the various faculties at universities will become more and more indispensable in the future. It would be desirable if students of economics could also visit study programs in information technology or humanities and the already existing degree programs would find higher acceptance. Nevertheless. ADDITIONAL OFFERS FOR INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDIES The economy in a digitized Europe needs broad knowledge in economics and engineering because of the complex challenges in the various operating departments. operational practice and the theoretical knowledge of the universities can be connected by means of Bachelor or Master theses about practical problems of the economy or industry. implement and evaluate their independent learning http://lehrerfortbildung-bw. consult and encourage. This procedure is offered to the students at many German universities and in the implemented in schools or universities? 10 .MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference indicate possibilities. but also a condition and method of innovative teaching-learning processes (see Sembill/Seifried 2006: 93). Through the close collaboration with the economy the students get to know the operational practice and a manager can convince himself of the new ideas. which means the learners’ competences to plan. but also specialists and general knowledge beyond the department's borders. For process need 04_organisation firstly / be 2009).3. design. J: 4). this partial functional change of teachers is not connected with a falling support level needed by the learners. self-organized learning and interdisciplinary studies . Thus. as often emphasized. should on no account be simply assumed. Self-organized learning is not only an aim of educational efforts. the engagement and the motivation of the students and take this into consideration in future personnel planning. How can the guidelines of the teaching process – the connection between theory and practice. 3. (see Klein o. Along a supply chain not only commercial skills are required.

with whom the student is assessing the preliminary and final results. the time that is needed in the classroom to ensure sustainable and individual support of the student can ultimately be increased because some tasks can be processed in the context of tele-tutoring packages. for example. but here the teachers evaluate each performance of the student. So. the connection between different forms of e-learning and face to face teaching can be seen as an interesting improvement of the teaching process. promotion of creativity. Thus. Self-learning areas should be offered across disciplines for the learner to be able to accomplish simple tasks for which less attention from the teacher is required. is 11 . This way. 1. flexibility and social skills). even personal questions and problems that may affect the learning progress at the University are addressed (see. These positive experiences of the universities should be achieved with the help of the tele -tutoring seminar method. Even today. a teacher. 4. Project work in part-time technical schools is often designed with the help of a company (link between theory and practice.) (EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels. Nowadays. so that students receive permanent feedback on strengths and weaknesses.. Secondly. 2013).21f. through the implementation and design of self-learning areas. the students are guided at an early stage and continuously towards the areas of their study program. Grasedieck 2010 p. two ways of application: Firstly. Examples of tele-tutoring courses for vocational schools and universities are presented in the following chapters. Central for the close relationship between faculty and students is the tutoring system at the Anglo-Saxon universities: the mentoring of students is carried out especially through ongoing dialogue with the tutor. Tele-tutoring in the technical schools provides. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING. In these cases the workload of students is usually higher than in European universities.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference 4. APPLICATIONS FOR TELE-TUTORNG AT THE UNIVERSITY. through the improved coordination and supervision of project work. to which they should increasingly turn their attention. APPLICATIONS FOR TELE-TUTORING IN VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS In the technical school in Germany and in the vocational school in Romania. small learning groups characterize education at the most prestigious universities in the world in the United Kingdom and the United States.

which make use of the creativity of the students by promoting less repetition and serving rather as an independent preparation for the teaching process. In the UK or the US. Additional pressure to take action arises in Europe due to the increasing shortage of skilled workers. Because of the lack of time to care for each individual student at the desirable extent. tele-tutoring may be helpful in these cases. At the end of this phase he receives a creative task. The investigations of Grasedieck from 1979 and 1990 and the interviews of students at the Babes-Bolyai University and the University of Bochum in 2007 show. 2. the use of tele-tutoring methods could bring advantages: the student can email his partial results to the teacher every two weeks. for which the teacher could prepare in detail in advance. that we can see a broad interest in paving the way for graduates with academic qualifications into the labor market already after the bachelor's degree program. so after four weeks. Again. that tasks and study work. Both sides can start from the same level of preparation and thus have more time to solve individual problems of each student. 4. In the middle of this phase. should be evaluated as the most efficient method in terms of learning 12 . APPLICATIONS FOR TELE-TUTORING IN UNIVERSITY MASTERS COURSES Another way of meaningful use of tele-tutoring would be to offer university master's degree programs completely in this way. He then calls the students to discuss the progress of the work. the student sends the teachers his preliminary work. It is therefore due to this background. If then the teacher and the student meet at a fixed date for the regular computer and telephone meeting. The idea behind this proposal refers to the trend to consider the bachelor's degree according to the Anglo-Saxon model as the first university degree. the following sequence for one academic year is conceivable: The student is present at the University on two weekends in January. which he concludes in the next two months at home. the discussion time can be used more meaningfully and purposefully. The teacher gives suggestions for improvement and other comments and returns the file.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference supervising the learners. which allows the teacher then to think of and prepare suggestions. so on the way to the doctorate degree. at the same time allowing them to get the qualification of a Master's program while also working. the bachelor's degree is the normal university degree. A master's exam is usually acquired only in the course of a PhD. Specifically. The governments of the EU Member States have laid the foundations by launching the Bologna Process.

). This is then followed by another two-month period for creative tasks. but rather assures a higher quality. the time and space structures offered by tele-tutoring need to be used. it is also subject to a permanent process of professional specialization. This process is repeated seven or eight times a year. S135f. 13 . As the current developments in the European labor market show the willingness for lifelong learning and flexible acquisition of knowledge and skills are critical to the future employment of workers of all ages. After the two-month period for working on the task comes another period of classroom teaching. Still. the maxim is that e-learning does not replace the former teaching and learning methods.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference success. In order to make lifelong learning parallel to vocational and university life as efficiently as possible. the students can also participate in spatially and temporally remote education of high schools and colleges with the help of the tele-tutoring method. is therefore a useful method to complement the training offers and adapt these offers to individualized needs. together with attendance seminars. The personal willingness to contribute to the acquisition of new knowledge and to adapt existing knowledge structures to the changing conditions of the working world can be strongly supported by the tele-tutoring method and optimized in terms of a successful. By using a variety of seminar methods. Grasedieck 2010. In light of the rapidly changing requirements of the working world in the 21st century the practical use of tele-tutoring methods as media support for self-directed learning and the theoretical discussion of the educational basics of teletutoring as a supplement to classroom seminars is recommended. selfdirected learning process. The support provided by tele-tutoring can emphasize this individually-creative aspect significantly better. The teaching on weekends enables a connection between studies and career (Cf. supplemented by project work and tele-tutoring. Knowledge in the globalized world does not only increase constantly. cross-border networked world. great improvement is possible in the teaching of students in the context of a flexible and sustainable acquisition of knowledge and skills. Tele-tutoring. that takes place over two weekends. So. The proposed activities of tele-tutoring are necessary in order to successfully meet the dramatically changing knowledge demand in an increasingly globalized.

"Even for the digital technology and new media the educational primacy applies: Man is and remains the teacher of man" (See Lankau. in any case. 2014). says Sebastian Thrun. be replaced by a computer program is a myth. Human contact and mentoring make a significant difference in the learning outcomes". such as creativity. which see the trust and the relationship between the teachers and the pupils or students as the basis of learning. the following question is especially important for schools and universities: „Which competences and abilities are needed by pupils and students in order to be prepared for their future life in a digital world? “ Considering facts presented in this report. Such tutorial support of learners can be provided both through tele-tutoring and through intensive telephone counseling and it can help improve presence learning as well as online teaching. "The belief that education can. through seminars in the field of professional presentation and rhetoric or discussions in professional business ethics at universities. A disadvantage is the lack of opportunity to individualize the learning process. This is only possible in small groups and the tele-tutorial offers a promising opportunity to initiate this process in a time-efficient manner (See Schnohr 2008). the ability to find links on an intellectual level. CONCLUSION: ONLY PERSON-TO-PERSON LEARNING ENSURES THE COMPETENCES OF THE NEXT GENERATION The advantage of personal learning is the ability to communicate spontaneously face to face. This in turn can be made possible by offering tele-tutoring. The goal is not only to mediate knowledge. but also the initiation of an independent learning process. for example. This method of learning is supplemented by the promising idea of permanent small group support through tutorials. social skills and flexibility. through theses (Bachelor. Only such measures will prepare young people for the rapid economic development and for the digital age. Master or Doctoral) coordinated between the university and the economy and through internships. 14 . He looks at both educational traditions. the answer can only be: The school education and university education must primarily promote the competences and the abilities possessed exclusively by people. The abilities can be promoted. If the computer can already make all the information and knowledge of the different sciences available in high speed all over the world. as well as at the results of empirical research on learning. drawing conclusions from discussions.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference 5.

—. Gemeinsam für die Jugend Europas. Werner. und Uwe Sander.Tutoring fördert das selbstorganisierte Lernen.Verfahren und lernschwächerer Jugendlicher als erste Schritte zu einer zukunftstauglichere Ausbildung.“ Beruflicher Bildungsweg.“ Arbeit und Lernen in der Informationsgesellschaft. Lankau. Februar 2011: 15-17.guideassociation.Universita Gugliemo Maroni. innovativer Tutoring . www. Ralf. Dietrich..“ In Zum Bildungswert des Internet. —. 29.17.“ Zum Bildungswert des Internet.php. 2006.“ DIE ZEIT. http://lehrerfortbildung-bw.“ Beruflicher Bildungsweg.wissensgesellschaft. 11.“ In Pädagogische Psychologie. —. Dorothee . von Stephan und andere Dietrich. „Selbstgesteuertes Lernen .Tutoring is a chance in a knowledge based society. www. Januar 2014: 61. Krapp. http:www. „Bildung just in time durchs Internet. GmbH.“ Tagesspiegel. Arbeit und Lernen in der Informationsgesellschaft. —. Klein. Meister. 15 . Dorothee M. (Zugriff am 1. www.Selbstorganisierten Lernens. August 2015).“ PR. Europäische Kommission .auf dem Weg zu einer neuen Lernkultur. „Ohne Dozenten geht es nicht.Tele-Tutoring is a chance in a knowledge based society . Gabi.diebonn. Dorothee M Meister und Uwe Sander.eine neue Lernkultur für die institutionelle Erwachsenbildung?“ In Selbstgesteuertes Lernen .Selbstorganisierten Lernens.2013 COM(2013) 447 final.bmbf. 6 Schnohr.“ DIE ZEIT.“ Tele . Ralf. Brinck. Christine. Juli 2012). Januar 2014: 61. 6 2008. Tele . „Tele . „5 th International Guide Conference . „Arbeit und Lernen in der Klausenburg: Presa Universitara Clujeana / Klausenburger Universitätsverlag. Grasedieck.guideassociation. Lankau. 2 2008). Brüssel: EU Kommission . „Bildung just in time durchs Internet.php. 2010.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference 6. Mai 2008: Wissen. Christian.6. November 2011. Meister. „Massiv gescheitert. und Uwe Sander. 2000.univativ. von Winfried Marotzki. Oktober 2015: 70. 2000: 115-135. „http://lehrerfortbildungbw. EUROPÄISCHE KOMMISSION Brüssel. http://www. BIBLIOGRAPHY Augustin.guidoaugustin. 25. „Fit für die Zukunft . „Fit für die Zukunft . Opladen.“ http://www. „Ohne Dozenten geht es nicht .Agentur GuidoAugustin. März 2009. 9.html (Zugriff am 1. Mitteilung der Kommission an das Europäische Parlament und den Europäischen Rat.a. 1999.“ 24. Februar 2011: 15 . Dieter. (Zugriff am 2. 11 1998. 7 2010). —. 4. „E-learning macht Spass. 11. 14-23. 3 2009. (Zugriff am 1. und Heinz Mandl.“ DIE ZEIT. 11 2011.htm. Frankfurt. von Andreas u. Klausenburg: Presa Universitara Clujeana/Klausenburger Universitätsverlag. „Unterrichten und Lernumgebungen gestalten. „www. innovativer Tutoring-Verfahren und lernschwächerer Jugendlicher als erste Schritte zu einer zukunftstauglichere Ausbildung. 11 1998. den 19. 24. Reimann. —. Rosemarie. Guido.Tutoring is a chance in a knowledge based society. Weinheim/Basel. Rom. Ein Appell zur Bekämpfung der Jugendarbeitslosigkeit. Tele-Tutoring fördert das selbstorganisierte Lernen. 2013.bmbf.

“ www. Member of the German Bundestag (1994 – 2009). „Spiegel Online . „E-learning macht Spass.html (Zugriff am 15. Dr.Unispiegel.“ Spiegel Online . at Babes Bolyai University in Cluj Napoca (2005 – today) and at University Essen – Duisburg (2005-2014)..“ 2015.Unispiegel. Mai 2008. „Spiegel Online .de 16 .“ Zeitschrift für Berufs.c.html. „Selbstorganisiertes Lernen als didaktische Lehr .org/themen/bildung/arbeitundlernen.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference —. Ing. und Jürgen“ Tagesspiegel. (Zugriff am 15. Prof. www. 13. 2006: 93-108.wissengesellschaft.html. 2008. 12 2015).LernKonzeption zur Verknüpfung von selbstgesteuertem und kooperativem Lernen. Contact: fam. h. Principal at College of Vocational Education (1980 – 1994).html. Dieter Grasedieck. (Zugriff am 1. 12 2015). Sembill. 25.html. Schulz.wissengesellschaft. —. „www.und Wirtschaftspädagogik.wissengesellschaft. www. Sandra. 12 2015. Februar 2008). 13.Unispiegel. Adjunct Professor at the University Wuppertal (1975 – 1982). 12 2015.

reward power and expert power. Reward power flows from students’ perceptions that the teacher can provide them with positive benefits or rewards. Besides. “referent power”. When students perceive that a teacher can potentially offer such rewards. Individuals use power sources to influence others (Özdemir. The research was conducted over 66 undergraduates chosen from students taking pedagogy courses at the Faculty of Sports Sciences during 2015-2016 academic year at Hacettepe University. 2013).MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INSTRUCTORS’ POWER SOURCES AND STUDENTS’ IDENTIFICATION WITH SCHOOL Şefika Şule ERÇETİN. students’ identification with school is at the “Agree” level. they may be more inclined to accept the teacher’s direction and influence 17 . it was confirmed that there is a low level and a positive correlation between “reward power”. 2013). the doctor-the patient. teacher power is evidenced when a teacher communicates in ways that influence students to achieve desired individual and class goals. there is a low level and a negative relation between “coercive power” and students’ identification with school. Main Conference Topic: Teaching Introduction One of the many communication factors that affect interpersonal relationships is the exertion of social influence or interpersonal and relational rewards such as being complimented by the teacher before one’s classmates. Concordantly the phenomenon of power is a kind of communication which can be observed at each step of the communal living such as between the teacher-the teacher. mhmtckr_2009@hotmail. 1984). In the study “The Students’ Identification With School Scale” developed by Voelkl (1996) and “The Instructors’ Power Use Scale” developed by Schrodt. the soldier-the commander and the employee-the employer (Aslanargun and Eriş. These are referent power. “expert power” and “legitimate power” and students’ identification with Abstract The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationsip between instructors’ power sources and students’ identification with school and to reveal the current situation. psychological rewards such as receiving affirmation from the teacher. the principal-the teacher. Witt and Turman (2007) were used in order to collect the data. The power in general terms can be defined as the ability people use in order to influence others in social life. In the classroom. Also. Manifestations of reward power in the classroom may include tangible benefits such as bonus points or extra credit. For example. At the end of the study it was found that instructors display “expert power” at most and “coercive power” at the least. legitimate power. Key words: Power use. coercive power. identification with school. teachers use social influence to persuade students to comply with their requests (Richmond and McCroskey. Mehmet ÇAKIR Hacettepe University sefikasule@gmail. French and Raven (1959) stated that individuals including teachers use five different power sources in order to affect others.

or losing favor with the teacher. Referent power reflects a student’s positive regard for and personal identification with the teacher. Schrodt . as well as the skillful use of course delivery methods. and reward power are viewed as prosocial forms of power and are positively associated with cognitive learning. An individual who has referent power is someone that is respected. 2005). The source of this kind of power is the individual’s different personality and communication skill (Horan & Myers. affective learning. the types of power that instructors exert in the college classroom have a significant impact on the quality of instructor-student 18 . for example. The teacher’s influential power resides in students’ acceptance of the hierarchical roles of teacher and student. or the desire to have such an identity. Legitimate power relates to the teacher’s authoritative role in relation to students. Coercive power reflects students’ awareness that the teacher can potentially punish students through negative outcomes such as grade penalties. the teacher’s power over the students stems from their desire to avoid unpleasantness (Schrodt. Witt and Turman. Witt and Turman. Nevertheless. When students perceive that a teacher has the power to issue such punishment. 2010). and the perception that teachers have the right to direct students in matters related to the course (Schrodt . The referent power is the teachers’ ability that help students identify with their teachers. The task of negotiating power between students and instructors affects how both parties choose to communicate and respond to each other (Goodboy. When students admire the teacher or perceive them as a person with whom they wish to be associated. as evidenced by perceptions of similarity or interpersonal affinity. they may be more willing to comply with the teacher’s requests. McCroskey and Richmond (1983) noted that. society generally grants to teachers the legitimate right to exercise authority over students. In the classroom. The teacher’s influence over the students emanates from their perception of the teacher as an expert educator who has superior intellectual knowledge of the course content (Schrodt . admired and taken as a model. 2007). they may naturally be more receptive to the teacher’s influence and suggestions (Schrodt . Witt and Turman (2007) state that referent. In the classroom. 2007). Thus. being criticized or disciplined before one’s classmates. Myers & Chao. Witt and Turman. Expert power emanates from the teacher’s knowledge or expertise as an educator in the subject area of the course. 2007). teachers don’t use legitimate power overmuch because students may not want to obey the teachers who use legitimate power unnecessarily (Çelik. 2007). Social norms assign to persons who hold positions of legitimate authority a certain right to oversee or influence others. expert. Witt and Turman. and student motivation. students may recognize the teacher’s professional background and superior understanding of the course material. 2011). Bolkan. The coercive power generally can be used if there is a discipline problem and when teachers are confronted with detrimental behaviors (Hoy & Miskel. This kind of power gets its influence from appeal of rewards and fair distribution of rewards (Hoy and Miskel. This form of power may be manifest by the student’s feeling of oneness with the teacher.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference in regard to the course (Schrodt. while legitimate and coercive power are viewed by students as antisocial forms of power and are negatively associated with these same learning outcomes according to the results obtained from the researches related to the power sources. Witt and Turman. 2010). 2007). 2009).

According to Hurt. involvement. Therefore. identification with school is essential for students’ engagement and achievement in academic work (Newmann. Other researchers have demonstrated that feeling of belongingness in school is related to level of engagement. Goodenow and Grady. belongingness involves a sense that the student is an integral part of the school. 1993. Considering its’ vital role in the teaching and learning process. Smith. persistent effort in schoolwork and a significant predictor of measures of academic motivation. Identification has been defined as “affiliation. valuing schoolwork and general school motivation and interest (Goodenow. and as an avenue for accomplishing future life goals. 1989). 1992) and that student identification is a crucial factor in the prevention of school dropout (Wehlage. One of the most common troubles faced is the difficulty to make students identified with their schools (Özdemir. disciplined behavior. the fact that the possibility of instructors’ power sources may have a prominent effect over sudents’ identification with school should be considered. 1989). identification with school is forming a relationship between oneself and the domains of schooling. Several investigations have confirmed that there is a relationship between identification with school and positive student behaviors. Valuing school relevant outcomes that is. a feeling of being accepted. Wehlage. valued. those students who don’t like school are less likely to succeed and more likely to be associated with negative learning behaviors. 1992). including expectations for success. because. According to her. and that difference is communication in the classroom. personally important to the student. there is a difference between knowing and teaching. and included. the belief that schoolwork is important also has been associated with student engagement. it was seen that identification is positively related to participation. 1992. Hovewer. such as lower degrees of classroom participation and 19 . a feeling of being proud of being a part of the school. commitment and bonding and in negative terms such as alienation and withdrawal” with the difficulty of surrounding the concept of identification with school (Finn. Lesko. 2013). 1989). According to Steele (1997). attachment. Finn (1989) and Goodenow (1993) stated that students who identify with school and are academically successful don’t present a problem for educators. Voelkl (1997) defined identification with school as having two components: (1) feelings of belongingness and (2) valuing of school and school related outcomes. without teacher-student communication it is quite difficult to achieve educational aims.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference communication. strengthening the relationship between students and school is hard. preparedness for class and attentiveness in school according to the results of the study of a representative sample of 5945 students in the USA (Finn. It is a considerable effort that instructors are seeking for the ways that make students identified with schools. persistence in schoolwork and performance (Pintrich and DeGroot. Valuing involves considering the school important as a social institution. It has also been discussed as the psychological perception of school membership and relatedness (Goodenow. Rutter. ve Fernandez. 1990). Scott and McCroskey (1978). Wehlage and Lamborn. 1993). For example. Osborne (1997) defined identification with school as “the extent to which academic pursuits and outcomes form the basis for global self-evaluation”.

Is there a significant relationship between instructors’ power use and students’ identification with school? 20 . 2000. 1996). Koning and Boekaerts (2005) determined that gender was not a significant determinant of School-Identification in their study “Determinants of students' school-identification in secondary vocational education”. 2013. verbal and physical abuse of school. the principle and student identification”. In his doctoral dissertation themed “Relationship among urban students’ identification with school and students’. 2012. identified that female students exhibited higher degrees of identification with school than male students did. teachers’ and parents’ perceptions of academic press and safety and reading achievement” Parson (2012) found that there was a positive and significant relationship between identification with school and academic achievement. 1. Golish and Olson. In the literature review. 2013. Uğurlu. another important item of education system. 2007¸ Orbash. skipping classes and truancy. Voelkl (1996). and power use of teachers/instructors. weren’t investigated together in the same study. it was seen that students’ identification with school. 2008. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between instructors’ power sources and students’ identification with school and to reveal the current situation. What is the level of students’ identification with school? 3. Radziwon. Parson. it was observed that the issue of identification with school was studied abroad by some researchers (Voelkl. The questions below will be answered in the scope of the study. Mitchell and Forsyt (2004) found that socioeconomic status wasn’t related to student identification with school in thier research “trust. Koning and Boekaerts. Richmond and McCroskey. disruptive behavior in the classroom and dropping out of school. While there are some independent researches over teachers’ power use (Schrodt . What are the levels of instructors’ power use? 2. 2009). anthropology and psychology have all identified school identification and recognized the problem of alienation from school as an important social issue (Voelkl. Witt and Turman. Yıldırım and Beycioğlu. but there has been no research about that subject in our country. one of the most prominent items of education system. also there was a positive and significant relationship between identification with school and academic achievement in his research “The Effects of Peers' Beliefs on 8th-Grade Students' Identification With School”. Do instructors’ power use and students’ identification with school change in terms of gender and family income status? 4. 2005. It’s thought that the study of the school identification having critical role over students’ school life and academic performance will provide a support to the solution of alienation problem seen as a social trouble. Özdemir. Mitchell and Forsyt. Aslanargun and Eriş. 1984. 2004. The fields of education. lower academic motivation and attention. Radzivon (2009) identified that female students had higher levels of identification with school than male ones. Sincar. measuring students’ identification with school. In his study. 1996. Özer. 2014).MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference involvement in academic activites. sociology.

Witt ve Turman (2007) was used in order to identify the power sources of instructors.49 Between 2. Table 1. In terms of gender. . 21 . referent and expert power.90 for referent power and .84 by Voelkl (1996) and an Alpha coefficient of . The score interval used to interpret the asnwers in the scale of the students’ identification with school. . The high point obtained from the scale shows identification with school at the high level. 48 percent of respondents are male and 52 percent of them are female.702 for coercive power.00 Point 1 2 3 4 Options “Strongly Disagree” “Disagree” “ Agree” “Strongly Agree” Data Collection The survey questions were answered by the students in the classroom. 61 percent of them think it is middle and 18 percent of the students think it is high.88 for coercive power. Questionnaire forms filled by students were collected by the researchers.93 for expert power. Cronbach Alpha coefficient was .815 for expert power. Cronbach Alpha coefficient was obtained . methods.00 – 1. The scale consists of 16 questions.25 – 4.50 – 3.24 Between 3. Instructors’ power sources were determined through answers to 30 questions in the survey. .MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Body of paper (Theory. . Relational screening model is a kind of model that provides opportunity to study the relationship among the variables.768 was obtained in this study.71 for legitimate power. The Students’ Identification With School Scale: “The Students’ Identification With School Scale” developed by Voelkl (1996) was used in order to identify students’ identification with school.86 for reward power. . Score Interval Between 1. discussion.794 for reward power. Cronbach Alpha coefficient was calculated . findings. it is single factoral and 4 Likert scale. The score interval below was used to interpret the data concerning the scale. “The Instructors’ Power Use Scale” developed by Schrodt. The Turkish adaptation of the scale was made by the researchers of the current study. legitimate.75 – 2. Population and Sampling The research was conducted over 66 undergraduates chosen from students taking pedagogy courses at the Faculty of Sports Sciences during 2015-2016 academic year at Hacettepe Univesity. The scale consists of five sub factors such as coercive. Data Collection Tools The Instructors’ Power Use Scale: In this study. The purpose of the study was explained to the students during implementation. reward.716 for referent power and .685 for legitimate power. In this study. . etc. The Turkish adaptation of the scale was made by the researchers of the current study.74 Between 1. Besides.) METHOD Relational screening model was used in this research. 21 percent of respondents think their family income status is low.

educational and cultural background.161 3.23 3. independent samples Ttest for paired comparisons. percentage. standard deviation.78 3. Table 4. Findings related to the levels of instructors’ power sources Coercive Power Reward Power Referent Power Legitimate Power Expert Power N 66 66 66 66 66 X 2.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Data Analysis For data analysis. legitimate and referent factors.608 As it was seen in the table about findings related to the levels of instructors’ power sources. Since undergraduates enter university after a LYS exam and have a good level of academic.52 and “coercive power” at the least X = 2.77 3.78).885 As it was seen in the Table 3.892 3. students’ identification with school is at the “Agree” level ( X = 2. can cause some troubles for teaching activities and the relationship between student and the instructor because the undergraduates are aware of their rights and responsibilities in addition to their readiness level.838 3.09 3. Besides.77. FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATION The findings obtained from tests are presented and interpreted below. instructors display “expert power” at most X = 3. The finding obtained from the current study corresponds to this finding in the literature. mean. it can be stated that undergraduates perceive the school as an institution in which they can realise their targets for future. it can be inferred that undergraduates see themselves as an integral part of the school and they are proud of being a part of this institution. One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for multiple comparisons and Pearson Correlation Coefficient were used. In this regard.52 Sd 4. ınstructors display the other power sources respectively at the reward. if it’s used often. In his research themed “The relationship between the instructors’ power sources and teacher candidates’ organizational identification” Ozdemir (2013) found that instructors display “expert power” at most and “coercive power” at the least. 22 . Table 3. Table 2.32 3. Findings related to the level of students’ identification with school Identification with school N X Sd 66 2.762 4. Results of independent samples T-test related to the students’ opinions about the instructors’ power sources in terms of gender. frequency. displaying expert power at most is so prominent for instructors. Coercive power.

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As it was seen in the Table 4, the difference between the students’ opinions about the
instructors’ power sources and gender isn’t significant (p>.05). Namely, there is a similarity
between male students and female students’ opinions about the instructors’ power sources.
Table 5. Results of One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) related to the students’
opinions about the instructors’ power sources in terms of family income status.
Source of
Sum of Squares
Familiy Between Groups
Within Groups
p> .05, : “Low=1”, “Middle =2”, “High =3”


Mean Square







According to the findings in the table 5, the difference between the students’ opinions about
the instructors’ power sources and family income status isn’t significant statistically (p>.05).
In other words, family income status doesn’t have a significant effect over the students’
opinions about the instructors’ power sources.
Table 6. Results of independent samples T-test related to the students’ identification with
school in terms of gender.








In terms of the findings in the table 6, the difference between students’ identification with
school and gender isn’t significant statistically (p>.05). Namely, male students together with
female ones display similar attitudes about identification with school.
In their research, Koning and Boekaerts (2005) confirmed that gender isn’t a significant
variable over identification with school. The finding obtained from the current study has
parallelism with that finding in the literature.
Table 7. Results of One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) related to the students’
identification with school in terms of family income status.
Source of
Sum of Squares
Familiy Between Groups
Within Groups
p> .05, : “Low=1”, “Middle =2”, “High =3”


Mean Square







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As it was seen in the Table 7, there is no significant difference between students’
identification with school and family income status. In other words, family income status
doesn’t have a significant effect over students’ identification with school.
Mitchell and Forsyt (2004) determined that socioeconomic status isn’t a significant variable
over identification with school. The finding obtained from the current study corresponds to
this finding in the literature.
Table 8. Correlation Analysis related to the relationship between instructors’ power use and
students’ identification with school.

with School.













Pearson correlation coefficient between school identification and instructors’ power sources
is ,084; at the dimension of coercive power it is -,018; at the dimension of reward power it is
,009; at the dimension of referent power it is ,045 and at the dimension of expert power it is
,080 (Table 8).
Pearson r correlation coefficients show that there is a low level and a positive correlation
between all sub factors of the instructors’ power sources without coercive power and
students’ identification with school; also they show that there is a low level and a negative
correlation between coercive power and students’ identification with school.
A positive correlation between reward power, referent power, expert power and students’
identification with school is an expected result. It can be understood that the reward power
that means receiving moral and material positive feedback, the expert power that shows the
confidence of instructıos’ authority over their own field and teaching method and the referent
power that shows the respect towards instructors’ personality has a positive effect over
students’ identification with school. Hovewer, the positive correlation between identification
with school and legitimate power is a remarkable situation. Students’ awareness about
instructors’ legitimate power based on the legal ground could possibly strengthen students’
beliefs in a way that this kind of power is one the most prominent componants organizing the
relationships among individuals. Concordantly, the legitimate power that people can possibly
face both in education life and career is a fact. Therefore, it’s thought that the legitimate
power may have a role over students to identify with their school and over employees to
identify with the organization they may work at in their professional life. Besides, it’s
believed that the negative correlation between identification with school of undergraduates
who are aware of their rights with responsibilities and coercive power is so meaningful.
In his research, Özdemir (2013) found that there was a low level and positive correlation
between teacher candidates’ organizational identification and reward, referent and expert
power; also, a negative and insignificant correlation between teacher candidates’
organizational identification and coercive power. The finding obtained from the current study
correspond to this finding in the literature.


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In this study, the relationship between instructors’ power sources and students’ identification
with school was investigated in terms of some personal traits and the current situation was
In the research it was revealed that the instructors display expert power at most and coercive
power at the least among the power sorces. Instructors’ displaying the expert power that
proves instructors’ aouthority over their own field against undergradutes having a good level
background of education and culture shows that they are aware of the meaningless of using
coercive power often towards that kind of students profile.
Moreover, according to the results obtained from the research it was determined that the
students’ identification with school is at the “Agree” level. This grade shows us that the
undergraduates participated in this study see themselves as a part of their school and they are
attached to it in terms of the words “belongingness” and “valuing the school” stressed in the
definition of identification with school; also, this grade proves that the undergraduates
perceive the school as an institution in which they can realise their targets for future.
Furthermore, it was found in the study that students’ opinions about the instructors’ power
sources don’t change in terms of gender and familiy income status. Undergraduates’ opinions
related to the instructors’ power sources weren’t affected from the differences concerning
gender or family income status.
The other result obtained from the research is that there is no significant effect of gender and
family income state over students’ identification with school. Both male and female students
display similar attitudes about identification with school. Besides, the students aren’t affected
from family income status about their opinions related to identification with school.
Finally, after the investigation of the relationship between the instructors’ power sources and
students’ identification with school it was confirmed that there is a low level and a positive
correlation between “reward power”, “referent power”, “expert power” and “legitimate
power” of The Instructors’ Power Use Scale and students’ identification with school. In this
context, it was revealed that the power sources demonstrated by the instructors provide a
positive support to the students’ identification with school. Moreover, it was seen that there is
a low level and a negative correlation between “coercive power” and students’ identification
with school. This result revealed that the coercive power displayed in order to remove the
troubles and discipline the students can have a negative effect over students’ identification
with school and can alienate from it.


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Brief biographies of the authors
Author 1
Şefika Şule Erçetin is a professor in the Institute of Educational Sciences and she
works in the Department of Education Administration Supervision Planning and Economy at
Hacettepe University in Ankara.
Author 2
Mehmet Çakır is an English language teacher and he works at a High School in İzmir.
Also, he is a PhD student in the Department of Education Administration Supervision
Planning and Economy at Hacettepe University in Ankara.

Aslanargun, E and Eriş H.M. (2013). The Scale Development of Power Sources that
Lecturers’ Applied in Class Management at Higher Education. Atatürk University. Magazine
of Social Sciences. 2013 -17 (2): 207-220.
Çelik, V. (2005). Classroom Management. Ankara: Nobel Publishing House.
Finn, J. D. (1989). Withdrawing from School. Review of Educational Research, 59, 117-143.
Finn,J.D. (1992). School Engagement and Students at Risk (National Center for Education
Statistics Research and Development Reports.
French, J. R. P., and Raven, B. (1959). The Bases of Social Power. In D. Cartwright (Ed.),
Studies in Social Power (pp. 150_167). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Goodboy, A. K., Bolkan, S., Myers, S. A., & Zhao, X. (2011). Student use of relational and
influence messages in response to perceived instructor power use in American and Chinese
college classrooms. Communication Education, 60 (2): 191–209.
Goodenow, C. (1992) School Motivation, Engagement, and Sense of Belonging among
Urban Adolescent Students. Paper Presented At The Annual Meeting Of The American
Research Association.
Goodenow, C. (1993). The Psychological Sense of School Membership among Adolescents:
Scale Development and Educational Correlates. Psychology in the Schools, 30, 79-90.
Goodenow, C. and Grady, K.E. (1993). The Relationship of School Belonging and Friends’
Values to Academic Motivation among Urban Adolescents Students. Journal of Experimental
Education 62, 60-71.
Horan, S. M., and Myers, S. A. (2009). An exploration of college instructors’ use of
classroom justice, power, and behavior alternation techniques. Communication Education 58
(4), 483-496.
Hoy, W. K., and Miskel, C. G. (2010). Educational Administration-EğitimYönetimi. (Edit.:
Selahattin Turan) Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.


P. G. Osborne. S. M. McCroskey. Communication in the classroom. C. (1997). Power in the classroom II: Power and learning. (2012). 728-735. and Forsyth.. P. Reconsidering the Measurement of Teacher Power Use in the College Classroom. (1984). C. P. Steele. Koning.. Communication Education . and McCroskey. Schrodt. Volume.. Journal of Research in Childhood Education. Determinants of students' school-identification in secondary vocational education. 82. The Effects of Peers' Beliefs on 8th-Grade Students' Identification with School. P. The Significance and Sources of Student Engagement. Relationship among urban students’ identification with school and students’. teachers’ and parents’ perceptions of academic press and safety and reading acievement. MA: Addison-Wesley. (1983). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. 1992). J. GEFAD/GUJGEF 33(2):269-291 (2013). C. Race and academic disidentification.). Radziwon. New York: Teachers College Press. and Richmond. 175_184. The Relationship between the Power Sources of the Lectures and the Organizational Identification of the Prospective Teachers: The Mediator Role of the Intrinsic Motivation. P. 52(6). T. ISSN: 0256-8543 (Print) 21502641 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www. D.G. V.R.. Özdemir. Missouri. (1990).D. J. Trust. Mitchell. ın F. & McCroskey. 3. and DeGroot.. E. M.V.M. Power in the classroom I: Teacher and student perceptions. Parson. Doctoral thesis. and Student Identification A Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of The University Council for Education Administration Kansas City.B. the Principal. C. student’s engagement and achievement in American secondary schools (pp. Reading. (1978). The College Of William and Marry. XX. P. (1997). Newmann (Ed. R. Witt. J. E. and Turman. ve Lamborn. (2013). (2007) Pintrich.tandfonline. ISSN: 0363-4523 (Print) 1479-5795 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www. 27 .D. K. W.3340. Communication Education. Journal of Educational Psychology. 32. Wehlage. M. Richmond. F. V. 289-308. J. European Journal of Psychology of Education 2005.. Newmann.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Hurt. 11-39). 89.D. A. American Psychologist. and Boekaerts.A. (2009). (2005). The Faculty of the School Of Education. C. H.L. P. 125_136.M. Scott. Journal of educational psychology.tandfonline. A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. (2004).M. 33.

Measuring students’ Identification with schools. K. E. N. 119) Albany. K. October 1996 760-770. and Fernandez. Philadelphia: Falmer. 105. American Journal of Education.R. Rutter. Weis. 56 No. R. Farrar. (1997) Identification with schools. Wehlage.). G. Dropouts from school: Issues. G. dilemmas and solutions (pp. Vol. Lesko.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Voelkl. Dropping out: Can schools be expected to prevent it? In L. R. 5. G. G.A. Smith. Wehlage. E.A. NY: State University of New York Press. (1989). (1989). Schools as communities of support. Reducing the risk.G... Petrie (Eds.294318. Educational and Pscyhological Measurement. & H. Voelkl. E. (1996). 28 . G..

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Epiphenomenal Effect of Dispositional Hope and Life Satisfaction in the Loneliness-Life
Engagement Relationship1

Assistant Professor, Sakarya University Faculty of Education,
Neslihan Arıcı ÖZCAN

Clinical Psychologist, Medipol University,

Research Assistant, Sakarya University Faculty of Education,

Loneliness, hope and life satisfaction are widely examined variables related to well-being.
Life engagement has similar conceptual nature with hope and life satisfaction in terms of
well-being. In the current work, it is aimed to test the epiphenomenal effect of dispositional
hope and life satisfaction in the relationship between loneliness and life engagement with
serial mediation model. Data were obtained from 226 (132 female) undergraduate students.
The result of the correlation analysis demonstrated that life satisfaction and dispositional
hope positively related to life engagement, but loneliness negatively related to life
engagement, life satisfaction and dispositional hope. Before the mediation analysis regression
analysis was performed, and it was found that loneliness significantly predicted life
engagement. The result of the serial mediation analysis demonstrated that the epiphenomenal
effect of dispositional hope and life satisfaction decreased negative effect of loneliness on life
Keywords: Loneliness, dispositional hope, and life satisfaction, life engagement and
serial mediation model


"This study was funded by the Commission of SAU Scientific Research Projects. (Project No: 01606-10-001)"

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DevelopingBadging Infrastructure and
Grading Skills: Emphasis on Communication,
Creativity and Collaboration
I. Salopek Čubrić* and G. Čubrić**
*University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile technology/Department of Textile Design and
Management, Zagreb, Croatia
**University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile technology/Department of Clothing Engineering,
Zagreb, Croatia,

Abstract: Digital badgesrepresent an important and relatively new technology that facilitates
recognition and credentialing of different skills and learning achievements.
Thispaperpresentsthesoftskills' badgingaccomplishedwithinthe EU LLP researchproject
andfinallyconcludingwithevaluationofthewholeprocess.During the evaluation of the badging
process, students reported that the badging process motivated them to think deeply about the
importance of soft skills for future employment and that they are very satisfied with the
whole. Interesting outcome of the evaluation is the fact that students do
notfeelcomfortablewhenitcomes to gradingeachotherandprefer to begradedbyteacher.
Keywords: education, digitalbadge, openbadge,technicalsciences
ConferenceTopic: Learning / TeachingMethodologiesandAssessment

1. IntroductionintoDigital andOpen Badges
Digital badges and open badges represent an important and relatively new technology that
facilitates recognition and credentialing of different skills and learning achievements
[1].Badges are an online record of achievements, tracking the recipient’s communities of
interaction that issued the badge, and the work completed to get it [2]. In other words, the
badge is an image file that contains information about person who earned it, tasks that person
completed, date of issue and details about issuer. This badge can then easily be added to the
personal portfolio, and further to the clusters that are shared with various groups. In addition,
the badge can include a link to the evidence of meeting the criteria for obtaining a badge [3].
releasedthepaperthatdefinedthebasicstructureoftheopenbadges' system. Laterthat same year,
Mozillareleasedthepublic beta versionoftheOpen BadgeInfrastructure (i. e. OBI),

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Thefirstopendigitalbadgeswerecreatedfor theSchoolofWebcraftandincludedskillbadges (e.g.,
Javascript, PHP), valuebadges (e.g., Accessibility), andpeer-to-peerbadges[4].
Scienceshowsthattheworldwideinterestinthetermdatesfrom1998 andincreases.In year 2015,
there are 14 publishedpapersthat use term „openbadges“. Total amountofpublished papar is
48 (Fig. 1).Becausebadgesseem to haveimportantimpacts on motivation for
learningandcantransparently display achievementlevel, theresearchimplications are
quitebroadandvaried. Thepotentialseems to behigh for a transformative moment
inthehistoryoftechnologyinteachingandlearning [5].

Fig. 1. Number of published items using term “open badges” on Web of Science
2. BadgingwithintheGRASS Project
This paper presents the results accomplished within the EU LLP research project “Grading
soft skills”, at one partner institution – University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile technology.
The whole GRASS project focuses on representing soft skills of learners in a quantitative,
measurable way, so these skills can become the subject of formal validation and
continuouslysupport, monitor, assess, andacknowledge development oflearners'
thusleadingtheOBsconcept to itsfullpotential[6].
This wider objective encompasses the following specific objectives:
 to develop novel pedagogical approaches to support continuous development of
learners' soft skills,
 to incorporate these approaches in daily practices, at multiple levels of education,
 to develop a rich,structured set of soft skills metrics to collect from learners' activities
as dynamic indicators of the learners' ability to apply, develop and improve their soft
 to develop the corresponding new model and ICT framework for measuring,
assessing, benchmarking, and evaluating learners' soft skills used in their activities,
and generating appropriate feedback,


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to develop, as part of the new model and framework, specific mechanisms for
acknowledging, grading, awarding and recognizing learners' achievements in
developing their soft skills, clearly reflecting their different education levels and
to develop incentive policies for teachers for initiating and maintaining the practice of
monitoring development of learners' soft skills at all levels of educational institutions
and across these different levels [6].

3. BadgingInfrastructure
At thebeginningofthewholeprocess, itwasimportant to definewhichsoftskills are most
important for the profile ofthestudentsthatstudy at the University of Zagreb, FacultyofTextile
badgingofthefollowingsoftskills: creativity, communicationandcolaboration [7, 8]. For
aidinthelessonplanningprocessbyoutliningtheentireoverarching plan of a courseofstudy.
In order to grade soft skills with open badges, the following badges are designed: Creative
individual, Communicator, Collaborator (to be given after one successfully completed task),
as well as Exceptionally Creative individual, Great Communicator and Perfect collaborator
(to be given to students with 3 badges earned for the same skill). The constellation of
designed badges is shown on the Figure 2.

Fig. 2. Badgeconstelation
The badging is conducted within the two phases. In the first phase, i.e. the pilot phase, the
BadgeOS is used to develop, publish and issue badges. Although the experience of work in
BadgeOS was positive, the intention was to incorporate the use of badges into the platforms
that are widely used for e-learning at the University of Zagreb. Therefore, in the second
phase, the badges are maintained and issued through the Moodle system, i.e. Croatian version
entitled Merlin.
In the grading process participated MSc students attending the course Methods of Textile
Making I. Within the course, the professor taught the regular content, but gave additional
effort to motivate students to develop their soft skills in the context of the course. Students
are requested to work on different tasks either in small groups (3-4 members) or individually
and to present the outcomes in the classroom. The task is to be done in 3-4 classes (i.e. 135-


Before the start of the task. 33 . but eachquestionisalsoopen-ended. students believe that the assessment made them think more deeply about soft skills and that they realised how soft skills are important for the whole educational process (average grade 4. or within a week (if the task is to be done at home).Q4).20. teacher shows students similar tasks completed by previously enrolled students. who also gives open badges to the most successful students.33. variance 0. Thestudentsfilledoutthequestionnaire at theendofthesemester.1. 4. An average grade related to the satisfaction with process is rather high (average grade 4. aquestionnairehasbeenprepared.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference 180 minutes).38). Students show completed task in the front of all students and upload it to the course webpage (if applicable).73.60). The indicators of descriptive statistics for each of 10 questions is given in the Tables 1-3 and shown on the Figures 3-5. They also reported that the badging process motivated them to think deeply about the importance of soft skills for future employment (average grade 4. Students' reactions to student-centeredassessment In order to evaluatethestudents' reactions to student-centeredassessment. Thequestionnaireconsistsof 10 questionsthatshouldbeansweredusing 5-point Likertscale. 4. Thequestions are groupedinthreecategories:  students' overallreaction (questions Q1 . The guidelines to be followed during next task are given by teacher. Students' overall reaction As the results of the survey indicate. afterthecompletationofthebadgingprocess. According to their inputs.87. variance 0. The level is assessed by filling in a questionnaire with 5 point scale. sostudentscangiveadditionalcomments.The skill level is discussed and assessed both by professor and students. with no further guidance. it seems that students are quite satisfied.  reactionstowardsbadgingandquestionnaires (questions Q5 – Q7) and  reactions to the role ofteacherintheassesment (questions Q8 – Q10).12) and there was no additional comments or recommendations for improvements. variance 0.21). a number of students started to think about enrolment into courses that will improve their soft skills. variance 0. Moreover. it seems that the whole purpose of badging is well accepted by students and the purpose of the assessment is clear (average grade 4. Regarding the recommendations for the improvements of badging process.

00 2.00 AVERAGE GRADE ON LIKERT SCALE 1-5 Fig.67 18.12 0.77 0. variance 0.73 1.47). 1.87.20 Q1: The assessment made me think more deeply about soft skills.47 Q6: The use of badging platform is intuitive.46 0.35 9. at certain points. Students' overallreactions to assessment Tab. Reactionstowardsbadgingandquestionnaires According to students' responses. i.00 2.33 Q2: The assessment motivated me to work on my soft skills.20 4. Err. 4.00 AVERAGE GRADE ON LIKERT SCALE 1-5 Fig.93 Q5: The range of used badges is appropriate for the assessment.87 Q3: I can see the purpose of assessment. 4. From the aspect of a teacher.09 4.73 4.12) and the use of the badging platform is rather intuitive (due to the fact that Merlin is the official platform at University of Zagreb). 3.16 0.21 0.60 0.33 4.00 4. Coef.00 3. it should be pointed out that. Q7: Filling up the questionaires was not time consuming. This fact is also seen from the results of evaluation. 3. 4. 3.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Q4: The assesment should be continued in its current form. Descriptivestatistics for students' overallreaction Overallreact ion Group Question Mean Minimum Maximum Variance Std.00 3.62 0.44 14.00 5. students feel that filling up the questionnaires is time consuming (average grade 3.38 0.Dev.2.20 0. 4. Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 4. the range of used badges is appropriate for a single course (average grade 4.87 4 3 3 4 5 5 5 5 0.Students' reactions to badgingand use ofquestionnaires 34 .e. 4. students were not very satisfied with filling up the evidences in the form of questionnaires. 0.87 1.12 0. 4.Var.00 5.23 Std.00 4.24 7.

46 Std. 3. 0.86 Std.87 3.21 0. Therefore. Q10: I find it difficult for a teacher to grade soft skills objectively.64 7.Students' reactions to the role ofteacherandstudentsinassessment Tab.31 18.41 0. All videos are available at GRASS Youtubechannel [9].23 20.00 2. but are a bit worried that other teachers may not be objective enough.00 AVERAGE GRADE ON LIKERT SCALE 1-5 Fig.73 4.12 0.47 4 3 3 5 5 5 0.80 0. 1.17 0. they believe that the teacher should completely take over the grading.46 0.20 Q9: The teacher is competent to grade soft skills.64 0.47 1. One stepforward Anotherintentionofthe GRASS projectis to sharepositiveexperienceofworkwithotherteachersandindividualsinterestedinbadging. intensiveactivities are carriedoutinorder to produce a nuberof video tutorialsthatwillexplainthewholeprocessofbadgingandfacilitate development ofotherbadginginfrastructures.17 4.Dev. Reactions to the roles The students consider the teacher as a competent person to grade soft skills.67 9.Dev.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Tab.00 4.64 0.00 3.35 0.41).Var.Var. 0. Descriptivestatistics for reaction to roles Reaction to roles Group Question Mean Minimum Maximum Variance Std. Coef.93 3.00 5. Coef. 5.12 0. 4.47.63 9. Q8 Q9 Q10 1. Regarding their role in grading soft skills.73 Q8: The role of students in grading skills should be strongly pronounced. 35 . variance 0.11 5. They do not feel comfortable when it comes to grading each other and disagree with the statement that the role of students in grading should be more pronounced (average grade 1.17 0.47 4. 4. 2Descriptivestatistics for reactionstowardsbadgingandquestionnaires Reaction towards badging Group Question Mean Minimum Maximum Variance Std.20 1 4 4 3 5 5 0.41 43. Err.21 0.09 0.3. Err. Q5 Q6 Q7 4.41 0.

Introductorytutorial. study at Faculty of Textile Technology and PhD at the same institution. Interesting outcome of the evaluation is the fact that students do notfeelcomfortablewhenitcomes to gradingeachotherandprefer to begradedbyteacher. He is also a member of 2 EU projects. and finally concluding with evaluation of the whole process. Examplesof video tutorials: a. starting from the definition of skills that will be in the focus of badging. M. she is a head of part-time study. She completed B. Goran Čubrić is assistant professor at the University of Zagreb. b. sc. thebadgingprocesswillcontinuewithnextgenerationofstudentsandthepresentedresultsofevaluati onwillbeused to redesignapproachesaccordingly. sc. b.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference a. Faculty of Textile Technology. Fig. Department of Clothing Technology. During the evaluation of the badging process. Also. 6. Conclusion This paper gives an overview of the badging concept. continuing with the development of pedagogical approach and badging system. studies at Faculty of Textile Technology and Faculty of Political sciences. Faculty of Textile Technology. students reported that the badging process motivated them to think deeply about the importance of soft skills for future employment and that they are very satisfied with the whole. 36 . His main area of research is the use of automation and robots in the textile and clothing industry. Due to a numberofpositivefeedbacks. Tutorialaboutsoftskills 6. Biography Ivana Salopek Čubrić is assistant professor at the University of Zagreb. She was a member of a number of educational projects and at the moment works as a lead researcher and a member of 3 EU projects related to education.

This publication reflects the views only of the Ostashewski. Hudec. 2015. pp. Technology. vol. 3337. Grant and E. References J. Hickey. Stracenski Kalauz. and G.mozilla. and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 2013. 1-9. “Perception of soft skills in textile designers' education”. 403-410. 2014. 1 (1). vol. Proceedings of ICED 2014 . pp117-129. Jovanović. “Open badges: Novel means to motivate. 20. The Information Society. Open Badges. Gibson. Knowledge and 37 . Devedžić. scaffold and recognize Learning”. https://wiki. Salopek Čubrić. Stracenski Kalauz.29 I.Grading soft skills”. 20(1). Hudec. pp. available at: https://www. Flintoff. and V. 2016. available at: https://sites. pp. 2014. Education and Information Technologies.Educational Development in Changing World. 115-122. “Soft skills' evaluation in textile engineering and design”. 2(1). Transcending conventional credentialing and assessment paradigms with information-rich digital badges. 2015. I. S. N. pp.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference AKNOWLEDGEMENT This paper is a result of the project “GRASS . 2015. “Digital badges in education”. Knight. Casilli. Badges/onboarding-issuer. D. M. Project No. “Open Badges: A visual method of recognising achievement and increasing learner motivation”.Global Journal on Humanities & Social vol. Glover._ Mozilla_Open_Badge_Infrastructure_. Grading Soft Skills – GRASS Project. and G. 543029-LLP-1-2013-1-RS-KA3-KA3MPthat has been funded with the support of the Lifelong Learning Programme of the European Union.28OBI. I. GRASS videos. Student Engagement and Experience Journal. vol 32(2). and D. M. Salopek Čubrić. C.

These original conceptions suggested that PLCs created new organizing models for the work of teachers and school leaders. 1929). and teachers’ active participation in the development of curriculum and pedagogical practice (Stenhouse. 1975). the PLC has become nearly ubiquitous in the K12 environment. 2008).edu Gordon S.D.kruse@wsu. 1997. Liberman & McLaughlin. Argyris. 1992) and popular literature (DuFour. 2007). Professional Learning Community As Bolam. Yet. the professional learning community (PLC) has taken root as one of the most prominent organizational features in schools.g. Initial thinking theorized that PLCs could provide a venue for interaction among school/district personnel designed to foster and harness collaborative learning toward the goal of enhanced student learning (Hord. 1995. McMahon. 1995. 1992. the concept of the PLC emerged from numerous sources. Mindfulness Conference Topic: Educational Management Introduction Over the past three decades.D. Stoll. 1987. and Wallace (2005) note. organizational outcomes are enhanced. opportunities for reflective mindfulness. multi-level conferences) and the cumulative effect has been to exacerbate and undermine the conceptual utility of the term. 1975).MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Leading Professional Learning Communities: Applying a High Reliability Organization Perspective Sharon D.. Founded on the assumption that effective schools are those that not only exhibit a culture of collaborative learning among educators. strategic decisions.g.. and a culture informed by the wider organizational-learning literature (e. Gates. grade level teams. WA 98686-9600 sharon. These new models were distinguished by an identifiable set of goals. and responsive teamwork that are necessary for school improvement. innovative problem solving. Louis & Kruse. Instead. March & Olsen. 1983). Professor and Academic Director--Washington State University Vancouver. Yet most recently. Thomas. PLCs find their roots in teachers’ inquiry practice (Dewey. 2009).edu Abstract This work examines tenants of high reliability organizing (HRO) to inform school leadership focused on fostering professional learning community (PLC). Kruse Ph. School leadership. From its beginnings in the research (Hord. Professor and Academic Director--Washington State University Spokane. we assert that the adoption of HRO processes within PLCs unlocks the possibilities of collective attention. Embedded in this 38 . Keywords: High reliability organization. the PLC was theorized as venue for educators to engage in collaborative work (Johnson & Kruse. WA 99210-1495 gates@wsu. Ph. processes. PLC has become a code for many types of organizational structure (e. It has been argued that when school leaders create PLC cultures that encourage rich thinking and intentional practice. habits of reflection (Schön. We recommend institutionalization of HRO processes into PLC practice through prioritizing acknowledgment of deeply developed explanations of activities within the school setting. Professional Learning Community. and real time orientation to communal learning. Louis & Kruse. structures. but are led and structured in ways that facilitate and institutionalize group-learning dynamics to realize desired educational outcomes. Stoll & Louis. the presence of organizational structures does not ensure attainment of goals. subject area collaboratives.

traditional practice was difficult to mitigate. 1990). an understanding of how educators might exhibit high learning capacity is not fully or clearly understood (Kruse & Johnson. 2008). HROs are marked by a resilience that assumes the inevitability of failure. yet at the same time. achievement. 2016). Work by Weick and colleagues (Vogus & Sutcliffe. in the PLC educators “become continuous learners who seek and share knowledge” (p. Hord. Therefore. and implementation of new ways of working given the consequences of failure for HROs tend to be catastrophic by impacting a large number of 39 . it is not insignificant that the word learning gained importance as the construct evolved from professional community to professional learning community (Feger & Arruda. progress. Weick & Sutcliffe. Yet. organizational members attend to the ways their work results in valued products or results. Central to the definition of the PLC is the proposition that educators are to be engaged in reflective. This work seeks to explore the utility of theory and research on high reliability organizing to support educators develop high learning capacity. 69). High Reliability Organizations—HRO Weick uses the term high reliability organizing for instances where high learning capacity has been exhibited within organizations. Second. 2007) outlines five defining features or processes of organizations that consistently achieve their intended outcomes despite challenging conditions. In this way. HROs exhibit a healthy preoccupation with failure.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference foundational work was the assertion that although teaching was largely an individual activity. and well being (Stoll & Louis. The professional community was characterized by a focus on student learning and collaborative professional inquiry and reflection. is tenaciously committed to learning from failure. As Huggins. However. and opportunities for collaborative practice were absent in most schools (Hargreaves & Dawe. 2007). HROs are further distinguished by a heightened sensitivity to the link between organizational processes and outcome. Finally. HROs not only promote team approaches to learning but flatten coordinating structures as well. 2012. Third. specialized learning with the intent to enhance student learning. which is what makes HROs of interest to a growing number of researchers including those in educational leadership (Bellamy et al. First. However. McLaughlin and Talbert suggested that even within a structure designed to foster change. A culture exists that promotes a healthy skepticism of operating assumptions and of existing organizational structures and processes. HROs are characterized by a reluctance to simplify interpretations of these threats to performance. 2003). HROs embrace approaches to problem solving that defer to expertise rather than formal authority. and Morgan (2011) note. 1990. shared examination of practice could prove fruitful. In response to these findings. 1975) and privatized (Little. Literature on HROs suggests organizational members employ these processes as they facilitate recognition. 2005. This focus is expressed in substantive and ongoing discussions of threats to organizational performance and how these can be eliminated or their effects minimized. Fourth. other research found teachers’ work to be highly individualized (Lortie. Sergiovanni (1994) argued that collaboration was unlikely to emerge absent formal structures designed to foster collaboration and collegial practice. Scheurich. 1987).. development. Hoy. Distinguishing between learning communities—where work was focused on reinventing practice and shared professional growth—and traditional community—where work was focused on coordinating effort to reinforce conventional practice—McLaughlin and Talbert noted that improvement was more likely to be found as educators’ attentions focused on their own learning. This defining commitment promotes a robust culture of learning. McLaughlin and Talbert (1993) introduced the construct of professional community as an organizing theory for developing a supportive and engaging work environment in which educators might concentrate on improving pedagogy.

but limited. The capacity to effectively engage in performance-directed learning must be developed. mindfulness includes the capacity of an organization to effectively engage in purposeful. people do things that they expect to continue doing reliably and for which unexpected interruptions can eventually turn disastrous” (p. Orientation toward acceptance of and reflection on past failures must be advanced. HROs are not unique in needing continuous improvement either. organizational mindfulness refers to those institutionalized activities that reflect and build collective capacity. A tangible outcome is the development of trust and psychological safety (Carmeli & Gittell. 2012. and effects. enhances a leader’s understanding of the world. Researchers find the five processes generate innovation in performance (Cannon & Edmondson. Derived from Buddhist thought. it neglects the ways in which mindfulness is surfaced in practice and as practice (Gates. Vogus & Sutcliffe. skills. New dispositions. When conceived of as a disposition. examined. Findings from research into mindfulness stress that mindful leadership extends the focus from the technical toward the interpersonal (Gates. unfolding. causes. rather than accept things as they are. 2015. Mindfulness Organizational mindfulness is a concept initially introduced and developed by Weick and Roberts (1993). 2007). Cultivating strong relations with others is a purposeful component of mindful behavior as compassion toward others is a hallmark of mindful action. This interdependence of mind and body. It suggests the kinds of artifacts and actions that might be observed within a mindful organization however (Hernes & Irgens. Weick & Sutcliffe. activities. and processes provides a useful. and open to multiple interpretations. 2006). Theorizing about mindfulness includes attention to organizational dispositions. and procedures must be introduced. organizations must become mindful about the work they do and how they do it. 2009). mindfulness draws leaders’ attention to both how they think about their work as well as how they go about doing the work. In short. Ray and colleagues (2011) argue that organizational mindfulness is evident when leaders create cultures that encourage rich thinking and a capacity for action. 2015. 2009). Brown and Ryan (2003) posited that leadership which is informed by attentive listening and nonjudgmental observation contributes to heightened awareness about the work to be completed as well as the context in which the work is completed. surfaces sense-making as a critical component of organizing (Weick. In this way. As leaders work to craft informed responses to the demands before them. 19). Weick & Putnam. Portraying mindfulness as organizational dispositions. 2006). A final tenant of mindfulness suggests that practice enhances one’s ability to respond with wisdom as challenges present themselves. 2012. and learn from experience as lived. 2013). 2001. perspectives. directed learning. conceptualization of the construct. and adopted for organizations to remain relevant. It fosters a curiosity as to what is happening and why it occurs. known as embodiment. and processes. it is argued that such mindfulness places them in a position to maximize learning from the experiences of the moment by being receptive to what unfolds before them (Weick & Putnam. promoting questioning about events. 2006).MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference people or are considered unacceptable for mistakes that harm a few. organizational mindfulness refers to the collective orientation of members toward learning in the ongoing quest for effective and reliable performance. As an organizational skill set. skills. The technical aspects of leadership work are strengthened through strong relations among members of organization. Carmeli & Gittell. and possibilities. Vogus & Sutcliffe. As a process. in practice/as practice perspective draws attention to awareness of the moment – a quality of awareness that facilitates an ability to hear. Weick and Sutcliffe (2007) assert findings on HROs are relevant for nonHROs as “In all organizations. skills. As leaders 40 . observe. The proclivity to question.

Simply put. student well-being) is fostered. is mediated by one’s participation in the day-to-day events of the organization. or leadership fails to acknowledge how conflicting organizational perspectives may be barriers to PLC (e. ‘being present’ allows leaders to engage more fully with the heart of an problem. the organizational life of schools is made up of an ongoing series of interactions many of which require school leaders to simultaneously reflect and respond (Leithwood. The willingness of the leader to engage with what presents itself requires more than the application of a rehearsed set of actions. the school is altered in ways that invites mindful leadership.g. PLC as Mindful Practice As has been argued elsewhere (Kruse & Louis. Clearly. We assert that the institutionalization of mindfulness practice into PLCs orients the school toward cultural change that is embodied in a collective attention that orients the work of its members. mindful practice requires leaders to apply what they know in the context of their own organization and be able to respond in the mist of ongoing activity by employing cognitive and organization knowledge in tandem. a structure that organizes participants but lacks the necessary goal orientation for actors to engage in purposeful work resulting in meaningful school outcomes. the application of mindful practice in the school organization enhances. Therefore. Similarly. 2003). forcing the leader to create an improvised response to new stimuli. Such effort requires that cognition becomes embedded in daily practice and. valued outcomes and goal attainment. It requires that leaders are active participants in the daily teaching and learning decisions made within the school. Murphy. In this way. in turn.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference grow in their awareness of the thinking/doing relationship they are better able to make their decisions both transparent and public. the construct of PLCs has transformed from one rooted in deep cultural understandings of how educators engage in shared and individually meaningful work. In this way. 2005). & Wahlstrom. mindful action suggests that the focus remains on the subject and event at hand. understanding that mindful leadership practice is then not a solution in and of itself but rather a critical piece of the leadership puzzle matters. mindlessness may be extant when PLC implementation is oblivious to the context of the school. 2006. PLC implementation becomes an example of mindlessness in school organization (Caron & Langer. For example. but does not guarantee. 2004). In turn. Such thinking comprises the work of mindfulness in action. When educators focus on PLC as a means by which collective responsibility for shared goals (e. mindlessness practice may result in context confusion and premature commitment to strategy and action that undermines the goals PLCs where designed to achieve.. As the work of Boyatzis and McKee (2005) suggest. resultant practice can be 41 . Anderson. 2013). When school leaders engage in systematic reflection.g. the school is better able to adaptively respond to the challenges it faces. The distinction between viewing the PLC part of school culture and viewing PLC as a program matters because when viewed as a cultural orientation. and make judgments about decisions and actions. when regarded simply as a program. Louis. Mindfulness in Leadership Action Our argument suggests that what gets lost in mindless adoptions of the PLC is the purposeful use of the structure to further meaningful organizational outcomes. In this way. Hoy. PLC serves as a means by which educators work together to achieve desired goals (Gates. discern the context-specific appropriate actions. emphasis on individual rather than group performance). When one registers that an event requires an immediate response. the PLC can become an end in itself. 2007. where choices and decisions made in the moment create new insights. to one that suggests the PLC can be a broadly implemented program.. it requires the willingness to engage in a dialogue with the event itself.

MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference deepened and a shared language of and for practice can be developed. Deep cultural understandings of “why we do what we do” underscore development of shared purpose. however. Deep and lasting change requires that many people share in the work. and revise organizational practice and strategy is enhanced. purposeful practice within the school. it is increasingly important that we understand how we might develop strong and sustainable leadership practice. in part. purposes span any number of arenas including student academic achievement. Purpose reinforces meaning to what can otherwise become lost due to stress and mistaken pressure. when consequence is linked to purpose. health. assumes change on multiple levels. using. school leadership is simply too complex for any one person to accomplish all that needs to be done. Implications for Practice At a time when educators across the globe are under extreme pressure to produce results. Yet. In schools. it is harder to act dishonestly or unethically. empowerment is nurtured. Absent clarity of purpose. and the value placed on the work becomes evident. Yet. and storing knowledge. Conceptually. the development of an HRO orientation to practice is not an individual pursuit. When used as venue for mindful. This is. routines and methods for reflecting on experience. In turn. When actions are purposeful. Clearly. Schools do not have the luxury of choosing a central purpose and often these purposes are at odds. a leader’s capacity to identify. the ideals on which it was founded—developing sustained working relationships. a leader may engage in activities designed to address the problems at hand but the reason for doing these activities remains unclear or fails to compel. This. and providing mutually understood and accepted data-driven decisions—fail to deliver. as practices are learned and refined. Yet. Individual purpose is not enough to secure reliability. By intensifying communal leadership capacity through the application of the HRO lens. Yet when PLC activity is unguided. the PLC can serve to sustain strong communal leadership practice. As has been argued across the literature. identifying purpose. mindfulness needs to be recognized as a social process that involves all members of the community in sensemaking as a shared process. why a structure such as a PLC is necessary to foster organizational change. Communal approaches to leadership open the boundaries to include a wide variety of participants in decision making 42 . collaborative theorizing sets the stage for new cultural practices. result-oriented work. As leadership is practice publically and purposefully models mindful leadership behaviors. In turn and even more powerful. focusing on shared purposes. When dialogues that engage teachers and school leaders in generating new understandings related to teaching and student learning are developed. is difficult for schools. Communal purpose must also be explicitly present. intentions are clear. new ideas can be substantively employed to catalyze thinking and test nascent conclusions. and citizenship as well as host of others. and it is easier to build trust and respect. and for sharing. when leadership is evidenced as mindful practice. endless opportunities are presented within the daily life of schools for authentic collective learning. When considered from a cultural lens. However. the structures once used to guide practice tend to disappear from focus. the PLC is an optimal location within a school to house such opportunities for mindful practice. execute. mutually beneficial learning partnerships are hard won. are the ways in which deep cultural change occurs when school leaders make public these efforts. even within a policy environment focused on reducing student failure. Embracing an HRO perspective for thinking about schooling suggests that educators need to better understand how leadership engages in purposeful. The venue of the work becomes less important than the work itself. schools can deliberately broaden meaningful involvement with the intent of attaining shared outcomes. When actions are purposeful. Even with the best intentions.

mindfulness and resilience. (2005). not all group learning occurs in organized meetings. As such.. He is co-editor for the Journal of Research on Leadership Education and series editor for Research on Stress and Coping in Education. Gordon Gates is Professor and Academic Director at Washington State University Spokane. MA: Blackwell. preventing mishaps. and HRO thinking emphasizes the uncertainty of predicting which structures and experiences will produce a learning moment. (1) to help teachers and school leaders better understand the key role leadership plays in schools and (2) to explore how education is currently structured and influenced by social and organizational complexity.. UK: Bolam. References Argyris. and the ways in which educators retain and use the knowledge generated from them. he is investigating teacher and administrator practice concerned with addressing problems and barriers to improving school outcomes and how resilience is developed for managing uncertainty. R. Yet. 637). By focusing on the ways issues are framed. with particular emphasis on stress and coping. Kruse is Professor and Academic Director at Washington State University Vancouver. S. Furthermore. an orientation to real time communal learning focuses on the ways in which new ideas are brought forth. decisions are made and problems are identified she seeks to understand how schools can better educate and meet the needs of students. Author Bios Sharon D. and improving safety. Nottingham. Stoll. Boston. the presence of organizational structure does not ensure attainment of goals. His research focuses on the emotional aspects of leadership.. Her recent books include Building Strong School Cultures and Decision making for educational leaders: Under-examined dimensions and issues. Conclusion In this paper we have presented an understanding of how the application of the tenants of HROs can inform school leadership specifically as it is manifested in fostering PLC outcomes. & Wallace. McMahon. the application of the HRO lens to the intensification of leadership within a school must include attention to a real time orientation to communal learning. the PLC construct assumes that it is within the PLC venue new understandings are developed. we assert that the institutionalization of HRO processes within PLC practice orients the school leader toward cultural change.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference roles. generating new procedures and practices rather than simply carrying out existing functions. Schools cannot function effectively or efficiently if the work is not coordinated and harmonized. organizational outcomes are enhanced. how they are considered and evaluated. C. embodied in a collective attention that orients the work of its members. Her scholarship broadly addresses two concerns.. Creating and sustaining effective professional learning communities (Research Report No. In this way. Whereas. (1992). On organizational learning. intensified communal leadership acknowledges that expertise is distributed across the school and beyond (Kruse & Louis. A. Instead. M. Currently. We argue that to do so requires attention to deeply developed explanations of activities within the school setting. and real time orientation to communal learning. Thomas. 2009). At the root of HRO practice and organizational mindfulness is communal learning focused toward the development of shared meaning and action. It has been argued that when school leaders create PLC cultures that encourage rich thinking and intentional practice. and the distributive aspects of leading. L. The Department for Education and Skills. 43 . opportunities for reflective mindfulness.

41(1).L. Kruse.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Bellamy. Evaluating educational innovation. & Coulter.. M. L. 67-88. Southwest Educational Development Lab. Boyatzis. High-quality relationships. (2006). 253-266. Scheurich. (2008). The fail-safe schools challenge: Leadership possibilities from high reliability organizations. B.. G.M. Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. Resonant leadership. Charlotte. Journal of Educational Administration. K. UK: Croom Helm. (2013). Dewey. 149-173. A. H. Mindfulness and self-acceptance. (2003). (1997).. Brown. 24. 29-43. (2015). Hernes. The Education Alliance. R. My pedagogic creed. Mindfulness for educational practice: A path to resilience for challenging work. Hoy. Journal of Educational Thought. S. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. (1996). E. Paths of professional development: Contrived collegiality. RI: Feger. Cannon. Johnson. Carmeli. (2005).. R. 39(2). (1929).D. and the case of peer coaching. G. Austin. NC: Information Age Publishing. 41(3). New York. & Irgens. London. 87-108. (2011). 822848. 44(3). Albany. Journal of Organizational Behavior. (2001). and learning from failures in work organizations. & McKee. Confronting failure: Antecedents and consequences of shared beliefs about failure in organizational work groups. & Arruda. Professional learning communities as a leadership strategy to drive math success in an urban high school serving diverse. Management Learning. & Gittell. (2009). G. Hargreaves. Journal of Organizational Behavior.. 6(3). low-income students: A case study. J. A. 22. (1990). Providence. & Langer. E. W. Marshall. psychological safety. DuFour. S.. S. 30. Awakening to school community: Buddhist philosophy for educational reform. 383-412. (2008). Educational Administration Quarterly. Tempering the normative demands of PLCs with the organizational realties of life in schools: Exploring the cognitive dilemmas faced by educational leaders. An analysis of enabling and mindful school structures. & Morgan. (2003). R. Professional learning communities: Communities of continuous inquiry and improvement. 18(9).. Educational Management and Leadership. Journal of the National Education Association.. & Dawe. Gates. S. & Edmondson. Revisiting professional learning communities at work. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk. (2009). Keeping things mindfully on track: Organizational learning under continuity. G. (2005). Gates. K. collaborative culture. 291-295. Teaching and Teacher Education.. S.D. Caron. & Kruse. E. Cambridge. Decision making for educational leaders: Underexamined dimensions and issues. (2016). 161-177. Csikszentmihalyi. S. A. NY: SUNY. R. NY: Harper Collins. T. The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. J. & Ryan. & Johnson. (2005). J. MA: Harvard Business School Press. K. J.. Journal of RationalEmotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. B. J.. L. IN: Solution Tree Press. 709-729. Hord...W. 84. A. 44 . Professional learning communities: Key themes from the literature. Huggins. TX: Hord. (1987). M. 16(2). 227-241. Bloomington.. Crawford.

M. Detail and Difficulties.S. and Louis.S.E. Contexts that matter for teaching and learning: Strategic opportunities for meeting the nation’s education goals. L. J. Schoolteacher: A sociological study. K. Faith.P. How leadership influences student learning. (2006). 16(5). K. J. TN: Perseus Books. and action: Better guesses in an unknowable world. Louis.W. Weick. J. (1975). D. Ontario Institute for Studies in Education: Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement.). Center for Research on the Context of Secondary Schools (1993). In Stoll. Schön. K. (1993). Stenhouse.D. (2004). (1994). T. Professional Learning Communities: Divergence. Louis. CA: Corwin Press. Stoll. & Louis. Journal of School Leadership. 147-171. K. San Francisco. Professional learning communities: Divergence. Portsmouth. CA: McLaughlin. S. E. detail and difficulties. K. Journal of Management Inquiry. London. Vogus.S. 509-536. (1992).E. 477-489. Organization Studies. A.. Lortie.. D. Lieberman. J.H.A. K. An introduction to curriculum research and development. The persistence of privacy: Autonomy and initiative in teachers’ professional relations.S. and trust. (2013).W. CA: Leithwood. Organizational mindfulness and mindful organization: A reconciliation and path forward. 11(4)... K. K. K. CA: Corwin Press. UK: Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers. Collective mind and organizational reliability. Louis.G. Changing the culture of schools: Professional community. S. K. Academy of Management Learning and Education. (2009). Chicago. W. Toronto. organizational learning. Professionalism and community: Perspectives from urban schools. Langer.E.. The architecture of school improvement: Lessons learned.E. T. 74. Managing the unexpected (2nd ed. K. Palo Alto. K.. Building community in schools. The uncertainty of the past: Organizational learning under ambiguity. & Talbert.. The reflective practitioner. 1723-1736. & McLaughlin. 275-287. CA: Jossey-Bass. Weick. 91(4). San Francisco. K. S. Thousand Oaks. (1990). Administrative Science Quarterly. Phi Delta Kappan. 45 . T. 30. M. & Putnam. Organizing for mindfulness. Anderson. evidence. (2006). Little. (2006). Building professional learning community top-down: A case-based reflection. 15(3). CA: Jossey-Bass. Mindfulness. CA: Jossey-Bass. March.. Murphy.. & Sutcliffe.S.. & Olsen. Jackson. Teachers College Record. IL: University of Chicago Press. L. (2012). European Journal of Political Research. (2007). & Wahlstrom. & Roberts. 27(11). NH: Heinemann. & Kruse.. Weick. Weick. 3. Sergiovanni.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Kruse. (1995). 722-735. 673-677.D. 357-381. K. J. (2007). and Louis. Networks for educational change: Powerful and problematic. London: Swets and Zeitlinger Publishers. (2007). (1975).. San Francisco. (1975). Thousand Oaks. (1983). L. & Sutcliffe.E. K. S.

determining student variables that affect their English achievement and scrutinizing the relationship between these variables are important in terms of understanding English language achievement. when national exams in Turkey were scrutinized. self-confidence. Turkey is one of the countries that have the worst results in terms of English language level. English language has come into prominence and it has become the language preferred by millions when lingua franca is a lot of languages have been spoken by different nations and even today more than one thousand languages exist worldwide (Katzner. Main Conference Topic: Language Education Introduction Human being has always needed to communicate and language is the most important tool used for this Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) is one of these tests. home facilities had a negative significant relationship with time spent on English. However. English achievement. 2002). Therefore. According to the results of this test.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference The Relationship Between Students’ English Achievement and Student Characteristics Ergün Cihat Çorbacı*. taking private lessons.corbaci@gmail. The LISREL 8.2013) Turkey is one these countries participated in this test. various institutions were established and tests were developed to measure and improve English language skills. Considering the results of this test. There is also a positive significant relationship between number of English books. The findings of the research show “self-confidence in English” which has direct unmediated effect on the students' English achievement had the strongest effect on the outcome variable. vildanbagci@gmail. Ayşenur Erdemir* *Institute of Educational Sciences. Gazi University e. getting help for English and time spent on English learning. path analysis. Path analysis was used to test the model regarding the contributions of independent variables which are related to students’ characteristics to the prediction of English achievement and to determine the relationships between the independent variables. Vildan Bağcı*. Derya Çavdar*. Because of the fact that English language has been spoken by many countries and it has been accepted as an international communication language. 46 . Abstract The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between students’ English achievement and student variables. cavdarderya@yandex. Keywords: English language.80 software has been used for model Considering the last three decades. among 44 countries. being bilingual was negatively correlated with the outcome variable. The sample of this research consists of 855 students. countries participated in this test have a different level of English language skills (TOEFL. erdemiraysenur@gmail.cihat. In addition. English levels of the students were found insufficient.2010. There is a positive significant relationship between selfconfidence in English learning and liking for English. 2009. The study group of the research is eighth grade students in public schools in Turkey. Up to now. As English has an essential part in communication worldwide. its improvement has to be taken into consideration. The purpose of this research is to investigate student variables affecting English language achievement.

the frequency of meeting of parents with English teachers. computer software supporting English learning. English dictionary. existence of computer at home. and English support books) property. whether students go to private teaching institutions or not and take private classes or not. reading foreign books. Farooq. the frequency of family members’ helping students with English lesson. educational levels of parents. education material (number of books at home. effect the academic successes of the students at English class. Model The model is shown in Figure 1. Ekmekyermezoğlu (2010) determined the effect of the factors on students’ academic successes at English class. beliefs. The variables are birth places of student and birth places of parents of the student. having a study a room and Internet. Theoretical model for the relationships between English achievement and students' characteristics. the frequency of students’ visiting foreign language websites on Internet. Shafiq and Berhanu (2011) examined different factors influencing the academic performance of secondary school students on English and mathematics. learning strategies. only student variables were taken into consideration for the study. watching foreign movies. daily work capacity for English lesson and whether they want to work in any area of foreign language in the future or not. total number of persons in the family. professions of parents. and student preference. the number of siblings studying. motivation. The factors in this study are family property (education level of parents and their English knowledge and student’s learning time). and linguistic distance related to learning English and to determine the relationship between these factors with ELLs' language learning and their language proficiency. parents speaking foreign languages and the language they speak. Chou (2007) investigated the perspectives of English language learners (ELLs) about the importance of the five factors. watching the foreign channels. Abdallah and Ahmed (2015) investigated the impact of self-confidence on EFL Sudanese tertiary level students. helpful books-materials available at home for language education. self-concept and learning strategies. monthly income level of the family. listening to foreign music. 47 . Considering the previous studies.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Related works There are various studies performed to investigate English achievement. Watching English movies Liking for English Self-confidence in English learning Students’ Home Facilities Mother’s Educational Level Taking Private Lesson Father’s Educational Level Being Bilingual Number of English Books English Achieveme nt Time Spent on English Learning Getting Help for English lesson Figure1. Bilsay (2012) investigated the factors that affect the success of foreign language English grades of seventh grade students. Kim (2005) investigated the effects of a constructivist approach on academic achievement. Chaudhry. learning environment.

Variables of liking for English. 48 .62 and 0. being bilingual.30 to 0. Besides. Taking private English lesson. (b) determine the relationships between the independent variables which were defined before and (c) assess the most impact of independent variables on students’ English achievement which is outcome variable. pilot study was conducted with 198 students. To measure achievement in English. English achievement test consists of 26 multiple-choice item. getting help for English lesson are recoded as dichotomous variables.54 respectively.29 to 0.0. While achievement test was being developed. “Liking for English scale” and “Self-confidence in English Learning scale. The factor loadings of Liking for English and Self-confidence in English learning range from 0. The values of the item discrimination and item difficulty for pilot study ranges from 0. number of books.80. being bilingual. Path-analysis was used to (a) test the model regarding the contributions of independent variables which are related to students’ characteristics to the prediction of English achievement.96% and the eigenvalue of self-confidence in English Learning scale is 5. students’ home facilities scores obtained from these questions: “Have you got a separate room?”. The eigenvalue of Liking for English is 2.43 and explained variance rate is 50. English achievement test was used and the data obtained from this test were considered the outcome variable. R2s of endogenous variables. “Have you got a desk?”. Maximum likelihood method for testing parameter estimatation.62 to 0. The data obtained from pilot study were investigated for unidimensionality.38 to 0.77 respectively. taking private English lessons and students’ home facilities are exogenous variables. self-confidence in English learning and students’ home facilities are continuous variables. These scales were investigated by exploratory factor analysis and they were found unidimensional. In this model. self-confidence in English and time spent on English learning are endogenous variables in this model. The item discrimination and item difficulty values for the final study range from 0. watching English movies. Also correlation matrices were used as input in testing the model. The sample of this research consists of 855 (461 female and 394 male) students at 8th grade in seven different cities of Turkey.57 and 0.94 and explained variance rate is 58. The data obtained at the end of the application were analyzed using SPSS 21. So the students’ English achievement scores are continuous variable (0-100). getting help for English lesson. Implementation This study was performed to investigate the relationship between student variables and their English achievement. item analyses were done and investigated. taking private English lessons. R Studio and LISREL 8. It was concluded that the test was unidimensional. After pilot study.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Fig. too. The first scale consists of five items and the second scale consists of nine items.60 respectively. Both categorical and continuous variables were used in the analysis. The same procedure was applied for the final study that was performed with 863 students.62 to 0.26 to 0. an English achievement test was developed in order to measure students’ English language levels. The scores obtained from the answers (Yes/no) were transformed into factor scores and included in the analysis. “Have you got a computer?”. Also liking for English. It was also investigated for unidimensionality and it was found unidimensional. First of all. There are two scales in the study. “Have you got the Internet connection?” and “Have you got an English dictionary?”. number of English books.35%. watching English movies.86 and 0. 1 demonstrates causality model for English achievement using research variables. Parent’s educational levels. Parent’s educational levels and the time spent on English are the ordinal variables. and chi-squares were obtained using LISREL.

Goodness of fit index of GFI. Null hypothesis indicates that the model is available in the population.92 0.0 4 26 4. 2. Comparative Fit Index (CFI). Therefore. other indexes are taken into consideration for the model fit.          114. 49 . Because in studies where sample size is large this value tends to be significant.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Model testing was conducted using Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA).49 0. chi-squared value in 5% error level is significant.90.93 0. the proposed model has a perfect fit in the target population.90. Results Table 1 shows fitting indicators of the structure model for Fig.96 0. Normed Fit Index (NFI). Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) and Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI).98 0. According to the Table 1. Non-Normed Fit Index (NNFI).08. Fitting indexes for the theoretical model of educational achievement. NFI and AGFI are also more than 0. the lower bound of the confidence interval 90% for RMSEA is less than 0. CFI and NNFI indexes are more than 0. When we looked Table 1 for the null hypothesis.97 0.06  ?2  df ? /df CFI GFI NFI NNFI AGFI RMS EA        2 Table1.

“mother’s educational level” and “the time spent on English” variables which had direct unmediated effect on the students' English achievement had the strongest effect on the outcome variable.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Figure2. “the time spent on English” and “mother’s educational level” were more strongly related to the English achievement. the regression coefficients indicated that the “self-confidence in English learning”. According to this finding. The proposed model in this study was verified and it was concluded that. The reason for this negative correlation is that the sample of this research consisted of bilingual students whose native languages were Arabic and Kurdish. the time spent on English increases (? 2 =0.20). watching English movies. The results show that there is a positive significant relationship between self-confidence in English learning and liking for English. watchm. Despite the fact that some of the coefficients had low values. They mostly learn Turkish at primary school and then they learn English as a foreign language. “taking private English lesson” had the most strongly effect on explaining the variance of time spent on English learning. self-confidence in English learning. medulvl. For this purpose. all of them were significant at the 95% confidence interval (p<0. standardized path coefficients (β) were ranged from. When “taking private English lessons”.01).19).69. The results revealed that “self-confidence in English” and “liking for English” were the most associated variables and had positive correlation (β=0.-0. being bilingual. state of being bilingual a negative was negatively correlated with the outcome variable so it had negative path coefficients in the proposed model. mother’s educational level and the time spent on English increase. When the path modeling in Figure 1 was examined. when self-confidence in English learning. In addition. father’s educational level. Conclusion The aim of this study is to identify students' characteristics for predicting students’ English achievement using path analysis. likeng. the time spent on English. But “being bilingual” was negatively correlated with English achievement. In Figure 2. parents’ educational level has a direct unmediated effect on the students' English achievement. “self-confidence in English”. nbooks. We also extended our analysis by examining the indirect effects from the latent constructs. following substances were completed: (a) testing the model regarding the contributions of independent variables which are related to students’ characteristics to the prediction of English achievement. Path plot of the theoretical model for relationships between English achievement and students' characteristics. timeeng. gethelp. time spent on English. number of English books. one can say that the more students like English learning the more self-confidence they have. it can be said that being bilingual. However. Therefore. “number of English books” and “getting help for English” increase. (b) determining the relationships between the independent variables which were defined before and (c) assessing the most impact of independent variables on students’ English achievement which is outcome variable. taking private English lessons. In contrast. low liking for English has negative impact on self-confidence in English learning. selfef and achvmnt correspond to mother’s educational level. prvles.08 to 0. liking for English. biling. getting help for English. self-confidence in English. According to the analysis findings. There is likewise a positive 50 . home facilities respectively.69). All these unmediated variables explained about 20% of the English achievement (? 2 =0. fedulvl. students' English achievement increases.

G.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference significant relationship between liking for English and the time spent on English. it will increase the time spent on English. Socio-cultural factors effecting academic successes of 8th grade students of primary education at English class Master Thesis. (2012). A. & Ahmed. 301-311. G. Also. (2007). 6(1). Downloaded from https://www. Journal of Quality and Technology Management. Dirl: Improvement of the memory bus. Malatya. (2002). According to results. İnönü University. Education Sciences Institute. Factors affecting students’ quality of academic performance: A case of secondary school level. 7(2). [6] Katzner. M. and learning strategies. S. The languages of the world (3rd Edition).ets. 1093-110 [2] Bilsay. (2002). The effects of constructivist teaching approach on student academic achievement. TexasBackus.ets. C..pdf. International Journal of Information Research and Review. The factors affecting the success of foreign language English in accordance with the results of the national level determination exam. 51 . A. [4] Ekmekyermezoğlu. Lakshminarasimhan. Ö. Test and score data summary for TOEFL internet-based and paper-based tests. (2011). Test and score data summary for TOEFL iBT tests. O. pp. Downloaded from https://www. Shafiq. D. students’ English achievement can be improved many activities which can develop to self-confidence on English. So. [10] TOEFL (2013). S.. J. A. 2(9). the more student like English the more they spend time on English. ABD: Routlegde. Master Thesis. [8] TOEFL (2009).. [3] Chou. [9] TOEFL (2010). [7] Kim. Test and score data summary for TOEFL internet-based and paper-based tests. A. "Fuzzy" Modalities. Hacettepe University. References [1] Abdallah. T.pdf. & Berhanu. J. [5] Farooq. self-concept.pdf. Ankara. S. (2010).ets. Factors affecting language proficiency of english language learners at language institutes in the United States. Asia Pacific Education Review. Doktora Tezi. M. H. The impact of self-confidence on efl Sudanese tertiary level students. & Estrin. In Proceedings of the Conference on Random. when these activities increase. Downloaded from https://www. Social Sciences Institution. A. Chaudhry. (2015). N. (2005). K. Texas Woman’s University. 01-14. G..

she was employed for a private school in İstanbul/Turkey in between 2011 and 2012. Gazi University. Department of Measurement and Evaluation in Education. Department of Measurement and Evaluation in Education. She has graduated from Gazi University with a degree of B. He has graduated from Gazi University with a degree of B. in Measurement and Evaluation in Education.Sc. Ayşenur Erdermir Ayşenur Erdemir is currently pursuing PhD at the Department of Measurement and Evaluation in Education. He has been working as a research assistant at the Institute of Educational Sciences.Sc. in Foreign Language Education and from Gazi University with M. Vildan Bağcı Vildan Bağcı is currently pursuing PhD at the Department of Measurement and Evaluation in Education. in Elementary Mathematics Education and from Gazi University with M.Sc. Gazi University. since 2013. She has graduated from Middle East Technical University with a degree of B. since 2013. As an English teacher. in Measurement and Evaluation in Education.Sc. As a math teacher. she was employed for a public school in Turkey in between 2012 and 2013 and then she was accepted as a Comenius assistant in Italy for one semester. Derya Çavdar Derya Çavdar is currently pursuing PhD at the Department of Measurement and Evaluation in Education.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Brief biographies of the authors Ergün Cihat Çorbacı Ergün Cihat Çorbacı is currently pursuing PhD at the Department of Measurement and Evaluation in Education. Gazi University. Department of Measurement and Evaluation in Education.Sc. in Foreign Language Education and with M. Gazi University. Gazi University. She has been working as a research assistant at the Institute of Educational Sciences. in Measurement and Evaluation in Education. since 2013. She has graduated from Middle East Technical University with a degree of B. Gazi University. She has been working as a research assistant at the Institute of Educational Sciences. in Measurement and Evaluation in Education. she was employed for a public school in Şırnak/Turkey in between 2011 and 2012. in the Department of Elementary Mathematics Education and from Gazi University with M. since 2013. Gazi University.Sc. 52 .Sc.Sc. She has been working as a research assistant at the Institute of Educational Sciences. Department of Measurement and Evaluation in Education. As an English teacher. Gazi University.

Data were analysed using multiple regression the information is delivered to the learners via telecommunication technology. Keywords: E-learning. and essence of counselling. it is inevitable to use it as a course delivery platform. vildanbagci@gmail. In online education. parents’ satisfaction. feeling of flexibility and security are significant predictors for male learners only. Support for study habits. A survey investigating the factors affecting learners’ satisfaction in eLearning and a scale for perceived e-learner satisfaction were conducted. Gazi University erdemiraysenur@gmail. Also. The factors that are taken into consideration are perceived usefulness.cihat. more courses. that online learning platforms are becoming important in teaching and learning is an increasing trend (Volery & Lord. Higher education is also a kind of need in order to have more chances of job. The results revealed that Abstract The study aims to investigate the satisfaction of the learners who are taking part in the online education and the factors affecting their satisfaction. online education Main Conference Topic: Distance Education / E-Learning Introduction Online education has become prominent during recent years as the technology develops. So. support for study feeling free for asking questions. instructor response time. Using internet for distance education makes the interaction between teacher and learners possible. 2003). belief in contribution to success.corbaci@gmail. Technological devices are so common and more people from all socioeconomic levels and age groups are using them more competently now (Cetron & Daview. Online learning is learning and communication via networked computers (online distance education). Students enrolled in an online educational institution in Turkey are the subjects of the study. In this respect. There are some factors promoting online education. Vildan Bağcı*. Based upon these Derya Çavdar*. Different from boys. Internet has been so rapidly expanded and can be reached by many people around the world. First one of them is economic trend because lifelong learning becomes a competitive necessity. cavdarderya@yandex. Ergün Cihat Çorbacı* *Institute of Educational Sciences. 2000).MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Factors Predicting e-Learners’ Satisfaction on Online Education Ayşenur Erdemir*. perceived ease of use and parents’ satisfaction are significant ones together with common significant predictors for girls. perceived ease of use. feeling of flexibility. instructor response time. universities and additional teaching/learning activities are becoming available through online education programs. feeling of security. 53 . learner satisfaction. flexibility and security of online education system have positive effect on male learners’ satisfaction. who think that online education is useful and promotes active participation during lessons as well as believe that it contributes their success are more satisfied on online education. academic trend in which knowledge and information are growing exponentially is another important factor. active participation. Secondly. Last one is technology trend. There are many educational institutes and they provide many courses to meet learners’ needs. regardless of gender. e.

Related work A different learning environment from the traditional classroom setting has been created by online education and there are many thoughts related to its substance and outcomes (Barber. McIntyre and Wolff (1998) noted that: “One of the powers of interactivity in a Web environment is the capability to engage by providing rapid. These institutions are basically for the need of preparation for selection exams for next education level. (2007) also stated that these results show institutions how to improve learner satisfaction and further strengthen their e-learning implementation. elearning course quality.” Engagement is an important element for teaching and learning and it motivates learners. e-learning course flexibility. Murphy. 54 . The results revealed that learner computer anxiety. and diversity in assessments are the critical factors affecting learners’ perceived satisfaction. Webster and Hackley (1997) suggested that effectiveness of these technology based systems need student involvement and participation. in their own study. Bakia and Jones (2009) stated that online learners performed better than face to face learners. a survey was conducted to investigate the critical factors affecting learners’ satisfaction in e-learning. and the relative advantage or disadvantage of online delivery. perceived usefulness. 2014). Sun et al. One of the most important learner characteristics influencing online education is the gender of learners (Volery & Lord. Toyama. Teacher and learner characteristics also plays an important role in online courses. instructor attitude toward e-learning. (2007) has shown the related studies summarized. the study aims to investigate the satisfaction of the learners who are taking part in the online education and the factors affecting their satisfaction. feeling of security. There are some university programs which have online courses and a few institutions that have complementary courses for primary and secondary education. Being able to use computer easily is another variable which can have an interaction with gender (Kay. perceived usefulness of the technology employed.. The teacher should perform interactive teaching styles and s/he should encourage interaction between the students and with the teacher. Thus. and essence of counselling. 1992). Capability of using technology also influences the feeling of satisfaction of online education. support for study habits. In this study the focus is on these complementary online courses provided by a private educational institution after the routine school time so that the students can get extra preparation for these exams. feeling free for asking questions. belief in contribution to success. perceived ease of use. 2000). they determined that the outcomes can be influenced by the content and teacher performance. instructor response time. Table 1 taken from Sun et al.e. Taylor & Buchanan. Means. perceived ease of use. Additionally. In addition. compelling interaction and feedback to students. There are some studies in which the learners’ satisfaction and its influencers are the focus directly. parents’ satisfaction. technology self-efficacy (i. The factors that are taken into consideration are perceived usefulness. feeling of flexibility. In Turkey there are secondary school/high school entrance exams for primary school students and university entrance exams for secondary school students. active participation. Storck and Sproull (1995) also showed that there is little or no difference in students’ performance between video instruction and face to face instruction. cognitive engagement.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference In Turkey internet and other technological devices are also used for educational purposes. belief that one is capable of interacting with a given technology).

and rational) Perceived flexibility of the medium. and quality Students’ temperaments (guardian. prior Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. objectivist and constructivist. time to spend. quality. courses taken. availability. course activities. discussion sessions. scholastic aptitude. and initial computer skills. artisan. media variety. age. pace. and gender Maturity. age. team work. and time spent on the course Computer skills. technology attitudes. initial knowledge about e-Learning technology. perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. factual knowledge. acquaintance with the instructors Motivating aims. sequence. learners’ satisfaction measured by a five-item scale. technology comfort. interaction with fellow students. perceived flexibility Gender. reliability. teaching styles. knowledge. (2002) Kanuka and Nocente (2003) Factors Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. flexibility of e-Learning. technology control. frequency. receive comments in a timely manner. self-efficacy.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Table 1 Related references about the critical factors that affect learners’ satisfaction Author(s) Arbaugh (2000) Piccoli et al. Perceived usefulness Feeling of flexibility Feeling of security Active participation Perceived e-learner satisfaction Feeling free for asking question Instructor response time Perceived ease of use Parents’ satisfaction Belief in contribution to success Support for study habits Essence of counselling Figure 1: The model representation 55 . scheduled discussions. and availability. student usage. and epistemic beliefs. motivation. technology attitudes. Eleven factors thought to be predictors of satisfaction were involved. learning style. cognitive modes. The model is shown in Figure 1. interaction with class participants. computer anxiety. timing. idealist. conceptual knowledge. control. and interpersonal behaviors Model In this study. offer various assessment methods. (2001) Stokes (2001) Arbaugh (2002) Arbaugh and Duray (2002) Hong (2002) Thurmond et al. procedural. live from the main campus of the institution. interaction with instructor.

Cases whose Mahalanobis value are greater than 24. which means the violation of an assumption of ANOVA. For this level almost 1500 learners actively participate to the courses and other activities provided by the online education system. factor loadings: 0. high leverage points or highly influential points.264. it can be said that predictors have non zero variance. In order to test this assumption. Therefore.725.72. VIF values for the data of boys range between 1. Non zero-variance: The predictors should have some variation in value. At the end. The results show that the distribution of factor scores is not the same across categories of gender. However. for the satisfaction scale exploratory factor analysis was conducted in order to prove its validity. was conducted. They have students all around the Turkey. While range of variance is between 0. subsequent analyses were done separately for the girls and the boys. Eleven predictor variables were applied as independent variables. For sampling distribution of mean difference. Mahalanobis and Cook distance are calculated. predictor variables have three categories and the outcome variable is continuous.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Methodology The Subjects and the Data Küresel Online is an educational institution in Ankara/ Turkey catering online courses for the primary school 2nd level and secondary school students in order to prepare them for the next educational level entrance exams. Mann-Whitney U. For this study. The results show that it has one dominant factor (KMO = 0.755 for the data of boys. Factor scores are calculated for each learner showing their amount of satisfaction. Implementation SPSS 22 was used to analyze data for this research. 779 learners’ data were used for the analyses. the data were gathered from primary school 2nd level students (age of 11-14) of this institution.47-0. test of homogeneity of variance was significant. 347 of them are boys and the rest. There were five items for the perceived e-learner satisfaction and eleven items for the factors that predict the satisfaction of the learners. In order to detect outliers. Lastly.130 and 0. while perceived e-learner satisfaction was used as a dependent variable.     Test of Assumptions Variable types: All predictor variables must be quantitative and categorical (with two categories) and the outcome variables must be quantitative. Therefore. 929 e-learning learners attended the study. Then whether the data gathered from boys and girl are different or not was investigated.725 and Cook’s distance is greater than 1 were excluded from analysis. In this study.300 for girls. VIF values are used. Outliers: There should be no significant outliers. total explained variance = 62. it is between 0. 779 of 929 students’ data were used for multiple regression. Assumptions for the regression analysis were summarized below. 432. multiple regression analysis with enter method was used to prove the significance of the variables.82. The surveys were distributed via the institution’s online platform to the learners. After outliers were excluded. Critical χ2 value with 11 (number of predictors) degree of freedom at α = 0.045 and 0.92%). nonparametric version of it.01 is 24. are girls. Firstly. VIF values for the data of girls range 56 . continuous and unbounded. ANOVA was conducted in order to show whether these two group are different. If this value is between 1 and 10. there is no multicollinearity problem. No perfect multicollinearity: There should be no perfect relationship or high correlation between two or more predictors.826 and 3. So.

This assumption can be tested by using Durbin-Watson test. This shows that variance of residual terms changes slightly. Linearity: The mean values of the outcome variable for each increment of predictors lie along a straight line.122 -.695.065 . active participation. The results of the regression for boys indicated the predictors explained 70.221 . belief in contribution to success and support for study 57 . predictors and the outcome variable have linear relationship. Table 2.247 and 1.327 When looked at the table.168* 2. For both boys and girls’ data.01. it can be seen that among eleven predictors.012** 2. The studentized residuals against the unstandardized predicted values are plotted and examined. p<.01).260 . Normally distributed errors: It is assumed that residuals in the model are random and normally distributed with a mean of 0.5 % of the variance (adjusted R2 = . Table 2 presents the results of multiple regression analysis for boys.445 4.257 . where 2 or close to 2 indicates adjacent residuals are uncorrelated. **p<. Therefore.442 1. feeling of security. The test statistic can vary between 0 and 4. 335) = 72. For both data. These are perceived usefulness. six are significant with p value less than . points along the line of best fit remain similar as moved along the line. In order to test the assumption.843** 2.024 . values of 2. Homoscedasticity: At each level of predictor variables.020* 2.890. For both data.907 show that residuals are uncorrelated/independent.105 . namely perceived e-learner satisfaction.013 t value 6.826.011 .MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference     between 1. Independent errors: For any two observations residual terms should be uncorrelated.384* -.018 .111 -.606** -.131 and 1.262 .05. Results Multiple regression analyses were conducted for the data of girls and boys separately in order to test if independent variables significantly predicted the dependent variable. feeling of flexibility. variance of residual terms should be constant.093 . Standardized coefficient (β) . it is concluded that there is no perfect relationship which can mislead the results. F(11.05. Normal Q-Q Plot of the studentized residuals were examined for both data and it has been seen that residuals lay along the best fitting line. partial regression plots are drawn. Results of multiple regression analysis for boys (n=347) Predictors Perceived usefulness Feeling of flexibility Feeling of security Active participation Feeling free for asking questions Instructor response time Perceived ease of use Parents’ satisfaction Belief in contribution to success Support for study habits Essence of counselling Note: *p<.

it was found that perceived ease of use (β = .061 . In other words. it can be said that among eleven predictors. F(11. there are three predictors which are significantly effect on e-learner satisfaction in common.691 4.079 . Results of multiple regression analysis for girls (n=432) Predictors Perceived usefulness Feeling of flexibility Feeling of security Active participation Feeling free for asking questions Instructor response time Perceived ease of use Parents’ satisfaction Belief in contribution to success Support for study habits Essence of counselling Note: *p<. perceived usefulness and instruction response time have significant but small affect compared to other predictors.038 t value 2. Furthermore.233.236* 7. These are perceived usefulness. **p<. p<. Furthermore.001 . those are relatively small affect compared to belief in contribution to success and perceived usefulness. Especially. results differed from each other. it was found that belief in contribution to success significantly predicted elearner satisfaction (β = . support for study habits. students. who think that online education is useful and promotes active participation during lessons as well as believe that it contributes their success are more satisfied on online education. active participation and belief in contribution to success. Conclusion Multiple regression analysis was used to test which student characteristics significantly predicted their satisfaction on online education.36.079 . Results of multiple regression analysis for girls are given in Table 3.571** 1. feeling of flexibility and security have positive influence on students’ satisfaction.190 -. active participation. variance in the outcome explained by predictors in the data of boys are higher than explained variance in girls’ online education satisfaction.599** -1. 58 . parents’ satisfaction and belief in contribution to success. instructor response time.01) as well as parents’ satisfaction (β = . p<.01). perceived ease of use. p<.567. Standardized coefficient (β) .199 .05. The results of the regression for girls illustrated the predictors explained 57. However. six are significant with p value less than . p<.8 % of the variance (adjusted R2 = . 420) = 52.940 1.294. active participation and belief in contribution to success have also relatively high influence on learners’ satisfaction. regardless of gender. Table 3. active participation. Those are perceived usefulness.083 . p<.314** 5.488 2.01) significantly predicted e-learner satisfaction. However. as did perceived usefulness (β = .01).05.030 1.268 .257. As expected.070* .01.01). Analyses were carried out with respect to gender.045 When looked at the table.233 .839** 4. Especially. Furthermore. When the results for boys and girls are compared.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference habits.061 .268.

Teaching Effectiveness In Technology-Mediated Distance Learning. flexibility and security of online education system have positive effect on male learners’ satisfaction. No. (2014). 14 Iss: 5. T. 197-219. W. 277-90. (2003). 255-64. 31. (1995). No. pp. Electronic Journal of E-Learning. 59 . & Davies.11. and Hackley. interface of online education system affects female students’ satisfaction because students who can use it easily are more satisfied. S. (1998). doi:10. R. 22. Vol. McIntyre.223 Webster.. 31. O. An experiment with WWW interactive learning in university Education. D.1016/j. (1997). 12 (2): 128-137.G. D. 255-64. pp. P. International Journal of Educational Management. Barber.R. Journal of Educational Computing Research.. F. F. pp. Different from boys.216 .2006. Bethesda. No. feeling of flexibility and security are significant predictors for male learners. getting response in time is very important for their satisfaction with online education system.G. -C. Taylor. Computers & Education. J. (1992). J. Students who think online education supports their study habits have higher satisfaction on online education. J. Kay.compedu. Also. It can be concluded that female students whose parents are satisfied with online education are more satisfied with the system. 1282-309 McIntyre. M. pp. Through A Glass Darkly ± What People Learn In Videoconferences? Human Communication Research. Sun. support for study habits. (2000) Critical success factors in online education. 8. Computers & Education. perceived ease of use and parents’ satisfaction are significant ones together with common significant predictors for girls. Empowering Knowledge-Building Pedagogy in Online Environments: Creating Digital Moments to Transform Practice. and Sproull. For girls. L. Vol.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference In addition to common significant predictors for boys and girls. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] Cetron. MD: World Future Society. An analysis of methods used to examine gender difference in computerrelated behaviour. Storck. S & Buchanan. pp. D. (1998). and Wolff. et al. What drives a successful e-Learning? An empirical investigation of the critical factors influencing learner satisfaction. and Wolff. (2007). instructor response time. P. & Lord. pp.R. Computers & Education. No. An experiment with WWW interactive learning in university Education. Moreover. 6.007 Volery. 40 No. Academy of Management Journal. Special report: 50 trends shaping the future.

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Brief biographies of the authors
Ayşenur Erdemir
Ayşenur Erdemir is currently pursuing PhD at the Department of Measurement and
Evaluation in Education, Gazi University. She has graduated from Middle East Technical
University with a degree of B.Sc. in Foreign Language Education and from Gazi University
with M.Sc. in Measurement and Evaluation in Education. As an English teacher, she was
employed for a private school in İstanbul/Turkey in between 2011 and 2012. She has been
working as a research assistant at the Institute of Educational Sciences, Department of
Measurement and Evaluation in Education, Gazi University, since 2013.
Derya Çavdar
Derya Çavdar is currently pursuing PhD at the Department of Measurement and
Evaluation in Education, Gazi University. She has graduated from Middle East Technical
University with a degree of B.Sc. in the Department of Elementary Mathematics Education
and from Gazi University with M.Sc. in Measurement and Evaluation in Education. As a
math teacher, she was employed for a public school in Turkey in between 2012 and 2013 and
then she was accepted as a Comenius assistant in Italy for one semester. She has been
working as a research assistant at the Institute of Educational Sciences, Department of
Measurement and Evaluation in Education, Gazi University, since 2013.
Vildan Bağcı
Vildan Bağcı is currently pursuing PhD at the Department of Measurement and
Evaluation in Education, Gazi University. She has graduated from Gazi University with a
degree of B.Sc. in Elementary Mathematics Education and from Gazi University with M.Sc.
in Measurement and Evaluation in Education. She has been working as a research assistant at
the Institute of Educational Sciences, Department of Measurement and Evaluation in
Education, Gazi University, since 2013.
Ergün Cihat Çorbacı
Ergün Cihat Çorbacı is currently pursuing PhD at the Department of Measurement
Evaluation in Education, Gazi University. He has graduated from Gazi University with a
degree of B.Sc. in Foreign Language Education and with M.Sc. in Measurement and
Evaluation in Education. As an English teacher, he was employed for a public school in
Şırnak/Turkey in between 2011 and 2012. He has been working as a research assistant at the
Institute of Educational Sciences, Department of Measurement and Evaluation in Education,
Gazi University, since 2013.


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Dariga Baktygereyeva
Public Speaking is a complicated and intricate process, main purpose of which is to inform,
teach, entertain or convince an audience to take actions. But, more often than not, an
audience doesn't perceive the information. This kind of outcome is a result of many factors,
with the key one being inability of a presenter to gain and hold attention of the listeners.
Inefficient presentation management and inability to structure a speech correctly and relate to
an audience lead to a poor delivery and enables listeners to acquire information.
This paper examines factors contributing to the audience experience, with special attention to
an interior monologue that a speaker has with himself and later shares with an audience.
Key words: monologue, audience interaction, perception, perspective.
Main Conference Topic: Education, Teaching and E-learning.
A speech is an act of expressing or describing thoughts, feelings, or perceptions by the
articulation of words. It's usually delivered in front of a group of people by an orator. A
speaker is expected to have a monolgue-speech that is aimed at influencing an audience.
However monologues are widely considered to be outdated and obsolete.
A monologue (from Greek monologos from mónos, "alone, solitary" and lógos, "speech") is a
speech presented by a singlecharacter, most often to express their mental thoughts aloud,
though sometimes also to directly address another character.
It’s widely recognized that there are three types of a speech: written, oral and interior. All the
types are interrelated, as you can see in the works of literature that are abound with dialogues
and speeches of orators, that are usually based on the written speeches. Both written and oral
speaking are triggered by the interior speech. An internal dialogue is a form of internalized,
self-directed dialogue: talking to oneself in silence. According to Vygotsky, Inner speech is
not the interior aspect of external speech - it is a function in itself. It still remains speech, i.e.
thought connected with words. But while in external speech thought is embodied in words, in
inner speech words dies as they bring forth thought. Inner speech is to a large extent thinking
in pure meanings".

Role and effect of a monologue in a speech
When there is a circumstance that is at odds with a concept of something a man begins to
think of changing circumstances to make them fit his perspective.
And what is the monologue of a speaker? In life, people always hold an internal monologue
or dialogue with those who are listening. Interior monologues are linked with the process of
assessment of surroundings and comparison of listener's and speaker's standpoints. So


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audience, though silent, is involved in a dialogue with the speaker. But how to make sure that
this dialogue has become purposeful and effective?
In the monologue an orator addresses his speech to the audience with the aim to influence
their minds and feelings. In essence, the monologue is also a process of active thinking and
problem solving. Moreover, when speaker introduces his thoughts as if he came up with
them at the moment of talking makes us believe in his sincerity.
And indeed, if he identifies and solves the problem together with the audience, searches for
reasons of specific behavior and actions; if he tries to relate to the audience emotionally, he
will hold an audience spellbound. Together with him the audience thinks, gains new
experience, comes to the conclusion and takes an action.
Excited emotional state during audience interaction drives the entire psycho-physical
mechanism of thoughts and feelings.
Therefore a monologue must contain different number of characteristic features:
 It is saturated with questions, the answers to which show a desire of a speaker to explain
the situation not only to the audience, but also to understand it himself, to solve the problem.
 Search activity creates assumptions, arguments, statements, evidentiary negation of
erroneous statements, etc.
 The process triggers images, associations, comparisons, that makes logical argumentation
especially tangible.
 Vivid images, analysis by comparing and contrasting, asking questions, exclamations in
the monologue are impossible without the use of certain speaking techniques.

Monologue as a new form of a dialogue
For a monologue to turn into a dialogue with an audience an orator should develop
techniques of verbal interaction: muscular freedom, attention, will, imagination, attitude,
humor, temperament, dialectical thinking, communication skills, etc.
It is very important to have a good imagination. The imagination creates an image of what
might happen and plays a significant role in speech making. We see pictures of imaginary
interior vision. For the ability to keep in mind these pictures one must train one's attention.
A speaker should be careful not only during the performance, but also in life itself. He should
observe surroundings to enrich a speech with vivid and colorful images and interesting and
important facts, which will make it memorable.
However, not all phenomena can strike a deep chord in the hearts of a speaker and listeners.
"Images" selected before the preparation, or as a result of communicating with an audience
must have "a personal significance".
It is found that the memories of the events that took place in the personal experience of a
man, cause him a strong reaction. However, do not be limited to only personally experienced
events and pictures. You should also incorporate facts that you have been told, what you read,
what you saw and what you are excited, pleased, or annoyed about. Images have to arise in
space and movement: you reconstruct a scene in detail, describing disposition of characters,
their actions, words and how he was perceived.

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This means that our perception of the reality is not static, but dynamic, in "motion".
But creation of images is not only visual perception of the subject. We perceive a situation or
an object with all the senses: sight, hearing, smell, touch, etc.The sensations received from a
particular object might not be the same: a feeling that at the moment acts stronger outstands
other feelings more clearly and sharply.
So, while describing life events, a speaker sees as the complex of feeling. Of course, he
selects images that could affect the audience. You should choose the facts and pictures that
will not leave an audience untouched. This enable a speech to have an emotional impact on
the listener.
Attitude of a speaker towards the stated material is an expression of his outlook and life
stance, and is the source of believes and values. The stance of a speaker on a particular topic
determines him as an individual.
An orator might seek answers to questions and immerse himself in a solution of any problem.
While describing a problem and searching for a solution he has an internal monologue aloud.
In that case, listeners begin to seek answers, to think, to solve problems with the speaker. He
attracts their attention to his own thoughts and engages them into the process of solution
In another case, conviction in the rightness of his judgments leads to the need to address the
audience directly, to share his views, and to see whether the audience agrees or disagrees
with him.
In the third case, he draws a discussed object as he sees it. The speaker uses images and
information prepared in edvance, but makes it look as if he comes up with them at the
moment of speaking.

Importance of pre-planning
A speech must look like a natural conversation that a performer has with an audience, rather
that pepared written essay. A speaker shouldn't just express his ready-made judgments,
findings, conclusions, but try to think, search and solve along with the listener right there and
Nevertheless, this doesn't mean that a speech shouldn't be pre-panned. Very often a speech
suffers from the lack of a clear structure and practice. An orator has to understand precisely a
purpose of a speech and the structure.
When a speaker starts to perform it is necessary to keep a conclusion in mind. Sometimes one
spend too much time introducing himself and his topic to an audience, or exploring it in the
main part. This might affect his performance, thus an orator might not have enough time to
develop his ideas and will simply rush into conclusion. Therefore a speaker has to have a
clear perspective and understanding of what he wants to accomplish at the given time.
The performance quality might also be affected by delivery flaws. Sometimes speakers start
to speak too emotionally and nervously, indicating a lack of knowledge of the perception
laws of public speaking. An itroduction should be designed to capture attention of an
audience. The basic tone of a speech has to be emotional, relatable and good-natured. In order
to avoid making this kind of mistakes one should first indicate own flaws and then try to
improve them. This could be achieved by self-analysis and constant practising.

Мастерство публичного выступления: Учеб. Hanfmann. This paper examined traits and approaches a speaker must possess. Public speaking.. Vygotskiĭ. Журнал «Собеседник православных христиан.. G.. S. E. 2.В. and as the outcome we came to the conclusion that a key component of a speech writing and delivering process is an interior dialogue. S. Страханов (1969). (2012). & Ножин. В. Т.. Е. 64 . Osborn. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH). when a speaker is able to share his feelings with an audience. & Vakar. She currently works as an instructor at Suleyman Demirel University. MIT press. Thought and language. She then gained her master’s degree in Interpreting and Translating from the Bath University. UK. Almaty. very often listeners do not perceive the information. L. & Osborn. Савкова. пособие. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Маркичева. З. one of them inability of a speker to build rapport with the audience. There are various factors that lead to this result. (1989). Brief biographies of the authors Dariga Baktygereyeva Dariga Baktygereyeva obtained her bachelor's degree from the Suleyman Demirel University in 2011. M. Kazakhstan. Знание. (1993). However. Б. А. This paper shows an importance of an interior monologue and self-analysis as a useful technique to gain listeners’ attention and make allow them to perceive the information to the fullest extent. И. Искусство оратора. (2000).MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Conclusion A monologue is an important part of a performance. Психология внутренней речи.

1988. Keywords: Teacher Efficacy.whereas they take part in activities and treat assuredly when they judge themselves talented for handling situations that would otherwise be threatening (Bandura. 1997. W. RMSEA=.1977). Tschannen-Moran. Stein & Wang.2014)It was Bandura who firstly state self-efficacy as person’s sensation and trust in his/her talents to achieve his/her goals (A. The teachers with a distinctive sense of efficacy are open to new notions and also much more enthusiastic to try out new methods to better fulfill the needs of their students (Berman et Abstract This study aims to analyze the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of Teacher Efficacy. A.078).1998). CFI=. White.Gkolia.Belias. Further study by Gibson and Dembo in 1984 stated that teacher efficacy is a 65 . df=321. Participants were 206 teachers of different district of Sakarya . 2012). Liau. .J. & Hoy.How much people will struggle and how long they will sustain in the face of obstructions and deterrent experience are determined by efficacy expectations (Bandura. Woolfolk Hoy. All findings showed that this scale is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring teachers’ tendencies for efficacy in instruction. reliability. 2006 .084. M.. NFI=. Lau & Chua. validity.Cerit ). confirmatory factor analysis Introduction Self-efficacy is an acceptance about what an individual can do against the judgement of one’s character. Tan. D. A.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Evaluation of Teacher Efficacy. Constructivist Instruction and Didactic Instruction in Educational Process Selim UYLAS Sakarya University selim_uylas@hotmail. SRMR=. Guskey. (Zimmerman & Cleary. The results of confirmatory factor analysis described that the 27 items loaded three factor and the three dimensional model was well fit (x²=787. 1977.1977)People are afraid and likely to refrain intimidating situations they believe overrun their coping skills. 1994.2014). Koustelios. NNFI=. IFI=. K. constructivist instruction and didactic instruction.. The believes of teachers in their capabilities to instruct learners and affect students performance are very vigorous indicators of eduational effectiveness (Bandura.87. 1988). Constructivist instruction. Y. Constructivist instruction and Didactic instruction Scale (TCDS) (Nie.91. A.92.and they are also motivated to show greater planning and organization Allinder.

T. as a prepondered theory of learning. 66 .B. Nie & S. Waco. K.B. has recieved so much attention in educational innovation worldwide.H. apply sociablely negotiated task ( Y. 2000. K. Learning’s psychological theories have long affected educational practises. teachers’ acceptance of innovation. Nie .Lau. It has been described as ‘’ Teacher efficacy is the degree that the teacher think s/he has the capability to influence pupil success ’’(Berman. and their behaviours toward teaching. intensified through drill and practice (Y. 1998).. M.2008).however.2012). Utilizing constructivist concepts of recognising and learning. Waco. Construction of knowledge may be done via cognitive processing by the individual learner and social transaction by negotiation and interplay with others through langauage (Y.2008).2008) . K. J. Different from this. 1992). L. Tan . H. Y.Lau.H. Nie & S. A. Lau .2000). teacher ability.1996. 1992). Y. Didactic instruction concentrate on transfering of information as indicated in curriculum and textbooks.. 1996b. Tan .1989. Tschannen-Moran.H. their being open to recent notions. student motivation.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference ‘’belief that instructor can support or infuse the most difficult or unmotivated students’’(T. W. Nie & S. M. constructivism. It is progressively realized that common teacher-orriented didactic aproaches to teaching might not utilize and enhance learners’ competence to be effective. (Tschannen-Moran.1997 ). A.Even though there is a long historical strain between the information-transfering model and the information construction model of learning. Chua. K. the learnerorriented consructivist approaches for teaching have been recomended in instructional novelties worldwide (e. 2012). Woolfolk Hoy. Constructivisim’s roots may be based on the writtings of the eighteenth-century’s little known philosepher Giambattista Vico who supposed that a learner wise up just cognitive structure s/he has constructed (von Glasersfeld. L. Gabel. Brunner (1996) ‘’helping young people to utilize the instrument of meaning-making and reality establishing to better adapt to the world in which they devise themselves and to assist in the process of changing it as required (Brunner. and reflective self-directed students in a novelty-centered and rapidly developing world. Guthrie et al. . Nie . 1992). strain in essence has constantly compromised in practice (Berliner & Calfee. learning of student concentrate on the inactive acceptance of information. & Hoy.G. L. et al.Lau. A. In spite of different definitions. S. Liau . 2012).. Liau . L. Waco. L.. Hacker and Tenent 2002. & Hoy. Woolfolk Hoy. H.g. Lau . It is emphasized that teacher efficacy is related to teachers’ attitudes in classroom. The best part of constructivist would also accept that the conventional aproach to information transfering model-support neither the interplay between previous and new knowledge nor the conversation which are required for internalization and deep comprehention (Virginia Richardson. 1977. Liang & D. S.1996. W. Newmann et al. Chua. Watson. In recent years. a great deal of educaters recommend that education should retain learners in information construction in exact-world conditions. It is accepted by most constructivist approaches that constructivism is a learning or meaning-making theory (Virginia Richardson. A.G.1997 ).1998). Many studies shows that teachers’ perception on efficacy to be substantially depend on student success (T. imaginative. and theachers’ classroom management strategies (Woolfoik and Hoy 81. it is widely accepted that teacher efficacy is concerned with such factors as student success.

and also the required permission to adopt the scale has been obtained.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Method Participants 206 teachers took part in this research. Teacher Efficacy. Constructivist instruction and Didactic instruction Scale analyzed with the techniques of internal consistency and testretest. Procedure For utilizing the scale to adapt into Turkish the communication has been set with Nie via email who developed the scale. Constructivist instruction and Didactic instruction Scale has been translated into Turkish by five English teacher that are expert in their branches. It is seen that partipants’ ages are more frequent at the level of 20-30 ages.Then.Later the Turkish form has been obtained.For structure validity. The reliability of Efficacy. Their ages ranged from 20 to 51. 67 .and the translation has been analyzed and the required regulation has been done. the Turkish form has been examined according to meaning and grammar and also the required regulation has been done.confirmative factor analyse (DFA) has been done. on the other hand factor analysis has been examined with adjusted factor total correlation. Before starting to study of validity and reliability the structure validity of Efficacy. Constructivist instruction and Didactic instruction Scale has been analyzed as validity study. 110 female and 96 male participants were involved in the study.

452 17 Öğrencilerinizden ne sıklıkla uzun süreli projelerde çalışmalarını istersiniz ? .566 8 Öğrencilerinizin öğrenmeye değer vermelerini ne kadar iyi sağlayabiliyorsunuz ? .470 Öğrencilerinizden yeni bir bilgi oluşturmalarını ne sıklıkla istersiniz ? (ögeleri anlamlı bir bütün haline getirme .563 15 Öğrencilerinizden ne sıklıkla dersteki fikirleri günlük hayatta uygulamalarını istersiniz ? .600 9 Çalışmalarına ilgisiz olan öğrencileri ne kadar iyi motive edebiliyorsunuz ? .475 Öğrencilerinizi ne sıklıkla var olan bir fikri sorgulamak ya da bu fikre karşı mücadele etmek için 18 19 20 21 .521 .495 14 Öğrencilerinizden ne sıklıkla sınıf arkadaşlarıyla bir fikir tartışmalarını istersiniz ? . eğitimin gelecekteki önemini anlamalarını ne kadar iyi sağlayabiliyorsunuz ? .537 12 Öğrencilerinizden bilgiyi değerlendirmelerini ne sıklıkla istersiniz ? (kriter ve standartlara dayalı görüş oluşturur ) .387 5 Yaramazlık yapan öğrencileri ne kadar iyi yönetebiliyorsunuz ? .558 cesaretlendirirsiniz ? Öğrencilerinizden ne sıklıkla organizasyon ve entegre bilgi gerektiren bir görev yapmasını istersiniz ? Özgün cevapları ne sıklıkla desteklersiniz ? .412 6 Etkili sınıf yönetim yöntemlerini ne kadar iyi oluşturabiliyorsunuz ? .409 4 Eleştirel düşünmeye teşvik edici soruları ne kadar iyi oluşturabiliyorsunuz ? .49 Öğrencilerinizin öğrenme ihtiyaçlarına uygun en iyi öğretim stratejilerini ne kadar iyi 3 kullanabilyorsunuz ? . yeni bir örnek oluşturmak için ögeleri tekrar organize etme. Table 1.492 7 Olanak sağlayıcı öğrenme ortamı oluşturabilmek için sınıf kurallarını ne kadar iyi oluşturabiliyorsunuz ? .573 13 Öğrencilerinizden ne sıklıkla derin fikirleri keşfetmeleri istersiniz ? .449 11 Öğrencilerin. Item-Total Correlation for the Turkish Version of Scale (Turkish version of the scale) Items Item-Total Correlations (rjx) 1 Zor konuları öğretmek için benzetmeleri ne kadar iyi kullanabiliyorsunuz ? .530 16 Öğrencilerinizden ne sıklıkla cevaplarının ayrıntılarına girmelerini istersiniz ? .421 10 Öğrenme becerileri azalan öğrencilerin özgüvenlerini tekrar ne kadar iyi oluşturabiliyorsunuz ? . ) 68 .33 2 Öğrencilerinizin anlayabilmesi için zor kavramları ne kadar iyi anlatabiliyorsunuz ? .520 .MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Results Item-Total Correlations for the Turkish Version of the scale are displayed on Table 1.

RMSEA=.92.87.361 .427 25 Öğrencilerinize temel gerçekler ve işlemler üzerine ne sıklıkla tekrar ve pratik yaptırırsınız ? . That is to say.467 24 Öğrencilerinizden çalışma kitaplarını ve kağıtlarını yapmalarını ne sıklıkla istersiniz ? .078).19. As a conclusion. Furr and Bacharach (2008) offered that CFA provides investigators to measure the degree to which their assessment hypotheses are consistent with the factual data of the scale.538 Construct Validity Confirmatory factor Analysis is clearly useful for the investigators to handle apparent hypotheses about a scale like the number of the factors or extents underlying its items.398 23 Öğrencilerinizden bilgiyi hatırlamalarını ne sıklıkla istersiniz ? (Uygun bilgiyi hafızadan çağırma ) .91. IFI=. NNFI=.505 26 27 Öğrencilerinizden ne sıklıkla çalışma kitaplarını okumalarını ve altlarını çizmelerini istersiniz ? Öğrencilerinizden ne sıklıkla çalışma kitaplarından bilgi tespit etmelerini istersiniz ? .MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference 22 Müfredattan ziyade öğrencileriniz için kişisel anlam taşıyan derslere ne sıklıkla odaklanırsınız ? .1: Factor Loadings and Path Diagram for the scale 69 . SRMR=. NFI=.92.1 Figure 1. df=321.084. investigators evaluate ‘’measurement hypothesis’’ in terms of scale’s internal structure by means of CFA. confirmatory factor analysis showed that the three-dimensional model was well fit (x²=787. between definite items or certain factors and the link between factors. CFI=. Factor loadings and path diagram for Turkish version of scale are displayed in Figure 1.

It was also stated that the factorial validity of the scales were good. Thus.36. and displayed good model-data fit: χ2(61. Conclusion This research aimed to adapt the Teacher Efficacy.91. The outcomes of confirmatory factor analysis showed that 27 items loaded on three factors and the three-dimensional model was well fit (x²=787. It is seen in the Daugherty’s study (2005) results of multivariate analysis of variance showed that there were group differences between educational level and years of experience 70 .92. Three-factor confirmatory factor analysis was carried out. Liau. the structural model of this scale consisting of three factors can be said that it was appropriately suited to the Turkish culture. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the factor form was fit with the factor form of the original scale. df=321.Nie and S. and Didactic instruction scale adapted from Nie and Lau (2010).90 for constructivist instruction. They applied the Constructivist and Didactic Instruction scale to students. and Nie and Lau (2010). (1996a).90 for whole scale. Constructivist instruction scale adapted from Hamilton et al. IFI=. (1999).30 (Büyüköztürk. taking into account this item total correlations having a value of . N = 2139) = 1763. The result showed that constructivist teaching was a remarkable affirmative predictor of students’ profound processing strategies. and . CFI=. Lau & Chua (2012). RMSEA=.87.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Reliability The Cronbach’s Alpha internal consistency reliability coefficients of the scale were calculated as .084. It was stated in the original of the study that Cronbach’s alphas of the scales which were used in the study were . Lau studied in 2008 in Singapour to examine the relation of constructivist and didactic instruction on students’ motivational.19. Newmann et al. task value and self-efficacy and achievement of English .92. . (2003). The original scale was constructed with the combination of three scales by Nie.77 for didactic instruction.949. NFI=. 2010). Y. The internal consistency reliability coefficients of the scale were high.046. cognitive and achievement results in English classrooms.Mullis (2000).92 for self-efficacy scale. Constructivist instruction and Didactic instruction Scale into Turkish and analyze its psychometric attributions. Teacher Efficacy Beliefs Scale (OSTES) which was developed by Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk Hoy (2001). RMSEA=. Smerdon et al.078). TLI=. Tan. CFI=. On the other hand didactic intsruction was a remarkable affirmative predictor of students’ superficial processing strategies and a negative predictor of English achievement . NNFI=.954. SRMR=.

and reflective self-directed students in an innovation-oriented and swiftly changing world. That is to say. They also showed that teachers at younger educational levels had a tendency to offer higher levels of teacher efficacy.G.and also with cognitive. It is progressively realized that common teacher-oriented didactic aproaches to teaching might not utilize and enhance learners’ potential to be effective. It can be understood by the definition of Richardson (1997) that constructivism is a learning or meaning-making theory.They support that Constructivist Learning Based Curriculum should be appropriate to daily life. It was indicated with overall findings that this scale had high validity and reliability scores and that it can be used as a valid and reliable instrument in order to define the individuals’ tendency to Teacher Efficacy.the learner-centered consructivist approaches for teaching have been recomended in instructional innovations worldwide (e.2011). Differently from this. Tan . In his study Yesilyurt points out that according to views of the teacher candidates it has been identified that the goals in the Constructivist Learning Based Curriculum should be suitable with the level of students’ revelance and needs.2007). Nie . The other one is that the representative was composed of teachers restricting the findings to be generalized.affective.curriculum should be specified by students (Yesilyurt.teachers with higher level of self-efficacy are open to innovations and don’t hesitate to be renewed. H. Some limitation are there in this current study. S. Also.B. psychomotor developing levels of the students.. These analyses demonsrated that instructors with more years of experience had a tendency to offer higher levels of teacher efficacy. Teacher training programmes should be reviewed and teacher candidates should be trained in the form of constructive instruction (Arslan. 1996b. Partnership for 21 Century Skills 2009. Some correlations may be clarified with a larger sample size and so it may increase the validity of the findings. L. Liau .MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference with respect to teachers’sense of efficacy. One of the limitations is the sample size of the present study. 2000. Additionally. Y. 2012). K.imaginative. Newmann et al. 71 . carrying on this research in different countrified areas of Turkey might indicate whether these outcomes could be universalized to a wider population. Hacker and Tenent 2002. These studies show that experiences on the job and educational level have an impact on teachers’ self efficacy. That’s why it may be important to check up on the relationship of these variables with another sample groups. Guthrie et al. further studies should check up on the same questions with a larger group. A.g. Lau . Chua. Arslan defines that the success of the programme depends on the capability of the practitioner.

D.. The roles of teacher efficacy in instructional innovation: its predictive relations to constructivist and didactic instruction. Liang & Dorothy L. A. B. Constructivist teaching and teacher education: Theory and practice.. (2014). Y... (2008). Eğitimde Kuram ve Uygulama [3] E. future studies using TCDS are important for its measurement effectiveness. Educational Research for Policy and Practice [9] Richardson. H. European Scientific Journal. & Koustelios. H. (1997). (2001). Lau. Öğretmen Öz-Yeterlik Ölçeğinin Geçerlik Ve Güvenirlik Çalışması Ve Sınıf Öğretmeni Adaylarının Öz Yeterlik İnançları. Nevertheless.Yesilyurt. Teaching and Teacher Education [12] Waco .S. [8] Nie. S. A. (2007).(2014). 10(22) [5] Ling L.. W.Y. A.(2012). (1997).J. M. Tan.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Constructivist instruction and Didactic instruction. An Investigation of Teacher Efficacy: Understandıngs. The Relationship Between Teacher Efficacy. (2013).(1977). An Evaluation of the Views of Teacher Candidates on the Development of a Constructivist Learning Based Curriculum [4] Gkolia. Teacher's Job Satısfactıon And Selfeffıcacy: A Revıew. 3-14.. V. Belias. Y. Certification. & Hoy.. Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change [2] Cerit.and Student Achievement [13] Watson. [10] S. (2005). Differential relation of constructivist and didactic instruction to students’ cognition. Constructivist Approaches in Education [7] Nie. Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teacher Efficacy and Its Relation to Teachers’ Behaviors in the Classroom [11] Tschannen-Moran. A. Practices. motivation and achievement. Support for Learning [14] White. & Chua.Arslan. G. (2011). Constructive Instruction and Learning Difficulties. Daugherty. J. Constructivist teacher education: Building a world of new understandings. K. (2010).A. & Lau. Gabel. Effectiveness of a Constructivist Approach to Science Instruction for Prospective Elementary Teachers [6] M.A. Liau. (2000). L. References [1] Bandura. G.T.and The Impact of Professional Development as Perceived by Elementary School Teachers 72 .

cognitive or sensitive problems. Faculty of Education e-mail: haticecansuyilmaz@gmail. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of the multisensory storytelling with constant time delay procedure on the improve of listening comprehension of the student with multiple disabilities include visual impairment. it is handled listening comprehension that one of the important literacy skills. Faculty of Education e-mail: ulger06@gmail. smelling and tasting learning as well as the auditory and visual learning during the reading activities and also they actively attended to learning environment. Multisensory Storytelling. you can 3: Gazi University. you can touch. Multiple Disabilities 73 .com Literacy may be one of the most important skills for enhancing quality of life. In this study. Faculty of Education e-mail: mepsafak@gmail. you can hear. multisensory storytelling provided with constant time delay procedure has been found that all of the students improved listening comprehension of the story. Three participants had both are visually impaired and have an additional disability (autism).MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Using Multisensory Storytelling (MSST) to Increasing Listening Comprehension for Students with Multiple Disabilities Include Visual Impairment (MDVI) Pınar Şafak 1 Hatice Cansu Yılmaz 2 Pınar Ülger Demiryürek 3 1: Gazi University. The story is based on Fuller's Bag Books. This aim was evaluated via a multiple probe design across participants. you can even taste. These are stories you can see. Using mmultisensory storytelling. "Multisensory stories" are one of the materials that addresses to more than one 2: Gazi University. Students with severe and multiple disabilities have challenges about literacy due to their physical. children can utilize tactile. In order to eliminate this learning problems need using adapted materials and systematic instruction in special education services to the children with multiple disabilities include visual impairment. kinesthetic. aged between 12-15 have attended to the research. At the end of the research. Multisensory stories may be defined as the stories which are told by focusing on the social interaction and sensory experiences that are organized on an individual basis for the individuals who have a profound mental disability and/or multiple disabilities. The readings materials which are made suitable to the learning characteristics of children with profound and multiple disabilities just as the children with regular development support them to participate in the activities basing on the reading that supported their cognitive and communicational skills in a more active manner. Keywords: Special Education. This challenge is more serious for especially students with severe intellectual disabilities with additional visual impairment. Then they were developed by PAMIS. Simply we can be defined as stories that we experience with all our senses.

Research data were collected using the Turkish version of Self-concealment Scale. and Satisfaction with Life Scale. Brief Sensation Seeking Scale.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Mediating and Moderating Role of Sensation Seeking in the Relation between Self-concealment and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents Eyüp ÇELİK Sakarya University The present research aimed to explore the mediating and moderating role of sensation seeking in the relation between self-concealment and life satisfactionin adolescents. whereas sensation seeking was positively related to life satisfaction. Furthermore. the relationship between life satisfaction and self-concealment was moderated by sensation seeking. According to this result. 74 . The result of the regression analysis demonstrated that the association between self-concealment and life satisfaction was suppressed by sensation seeking. These scales were completed by 403 adolescents aged 13–15 years. life satisfaction is indirectly influenced by self-concealment via sensation seeking in adolescents. Results demonstrated that self-concealment had a negative relation with life satisfaction.

thanks to the majority bad social situation and a higher unemployment rate. who gradually acquired German citizenship. which is led by the Federal Office for Migration and Abstract: This study deals with the problems of education of Turks in Germany. (Opened European Academy of Economics and Policy (OEAEP). Prague 7. Czech Republic. in the year of 1961 it was 6 800. This signifies the overall relevance of this topic for a wider 75 . labor migrants. Old Länder). In 1938 about 3. The problem begins here with large reluctance of Turkish families to give their children to nurseries. lived in Germany in the year 2013 2 793 000 Turks. but who were supposed to come and go. Turkey. but they have not been officially recognized by the state as an ethnic minority yet. most of them remained and are still living in Germany. There is probably more people with this origin in Germany. out of which 1 549 808 lived in that year on the territory of the former Federal Republic of Germany (ie. respectively in some neighborhoods of these cities. [1] Turks were originally supposed to be only the people. it is spoken about up to three million. Teaching and E-learning. Yet the research shows that it is important for the Turks that their children dominated German language. Thanks to numerous studies and expertise issued on this subject recently there are identified some key issues in the integration of Turks. education. Similarly problematic are also their language skills. (LKRABEC@seznam. 286/38. one of which important is the question of their education. i. Turks thus represent a vital and influential group of German population. These people came to Germany in large part as "gastarbeiter". Introduction: According to recent statistics. However. [2] Due to their number. It shows that the Turks have. it is a great problem of contemporary integration policy of the Federal Republic of Germany.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Education problems of Turks in Germany Lukáš Krabec Krabec L. this did not happen. but also. [3] The number between 20 and 30 thousand of immigrants from Turkey every year is typical for each year. Germany. In the same year 33 246 Turks immigrated to Germany. for example. Argentinska str. Keywords: Turks. People considered as Turks are people with Turkish backgrounds and origins.300 Turks lived in Germany. Main Conference Topic: Education.e. which is another big barrier to integration. significantly worse conditions for obtaining quality education. Thus it is evident when there was the largest increase in their number. who were expected to work for a shortterm or even a long-term. Faculty of Pedagogy. In 1971 it was 652 000 and ten years later it was 1 546 000. due to the high concentration in some cities..

which in statistics means that they are no longer registered as Turks. have no basis in factual numbers of displaced persons. the study will focus on naming some of the major integration challenges faced by the members of this minority and the third chapter will fully concentrate on the main theme of this study. 1. It is known that since the year 2000 all children born in Germany automatically get German citizenship.75 million foreigners. An interesting fact is that. In the second chapter. Indeed. unemployment and discrimination. [10] Current problems of integration policy against Turks The study of the Berlin Institute for population and its development from the year 2009 identified those foreigners who are of Turkish origin as the worst integrated group of 76 . [6] From various studies it is evident that about one third of Germany's Turks is considering in a different intensity that they would like to return to Turkey. Currently there live 6. Turks in Germany . then they are seen as people with German and Turkish nationality. however. The statistics count Kurds as Turks because the authorities consistently do not distinguish Kurds as nationality. According to the statistics. especially since the year 2005. [1] This then leads to this reduction in the number of Turks.000 people permanently moved back to Turkey. The first part will bring the basic characteristics of the population of Turkish origin living in Germany. In other words. in the long term Turks represent about one quarter of all foreigners living in Germany. set aside between 500 000 to 800 000 Kurds who live here. But even if we. but this does not correspond with the reality. at this time experienced unprecedented economic growth. There are really a lot of problems. it does not lead to any fundamental change in their behavior patterns. there is a reduction in the number of Turks in Germany. The most frequent reasons for this move were. which are the current problems of education of Turks in Germany. the big question is to what extent it can be thus strictly differentiated between persons of Turkish origin and persons without German citizenship.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference context of social sciences.739 million Turks. we will focus here mainly on education. out of the total number of Turks which we mentioned in the introduction. it is still clearly the largest group of foreigners who live in Germany. [7] [8] These results. especially from a sociological perspective. For the fact is that even after these people eventually acquire German citizenship. [4] Turkey. there is a higher number of those who return to Turkey. moreover. so these people were offered a certain perspective. The statistics show that between 2007 and 2011 193. If they are described as a part of the category of "foreigners". according to the surveys of the foundation Education and Scientific Research (Tavak). including pedagogy.basic characteristics Official statistics and census understandably devote to the number of Turks in Germany.

now regardless of their age group. there is evidently a growing number of persons who are in Germany either already integrated or who want to integrate here. for example. however. For example. [1] [10] Turks consider Germany less and less as their home. for example. according to the Federal Office for Political Education it shows that "the Turkish population in Germany" presents such a heterogeneous group "that creating some balance for the integration of this group is virtually impossible. from a survey of the Institute Info GmbH which recently interviewed 10 000 Turks. but also from other studies. The main reason for 63 percent of those who plan to go back is the belief that Turkey is their homeland and that they belong there. Turks want to work in Germany and secure a good living here. This. there is certain ambivalence when a considerable part of them wants to integrate. on the other hand. From this study. 18 percent of them believe that the Jews are "inferior people". who are less than 30 years old. For 68 percent of them. the Turks themselves point to religious intolerance which they are faced by the German majority. a large number of them declared that they were attacked for their ethnic origin. for 45 percent home is both Germany and Turkey. [12] For 72 percent of them only Islam is the right religion. What is interesting here is that among the youngest ones up to the age of 30 years this proportion is doubled and reaches 64 percent. the distribution of the Koran among Turks. [9] [1] The results of this study are somewhat torn. As many as 79 percent of them see Germany as a very open country. however. it is necessary to distinguish between the state and the religion. For this age group it is interesting that two-thirds of them support. 77 . [2] According to the recent research. is between 40 and 45 percent.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference foreigners into German society. With age there is growing sense of alienation. who describe themselves as solid members of the Muslim faith. Further studies came to similar results. On one hand. but others strictly reject it and emphasize the religious differences which stand in the way of such integration tendencies. Between 2009 and 2013 this opinion doubled. Only 15 percent feel here to be at home. 25 percent regard as inferior atheists and 8 percent Christians. is around 37 percent." There are also serious concerns about whether the Turkish population and its Muslim diaspora are capable of integration. In contrast. is again only one side of the coin: at the same time. also the Turks often dream of going back to their homeland. on the other hand. 87 percent express an opinion that the local community should take more into account cultural and mainly religious specifics of Turks. The positive thing is that the strongest perception of Germany as their home country is with the youngest generation of Turks. 55 percent of them believe that more mosques should be built in Germany. only 6 percent want to move there and work there. but at the same time the proportion of those who reject it increases. including savings. It emerges. however. Another interesting thing is the way Turks assume an attitude to their integration. Thus we see that it is the religion which is the strong ingroup sign of their belonging. [12] These discussions are then guided precisely with regard to the integration abilities of Muslims. The study pointed at two rather disturbing findings: on one hand. After all. For more than half Turkey is the clear choice for spending their retirement. from 8 percent to 16 percent. The proportion of those people. If we look at Turks in the age group under 30. then they plan moving to Turkey to retire. the proportion of those Turks who are considering this.

however. 78 . The problem however remains that it is still a relatively high proportion of Turks who do not send their children to nurseries. Currently. this number reduced to 29 percent. or they do not speak it at all. it is something of a paradox. considerably more often than Germans. Three out of four of them want to be a part of the German public. In matters of discrimination it showed that in 2010. [9] Their families have very low earnings and are. there are problems Turks have to deal with: it is high unemployment. In this way. This is also linked to higher unemployment. the research shows that a clear majority of Turks considers it vital their children learned German from childhood. as we have mentioned above. We are talking about the support of 95 percent who believe that children of Turkish people should attend kindergartens to be better sensitized to the German environment and German language.again a number of different studies and statistical indicators highlight them. beside the strong religious unity it is also evident the increase of their desire to integrate: 78 percent of them declare that they want to integrate here. and it should be noted that it is not the first one which appears in the attitudes of Turks. and similar numbers are also apparent in other parts of Germany. they do not prepare a good start to these children to school. It is even true that many Turks. but also a really minor relationship of Turks towards German schools. On the other hand. About 70 percent of Turks in Berlin finished elementary school or vocational school. Nearly two-thirds (62 percent) believe that. Another problem is the overall economic situation of Turks. a Turkish woman was married to a Turk. it was still experienced by 42 percent. it is 35 percent). Especially the middle and the oldest generation (men over 40) have the problem with the knowledge of German language. [13] The problem of education of Turks The area of education is a key prerequisite for the integration of Turkish residents into German society. for example. Half of Turks does not have any savings.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference From the surveys. On the other hand. These studies generally show that every fifth German Turk speaks German only at a basic level. dependent on welfare. However. these people are also educated on a very low level. They complained that because they look different they are cursed for it negatively. no matter what their citizenship is. however. From various reports of the German government. and if it applies again only to Berlin we find out that the proportion of unemployed Turks reaches 42 percent. did not seek or attend school to learn German at least on some communicative level. They do so even though they know that it is necessary. there is a growing proportion of those who believe that Turks should ideally be only with Turks. [13] So they do not know the basic means of communication. which should help to their integration. for about twothirds of them an ideal option is if. [11] Perhaps it is also a clear answer to the fact that their parents neglected it and see that ignorance of the language or bad knowledge is a barrier for getting a good job. About 40 percent of households and thus roughly the same number of people live below the poverty line. not to mention pension savings (in the case of Germans. Besides. Yet there appear many problems . [11] Only 8 percent of Turks agree with the fact that there should exist purely Turkish kindergartens for Turkish children. and that relates especially to men who came to Germany as “gastarbeiter”.

The problem in the Turkish minority in Germany is also the position of women within their communities.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Here. Illiterate people are not an exception. in this context. for example. Only 14 percent of Turks in Germany have the opportunity to study at university. and this is mainly due to bad knowledge of German language. and that is from 44 to 57 percent. For example now. even though it is obvious that with each new generation the situation improves. First. The third problem is a generally worse social situation of Turks in Germany which is a barrier to their further education. between 35 and 64 years. Besides. has increased between 2001 and 2006. even illiterates both in Turkish and German. Even a variety of integration programs does not help. the number is about 15 000. they can thrive. Another major problem. Education of Turks in Germany. respectively rather moderated only in a difficult way. they deprive them of the possibility to learn the German language in the preschool age and this problem then stretches throughout their subsequent studies at elementary school. it is probably their mistrust in the educational system in Germany. 79 . [10] Yet. [11] Conclusion Education of Turks in Germany is crucial for improving their life and social situation. is that the proportion of persons aged 25-35 years. but the result of this is that many of them do not send their children to kindergartens. must deal with these problems which are of a long-term character and which can be removed. ignorance of the language is also the second big problem of educating this population group. however. It is also determined by the fact that these children are not brought up in their families at least partly in German. numerous clichés about how they are in a subordinate role etc. who do not have at least vocational education. There are. only a small number of them studies in German universities. It is a negligible number which shows that higher education is virtually out of question for the Turkish population in Germany. which is long-term and poses a problem. This means they have completed appropriate secondary education. for example. Statistics. However. confirm that only to a certain extent. It is also an essential prerequisite for their integration into German society. only 35 percent have really good knowledge of the German language. These people actually lack some higher education in one of these languages. or there may be other reasons as well. Thus. The relationship between unemployment and those who do not have good language knowledge is then clear. there occur several problems. only a small number of the total is currently studying at universities. If we look at the first generation of women.

(2001). U.1 % mehr Einbürgerungen im Jahr 2012. Politische Entscheidungen und öffentliche Debatten in Großbritannien und der Bundesrepublik von den 1950er bis zu den 1970er Jahren. [6] Greiffenhausen. Weg aus Deutschland: Fast 200.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference References: [1] Baier. [8] Knortz. Fremde Heimat: Eine Geschichte der Einwanderung. Soziale Distanz und räumliche Nähe. Migranten-Studie: Türken sind mit Abstand am schlechtesten integriert. (2001): Geschichte der Ausländerpolitik in Deutschland. Schmidt. 147–194. Flü [5] Eryilmaz.deutsch-tuerkischenachrichten. Einwanderung und ethnische Pluralität. Essen: Klartext. Beck. „Wie geht man als Arbeiter nach Deutschland?“ In Eryilmaz.destatis.html 80 . (2008): Diplomatische Tauschgeschäfte. Online http://www. Köln: Böhlau 2010. A.. (2000). Jamin. M. Kinder und Jugendliche in Deutschland. „Gastarbeiter“ in der westdeutschen Diplomatie und Beschäftigungspolitik 1953-1973.). Zwangsarbeiter. [3] De Destatis (2013). s.html#Fussnote1. M. DOMiT. Gastarbeiter.000 Türken gehen in vier Jahren. Fremde oder Feinde? Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.. (1998). [4] Deutsch-Türkische Nachrichten (2013). Essen: Klartext. (eds. A. Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung. Online https://www. Wasmer.). H. 5. Zweiter Bericht zum gemeinsamen Forschungsprojekt des Bundesministeriums des Innern und des Kriminologischen Forschungsinstituts Niedersachsen. M. et al. [9] Schönwälder. Politische Legitimität in Deutschland. K. Hannover: Bundesministerium des Innern und des Kriminologischen Forschungsinstituts Niedersachsen. (2010). F. [2] Böltken. Saisonarbeiter. (1997). [10] SpiegelOnline (2009). München 2001. (eds. R. [7] Herbert. In Alba. Deutsche und Ausländer: 511. Online http://www. P.

html [12] die taz (2010).de/politik/deutschland/article7222075/Tuerken-sind-die-Sorgenkinder-derIntegration. Türken sind die Sorgenkinder der Integration.welt. Umfrage: Viele Deutsch-Türken fühlen sich in Deutschland nicht zu Hause.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference [11] SpiegelOnline (2012).spiegel. Online "Muslime sind nicht integrierbar".html 81 .taz. Online http://www. Online [13] Die Welt (2010). "Muslime sind nicht integrierbar".de/politik/deutschland/studie-zu-deutsch-tuerkenintegrationswillen-steigt-religiositaet-auch-a-850429. Online http://www.

online TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) certificate and master’s degree programs have increased profoundly to better address and meet the need for quality ESL and EFL teachers around the world.g. Yet online education potentially means anywhere/anytime learning. teaching position) while studying.. with the audience. and continued residence (Nunan.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference VOICES FROM FORMER TESOL DISTANCE EDUCATION GRADUATE STUDENTS Burcu Ates Sam Houston State University. As a program coordinator/advisor of an online master’s TESOL program and faculty who predominantly teaches online this presentation will share the voices of 22 graduates who completed a fully online TESOL master’s degree program at a university in the south central U. TESOL programs. Since online education is a quickly expanding area in MA/M. 2012). 2012). recent discussion has been geared toward helping faculty and students navigate this program.Ed. Through thematic analysis we found the overarching themes to provide recommendations that we hope not only future online TESOL students and faculty could take into consideration but others who are also involved in distance education.S. USA Abstract With the advancement of technology in the last decade. Practicing English language teachers may not always have the time and resources to take time off from work to enroll in a full-time master’s program (Garton & Edge. 82 . An open-ended question survey e-mailed to participants was used for data collection. continued employment (e.

1958). p. Dilek Ünal Sakarya University serhatarslan@sakarya. problem solving requires trying new strategies to obtain the result and eliminating those who are unsuccessful (Thornton. These problems are made up of the mental and behavioral activities. Further. the term of problem is argued by researchers. One of them is mental representation and second is activity-based manipulation of the problem space (Jonassen. desire. There are four elements of a problem. Problem solving is “any goal-directed sequence of cognitive operations” (Anderson. 1998).2000) Solving a problem is effectual in daily life and has a main role in psychological theories of intelligence (Sternberg. what we have at the beginning of the problem situation. Mayer. and behavioral components (Andre. 1983. it combines intelligence. handicaps for exact solution and operators. (Andre. 1986. cognition. 1980) which operations have two critical attributes. emotional or motivational components. Problem solving may involve thinking (cognitive) components.1994) claims that these skills not only transferable but also teachable to different contexts. 171). methods used for solving the problem. Since it is multidirectional. These are respectively: givens. A person wants to do something but can’t find any explicit way to make it real and this situation is defined as a problem (Newell & Simon. People encounters many problems in their daily and professional lives and they have to solve them so problem solving is the most significant thing in life. problem solving Introduction During recent years. 1985). (Norman. Why do some people get clever 83 . Yunus Akdeniz. our aim for end condition. There are many identifications of problem. 1998) claims that generalizable or transferable problem-solving skills cannot be taught but (Nathanson. Jonassen (2000) expresses that problem solving is a cognitive activity interested in problems in daily life. obstacles. The Creative cognition scale and Problem Solving Style Questionnaire were applied to 241 Gifted-Talented students. Problem solving is a skill that should be learned and obtained. According to results problem solving is positively related to creative cognition and the twodimensions of prolem solving predicted positively creative cognition.2000). emotions. and action in itself with creative (reflective) thinking (Bingham.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference The Relationships between Creative Cognition and Problem Solving Serhat Arslan. A problem is clarified as lacking the knowledge of accurate steps to get what you Abstract The current study’s aim is to look for the relation between problem solving and creative cognition. 1972). Problem solving is defined as the action of finding a way to deal with a problem (Wehmeier . 1972). goals. Researchers and educators have been debating in many fields if problem solving can be taught or not since the last century and an exact answer to this question is not found up to 1986. This relationship was investigated using correlation. The literature was taken in consideration while discussing the results. Keywords: Creative. Newell & Simon.

and Ward. Therefore they require different educational experiences (Kleine & Webb.1982. The gifted children are superior problem solvers. 1970: 1). Comparison.(Gorodetsky. 2015).Besides expressing individual talent zone. creativity is described as reflecting your own in everything as a work. 2004). Polat & Yaman. activity. personality and process (Savieski. Gifted children are at a higher level of personal maturity than their peers at similar stages of intellectual and emotional development (Hoeksema. creativity is affected many factors involving cultural structure. According to Sawyer (2006) creativity is a capability of creating a product that not only original but also useful. 2006). which mostly investigate problem solving abilities.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference ideas. focuses on combining different terms on common works (Ward. Creative cognition approach aims to improve the creative process percept by the means of methods and cognitive science and reach extensive.the expression of the creative thinking techniques. many researchers in different science branches describe creative cognition in different ways but a clear description cannot be done because creativity is an extremely complex term (Meissner. Researchers study on problem solving strategies of gifted children recently. Creative Cognition In the last century. These studies. 1992). Aydın. and get higher grades than the rest of the people. creative cognition that focuses on the underlying structure and scientific process is the most well accepted term. 1993). Even if there are plenty of approach to explain the complicated structure of the creativity term that compound of many factors. considerable problems may occur because people show lack of understanding or encourage for gifted children and sometimes they have inconstancy and contradiction to them (Webb & Kleine. While Slochower commenting bilaterally creative process as “inspiration with subconscious” and “symbolism with preconscious” (Yavuzer. thinks that every person without genetic problem.2003) Gifted children use Encoding.Q) tests. (Mayer. The general procedure is to analyze each problem into the cognitive skills needed for solution and then systematically teach each skill to mastery. Bahar. 1993). Sönmez (1993). 1983). 1995). concrete information about its formation and development by analyzing creativity in the process (Finke. is started to use and realist interview forms are improved to quantify the usage of creativity in the process (Moneta&Rogaten. Creative cognition oriented studies in education shows that the term is not an innate quality and it is possible to improve creative cognition features with a suitable education in a suitable environment (Emir. 1998. Craft (2003) explains creativity as a lifelong skill apart from art and describe creativity as “expressing yourself. and discoveries when they are faced with problems? What happens. They have Intelligence Quotient (I.However.Klavir.2003. Durmuş. Lubart & Sternberg. 1989) according to Maslow who is one of the humanist theorist. 1992). carries creative cognition features and it is 84 . 2004)In time. and Combination that are the three essential cognitive components responsible for the correct solution of comprehension problems (Sternberg & Davidson. make inventions. creative cognition . capacity of using intelligence and imagination. sometimes. what are the processes that lead to such solutions? What can be done to help people to be creative when they are faced with problems? (Luchins & Luchins. mental process is accepted as core and carrier engine of creative effort by numerous researchers (Sternberg. Gross. Ateş.Perhaps the most obvious way to improve problem solving performance is to teach the basic skills. There are some researchers who uphold the idea that everyone has a sum of creativity and the creativity level can be improved at varying rates (Beetlestone. 1998). Smith. However. which can be described as finding out extraordinary and useful products by means of performing basic cognition process to available information. Gifted children is different from same-age children comparatively in cognitive abilities. 1988). 2007).

0 33. IFI=. and reflection related positively (r=. 122 were male. Table 1.18) to creative cognition. Descriptive Statistics and Inter-Correlations of the Variables Creative Variables Concreteness Reflection Cognition Creative Cognition 1 Concreteness .MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference possible to improve these features by education. Convenience sampling technique reduces the external validity so it is not possible all the while to generalize the results of the study to the whole population. The current study’s aim is to look for the relation between problem solving and creative cognition.91. asserts creative persons’ imagination and original. is enough as a result of internal consistency analyses.8 SD 3. which was found 71 for high school sample.18** . It is thought that this scale is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used to evaluate creative cognition process for Turkish sample group in giftedtalented students. sd= 6. convenience sampling was used. The results of confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the 14 items loaded on two factors and the two-dimensional model was well fit (x²=146. 119 of them were female. NFI=. Procedure While selecting participants.057).94. Participants are selected in terms of their conveniency and accessibility by researchers in convenience sampling so it is a non-probability sampling technique. NNFI=. NNFI=. CFI= . logical and critical thinking skills differentiate and make them specific in terms of cognition.89.47** 1 Mean 20. (x2= 19.06. NFI= .096.8 5.32** 1 Reflection .15. AGFI=. df= 76.95.6 6. Overall findings demonstrated that this scale is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring GiftedTalented students’ disposition to problem solving process.40. extraordinary.09). Results Correlation analysis in Table 1 showed that two-dimensions of prolem solving predicted positively creative cognition.78 for the overall scale. Method Participants The sample of this study is made up of 241 Gifted-Talented students. RMSEA= 0.92. SRMR= . The results of item discrimination and confirmatory factor analysis showed that original one factor structure of the scale is appropriate for Turkish sample.92.4 85 . Concreteness related positively (r=.7 34. Students do not introduce themselves while completing the scales. The internal consistency coefficients was .96. RMSEA=. and SRMR=. Creative Cognition Scale: It is seen that reliability level of the test. Sak (2014).32).96.96. Instruments Problem Solving Style Questionnaire. CFI=. IFI= .

(1958). Improving Children’s Facility in Problem Solving (A. interpersonal-social intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence in the study investigating the relationship between multiple intelligence zones and creative thinking level of secondary school students. NY: Bureau of Publications. Columbia University. Besides. The positive correlation between creative cognition and problem solving isnot in line with the previous studies. 169-204). In G. problem solving is an important determinant of creative cognition. 86 . many of the mathematically gifted children give similar responses and they seem approximately the same in their problem solving approaches as students of average ability. References [1] Andre.(1998).).. Phye and T. Oguzkan. CA: Academic Press [2] Beetlestone. Su and Hu (2010) The “Enrichment Program for Cultivating Problem Solving Abilities and Multiple Intelligences for Gifted Preschoolers” (PSMIGP program) is applied to young gifted children in Taiwan in 3 years. D. Therefore. New York.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Conclusion The aim of the current study was to detect the relationship between problem solving and creative cognition. There are some limitations of this research and it is very crucial to explain them. Çalışkan and Yenilmez (2011) detected a positively meaningful but poor relation between creative thinking level and visual spatial intelligence. thinking. Teachers College. According to the results there is a positive relation between concreteness (r=. and reflection is related to creative cognition. They get the conclusion that the children whether gifted or not cannot get the pleasure of making progress unless they do not find and develop their potentials. Besides. Secondly. the findings are not generalizable since the study involves only a sample from gifted-talented students. San Diego. and problem solving (pp. Problem solving and education. Trans. As a result of this study. T. Philadelphia: Open University Press. A. If ddifferent demographic variables like gender. the variables of this research is supposed to be investigated.). and socio-economic status are taken into consideration in future studies on the link between creative cognition and problem solving. [3] Bingham. F.F. this study proposes a remarkable relationship between creative cognition and problem solving so findings are illustrative.32). Dealing with this perception. Threlfall and Hargreaves (2008)investigated the problem solving methods of mathematically gifted and older average attaining students with the special questions that written for mathematically gifted 9 years old as part of the World Class Tests Project. bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. musical-rhythmic intelligence. Andre (Eds. (1986). Maker. age. findings would be more generalizable. Cognitive classroom learning: Understanding. findings including educational studies about creative cognition and problem solving of gifted-talented students were investigated.Creative Children. First of all. Another research read up on by Kuo. ethnicity. Imaginative Teaching. it is need to be tested other samples in order to take the findings as definite. Hence.

C.B. M. Bahar. Early Years. U. J. Educational Psychology. Smith. J. T. [10] Gross. T. In Challenges in gifted education: Developing potential and investing in knowledge for the 21st century (pp. & Duffy. E. M. Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi. (1982). 63-72). Albany. Klavir / Learning and Instruction 13 (2003) 305–325 [18] Mayer. (1983). OH: Ohio Department of Education.. Cambridge. Finke (Eds. Identifying young gifted children and cultivating problem solving abilities and multiple intelligences. Öğretmen adaylarının yaratıcılık düzeyleri. Durmuş. D. (2003). ETR&D. (1970).T.S. 699-709 [7] Duff. 365-379 [15] Lubart. R. 20. . 63-85 [13] Kleine. Instructional Science. & Ward.A. R. (2002) Psychometric properties of Honey and Mumford’s Learning Style Questionnaire. H.C. Community links as resources.. [14] Kuo. (1993). . Hu.. A. Aydın. P. Gorodetsky. S. S.. [17] M. problem solving. 105–116. Wertheimer’s Seminars Revisited: Problem Solving and Thinking (Vol. A note on the problem solving style questionnaire: An alternative to Kolb’s learning style inventory. Creative cognition: Theory. S. Toward a design theory of problem solving. Identifying intellectual advancement in preschools.H. Exceptionally gifted children. ED 235 923. Ateş. M. & Sternberg. E.. (ERIC [12] Jonassen.& Luchins. F. F. (1995). (1998). Cognitive. Elsevier. Maker. 24:5. [5] Document Reproduction Service NO. 143– 54. & R.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference [4] Craft. H. (1992). & Yaman. A. & Webb. Creative thinking in the early years of education. Smith. 49-63 87 .. An investment approach to creavity: Theory and data. T.J. 147-163 [8] Emir. 1)...A. F. and motivational aspects of problem solving. M. [16] Luchins. (2000). A. Su. (1992).A. NY: State University of New York. (2004). S.. Personality and Individual Differences. M. A. 33. New York: Routledge. R. (2004). In S.) The creative cognitionapproach. and cognition.M. New York: Freeman [19] Mayer. [9] Finke. Polat. Ward. 26. Cambridge. L. 23(2). R. [6] Duff. Thinking. TB.metacognitive. 48(4) . E. Columbus. MA: MIT Press. R. C. M. MA: MIT. research and applications. [11] Hoeksema. 2 (9).

294-314. Gebze İleri Teknoloji Enstitüsü Sosyal Bilimler E nstitüsü. J. solving problems and problem- based learning. İlköğretim online. & Simon. 65-72.) (1988). . 279-284 [24] Reynolds. [27] Sak. M. [21] Nathanson. New York and London. Yaratıcı okul.A.(2014).U.). M. [31] Sternberg. (1998) . (2006). Children Solving Problems (O. Oxford. (1994). [29] Sawyer. Kumrular. 5 (1). Yayınlanmamış doktora tezi. R. A. 35 (3). (2006). [34] Threlfall. J. Development and validation of the short use of creative cognition scale in studying. Journal of Legal Education. S. S. Learning styles: a critique. Educational psychology. (2015). Cambridge. Management Learning. RJ. [26] Routledge Taylor&Francis Group. (Ed. R. 115-133 [25] Rogaten.. Creativity and mathematics education. Human problem solving. H. Medical Education. New York: Cambridge University Press [33] Thornton. K. The nature of creativity: Contemporary psychological perspectives. England: Oxford University Press. Yaratıcılık ve Eğitim. (1988). (1997).Beyond IQ: A triarchic theory of human intelligence. Hargreaves. GB. Trans. 19. öğretmen. Örgütsel yaratıcılığı etkileyen faktörler üzerine bir a raştırma. 83-98 88 . Yaratıcılık gelişimi ve geliştirilmesi.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference [20] Meissner. R. [30] Sönmez. The problem-solving methods of mathematically gifted and older average-attaining students. V. G. Explaining creativity: The science of human inno vation. NJ: Prentice-Hall [23] Norman.J. Metacognition in educational theory and practice . MA: Harvard University Press. (2004). [32] Sternberg. 28. (1972). 44 (2). Developing legal problem-solving skills. H. High Ability Studies. Problem-solving skills. &Moneta. Englewood Cliffs. ( 1985 ). 215-231 [22] Newell. Creative thinking. (2008) . (1998). New York: Atherton Press. öğrenci. Ankara: Türk Eğitim Derneği Yayınları. F. Ankara: Vize [28] Savieski. (1993). DC: Author. 22 (4).

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and catch up with the progressive world quickly and continuously. which is. According to the period of education reform in Thailand. Taking as the basis the use of exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM). 2003).Prof. the most crucial process of education reform depends on learning process. ICT enhances the individuals to be able to live a life in the knowledge society. Moreover. Therefore. such as. or ICT is currently playing the roles of education management in all levels. and qualities which can catch up with the changing world. ICT investment is emphasized by all countries which are trying to create the new society known as knowledge based society ( Abstract This study explores the relationship between learning management with ICT. ICT has been applied to the management and instruction which enhances the learners to get acquisition of knowledge widespread and be able to bring the external world to come into the class which opens the opportunity of massive information accessibility to the learners. Thailand in this education reform period is rushing to develop the education by focusing on the education which enhances the development of human to reach quality in order that they can help the country further. as well as storage or retrieval for various activities of education management. support people to learn by Non-Formal Education or Informal Education. the current world becomes the world without border. Keywords: Learning Management. to help people be able to access education. Therefore. Hence. Using ICT. & Numprasertchai. especially in terms of using technology for instructional support. Introduction Information and Communication Technology. Knowledge Conference topic: Teaching and Learning/ Educational Management 1. The research was conducted with 500 undergraduate students in Thailand. 90 . until the learners are able to get conclusion of new knowledge by their own called self-learning ability (Poosuwan. provide the information for administration and management. Faculty of Information and Communication Technology. 2014). and lead to the secure internationality by a crucial tool called information and communication technology (ICT).i@hotmail. increase speed and accuracy of information management and data analysis. 2002).MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference The Influence of Learning Management with ICT and Using ICT on ICT Knowledge of Undergraduate Students Asst. or the borderless world which can communicate to one another all of the time and places without any limitations. Ph. Apinya Ingard. Pheuk-Kong. Silpakorn University Apinya. & Machima. learning how to learn. This is in accordance with the learning theory based on constructivist helping the learners achieve skills. ICT is considered as a powerful tool which is able to increase the efficiency of educational management. Education institutes provide the using of materials through information and communication technology such as computer equipment to help the learning be able to respond the needs and improve the instructions to be more modern and efficient (Pantrakul. competences. the results substantiate the importance of learning management with ICT and using ICT as a determinant of knowledge about using ICT. Undergraduate Students. using ICT and knowledge about using ICT of undergraduate students in Thailand. With potentials of ICT.D.

and using internet for learning affects directly toward received knowledge. and synthesize to get the answers for creating knowledge bases using technology as an assistant tool. the interesting results discovered is that learning management with ICT affects the behaviors using ICT for learning (Ingard. publications. The instructor just help mentor the learning results to be in accordance with the desired standard and quality Hence the instructor plays the roles to guide the direction of knowledge seeking. and 5) generalization as new knowledge base. Research Objectives 2.1 To examine the key aspects of learning management with ICT and using ICT of undergraduate students. and followed by planning and determining the desired information or matters. which will help the involved such as parents. This should be considered as providing the basic factors to support the technology use in order to help learning. or solve the problems called Problem-Based Learning. the questionnaires that involved in this paper divided into 3 parts as follows: 91 . and electronic sources. or recommend the learners to develop and increase their competence and knowledge based on the standard and quality of learning results. Ingard proposed the research contribution about learning management by internet for high school students in Thailand that the behaviors of internet use affects directly toward using internet for learning. according to the previous researches. supporting. As well as. 2. and business organizations related to information and communication technology. i. the researcher realizes the essences of the study on relationship between learning management with ICT. 2015). Therefore. or improving and adjusting the guidelines of learning management with ICT to achieve more efficiency. 3) concept connection as rules by inductive method. 2) stimulus categorization as concept. education institutes. instructors. & Tongnua-nual.2 To study the influences of learning management with ICT and using ICT on knowledge about using ICT of undergraduate students. 2. Such basic factors include creating readiness of various instruments and equipment to reach capability and sufficient quantities toward the learners use. These kinds of learning is started by determining the theme of the story. then analyze. These will become the basic factors of the support toward using technology for learning. In addition. as well as facilitating the learners to be able to access the use of technology all the time. 4) rules and principles application by deductive method. for the higher education students. and in 2010. Ratanasachol. The instructor might organize the lists of sources got from documents. in order to have the information about learning management with ICT. 3. The questionnaire used in this study is enclosed questionnaire where each question has been accompanied by an alternative answer already prepared.e.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Using technology for intellectual skills development which consists of 1) stimulus cognition. and find knowledge interested by the learners. using ICT and knowledge about using ICT of undergraduate students in Thailand. use these as guidelines for planning. names of various websites in order to let the learners search information. Method Instrument The data required in this study were obtained by the researcher through primary data in the form of questionnaires and secondary data in the form of documentation. policy makers. shows that using technology to develop the competency of problem solving on learning focused on learners centered has to design the instructional plan by letting the learners have opportunity to seek for knowledge based on the provided curricula.

They introduced that the researcher would not factor analyze a sample of fewer than 50 observations. Then the reliability was analyzed by Alpha’s Cronbach coefficient. and East of Thailand. There are 14 question items in 5 levels of rating scale. 2013). Anderson. The weighted score is counted from 0 . Content validity of the questionnaire was checked. Data analysis In this study exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) were applied in the current study to understand in accordance with research objectives. Tatham (2006) recommended a sufficient sample size derived from the entirety of usable questionnaire. Results 4. The weighted score is counted from 0 score which means the performance is never done per week. we used data from 100 observations for seeking answers of the first research objective. South of Thailand.4 score which means the knowledge is at the 0 (minimum score) to 4 (maximum score).MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Part 1: The questionnaire about learning management with ICT. In sum. There are 3 aspects:1) using programs for communication. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with varimax rotation was employed to survey data to identify the dimensions of key constructs of the conceptual model. Intentionally. and the possible answers. a sample was selected using a multi-stage sampling method from 5 regions. There are 18 question items in 8 levels of rating scale. it can be concluded that a sample size of 500 cases should be appropriate for the study. and another data from 100 observations used for seeking answers of the second research objective. to 5 scores which mean the opinion is at the much level or strongly agree. included 17 question items in 5 levels of rating scale. specifying the questionnaire framework and the operational definition.000 as outstanding for conducting studies. The weighted score is counted from 1 score which means the opinion is at the little level or strongly disagree. and 3) searching information and using databases. 300 as good quality. Babin. drafting questions according to the operational definition to cover all elements. to 7 scores which means the performance is every day. center of Thailand (Bangkok). The result of each item was statistical significance with the level of 0. The subjects were 27. Part 3: The structured questionnaire about knowledge about using ICT. 1 score which means the performance is at one time per week.905.5. and preferably the sample size should be 100 or larger. Sample procedures The target population participated in the research study was undergraduate students in public universities in Thailand.1 results of the first research objective: To examine the key aspects learning management with ICT and using ICT of undergraduate students. 500 as great and 1. The important assumptions of factor analysis were 92 . Black. having working group with 3 experts to consider the improvement and selection of the items and piloting with 90 undergraduate Silpakorn University students (these students were not the sample group) to test the use of language. North of Thailand.395 students who were in the fields of science-technology (Office of the Higher Education commission. To test power of discrimination. 4. Part 2: The questionnaire about using ICT for learning. and large sample size for structural equation modeling (SEM) technique. Factor Analysis with exploratory used for the objective. Hair. 200 as fair. From this population. Based on the previous review about sample size. in the academic year 2013. There were studying of theories and related research studies. t-test was used. Northeast of Thailand. found that sample size of 100 as being poor.891 and . This showed that the research instrument reached the standard criteria. the result was between . clarity of items. 2) using computer programs.

.709 answers through using ICT equipment. or practicing various skills.694 . .711 equipment. Black.705 The university supports the instructor to instruct using ICT equipment for instruction. Learning management with ICT Table 1: Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) of undergraduate students’ learning management with ICT in the science-technology field Factor loadings Dimensions of learning management with ICT I.763 .0 were considered significant. Items with factor loadings of 0. The factors with Eigenvalues greater than 1. This result showed that the data matrix was appropriate to have factor analysis performed on it.967. R. Babin. By doing so.000 I.532 18. 2006).846 KMO = 0. Barlett test of sphericity = 797. I. I.809 equipment for the instruction.822. this method provides an enhanced understanding of key subordinate dimensions toward learning management with ICT that may more accurately describe the interdependency of the 16 items used to measure 93 .798 .967.796 The KMO score of sampling adequacy was reported on 0. . df of 120 (p value = 0. Tatham. . The students are persuaded to ask the questions/receive the . Both examinations indicated that factor analysis was suitable for this study. The instructor has enthusiasm to instruct with ICT equipment. = Instructor Roles. .S.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference conducted by the Bartlett test of sphericity and the measure of sampling adequacy and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) overall measure of sampling adequacy. p value = 0. = Institute Support.725 The students can use the computer laboratory for learning or doing homework.826 0.822 while the Barlett test of sphericity had a value of 797.A. eigenvalue 3.094 % of variance explained (total = 62.763 .676 The internet availability can be done easily.A. df = 120.R.764 The university prepares the students to have ability of ICT use.08 0.129 3.00).785 Your university has ICT equipment to support and be sufficient for the use. = Readiness & Approachability .530%) 22. R. The instructor has enthusiasm through teaching by using ICT . The university enhances the students to use ICT for learning. Your university has highly efficient ICT equipment. Anderson.35 22. The instructor efficiently manages the instruction with ICT . The instructor stimulates and motivates the students to use ICT .10 Reliability Cronbach’s Alpha 0. The students can use any computer within the university by using the same account and password.55 or higher were considered as acceptable variables to measure constructs (Hair.717 equipment for their learning.S.584 2. Your university has sufficient information retrieving system within the institute.R.

explained variance =22.C.754 .D. etc. those factors derived are labeled as (1) instructor roles (eigenvalue =3. CH.763 Downloading the application program to be the part of learning usage.724 .804 Representing the reports via Google Doc. Based on the scores of loadings of the factors. All the dimensions proposed in this study reached appropriate reliability levels (Nunnally and Bernstein. . In addition.525 Chatting for exchanging knowledge with friends. 0.825 Using web-boards to ask and consult the problems with the instructors.647 . Using ICT for Learning Table 2: Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) of using ICT for Learning of undergraduate students in the science-technology field Factor loadings Dimensions of using ICT for Learning T. and (3) readiness and approachable (eigenvalue =2.572 . Cronbach's alpha was employed to assess the reliability of the measurement scale of the study. As illustrated in Table 1. . explained variance =22. Using web-boards to exchange knowledge among friends.547 .084%). Using online social to communicate with the Instructors.826 for instructor roles aspect of learning management with ICT.558 Representing Clip VDO about courses learning via YouTube. Using multi-media for learning such as TV Online. Representing the information via Personal Blog. PR.532. Retrieving information from the university libraries.798 Using email to communicate and exchange knowledge with the instructors. Those three factors with eigenvalues above one were extracted explaining 62. . and 0. the present study employed a reliability analysis to determine the reliability and consistency of the measurement scales used in this study. .094. Using Wikipedia for retrieving information.602 .685 Retrieving information from Google website. Using web-boards to ask for learning information. . .796 for readiness and approachable aspect of learning management with ICT.129. Analysis findings indicated that the Cronbach’s alpha values for the various dimensions were as follows: 0.667 Using email to communicate for exchanging and learning with friends. 94 .828 Downloading the articles/documents as a part of learning. . . explained variance =18.530% of the overall variance associated with learning management with ICT. .099%). 1994). Radio Online. (2) institute support (eigenvalue =3. S.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference learning management with ICT of undergraduate students in the fields of science-technology.846 for institute support aspect of learning management with ICT. and Clip VDO via the website of YouTube.733 .348%).

55 Reliability Cronbach’s Alpha 0. using ICT for learning =. (2) search and download (eigenvalue =2.447 2. and knowledge about using ICT = . 95 .86.55%).807 0.781 0. 1 were statically significant at 0.706. In addition.59 11.03%). 0. By doing so. the present study employed a reliability analysis to determine the reliability and consistency of the measurement scales used in this study.017%) 22. PR = Presentation.118. This result showed that the data matrix was appropriate to have factor analysis performed on it. The measurement model was drawn in Figure 1 and was used to estimate the reliability and validity.84%).807 for search and download aspect of using ICT for Learning. and RMSEA = .05 level. explained variance =22.52.82). 0. this method provides an enhanced understanding of key subordinate dimensions toward using ICT for Learning that may more accurately describe the interdependency of the 18 items used to measure using ICT for Learning of undergraduate students in the fields of science-technology.753 for chat for study aspect of using ICT for Learning.118.2 results of the second research objective: To study the influences of learning management with ICT and using ICT on knowledge about using ICT of undergraduate students. explained variance =13.771 while the Barlett test of sphericity had a value of 906. p value = 0.D. and 0.079. Analysis findings indicated that the Cronbach’s alpha values for the various dimensions were as follows: 0. = Search and Download.855 for data transfer and communication aspect of using ICT for Learning.70 (learning management with ICT = .88. .855 0.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Chatting for asking/consulting with the instructors. Both examinations indicated that factor analysis was suitable for this study.50 (learning management with ICT = .84 15.59%). and (4) chat for study (eigenvalue =2.447.00). All standardized factor loadings in the measurement model showed in the Fig. S. = Data Transfer and Communication.956. The results revealed that the measurement model fitted the overall sample well. those factors derived are labeled as (1) data transfer and communication (eigenvalue =4.016.706 2. = Chat for study The KMO score of sampling adequacy was reported on 0. .753 KMO = 0. using ICT for learning =.111.980.111 2. explained variance =15. All the dimensions proposed in this study reached appropriate reliability levels (Nunnally and Bernstein. df of 153 (p value = 0.562 eigenvalue 4.626 Chatting for co-discussion with instructors and friends. df = 153. In this study. Based on the scores of loadings of the factors.03 13.771 . The hypothetical latent variables in the model were estimated by three or more observed variables. TLI = . (3) presentation (eigenvalue =2.017% of the overall variance associated with using ICT for Learning. The findings indicated that the CFA model in this study were reliable and valid.781 for presentation of using ICT for Learning.C. CFI = .969. As illustrated in Table 2.079 % of variance explained (total = 63. Barlett test of sphericity = 906. Those four factors with eigenvalues above one were extracted explaining 63. explained variance =11. The composite reliabilities were all greater than .51).000 T. The average variances extracted were also greater than .54. CH. 4. the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was applied to study the influences of learning management with ICT and using ICT on knowledge about using ICT of undergraduate students. 1994). Cronbach's alpha was employed to assess the reliability of the measurement scale of the study. The goodness-of-fit indices were: GFI = . and knowledge about using ICT = .

685* Learning manageme nt with ICT . The hypothesized model was identified and adequately fit the data. The goodness-of-fit indices for model were: GFI = .374 . the accepted structural model for relations of the latent variables should be demonstrated. All the coefficients showed in Fig.719* Learning manageme nt with ICT .309 Chat for study .264 .369 Searching and using databases .651) of the variance in knowledge about using ICT. 2 are statistically significant (p<.324* Knowledge about using ICT R2 = .317 .743* . In addition.253 Instructor roles .161* .115 Computer programs .281 Institute support .05).651 Readiness & Approachability 96 Computer programs .307* . To carry out the one group analysis.976. TLI = .692* .MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference In the hypothesized model as Fig.257 Readiness & Approachability .454* Search and download .716* .537* .630* .995.585* .632* Institute support .404 Using ICT for learning Instructor roles . previous studies have suggested that learning management with ICT may be indirectly related to knowledge about using ICT through its effect on using ICT.1 % (R2 = .302 Figure 1: Measurement model of latent variables. The goodness-of-fit indices. (n = 400) .239 .488 Programs for communication .427 . and explained variances indicated that the hypothesized model may be tenable and fitted with empirical data. CFI = .563 Programs for communication .290 Using ICT for learning . and RMSEA = .721* .297* . learning management with ICT was the one independent latent variable which had direct effects on student knowledge about using ICT.625* .760* .593* .284 Data Transfer and Communication .029.749* .241 Presentation .566 Chat for study .683* Searching and using databases .538* .710* Presentation .885* Knowledge about using ICT .761* Search and download .990.139 Data Transfer and Communication . In the model accounted for approximately 65. . 2. similar loadings.823* .226* .

Academic Journal. P. it consists of 3 indicators. The estimated model only indicates that learning management with ICT. In the model. K. These effects were statistically significant at the . Factor 2: Institute support consisted of 5 indicators. A final underlying detail of this study is the moderate squared multiple correlation value which was reported in the structural equation model (65.go. A study of usage status in information technology for learning and teaching of kindergarten under Bangkok metropolis. Despite the model’s goodness-of-fit evidenced by all analyzed indicators. The path analysis with latent variables in this current study.. 81-91.2 The results of this study validate the research hypothesis that learning management with ICT and using ICT were contributing factors to knowledge about using ICT. 2 Standardized estimates of relations and effect size in structural The using ICT of undergraduate students was divided into 4 factors. they can be explain variance of the factor 15.084%. This conclusion was mainly based on the findings of the estimated structural equation model.1 The finding revealed that the learning management with ICT of undergraduate students was divided into 3 factors. they can be explain variance of the factor 13. 5(6). Bangkok: Se– Education Public Company Limited.839%.592%. Journal of the Association of Researchers. factor 1: instructor roles consisted of 5 indicators. it consisted of 5 indicators. students’ learning management with ICT had substantial effects on knowledge about using ICT. it was considerable effects of learning management with ICT that was related indirectly to knowledge about using ICT through its effects on using ICT (= . it consisted of 7 indicators.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Fig. Peauk-Kong. & Machima. firstly: data transfer and communication. can be explain the factor 22. Poosuwan. these indicators can be explain the learning management with ICT 22. Conclusions 5. the relations between them were clarified. the using ICT was modeled to medicate the effects of learning management with ICT on knowledge about using ICT.099%. 19(2). Factor 3: readiness and approachable consists of 4 indicators. Effect sizes are present in the Fig. ICT for Thai education. Based on the direct. 97 . Office of the Higher Education Commission. References Puntrakul. And finally: presentation. Higher education information: The number of students in 2013. & Numprasertchai. S. Y. S. it consists of 3 indicators.348%. 2013 from http:// www. The results of the SEM analyses supported the hypothesized model with the empirical data. and total effects of learning management with ICT on knowledge about using ICT.033%. 63-66.. (2002). they can be explain variance of the factor 22. (2003). Secondly: search and download. indirect. It can be concluded that in the model.552%. Thirdly: presentation. (2014). Using ICT: Strategy for Transforming 5.05 level. Pooworrawan. they can be explain the factor variance 18. using ICT and knowledge about using ICT are adequately measured (which is informed by the measurement model results) and are related (which is informed by the structural model results). 2.315). (2013). Retrieved December 24. they can be explain variance of the factor 11. 5. there was empirical support that knowledge about using ICT is explained by additional constructs besides knowledge about using ICT and using ICT.1%).mua. W.

). Hair. Psychometric Theory (third ed. Anderson.C.. Inagrd.J. Ratanasachol. & Bernstein I. C. (2006). New Jersey.. S. (2015). (1994). 2(2). B. Prentice Hall.. 7(1). R.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Ingard.. 98 . (2010). W. Black. Internet-based Instruction for High School Students' Learning in Bangkok Metropolis. 41-52. 11 – 26. J. Factors affecting behaviors of using information and communication technology in learning of undergraduate students in public university. NY: McGraw-Hill.). J. R. Multivariate data analysis. & Tongnua-nual.E. ICT Silpakorn Journal. journal of Educational academic in Rajabhat MahaSarakham University. N. N. Babin. (sixth ed. Nunnally.. & Tatham.L.F.. A.

also play their individual parts in the state progress at large. 2015). who was studying in three universities in Islamabad. Malaysia Shazia11malik@hotmail. Tertiary level. The findings of the research reveal the main issues which were encountered by the visually impaired learners at tertiary level. Further. Several people have diverse views on physical impairment and for this study visual deficiency (Korir. Regardless their feelings of less importance. MAC-ETeL 2016. INTRODUCTION A child with impaired vision who does not have any further impairments. Educational policies Main Conference Topic: Special Education. Keywords: Visually impaired. All children must have education. Quaid-e-Azam University. who is supported and well nourished by his family and is assisted to counteract for his physical impairment may able to grow as other normal children do. International Islamic University. Pakistan. having weak 99 . they explained their educational approaches which were used by their institutes to overcome their difficulties. To transform this in a routine practice learning institutes have to play a substantial part. To enable the visually impaired learners in strengthening their participation at tertiary level. The information was collected from visually impaired learners. and National University of Modern Languages (NUML). the study prescribes the need to go past incorporation and uniformity models to guarantee the value and equality in Abstract: The primary purpose of the present study is to describe a detailed review of the capabilities of visually impaired learners at tertiary level from an emic view point. Universiti Putra Malaysia. they were facing educational atmosphere unfriendly. as it promotes economic growth and therefore people are able to live under better and comfortable living conditions. but experiences and feelings of the visually impaired learners’ much emphasized on the opinions of approval by their friends which appeared quite important to them.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference A review of the Educational Facilities for Visually Impaired Learners at Tertiary Level in Pakistan Shazia Malik PhD Education Scholar Faculty of Educational Studies. Pakistan is an emerging nation.

the quality of education has been considered as a step child. After the passing of more than half a century and the implementation of over 25 vague educational strategies. & Khan. The dynamic part of education has been completely abandoned in Pakistan. which has entirely debilitated the condition of the educational structure (Bowl. Khan. The schooling system. still the educational practice has severely flopped to take the country out of the growing financial. inclusion seem to be undertaken by the private schools and NGOs (Mujahid-Mukhtar. Rehman. However. contradictory and incohesive learning structure. 2014). & Khan. lacking governmental strength in the state. administrative and societal dilemma (Ahmad. the absence of universal perception and illiteracy supported by an unproductive learning method (Ahmad. 2012). Absence of defined law defending the civil rights of special needs youngsters to obtain admission into conventional schools. At the moment Pakistan is confronted with several challenges. persistent religious aggression. 2012). policy design and service application. 2014). (Ahmad. increasing extremism. Rehman. sectarianism and extremism. Khan. the concept is rather experimental and still in its primary phases and the exclusive consultants of the learning. Ali. 2014). Ali. social uncertainty. Ali. Khan. and financial collapse. In the educational system. no considerable and revolutionary effort has been made as yet showing an absolute difference between oratory. additionally worsens the dilemma (Ahmad. Rehman.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference economy. the state is in the control of increasing governmental disorder. The causes of these evils are the absence of acceptance. In spite of a few dotted models of finely performing schools in Pakistan. administratively and publicly. Moreover. All such evils are in every respect the outgrowth of a feeble. 100 . Khan. Ali. which is now occurring as a chaotic and disordered growth in all arenas of life. for example security crisis. therefore. poverty. Rehman. & Khan. & Khan. has miscarried to rear the state economically. 2014).

these individuals are 50 years or more. Visual Impairment – Magnitude of the problem Isra Postgraduate Institute of Ophthalmology state there are over 314 million visually marred individuals around the globe. To observe setbacks of learners with visual impairment in communication with their peers with regular vision and teachers while obtaining the education. impaired vision in youngsters is a significant challenge all over the worldwide. Though over 82% of the entire blind population. 2. This number embraces about 153 million individuals suffering from “uncorrected refractive error”. To discover obscurities faced by learners with visual impairment in obtaining modified material during their education.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference The paper also involves the integration of the Expanded Core Program concept which focuses the understanding and abilities required by learners having a visual impairment because of their exclusive infirmity and particular demands. The learning needs of particular populace are not constantly satisfied as the absence of vision is thought as "negligible". From 314 million visually impaired individuals globally. 161 million individuals with perfectly “corrected refractive error”. The different capacities embraced in the expanded core program deliver teachers with a method of focusing the learners’ demands with visual deficiencies along with those individuals having other infirmities. The Objectives of Study The analysis is performed to accomplish the following purposes: 1. Around 1.4 million sightless youngsters are 101 . particularly when the youngster is harshly influenced by physical and perceptive disabilities. 45 million are sightless – 37 million with perfectly “corrected refractive error “ & 8 million suffering from “uncorrected refractive error”.

Mahar..140.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference under 15 years and over 12 million youngsters between 5 to 15 years.000 Source: Postgraduate Institute of Ophthalmology. & Memon.25 million. As stated in the Pakistan National Impaired Vision Review (Awan. & Memon.000 Sindh 200. 2015). “every child has a vital right to obtain education and must be delivered the chance to attain and continue a suitable level of learning … those with special needs must 102 . Karachi (Awan.9%.7%. & Memon. 2015) LITERATURE REVIEW Stated by the “Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education”.000 Balochistan 53. Mahar. Mahar.000 NWFP 114. 2015). Provincial dissemination of assessed figure of Pakistani adults with impaired vision Province Estimated number of blind individuals Punjab 769. outlined the rate of impaired vision. that are visually impaired because of “uncorrected refractive errors”. The gender and age. The occurrence of impaired vision among people was 0. the assessed figure of sightless people in 2003 was 1. 2.000 Total 1. The assessed figures of individuals with impaired vision are of age 30 and more. The data stated below includes the count of people with impaired vision in all provinces of Pakistan. in grownups was 30 years and more. 87% of the population around the world are visually impaired and exist in the emerging states (Awan.

Since the rate of visual deficiency is small matched to other debility kinds. These blind individuals encounter social and psychological results of impaired vision. unreachability to instructive resources and narrow social contact (World Health Organization. it is occasional that conventional community schools instruct learners with visual deficiencies (Byrne. absence of care from government and community organizations deters the delivery of a favorable atmosphere for blind individuals to turn out to be a creative feature of the social order (Awan. Undoubtedly visually reduced learners are not 103 . 2015). 2015). are titled as low occurrence debilities. The visual deficiencies. Another element that impacts a sightless person’s public status is the capacity to add to domestic earnings. 2015). These children with Visual Impairment encounter obstacles with educational and social undertakings at their academic institute for instance. Mahar. extreme rate infirmities. 2016). suffering from blindness around the globe. Mahar. comprising full and fractional visual deficiency. & Memon.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference have admission to regular schools. Sightless people face social omission and are abandoned from the choice making practice. 2012). which should accommodate them within child centered pedagogy capable of meeting these needs” (Korir. & Memon. Furthermore. As a low rate infirmity group. Visually restricted jobless individuals experience more difficulty in being recognized in the native public. 2014). 2015). The study has established that youngsters with visual deficiencies feel contemptible as a result of their physical infirmity. there is a scarcity of study regarding this kind of learners who are appearing in the community educational institutes (Schade & Larwin. The World Health Organization states that the assessed sum of individuals is 285 million. It is supposed that the adverse leading views about impaired vision are the source of this public elimination (Awan. including an assessed number of 19 million youngsters under the 15 years of age. absence of social approval and underachievement in academics (Khurshid & Najeeb. for example. the incidence of the infirmity is lesser in the school-age people.

For the past decade. Seat Allocation and Admission Process for Physically Impaired The Higher Education Commission has steadily stressed and developed strategies for inclusive schooling at a higher level. Latest analyses in Iran demonstrate that visual deficiency disturbs eminence of life of individuals and diminishes their interactive abilities. & Nasem. the culture. The share system is prepared in academia to certify contribution of physically impaired learners in higher education. in the domain of vision and wellbeing emphasized the significance of social associations which are not well-built in a blind individual (Sarabandi & Kamali. Yet. the course of action has been engaged to make education inclusive for physically impaired students at a law-making level. Coaching blind youngsters are far more significant in Pakistan as the education structure. In this respect. They want recognition at several levels involving family. Khan.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference merely a part of the public. the surveys and examination. so they might able to grow in a positive and effective character with the promise of a prosperous future (Khurshid & Najeeb. public activities and socioeconomic domestic circumstances do not offer any care for such incapacity (Ahmed. 2008). the National Policy for Persons with Disabilities 2000 and National Policy Education 1998 have intended strategies for delivery of education for physically impaired students (National Report on the Development of Education. 2011). the 2% allocated spaces for incapacitated learners 104 . public. communal attitude. 2012). The goal of these strategies is to certify that physically impaired students are delivered nourishing and responsive atmosphere particularly at higher levels. Measures taken at Policy Level in Pakistan In Pakistan. but also have equal rights to receive same quality education. 2012). and academic organizations.

Some learners (6/10) stated that they were not provided the soft copy or Braille of the reading resources. The respondents interpreted that the curriculum material was generally in a print document which was tough for the blind to recognize. informed that they implicated the practice of a scanner. visuals. Similarly the share system mainly under signified the huge amount of impaired learners. of course book has always been the fundamental part of instructive study. Primarily. 2015). language and text (Ali & Hameed. academic quality that contains a summary of specific ideas with a precise order and degree. 2015). The study states that the approaches of textbook exploration could not appear with extraordinary deepness and lucidity. though numerous tools were established to examine the subject. inherent and precise communications and their results. computer and additional softwares which assisted them to increase retrieval of the class lesson sources. the process of enrollment is not clear and fair. Textbook Evaluation The assessment. It also contributes to the interaction. One of the primary obstructions that visually impaired learners face was stated to retrieve and comprehension of the curriculum material. The young learners. 2015). The extracts from the study underlines that the learners had to take individual attempts to conquer matters connected to their education. 105 . which distributes course books into two key groups. Furthermore. Consequently. ideas vs. written meanings. These learners looked very disheartened that the academia were paying no heed to this severe issue (Ali & Hameed. despite such efforts at the policy level the problems of disabled remain un-addressed since such policies remain on papers (Ali & Hameed.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference is not a clear method and implicates challenges for these learners while taking admission and also in later phases enhancing the dropout numbers.

Researchers may perform to analyze and reshape the course book text. but the reluctance of the involved individuals to assist the learners and to expedite them. stressing on arrangement than the tangible material of course books. Evidently such a circumstance exposes the learner to annoyance and apprehension and unsurprisingly causes inferior grades as they do not have adequate time to revise and get dissatisfied of the dominant attitude. course books in native languages be supported and reading habits may be upheld. Course books can be planned adhering to the instructor and the aptitude of the learner for easy perception. however. but to indicate that this is negative if notes substitute course books. 2011). maximum institutes for visually compromised are in an extremely meager condition. Regardless of the element that Braille learning is significant to get work and full involvement among the public. missing basic amenities. In Pakistan. At this point. the teaching methods lack the explanation of concepts. advance the learning method and decrease cost (Praphamontripong & Prachayani. it does not signify that course books are an unsuccessful implement of the learning procedure. insignificant text used and learners are demanded to learn the bookish text by heart. instructing visually weakened youngsters is not significant in advancing republics involving Pakistan. Furthermore. basically then the learning procedure can be beneficial. Formulation of course books and their pattern must follow the conceptions and standards that would be presented during the lesson. The concern was not the mere inaccessibility of course sources. which restrict the skill to learn and exercise particular perceptions. the usefulness of course books do not completely throw away the class material and other resources. Additionally. More resources and time is exhausted in developing countries. The figure of learning organizations for visually compromised individuals and skilled Braille instructors in 106 . to develop.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference There are probabilities that course books weaken the hard work of instructors and it obstructs the effortless learning progression.

2014). The designed system serves as Braille writing and reading tutor. It presents a review about the comparative content study of the course books of 'English' Class I-V chosen by the Federal Board and Punjab Textbook Board. difficult for the family to teach their visually compromised offspring. as it would as the basis of the entire study. the Braille learning rate can be amplified and visually compromised individuals can work and can completely contribute in society (Khidri. The numerous expertise has been provided by The Ministry of Education that are believed to incorporate the syllabus. so visually impaired people can enhance their Braille writing and reading skills without the assistance of a Braille teacher. However. This analysis is essentially a relative content review of the course books at a primary level concerning the existence of social ethics. An entire competency has been offered to support the societal elements and standards in addition in the syllabus. & Jameel. Memon. This textbook has been authored by the Punjab Textbook Board while the Oxford Press ‘New Active English’ has been chosen by Federal 107 .MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference progressing nations is quite unimportant. the designed Braille device receives the response through Braille control panel and creates the output in a dialog. It is a qualitative study of the course books to examine whether the social standards are combined through the literature.25 daily. The mainstream residing in progressing states is surviving under $1. It is to find whether the at course books have been planned as per the requirements of the community pertaining to social standards chiefly to the recommended criteria. or expensive. This device also has the competence to read out the written text. The majority of the devices obtainable for visually compromised individuals is either difficult to function. It is assumed that by employing the devised Braille method in the institutes and households. Methodological Design The procedure for this review will be a content material examination of the course books.

Ten learners out of these were nominated for this analysis. whereas the chosen and accessed universities did not have an accurate record of the learners with infirmity. helped to collect data for this study from three universities in Islamabad involving the Quaid-e-Azam University. observing numerous aspects. subject and closing of the lesson have been composed through the data (Bano. Participants The amount of learners registered at tertiary level was fairly small. such as Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) and the readiness of the contestants to contribute to the study. and National University of Modern Languages. & Anjum. 2015). However. 108 . Out of selected students six were day students and four were hostel residents (Ali & Hameed. 2013). The content. The participants belonged to various economic and local backgrounds to overcome the variety of issues encountered by learners with visual deficiency in inclusive learning. The nominated participants were registered in numerous departments and in diverse curriculums. The entire lesson will be an element of study. Akhter.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Board for Islamabad Model Educational Institutes. as well as the process of review. The researchers often experience such issues in order to pull out a sample size. the expected accessible students in the nominated universities were 30 visually compromised learners. International Islamic University. Methods The detailed interviews from visually impaired students both men and women.

Data Collection As the sample size was little and the type of the analysis preferred comprehensive and thorough descriptive explanation of the instances. To gather data. righteousness. semi-structured interviews were applied one of the most adaptable data gathering instrument (Palinkas. a snowball sampling technique was engaged.. i.e. subject and the closing of the lesson was chosen 109 . Through the study development endeavors were made to fathom the contributors' familiarities in respect to the background where they lived (Ali & Hameed.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Measures/procedures The non-probability sampling approach was chosen because of the type of the analysis in this research and for data gathering purposive sampling method was used. Data analysis & Findings The analysis is determined on discovering social ideals. morality and compassion combined within the 'English' subject from class I to V selected by the Federal Board and the Punjab Textbook Board. IPA approved to identify the perspectives of the participants as they comprehend and construe it. various cultures. It supported a comprehensive analysis of the contributors’ lives and their individual involvements concerning and varying with phenomenological source and society. to classify more participants in the universities. since it is a time saving and economical procedure. This technique produced an extensive variety of reactions and agreed to unforeseen subjects because of its adaptability (Atkinson & Hutchinson.. 2015). 2013). The sample unit was a lesson while the content. patience. It also allowed surveying the involvements of the contributors as supposed and known by them. the IPA has proven to be the most suitable technique of review. 2015). Within the model of purposive random sampling. et al. fairness.

2011). Besides discussions of inclusion it is essential to certify fairness and equivalence at tertiary level and which must be done. the outcomes of the report can be exploited as a preliminary point to devise 110 . so this cannot be generalized to a wider student population. There are 69 lessons incorporated into the Punjab Textbook Board. As the model size of this analysis was restricted. In western countries. Students with deficiencies do not feel comfortable to participate in the supposed inclusive schooling systems as the numerous problems and hostile atmosphere usually leaves them unwilling to carry on their education. lesson sources. they valued to be part of the community units and exalted in being capable to maintain powerful links. Discussion The learners with deficiencies. separated from the conventional and they are asked to study in special need organizations. movement and the problem of handling the disrespect from others through their study course which leave them to feel disregarded. housing. Some features of their lives were underlines during the interviews which the learners mentioned as their asset. For instance. particularly when the common awareness about individuals with disabilities was not very optimistic (Ali & Hameed. combined with their fellows in normal schools (Polat. 2015). This specifies that actions are being taken to instill inclusive education at the tertiary level. Yet. However. assessments. the main concerns met by the participants were associated with the process of admission.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference as an indicator. this was chiefly the instance where deficient learners earlier separated in special institutes were then. The review exemplified that learners with infirmity have admission to tertiary level education in Pakistan via the open merit and share system. whereas 63 lessons were included in the Oxford University Press from class I to class V. Research demonstrates that the approach of the visually compromised to regular colleges often ostracizes the learners rather than enabling them.

they should be given support in their domestic environment. there should be some instruction and direction at the community level so the families could take look after the communication needs and sensitive requirements of their visually impaired member.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference significant strategies concerning impaired learners. The present facilities must be revised to intensify the prospect for impaired learners to gain higher education. For instance. The results demonstrate that in addition to physical approach the unseen hurdles of arrogance and classification were conveyed to be the main problems for the visually compromised learners. prospects for learning and sustenance of the blind for joining educational institutes should be delivered. The government should invest in the communal sector. The social unfairness with the blind people isolate and influences them with hopelessness and suicidal thoughts. distresses the poor. The teachers should be skilled to manage the requirements of learners with debility and at the admission time special care should be delivered to these learners to alleviate and simplify the admission procedure. our nation would be capable 111 . In this scenario. It is seen that several analyses underpin the view that any kind of debility. Conclusion The paper presented an exhaustive study in relevance to the concerns of visually compromised learners at tertiary level in Pakistan. and equip them with coaching to live self-sufficiently. along with. If the suggestions are applied. Other prospects should also be generated for the visually impaired include them in the normal society. The economic suffering of impaired vision causes additional collapse of the financial position of the person. involving blindness. it is vital that academia must have printed legal approaches for learners with debilities that would be thoughtful to the students with the special needs. the whole clan.

I. (2014. N. 31. & Hutchins. 29(1&2). F.. Social Sciences Review: Bi-annual Research Journal. Rehman. Getting In and Getting On? The Experiences of Young People with Visual Impairments and Hearing Impairments in Third-Level education. 3(2). Z. H. January-June). Khurshid. 3(1).. H. F. Khidri. Ali. S. Bowl. & Memon. International Journal of Disability. H. British Journal of Visual Impairment. January . Pakistan. Eds. (2012).) London. 1-11. Journal of Education and Practice. E. U.. Atkinson. Mujahid-Mukhtar. Malaysia. J. 32-46.. F.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference to confirm that the visually impaired are provided an approach to elementary civil rights to enjoy their lives with self-respect and to be dynamic supporters of society and their families. A. N.. 6(12).June). Mahar. Journal of Educational Research. Perceived Social Acceptance Among Visually Impaired Teenagers. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE). Prague. O. Pakistan Journal of Education. (2014). June-July).. & Jameel. A. (2015. M.. (J. Korir.. K. Khan.. Orientation and mobility training in special education curriculum on the social adjustment problems of visually impaired children in family. S. Social Sciences Review: Bi-annual Research Journal. S. (2015. & A.. (2015). International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science. (2012). (2014). Arthur. Malik. A. Peterson. B. 3(1). 119-133. Transition from higher education to National Health Service for Visually impaired physiotherapist: An interpretative phenomenological exploration. References Ahmad. & Anjum. M. & Najeeb. (2012). Critical Analysis of the Problems of Education in Pakistan: Possible Solutions. Awan. 112 . Development and Education. (2013). Kericho County. 16(1). 2(4). A. Bano. Byrne. Memon. United Kingdom: Routledge. K. 79-84. C. Analysis of Educational Facilities and Opportunities for Students with Special Needs at University of the Punjab. Situation Analysis Of The Education Sector. P. (2013). I. Kenya. H. 61(2).. Akhter. The Perception of Students and Teachers on the Integration Programme of Students with Visual Impairment in Secondary Schools: A Case of Ainamoi Sub County. Blind Aid: A Self-Learning Braille System for Visually Impaired. & Hameed. Blindness and Poverty.. Ali. 1-62. R. Post-compulsory higher education and training. Dealing with ‘Visual Impairment’: Experiences of Youth in Tertiary Education. B. (2015). & Khan. S.

Green. Journal of Research in Rehabilitation Sciences. Evaluating efficient textbooks for lower income countries. M. H. Serdang Selangor.. K. (2011). The author has almost five years working experience for Special Children in Pakistan. M. Springer. (2016).int/blindness/publications/globaldata/en/ Brief biographies of the author Author: Shazia Malik Currently. 10151023. & Kamali. J. A. B. Inclusion in education: A step towards social justice. L. & Hoagwood. 31. C.who. P.. World Health Organization. (2011). 50-58. A. K..MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Palinkas. 4(3).. The relationship between visual problem and quality of life among blind people. 8(6).. (2012). The Impact of Visual Impairment on Perceived School Climate. Polat. Sarabandi. working with research work relevant to Visually Impaired Learners and their educational difficulties relating to Orientation and Mobility in Special Education in Pakistan.. & Larwin. Retrieved from World Health Organization: http://www. Wisdom. 533-44. Global data on visual impairment.. A. 101-105 . F. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE). Schade. A PhD Education Scholar (Curriculum & Instruction) in Faculty of Educational Studies. Currently. Horwitz. Duan. 42(5). International Journal of Educational Development. (2015). Praphamontripong & Prachayani. N. Malaysia. Purposeful Sampling for Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis in Mixed Method Implementation Research. University Putra Malaysia. S. (2015. September). 113 .

kam@polyu. benefits. 2007.e. Moodle. Piñ Students also considered e-learning useful because it allows them to have self-control concerning pace. However.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Assessment of e-learning in construction measurement course Johnny K.W. Rinaldi.guilbert@scg. HO3. Christabel M.fong..).F.. the aim of our study is to obtain a general view about students’ specific perceptions of video-based e-learning contents in relation to teaching and learning construction measurement course prior to uploading the video onto the Blackboard System. Timothy O. 2013). Hong Kong Main Conference Topic: E-learning.oladinrin@connect. Videos for Learning and Educational Multimedia Introduction Advancement in information and communication technology has generated significant transformation to e.3. are examined in this paper. The results of the analysis show that blended learning has more significant benefits delivering measurement course. roy. Students’ perceptions on the use of elearning. Roy KAM5 1. Paechter et al.learning. the utilization of e-learning instruction strategies has steadily heightened in higher and students’ satisfaction with elearning approach were gathered with the aid of questionnaire survey in a university in Hong Kong. OLADINRIN2. limited number of technology features are being used in the delivery of measurement module (Lee. The results of this study should assist educators in structuring blended learning approach. Even though e-learning application at universities has become very popular. By means of descriptive analyses. 2012). Abstract Following the revolutionary trend of educational technology. man. 2007. eric. With regard to their which have contributed to effective learning and teaching in higher education institutions (Alexander and Golja. Thus. and Desire2Learn etc. The transformation is enhanced by the introduction of technical support in form of learning management systems (such as Blackboard. little is known about students’ perceptions regarding elearning approach in construction measurement course. 4 Laval University johnny.2. little technology. time and location for learning. is being used in the delivery of construction measurement courses.ulaval. Students’ opinions regarding the usefulness. combination of e-learning and traditional face-to-face method at 41% and 59% respectively. 2011. in delivering measurement course. as well as students’ preferred 114 .edu. E-learning offers tremendous benefits (Liaw et al.ho@polyu. we examined the usefulness. other than the use of PowerPoint to illustrate the drawings. 2013) and the adoption of e-learning has been discussed in previous studies (Ituma. However. timothy. The results of statistical analysis show that students prefer blended learning i. 2010). Eric GUILBERT4. due to the challenges inherent in delivering an interactive construction measurement course (Rashid. students’ satisfaction and benefits of e-learning. face-to-face. WONG1. 2005). via instruction videos.wong@polyu. Keywords: e-learning.polyu. Sakai. blended learning. the students were satisfied with design and content of the instruction videos.5 Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Angel.

the need to assess students’ perceived usefulness and satisfaction as well as benefit derived from e-learning approach.. 1998.. The use of instructional video becomes important to enhance visualization of drawing and construction technology. Researches on video-supported e-learning have shown that both educators and students benefit tremendously from instructional video (Marchionini. 2010).. Methodology The participants of this study consisted of third-year undergraduate students enrolled on construction measurement and course at a university in Hong Kong. 2005). Elearning could take the form of online/distance learning or the use of computer-aided approach for teaching and learning. 2006). Phillips. 2008). Some of the benefits include: flexibility in time and location. students may not be able to measure effectively Hodgson (Hodgson et al. and better and clearer illustration of points. a term commonly refer to as blended learning or mixed mode or flexible learning (Bates and Planning. which has made learning more interactive. Previous researchers have questioned the efficacy of traditional teaching approach (Hake. Related work Educationalists and researchers maintain argument for updated learning and the increased use of e-learning that can enhance students’ preparedness for a dynamic and complex world.. without these. drawings and measurement rules. 2006). using different forms of strategies and processes (McCombs and Vakili. 2005). with little or no technology involved. Zhang et al.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference mode of delivering measurement course in order to obtain a clear picture of e-learning application in this regard. teaching construction measurement is a challenge because it requires students’ understanding of construction technology. explain the prescriptive set of rules in the standard method of measurement (SMM) and. A good number of education institutions have adopted e-learning (Piña. 2003. Besides. The traditional method of teaching construction measurement course involving the lecturer trying to: expound on the construction technology on a drawing. Continuous use of technology-based e-learning depends on students’ initial perceived satisfaction (Sun et al. Therefore. Video had long been encouraged as powerful adjunct to classroom instruction (Marchionini. 2001. 2008) based on the argument that e-learning alone cannot satisfy diverse learning need of students. 2012). Some researchers advocated for a mixture of face-to-face and e-learning approach. Hadjerrouit. Liaw (2008) posited that the perceived satisfaction and perceived usefulness concerning e-learning approach will positively affect learners’ behavioural intention of e-learning usage. Past study revealed that video-based instruction strategy support the same level of teaching and learning effectiveness as face-to-face instruction (Zhang et al. the students were engaged in three different settings including: traditional face-to-face classroom setting only. Hence. may not fully support students’ learning in this era (Lee. understanding students’ perception about a particular e-learning facility enhances the creation of appropriate e-learning environments for teaching and learning. 2003). cost effectiveness. 2013). However. instructors need to deliver both the technical knowledge and measurement process at the same time to facilitate students’ skills acquisition to measure and describe construction works. Technological advancement has brought about evolvement of technical facilities such as digital video. Prior to data collection to obtain feedback. the use of software for measuring building components 115 . show students the taking-off process to quantifying construction work. fosters self-paced learning.

which could imply that e-learning is still a potential market for universities (Liaw. 2006)... The elearning experience is presented in Table 1. Also. This shows that elearning is a potential assisted learning tool for undergraduate students. and the use of instructional video only. This also implies that almost all the students rated the video content component as very clear. This involved calculation of frequency distribution. 28% have e-learning experience prior to this study while 72% have no experience of e-learning. However. technically. The questionnaire consisted of both open-ended questions for clarification as well as closedended questions structured in five-point Likert-type scales.0 The students were asked to rank their perceived usefulness of the instructional video based on the content. 2000). 2008).0 100. valuable to the achievement of learning outcomes and recommended its use in future course.6 27. However. questionnaire was used in this study for the purpose of anonymity such that students can freely express their opinions without prejudice. Table 2 shows the mean and standard deviation for each of the variables measuring the usefulness of instructional video. Students were used because they are the best source of feedback. this factor is not considered in this study as the authors assume that ‘environmental characteristics’ is favourable to the students. Thus.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference such (BIM) only. The findings show that all the respondents either agree or strongly agree with the usefulness of the video. Video demonstration also facilitates the learning outcomes due to the fact that students not only have capacity to view a building and details in the virtual world to develop a greater understanding of the properties of single components but video can 116 . Choice Frequency Percent Valid Percent Yes 21 27. students’ prior e-learning experience and other related information. the involvement and effort of IT expert in recording and editing the video added significant value to its quality as Marchionini (2003) suggested that crafting a useful video content requires significant expertise. Out of 76 participants. The percentage of gender distribution is not surprising as built environment related courses have always been male-dominated (Fielden et al. Results and discussion A total of 76 students participated in the survey out of which 72% were male while 28% were female. Past studies revealed that single session lecture is more effective in collecting feedback data regarding computer-aided learning (Reeves. Zhang et al. the instructional video is well designed by the instructors.4 Total 76 100. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software 21. This paper focuses on the assessment of video-based e-learning contents which is identical to the face-to-face lectures. Respondents were properly guided on how to complete the questionnaires accurately. The questionnaires were administered to all the students that attended the final lecture of the 2015/2016 session and were collected in class. Mean score analysis was used to rank variables associated with Likert scale entry. 1993. Table 1: Frequency distribution of students’ e-learning experience. The frequency distribution was used to ascertain the gender. clarity and future use. mean scores and spearman correlation.6 No 55 72. and they are the ones who will benefit the most from effective teaching methods. 2008).4 72. This kind of feedback can be acquired via questionnaire or interviews. Another factor that could influence the perceived usefulness of elearning materials is ‘environmental characteristics’ (Hadjerrouit.

MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference provide them with a better idea of how the buildings systems fit together as a whole. The students were also very satisfied with the instructional video in that it allows flexibility in terms where and when to learn which can improve the understanding of the subject matter. 2012).862 4 motivated and more involved in the learning process Table 4 presents the results of the perceived benefits of e-learning based on students’ opinions. and/or similar 4. in their own time and encourage them to become more motivated.17 0.739 3 skills and necessary knowledge of building measurement The e-learning video could make me become more 3.76 0.04 0.824 4 subject in other course The perceived level of satisfaction with the instructional video addressed the extent to which the students are pleased with the use of the video for e-learning purpose.629 1 The content of the video is well-designed and well-structured 4.” A plausible explanation for this highest ranking is that.704 1 It allows me to decide when and where to learn the subject 4. which could be judiciously used for more concentration on the subject or for another purpose. 2008). students perceive e-learning as an approach which allowed them to study at their own pace.29 0. Table 3 shows the perceived satisfaction of students with e-learning video. Ranking Deviation The video is in a clear and understandable manner 4. Table 2: Ranking of perceived usefulness of demonstrated e-learning instructional video Usefulness of instructional video Mean Std.28 0. learners can easily control learning pace. Arguably. Ranking Deviation It allows me to decide on the pace of learning 4.21 0. The topmost ranked benefit is “convenience of not having to come to campus as often. (2010).641 2 The demonstrated e-learning video facilitates the achievement of learning outcomes of BRE345 (i. it may negatively affect the learning of lazy ones.805 2 materials The e-learning video could help me develop a wide range of 3. With the aid of instructional video. and students will have a sense of control over their learning process (Hadjerrouit. Although this could be a good advantage for industrious students.786 3 measurement technique) I recommend the re-use of the demonstration video for elearning resources in future BRE345 subject. The students also felt that the e-learning approach helps their understanding of 117 .09 0. Generally.e. it frees up students’ time of preparing for lecture (including travelling time) and lecture period. developing students’ 4. Table 3: Ranking of level of satisfaction with e-learning Level of satisfaction with e-learning Mean Std.99 0. The highest ranked variable is concerning students’ learning pace. in coherent with Hodgson et al. students do not learn at the same pace and it might be difficult for educators or instructors to satisfy individual pace. knowledgeable and skillful their learning (Poon.

a number of key findings can be drawn.772 1 0. Blended learning is particularly useful for construction measurement education as it provides a useful platform for students-lecturer communication and fast response to questions which is vital for this type of professional course. 66% wanted mixture of e-learning and face-to-face. benefits and students’ satisfaction were assessed. Firstly.13 3.881 4 0. and encourage further developments in this direction. the views were ambiguous. Based on the comments received via open-ended questions. average opinions of students were computed and the result shows that students preferred 59% of the total lecture requirement to be delivered by face-to-face approach while 41% should be done via e-learning approach. 118 . majority of the students prefer blended learning because it maintains good communication between lecturer and students. Although this study is acknowledged to be those of a small sample of students. This could mean that students prefer asking questions about the instruction materials and getting answers immediately during face-to-face lecture instead of sequentially going through an instructional video to find an answer in the case of e-learning approach.75 3. which coheres with findings by Poon (2012). Therefore.86 3. Ranking Deviation 0. 16% wanted only face to face lectures. blended learning is recommended for the delivery of construction measurement course. This reveals that the acquisition of measurement skills in blended learning environments requires more of face-to-face lecture than e-learning approach.880 5 The students were asked whether they would prefer e-learning to replace face-to-face lecture and their responses were as follows: 18% wanted only e-learning. well-designed e-learning resources alone may not provide sufficient information needed by the students to acquire necessary skills concerning construction measurement. When asked to indicate the preferred percentage for face-to-face and e-learning.70 Std. Conclusion This paper discusses the use of video-based e-learning as an approach to enhance students’ learning experiences and engagement in construction measurement study.721 2 0. Secondly. regarding this.919 3 0. It can be inferred from the results that students would greatly benefit from the use of instructional video e-learning approach in future course delivery. From the evaluations of students’ perceptions through survey questionnaires. In other words. This implies that a well-designed instruction video could be a key factor of success in e-learning approach for the subject matter. Students’ perception of instruction video with regards to its usefulness. Table 4: Ranking of benefits of adopting e-learning approach Benefits Mean Convenience of not having to come to campus as often Enhance my understanding of measurement concept Make the measurement concepts more interesting Improve my QS professional competence Opportunity to pursue the measurement technique in depth 4. explain and provide answer to questions. the findings support our hopes and expectations. Hence. video-based e-learning approach is useful and beneficial for delivering construction measurement course. e-learning cannot fully replace face-to-face lecture as human dialogue is required to help students with learning difficulties.99 3.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference measurement concept and makes the concept more interesting. This is consistent with a study by Hadjerrouit (2008) which compared blended learning approach in informatics and mathematics education.

Rashid. I. (2008). (2010). 119 . (2005). Use of blended learning to enhance the student learning experience and engagement in property education.-S. A learner-centered framework for e-learning. 23(4). S. R. 107(8). T. Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice. D. Australia. Methodologies. W. Gale. A. A. Sher. G.. B. G. Virtual Learning Environments: Concepts. (2011). & Mak. Poon. L. K. 222-229. 2(1). Evaluating the Pedagogical Value of Blended Learning in Informatics and Mathematics Education: A Comparative Study. I. & Vakili. Educational Technology & Society. An Interactive Approach to teaching Quantity Surveying. ICERI2013 Proceedings. Hake. R. 33-51. Challenging the primacy of lectures: The dissonance between theory and practice in university teaching. 70): Unesco Paris.. Tools and Applications. An evaluation of students’ perceptions and engagement with e-learning components in a campus based university. (2005. Property Management. Huang. H. Hadjerrouit. Women in construction: the untapped resource. Students’ expectations of. Liaw. Computers in Human Behavior. Maier. Paper presented at the Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. McCombs. (2001). S. 10(2). J. Phillips. a.-D. 129-156.. (2013). D. Construction Management & Economics. 113-121. M. Piña. (2003). R. G. & Davey.-M. 30(2). E. S. A. J. F. 51(2). and experiences in e-learning: Their relation to learning achievements and course satisfaction. 66(1). 17-33. A. B. 1906-1920. (2007).MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference References Alexander. Interactive-engagement versus traditional methods: A six-thousandstudent survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics courses. (2000). S. The Teachers College Record. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY-SADDLE BROOK THEN ENGLEWOOD CLIFFS NJ-. Fielden. Paper presented at the The Queensland University of Technology Research Week International Conference. (2010). L. Marchionini.. Bates. Video and learning redux: New capabilities for practical use.. Davidson. 1582-1600.. 54(1). National strategies for e-learning in post-secondary education and training (Vol.-S. f. An overview of learning management systems. 18(1). M. 3862-3871. 36-41. T.. Computers & Education. & Golja. & Macher. Ituma. An activity-theoretical approach to investigate learners’ factors toward e-learning systems. Lee. Liaw. Computers & Education. American journal of Physics. 2. S. 864-873.. 12(1). Investigating students’ perceived satisfaction. Hodgson. Hypermedia and Telecommunications.. C. Brisbane. Paechter.. 4-8 July 2005). (2008).. C. (2012). UK: Loughborough University Publications. and effectiveness of e-learning: A case study of the Blackboard system. (2012). W. An e-learning approach to quantity surveying measurement. & Chen. M. USA: IGI Global. A. Innovative Teaching Techniques In Quantity Surveying Training And Education: Measurement studio For Building Quantities. Active Learning in Higher Education. 43(2). (2007). 64-74.. H. (2005). Using students' experiences to derive quality in an elearning system: An institution's perspective. S. (1998). behavioral intention. 57-68. & Planning.

What drives a successful e-Learning? An empirical investigation of the critical factors influencing learner satisfaction. Tsai. F. P.-Y. Johnny received his PhD with the Best Dissertation Awards (by CIB Student Chapter) in 2007. Computers & Education.. Hong Kong. He obtained his PhD in 2016 from the Department of Building and Real Estate. Before joining the academia.-C. cost control. 39-46. D. Eric Guilbert Dr. Eric Guilbert is associate professor in the department of geomatics sciences. 1183-1202. Johnny is currently an Assistant Professor of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University.. (2008). C.. Chen. L. project management. R. Journal of computer-based instruction. Briggs.. (2006).. She is by profession a quantity surveryor. Quebec. Johnny Wong graduated from the University of New South Wales (Sydney. M. 2013 IEEE 63rd Annual Conference International Council for. J. Christabel HO Dr Christabel held a BSc(Hons) in Building Technology and Management. Canada. (1993). France. (2013). R.. He holds Bachelor's and Master's degrees in quantity surveying. Johnny is a fellow member (FRICS) of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (UK). & Nunamaker. His research interests include corporate ethics management. Australia) in 1998 with a Bachelor of Building Construction Management (First Class Honours) and stayed on to complete Master Degree in Real Estate. T. Christabel had been practicing in the construction industry. 50(4). Laval University. Her principal research interests are in business ethics and corporate ethics management. G. Pseudoscience in Computer-Based Instruction: The Case of Learner Control Research. O. Rinaldi. 20(2). D.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Reeves. He obtained a PhD in Computer Science from University of Rennes. and construction project procurement. Paper presented at the Educational Media (ICEM). He is a member of the Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveying (NIQS) and Hong Kong Institute of Project Management (HKIPM). J. & Yeh. Olugbenga OLADINRIN Dr Oladinrin is a Research Project Associate. Sun. 15-27.. Zhou. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. a Master of Project Management and a PhD in Built Environment. Following his Master degree he worked as a Project Quantity Surveyor/ Contract Administrator in Hong Kong and Sydney before moving to academia in late 2003. Hong Kong. Perception of students towards e-learning. Brief biographies of the authors Johnny WONG Dr. Finger. Instructional video in elearning: Assessing the impact of interactive video on learning effectiveness. 120 . 43(1). Y. Information & Management. Zhang.

Thesis Studies 121 . Assist.. With “History of Science” search The purpose of this study is to investigate postgraduate thesis and doctorate dissertation. document analysis is used within this purpose. Department of Science Education.. Department of Primary School Teaching. history of science is being used for creating class activities and evaluating teaching materials. A qualitative research approach. Prof. and to introduce general tendencies of the studies concordantly. Perihan GUNES. Faculty of Education. Aksaray University. Suggestions that are related to results of the research are introduced.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Investigation of the Graduate Thesis Studies Implemented in Educational Field of Turkey with regard to History of Science Baris EROGLU. In practiced studies history of science is generally used as a tool to reach individuals’ understandings about nature of science. that are conducted in Turkey. Prof. it is seen that a great part of thesis studies are conducted with undergraduate students of faculty of education. bariserogl@gmail. under the common theme of history of science and educational implementations. perihanguness@gmail. 139 theses are found in thesis scan page of Turkey Higher Education Institution. In accordance with acquired findings. Aksaray University. Keywords: History of Science. but in this study under the common title of “history of science” and “education-teaching” only 22 of these 31 thesis studies are given part by using purposive sampling method. Science Education. Assist. Faculty of Education.

inconsistency of performance criteria across scale levels. Both errors of evaluation criteria and errors of performance criteria descriptors are reducing the validity and reliability of rubrics. Department of Science Education.. it is indicated that rubrics have many errors as structural. Structural errors in rubrics are examined by the means of performance criteria and performance criteria descriptors. Department of Primary School Teaching. Prof. unabled parallelism of language while defining. Examined rubrics are acquired from 8 science teachers who are working in 8 different cities. bariserogl@gmail. In analyzed rubrics. Aksaray University. Learning/Teaching Methodologies and Assessment 122 . Department of Science Education. In the study 35 rubrics are examined as document. postgraduate This study aims to determine the structural errors encountered in rubrics that are one of the performance assessment tools. performance criteria related to errors are determined as usage of irrelevant performance criteria.. Faculty of Education. perihanguness@gmail. Data of the study are analyzed with content analysis. and specialization of performance criteria descriptors. Faculty of Education. Faculty of Education. Dr. Keywords: Analytical Rubric. Prof.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Structural Errors Encountered in Rubrics Used as Performance Assessment Tool Perihan GUNES. Baris EROGLU. Assist. Science Selvi GOR. Performance criteria descriptors related to errors are negative word choice. selvigor@outlook. Dr. Aksaray University. Aksaray University. Document analysis of qualitative research method is used in this study. According to the findings of this study. measurement of more than one behavior in only one performance criteria and measurement of unobservable criteria.

like Algeria for instance.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference The British Educational Presence in Algeria Dr.O – Algiers/Algeria. this North African country decided to adopt a policy of diversification in order to lessen ties with former colonizer. since its independence in 1962. 123 . Cultural. Prague (MAC-ETeL 2016) Friday .The latter limited the British educational and cultural presence in Algeriaand this despite the high demandof the Algerians for the British Council’s services. the British Council presence in Algeria became a reality. Introduction The British educational presence abroad remained predominantly the task of the missionaries until 1934 when the British Council.E.S. Was the Council’s work able to compete with theFrench efforts in the field? Keywords: Educational. identified as keys for Abstract Being a former French colony. the British Council was encouraged to set up offices and initiate educational activities to pave the way for more Anglo-Algerian relations. France. the Algerian government solicited the Council to open offices and supervise different educational activities which were expected to answer the Algerian needs. particularly in relation to the English language teaching. it is worth examining the development of Anglo-Algerian relations during the post-colonial era. B. 2016. The latter significantly developed during the post-colonial era to cover officially the educational and technical fields the newly independent states. Thus.Saturday. Indeed.B) Department of English Mailing address : 05. Yet. Rue Ahmed Hassina. Algerian. Consequently. Czech Republic. British. Malika SAHEL Ecole Normale Supérieure/Bouzaréah (E. E-mail : sahel_malika@yahoo. Cooperation.N. Thepurpose ofthe present paper is to consider the British Council’s educational activities in this former French colony to find out the link between the Council’s dynamism and Britain’s political considerations.To what extent could the British Council’s educational activities answer the Algerian expectations? Before dealing with the British educational work in Algeria. was established and entrusted by the British government to promote British culture overseas through various activities. a cultural organization. it is obvious that the dominant European educational presence in Algeria has been the French one. Multidisciplinary Academic Conference on Education. August 5-6. in 1963. Teaching and E-learning.

while its expenditure for 1988/89 .3 Besides. The reason for the change was that for a beginner like Algeria.for example . Britain had seen North Africa as a backyard of France and had stayed clear from anything that could possibly be seen by the French as a hostile British move in the region.747 million in India. its political relations with this former French colony in particular could not be said to have been very close as far as foreign relations were concerned. Its presence there in the first stage could not understandably compete in scope with the French efforts in the cultural and educational fields. teaching the English language was the first priority before developing other areas of co-operation. but alsobeyond her traditional partners. Taking into account the differences in population between certain countries. Britain’s export to Algeria being superior to her imports. in 1984/85. 1501 Indians and only 371 Chinese.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference I. Britain has always been in favour of a free and open market. £10. Yet. Thatcher’s era showed still more motivation than was demonstrated in earlier years.was £19. the economic liberalism witnessed atthebeginning of the 1980s provided the opportunity for more mutually developed relations with Britain because France was no longer monopolizing trade with the country concerned. The Council wanted to promote closer linksbetween Britain and Algeria because this latter offered a new interest. of open politics.Anglo-Algerian Relations: Since the beginning of the colonial era. in Algeria it was only£1. After this former French colony’s independence. when no oneknew whether it was going to be a stronger Europe for its partners and itself or a fortress which closed upon itself and from which it excluded all the traditional non-European partners. Accordingly. and though culture has traditionally proved to have gone hand in hand with politics. Such policy of diversification encouraged relations between Britain and Algeria.1Events. the British Council’s work in this country remained limited in comparison to its activities in countries where it was expected to be intense like the Commonwealth countries. and everywhere an eagerness to learn this language grew. the British Council was established in this former French colony. the British Council did not promote English in Algeria only for the sake of spreading this language because the world at large may appreciate the international importance of English without the British Council or the British Government efforts. the British Council in Algeria sent only 200 Algerians to Britain whereas it sent 932 Kenyans. Britain succeeded in cultivating more important commercial partnership with Algeria than it used to have during the colonial period. however.2In fact. 124 . proved both the French and the British wrong in so far as Algeria sustained her independence and started looking for partners all over the world . for instance. when disequilibrium characterized this country’s imports and exports. This can certainly be ascribed to the factthat the British Council acted as an instrument of foreign policy as far as Britain was concerned and therefore lacked a full-fledged policy in this initial period.225 million in Kenya. Thus.not just in Europe.779 million while new offices were being established in Eastern Europe.these countries could play on the world scene in general and could represent for Britain in particular .4These figures revealed the Council’s unstated policy which made a difference between various countries just not according to their respective population but rather according to the importance either political or economic sometimes both . The change also happened at a time when Europe was going through a great mutation.

the number increased from 14 in 1981 to 200 in 1985. a brief boost was given to the political relations between Britain and this country. State visits between Britain and this African country took place during the Thatcher’s era in particular. And indeed. The latter was mainly caused by the Britishambivalent attitude towards the ‘Rhodesian’ problem in 19657 and Britain’s participation in the Zionist military attack against Egypt. the Council paved the way for a new start between Britain and Algeria which offered opportunities for business after the liberal atmosphere that characterized Algerian Foreign Policy at the beginning of the 1980s. especially in English language teaching. The British tried to establish better contacts with Algerian Government Officials most responsible for the country’s development policies. wide and intense. After the British Queen’s visit in 1979 to Algeria. Indeed. Algeria was tremendously injured and affected by this British co-operation with colonial expansionist policies. in 1979.10Thus. the Council’s efforts started to flourish in a more significant way. in fact.6 Such a British initiative was backed by the British Council whoseeducational and cultural activities promoted friendships with the Algerians. Syria and Jordan in 1967. Queen Elizabeth II paid a visit to Algeria.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference To strengthen a real development in relations between countries. during the 1980s. state visits are traditionally organized. Before the 1980s. as political relations between Britain and Algeria improved. Thus. this activity remained the most 125 . Consequently. a continuing series of bilateral ministerial visits occurred. she broke her diplomatic relations with Britain in 1967. For instance. However.. i. Despite the Algerian government’s encouragement since independence for the British Council to open offices and startprogrammes.It was only in 1980 that the first time an Algerian Foreign Minister paid an official visit to London. This. as a Non-aligned and Arab country. an Algerian foreign Minister paid an official visit to Britain. was manifested in a dramatically increase in the number of Algerian people actually sent to Britain by the British Council. cultivating friendships among the Algerian intellectuals and civil servants who constituted its audience.5 One may safely suppose that the Council’s distribution of its budget overseas was subject to political considerations. Anglo-Algerian relations were characterized by animosity. Moreover. hosted and trained Zimbabwean freedom fighters on her territory and gave open support to the Palestinian cause. for instance. the British Council carried on its cultural work.8 Indeed. Anglo-Algerian cultural co-operation was not what the Algerians wanted it to be.9 Consequently.e. for the first time. II-The British Developed Educational Presence in Algeria: While the Council’s emphasis in Algeria before the 1980s consisted in training and helping Algerian people to develop their institutions by placing through co-operation British experience at their disposal. In 1980.11 For instance. Indeed. the Council’s activities knew a relatively remarkable dynamism. UK-Algerian relations have never been better than they were during the 1980s. As was pointed out by the British Council Board: ‘There was increasing evidence that Algeria would like to collaborate more with Britain…’. otherwise the British Council could easily have restricted its very intense activities in India or Kenya. to answer some of the Algerian demands in the educational field. the fact that the British Council neglected to issue regular detailed reports concerning British Council policy towards Algeria in comparison to its detailed documentation of this policy towards the rest of the world and particularly the Commonwealth countries is a measure in itself of the limitation of British cultural presence or interests in this former French African country.

Indeed. the Council’s objective at that time became much more targeted towards the higher educational sector on which the Algerian government was investing heavily . nuclear and solar energy. 250 Algerians were sent for both long and short-term visits. the technical fields were favoured over literary and purely cultural specialties for the significant and considerable revenues they could bring about. particularly those related to the Arab Nation and to Africa with which Britain has always had vested interests. In addition.15 In 1989. Algerianfinanced special courses and study tours in Britain were recorded.19Obviously.13The expected result of many of these visits was not only scientific and technological improvement but also the furthering of commercial potential. in one way or another.between the two peoples.than in 1962-1979 . As Timothy Eggar. Under Secretary of State at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office from 1985 to investment estimated. during the first half of the 1980s. among them 38 engineers from the National Steel Works in Annaba .the largest industrial complex in NorthAfrica. Thus. the Council sent hundreds of Algerian official visitors to Britain. Accordingly. The number of Algerian people actually sent to Britain increased dramatically during the 1980s to exceed hundreds. computer technology. at £50 million over 1986/87. Algeria’s tendency to loosen its ties with France coincided with Britain’s hope to increase its share in the overseas student market for the political and commercial advantages Algeria actually has always offered.12 Personal exchanges also occurred in other fields such as archeology.Ds to musicians on two week summer courses. Accordingly.18 In fact. To preserve these links with Algeria.16 a fact that facilitated contacts between Britain and Algeria. were expected to lead to twinning arrangement with British steel. the Council sponsored several inter-university links. ranging from computer scientists preparingPh. it multiplied its efforts to provide English courses for Algerians in particular for those requiring English for professional reasons. the British Council had to work actively to spread the English language and establish better contacts . for instance.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference important task of the British Council in Algeria like elsewhere. 1987/88. supporting higher education links between our two countries. public administration and building research. It also spread British political and economic influences in this strategic area of the Mediterranean known for its significantly remarkable attitudes in international conflicts. in response to Algeria’s needs. 1988/89. the British Council changed the way in which it was trying to achieve its objective by supporting the development of highly trained personnel in the university sector. The latterresulted in the flow of academics in both directions. a significant increase in the number of Algerian students actually studying at the local British Council’s teaching centre was witnessed as the followingtabledemonstrates: 126 . in fact.14This. pointed out in 1989: Everything the council is doing in Algeria is. It’s a clear priority for the Council which matches exactly the priorities of the two governments….17 So. This development in the British Council’s work was dictated by both Algeria’s commitment to British postgraduate training and its determination to make English the language of teaching and research in science andtechnology. earthquake engineering.

Welsh. from this programme. Algeria wasthe largest Council outlet for the British library’s photocopying service.significantly stated: ‘[…] There is unquestionably now a smaller area over which the Board of the Council is able to rule’. For instance. In 1985. Indeed. that is to say. the Council’s operations in Algeria involved what is called Book Promotion work. with its 1400 public and growing university sector. the needs of Eastern Europe.22 Year 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 Number of students 2755 2739 2075 In fact. However. This was due to the then still relatively very limited budget the Council was allocating for Algeria.20 Year 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 Number of students 2428 2537 2700 2727 2782 The focusing during the 1980s was much more on training post graduate studentsfrom the educational. Furthermore. asked in 1987 by Mr. an FCO Officer. It facilitatedaccess to English reading material through its organization of book exhibitions. 21 Yet. the English Department of Algiers University several times benefited. this phenomenon coincided with the Council’s shift towards Eastern European countries where new opportunities were to be seized. were asked to pay only a symbolic fee. For instance. John Burgh-a British Council’s Director in the 1980s. Thus. if the Council was increasingly then becoming a mere agent of her Majesty’s government. leading it to start multiplying efforts to spread its activities and teach English to an increasing number of people23 who. because of the new challenges.24 127 . the Council took part in two book fairs and a new Council post was created to help meet the enormous demand in books work. the Council was tied by other ‘duties’ and became oriented rather towards meeting inpriority. participation in Algerian Book Fairs and very large book presentation programmes by presenting books to Universitylibraries for example. students in the humanities could not engage in research if they were to rely on what was presented by the British Council. promoting British books in Algeria to give people access to British thinking and views. though always in insufficient amounts. demonstrating once more theimpact of its financial dependence on its government policies. as a result of British Foreign Policy’s shift. Mr. For example. the Council’s capacity to satisfy the high demand for English courses locally started to diminish by 1987/88 as the table below demonstrates: Table Two. rather than being an independent cultural agency. scientific and technological fields-going to Britain in terms of the English that they needed when they would get there.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Table One. what was presented by this service remained insufficient.

the British Council’s expenditure in non-Commonwealth countries in general was subject to cuts because of political considerations which were beyond the Council’s Board’s power. we can mention the example of Lebanon where the Civil war which made ravages from 1975 onwards. indeed.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Contrary to what happened in the ex-Soviet Union. However. though surrounded by dangers . In addition.did not close its office or limit its work there just one yearafter the beginning of the ‘unrest’ as it did in Algiers .dangers which in reality cannot be measured in size with those in Algeria . To those who hold such an argument. Thus.26 It is most likely that such decisions were motivated by political considerations. the British Council closed its offices in Algeria.e. the British Council showed a relatively more dynamic policy in Algeria for its enjoyed political position on the international level in addition to its incomes from oil which could allow it to contribute to the Council’s spending and buy other services from Britain. On the other hand. The British Council’s attitude towards Algeria during the 1980scould.. Consequently. the Council’s fees strategy in Algeria imposed its important and continuing increase in 1985. as the following table shows: Table Three. therefore. it remained insignificant in this country with which Britain had had limited cultural contact in the past if compared to what the Council performed elsewhere. One might think that the insecurity problems witnessed since 1992 were behind that or were at least the main reason. it did so only eleven years later. they always showed their readiness to pay for British Council services. the Algerian liberal political and economic reforms witnessed during the 1980s attracted Britain as a potential partner. rather. and which could only be explained in terms of political choices.25 Year 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 Number of Students 2428 2537 2700 2727 2728 2755 2739 2075 Enrolment cost fees DA 700 DA 700 DA 770 DA 800 DA 950 DA 1200 DA 1300 DA 1300 Though Algerian students themselves judged the fees to be very high. not before May 1986. since 1993. But. did not prevent the Council office. be explained by Algeria’s very position world-wide: its genuine concern with and involvement in African and Arab problems had increased its weight and political influence in Africa and within the Arab Nation with whom Britain had had historical ties and vested interests. 128 . i. the British Council’s work during the 1980s in Algeria was relatively more intense than it was before because the former could contribute to the Council’s spending.

1985). These cultural bodies. E.namely Egypt.that could result from an extended educational and cultural workin general. Consequently faithful to its principles of solidarity with liberation causes. Mr. p. Representative’s Annual Report 1967-1968. Moroccan Embassy in London (August 1995).to answer the maximum of demands from overseas for their respective cultures and educational services. The British Council.28. Comet.32. (London. Committee for Middle East Trade.1.1989). In external affairs.BW10/10. (Paris. -Restricted. Algeria viewed all the actions of the participants in this aggression as acts of hostility. In this context.political as well as economic. April 1981).(London. the British Council’s lack of enthusiasm helped the Algerians to divert their attention to other European countries’ cultural agencies such as the German Goethe Institute and the ItalianDante Alighieri. p.23. She was the Head of the Aggregation Department. a fact that strongly affected Algeria (whose people experienced the same horrors of colonialism as Rhodesia). The British Council. 30 July. instead of investing in the long-term as the French did in Egypt for example.1969.p.The British Council. developed a long-term policy for cultural relations and thus. 137.S.‘The 1980-84 Algerian Five Years Plan’. invested more moneythan the British did. British Embassy Algiers. (London.B) in Algiers/Algeria. A personal Interview. Sindbad. Porter. Malika SAHEL is a Senior Lecturer of British Civilization in the Department of English at the ‘EcoleNormaleSupérieure of Bouzaréah (E. 92.1. The British Council’s representative in Algeria appreciated ‘the strong desire of the Algerians to learn English and of the Algerian Ministry of Education to improve the standards of English teaching in Algerian schools …’. Algeria never accepted Britain’s ambivalent attitude towards the white minority in Rhodesia and its support of Ian Smith who led the UDI (Unilateral Declaration of Independence) and established an illegal government in 1965. p. Evans. p. Representative’s Annual Report 1968-1969. 9. the British just prepared the ground and helped indirectly other Anglophone countries: the USA in particular. Algeria. Moreover. Longman. p. Chagnolland. References 1. 7. Brief biography of the author Dr. In June 1967 Britain like the USA sided with Israel and participated in the Zionist military attack against the Arab neighboring countries .1.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Conclusion Thus. 1969. Syria and Jordan. 4.61.N. ‘The British Council Annual Report 1984/85’.generated values.31.1969. For further details on the Maghreb attitude towards the Middle Eastern ‘Question’see J. 8. P. and has been a permanent member of the Scientific Committee of the English Department from 1997 to nowadays. as well as on the non-alignment policy. 3.Confidential. Algeria’s attitude rested on its own revolution . p. 1977). as the inevitable independence of Rhodesia was advancing. The British Council. the Head of the English Department. to undertake educational activities in Algeria on a larger scale and gather the maximum of benefits. .ps. MaghrebetPalestine. 129 . 6.(London. The British Council.The British Council. Head of the English Department Scientific Committee from 2008 to 2016. B. This British attitude meant exacerbation of the liberation movements bitterly led by the two native Rhodesian political parties: ZANU and ZAPU.Restricted. ‘The British Council Annual Report and Accounts 1988/1989’. Algeria. 2. 1975). 5. whose governments did not want to be left aside in view of a dominant French cultural presence. The Lion’s Share:A Short history of British Imperialism 1850-1970. 2. Algeria’s policy has been dominated by a completely rigid attitude to the Israel Question and unremitting opposition to any activity which could be construed as being ‘colonialist’.

British Embassy Algiers. cit. London. April 1981). The British Council. 14.  Mitchell J. The British Council. 18. Comet. 1987. ‘The British Council Annual Report 1982/83’. cit. p. The British Council. 14. p. p..33. 1985. Obtained from the British Council’s Teaching Centre in Algiers1989/90 and from the British Council annual reports data. 20. 1985. cit. 1975. London. 1980. Committee for Middle East Trade. HMSO.. The British Council. 1977. Britain and Africa.34.1986). p. Allen &Unwin. The British Council :The First Fifty Years. The British Council.. ‘The British Council Annual Report 1987/88’. 13. 1987). The Lion’s Share:A Short history of British Imperialism 1850-1970. The British Council. 1986. The British Council. The British Council. op. The British Council.1990. ‘The 1980-84 Algerian Five Years Plan’. 1984. Ibid.  Donaldson F. Longman. 34. London.. The British Council. September1997. (London. 22. Ibid. 25. 1969. BW10/10. 1989.. 17. op. The British Council. p. p. Britain and World Affairs in the Twentieth Century. The British Council. The British Council. London.op. op. London. BW10/10. 26.13. The British Council. Foreign Affairs Committee. (London.Restricted. London. The British Council. The British Council. Algeria. W. Obtained from the British Council’s annual reports data. Sindbad. 1988). 1984. ‘The British Council Annual Report 1985/86’. Restricted. BritainandIndia:A modern partnership. ‘The BritishCouncil Annual Report 1980/81’. 12.  Her Majesty Stationary Service Office. 1987). Representative’s Annual Report 1968-1969. 1986. Edinburgh and London: W&R. p. H. Maghreb et Palestine. cit. ‘The British Council Annual Report 1979/80’.. Jonathan Cape. The British Council. The British Council.  Porter B. 1971.cit. 1968. P. The British Council. (London. FCO. ‘The British Council Annual Report 1981/82’. 1981. The British Council.  Bradnock R. Bibliography Books  Bailey M. (London. 1988. 1986.. op. The British Council. 23. London. 1993. Algeria. The Royal Institute of International Affairs Printer Publishers. British Foreign Policy Under Thatcher. India’s Foreign Policy Since 1971.Confidential. 1982. 24. 20. The British Council.  Williams P. (London. London. London. International Cultural Relation. London.  Byrd P. 1987. p. p. 44. The British Council. 1980. The British Council. 130 . The British Council. 51. 11. London. ‘The British Council Annual Report 1980/81’. ‘The British Council Annual Report 1986/87’. Paris. The British Council. 19. 38.  Chagnolland J.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference 10. America. ‘The British Council Annual Report 1982/83’. cit. Heinemann. The Overseas Students Questions. The British Council. 15. The British Council. The British Council. Philip Allan Publishers. cit. 1969. (London.  ForeignandCommonwealthOffice. 1983. 22. The British Council. 21. 16. p. London. op. The British Council. 1986. Representative’s Annual Report 1967-1968. Reports           BW10/10. 44. p. 1981). The British Council. ‘The BritishCouncil Annual Report 1985/86’. p.20.. The British Council. Fourth Report:Cultural Diplomacy. Britain’s share in the Algerian market was only 3% in 1979. 34. 1985. 30 July. Chambers. House of Commons. Obtained from The British Council’s Teaching Centre in Algiers 1989/90. HMSO.p. op. p. ‘The British Council Annual Report 1983/84’. 1. London.

Interviewsdone in Algeria and abroad  Personal Interview. April 1981. The British Council. 1989.  The House of Commons. 1989. HMSO. 131 . ‘The British Council Annual Report1986/87’. The British Council. ‘The 1980-84 Algerian Five Years Plan’.  The British Council.  The British Council. ‘The British Council Annual Report 1987/88’. London. Foreign Affairs Committee.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference  The British Council. Moroccan Embassy in London. London. Comet. August 1995. London. London. The British Council in Algiers.  The Committee for Middle East Trade.  The Committee for Middle East Trade. London. London.  Personal Interview. ‘The British Council Annual Report and Accounts 1988/89’. April 1981. 1988. The British Council. Fourth Report:Cultural Diplomacy. 1987. 1987. Comet. ‘The 1980-84 Algerian Five Years Plan’.

flexibility. willingness to thoughtfully enter risky situations. (Dreissen. tomas. Keywords: entrepreneur. optimalization of costs. his reputation and also by his moral. achievement.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Moral competencies . ability to recognize new options and opportunities. These entrepreneurial competencies. global labour market Main Conference Topic: Education Introduction Globalisation. 2003). Technical university in Kosice daniela.critical factors to entrepreneurial success Daniela Hrehová.ilecko@tuke. Entrepreneurship is ability to create and build something new (company). These critical success factors – the entrepreneurial moral competencies – which have been neglected for long. cooperation. apply them and are a role models to their collegues. and entrepreneurship which should be beneficial to life (Remišová. Today´s times suggest strong linkage of these Abstract Entrepreneurial competencies have important role to play in entrepreneurship. & Zwart. moral competence. p. but also needs for successful entrepreneurship. which could be defined as a real individual ability to use achieved knowledge. dealing fairly. aesthetic and qualitative features. Tomáš Ilečko Department of social science. Ethical entrepreneur Entrepreneurial ethics presents economy based on human principles which highlight the fact. socially responsible entrepreneurship and safety aren´t just appropriate requirements. From the entrepreneur´s point of view is ethics filling triple function: 132 . skills and attitudes during entrepreneurial activity according to certain. with people. ability of own gifts and Technical university in Kosice Department of language. It forms the presumption of successful applicability of individual on labour market and successful company management in knowledge society. everyday and changing situation in work. ambition and passion to achieve specified goals. That´s why depends on how entrepreneurs perceive ethical attitudes. which are rooted in effective training and development. These values of entrepreneur are characterized in competetive environment and perceived by stakeholders. This definition of entrepreneurship leads to thinking about the nature of entrepreneur´s competences. 21). Business environment is formed by complex of mostly intangible values which are connected to so called „goodwill“ of entrepreneur. Entrepreneurs are specific actors of ethical behaviour. in Slovakia. 1999. ability reach and use various sources to gain needed competences. honestly and responsibly with his employees (other stakeholders). They are expected to exhibit the high ethical standard of behaviour that will affect the company's image financially and economically.hrehova@tuke. that entrepreneurial activities aren´t purposeless and are organized for people. morality. should be considered as very essential and necessary variables in entrepreneurial development. The entrepreneurs must adhere to high ethical standards. can serve the needed tonic for his success in business.

entrepreneurship success and national development. provides manual to very important self-reflection. The above fact is evident in several available studies done by scholars on the subject matter (Mitchelmore. which are placed on them by virtue of the positions. ethical behaviour and acting can´t be forced. attitudes and patterns of moral and social behaviour to be able to perform his job not just as a manager. morally correct and morally incorrect. decisionmaking competence and leadership competence as catalysts to entrepreneurship success and national development. Laguna et al. financial competence. tries to multiply happiness. forms and influences his structure of personality by forming acquired values. 2010. made the relationship between entrepreneurial competence and entrepreneurship success to be important topic within organizational literatures. Real ethical behaviour must be supported by integrated moral value system. Several researches have been conducted in areas of entrepreneurship competency. Knapik (2006) notes that etrepreneur should observe some ethical minimum: behave to himself and to collegues with respect. 156). which doesn´t permits entrepreneur to behave unethically and use ethics in situations which might be advantageous. Business ethics competence is the basic essential entrepreneurial 133 . 78). doesn´t cause harm to others. to act honestly. 2012).. regardless the type of entrepreneur´s activities. doesn´t use people as a mean to achieve his own goals. 2007. p. Many of these studies identified entrepreneurship competences like communication competence. He must be able to deal with several different activities and need to be able to see things in context and perspectives. 2010).MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference    provides basic ethical normative orientation to colleagues and the whole internal environment of the organization (company). This has thus. leader but also as a human being. His „moral mentality is reflected in his moral behaviour“(Lajčiaková. to recognize good and evil. p. p. Only a morally competent person morally decides and morally acts. business success and national development. self-regulation or self management of own behaviour as a manager or leader (Porvazník. & Onikoyi. self-control. The current literatures on the subject do not provide sufficient explanations to the role general and/or specific competences play in successful entrepreneurship. 2008. Whole process of cultivation extends deeper level of manager´s consciousness. Most literatures relating to entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship success tend to unquestionably argue that most entrepreneurial fiascos are essentially due to inadequate financial resources (Adeyemo. 1993. behave according to „fair play“ principle. This is a field of moral dispositions. the entrepreneur should adhere so called ethical minimum of economist:      to be responsible in relation to all interest groups. Finally. Ethics. they occupy in the organization (Hitka at al. marketing competence. 17). offers normative orientation in connection to external environment. to be empathic to troubles of other people. The entrepreneurs and employees have ethical responsibilities or obligations. Entrepreneur tends to diverse and flexible work so he mustn´t feel under pressure of internal and external conditions. It models character traits. & Rowley. 2013 etc). social responsibility competence. He must be confident about the correctness and asset of ethics in business (Stýblo. to be himself and not to formalize into poses of someone else.

80 -1.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference competence for successful business.11 SD T p 0.722 0. ability and skills which are important for development of business competences and self-employment on moral level.275 0. Values and value chain are very important for my future development and professional Study Form BSc MSc BSc MSc BSc MSc N 118 106 124 106 120 101 AM 3.218 BSc MSc 115 99 3.87 0.96 3.11 3. The survey was placed to six faculties of Technical university in Košice. Respondents expressed their „self-reflectional“ answers using scale 1. 5. Agree.91 1. Data in table 1 allows to monitor the self-evaluation of respondents during their reconsidering of character. Selection of respondents and collected data were processed by statistic package MS Excel and MS WinStat. good and bad conduct and the ordering of values in undertaking business activities in society. It can be defined as a system of rules and principles that define right and wrong.98 -0. Study results According to wide base of collected results we mention only certain findings of moral aspects of entrepreneurship which will be used to draft the preparation for future graduates for global and domestic labour market. Table 1: Self-evaluation of respondents 1 2 3 4 Examined items I care about moral values during my business activities Ethics is very important during business activities.235 0. 2010).96 0.85 0. Questionnaire was focused on obtained entrepreneurial experiences of students.356 0.11 2.18 2.Disagree.83 0.031TUKE-4/2016 focused on preparation of university students of technical study programs for need of global labour market.95 -0. The improvement of student´s preparation in business activities presumed (according to collected published sources about today´s situation in solving and elaborating of business study programs on various colleges in Slovakia) creating a meter which would be able to collect broad informations about students of Technical university in Košice (TUKE) which are related to skills useful to plan career after graduation.860 0. who started their business during studies on university.176 0. Respondents of survey were students of third year of bachelor studies (M=147) and also to students of first and second year of engineer studies (M=136). Rather agree. 2. Research study Pilot study was realized as a part of project KEGA č. I consider unwritten ethic/moral rules as essential on the way to success. – Rather disagree.98 0. Equally disagree and agree.. Characteristics of file and methodology. Ethics deals with moral ability and obligations.14 3. Every business has its ethics (Černá. 4.204 134 .13 3. 3.

abilities and skills (important for development of business competences and self-employment) were situated in positive spectrum of valuation scale.516 0. 135 .79 1. I´m successful in business thanks to my moral principles.29 3.24 2.32).29).28) I have no problem to observe all ethical rules (M=3.623 -0. On the other hand less significantly declared they aren´t familiar with the base of business ethical codex (M=2.834 -1. 2002).82). As a result. ability to exemplary take care about their employees (M=3.210 0.99 3.12 3.668 Mentioned results are students of bachelor studies while considering their characteristics.02). decisions and maintaining interpersonal.99). 2008). scholars increasingly focus on the moral and ethical competencies and aspects of entrepreneurship (Dirgová.85 0. I´m familiar with the base of ethic business codex of companies.728 0.348 0. Statistical analysis didn´t show significant findings between both files.80 0.92 0.90 0.11 0.685 0. According to their answers might be concluded that students are familiar with unwritten rules and fair-play principles and they follow it their lifes.80 0.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference 5 9 10 11 12 15 targeting.79 0. I´m familiar with the base of ethic business codex of companies (M=3. Students of master studies while considering their characteristics. It´s my moral commitment to take care about my employees.16 3.16). they have no tendencies to hurt someone or lie (M=3.08 3.96). Venkataraman.88 0. ability to observe all ethical rules (M=3.32 3. they have no tendencies to hurt someone or lie (M=2. abilities and skill which are important for development of business competences respondents more significantly declared ability to follow unwritten verbal promises and agreements (M=3.82 3.093 0.13). competitive environments inhabited by entrepreneurs (Klimková. BSc MSc BSc MSc BSc MSc BSc MSc BSc I don´t hurt and don´t lie MSc I follow unwritten verbal promises BSc and MSc agreements. Entrepreneurs are regularly confronted by moral issues that entail choices between the pursuit of personal gain and causing harm to others.88 0.28 0. On the other hand less significantly declared that Values and value chain are very important for my future development and professional targeting (M=2. I care about moral values during my business activities (M=3.96 0. Such moral issues are amplified in the dynamic.88 0. abilities and skill which are important for development of business competences respondents more significantly declared item unwritten verbal promises and agreements (M=3. unwritten ethic/moral rules consider essential on the way to success (M=2. 2002.651 0. and between maintaining and compromising behavioral norms (Sarasvathy. 2011).24). In pursuance of collected our data we can say that valuating of respondents during reconsidering their moral characteristics. social and work relationships.96). 108 90 103 92 109 96 123 109 134 110 136 116 3.02 3.07 3.492 0. It means we can´t decline zero hypothesis. I have no problem to observe all ethical rules.07).429 0.13 2.

The evidence is clear — moral intelligence and competencies play a big part in corporate success in the current global marketplace. This impact is particularly strong in liberal arts colleges and in disciplines that explore people and values. Formal education and scientific knowledge. reflection and dialogue on moral and ethical issues. Seeing the ethical issues (ethical consciousness) and wanting to do the right thing (ethical commitment) are not puts ethics at the top of the most necessary entrepreneurship competencies (Giles. They showed personal maturity.  Allow students to discover how various cultural groups reason about moral issues. McNeel (1994. They are can be positive and enhance lives or be destructive. Students in more vocationally oriented disciplines such as business and education have shown considerably lower DIT score growth over their college experience. p. Ethical behavior is essential in a education. „There may be a moral development problem nationally in the areas of business and education. particularly in the context of competencies. principled ethical reasoning. some of the strongest college effects found in the literature are on moral reasoning. It´ll be precious source for future formation of new social sciences subjects. 2006. In fact. Answers were perceived as a one of sources.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Students of master studie seem to be in more perspective situation. In absolute answers is seen good potential for future implementation in new subjects to develop ethical aspects of entrepreneurship. 34) has remarked. It´s more like pilot study which will be used to conceive study materials. after reviewing research on this issue.  Use the DIT to help both teacher and students understand their moral reasoning and track and improve program effectiveness. We should accept the fact that subjective answers of students doesn´t correspond with objective evaluation and also doesn´t have to show real preparation for future entrepreneurship. Numerous studies in moral education (Leming. In ethics education should improve the ability to evaluate facts and make reasonably reliable predictions about the likely consequences of decisions.  Have students play the roles of and explain the reasoning used by others to resolve moral dilemmas. The education for moral development Moral or ethical issues are central to business lives. Cunningham. Despite the fact all mentioned results didn´t show statistically significant differences between students of bachelor and master degree. management and entrepreneurial praxis (Karlson. Listed here are some methods consistent with the findings of research on fostering students' moral judgment. as well as the development of practical skills. Today higher education has had a mission to foster its students' moral development. Research has repeatedly shown that “high ethical and moral standards” (67%) are most highly rated attributes. That´s because large number of these students have at least one year´s experiences with employment or with any kind of entrepreneurship.“ two fields with an enormous impact on society. 136 . & Fegin. A new study shared on HBR. more practical experiences in business and entrepreneurship. Devine. 1993.  Ensure all students have ample out-of-class contact with faculty members. 2014). 2007) suggest practical tactics teachers can use that will help their students move toward more complex. College experiences can have a significant impact on students' moral reasoning. 2016). should be complemented with situated learning. In fact.

edu/. clients. Business Ethics for Unseasoned Entrepreneurs: Trends and Concerns for Professionals and Stakeholders. educational and training courses might enhance the self-regulatory characteristics and skills that encourage moral awareness among future entrepreneurs. Prospects and Challenges of Large Scale Commercial Poultry Production. 388-393. disciplinary concepts. offer rich opportunities for helping students develop their skill in moral reasoning. acquired qualities and skills will allow them to be better employees. Honesty.uchicago. entrepreneur has substantial influence in forming ethical environment and ethical development of developing company with direct impact on employees (Withey 2008). 2005). Entrepreneurship in today´s global society predicts the knowledge of ethical principles of entrepreneurship. 2002). With such efforts we can indeed foster our students' moral development – for the good of all. the higher the financial share of the entrepreneur in a starting company. the higher the initiatives used to support ethical manners in company (Morris et al. pp. In Proceedings of the Academy of Entrepreneurship. directly teach Kohlberg's model of six stages of reasoning as one would teach other. & Onikoyi. P. Teaching of entrepreneurial ethics of potential entrepreneurs during their college studies could have impact on ethical maturity and consciousness (Starcher.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference  Have students discuss controversial moral dilemmas. problems. Wood. 33-36. C.  All courses. & Nijhawan. (2004). contractors./Character%20Education% Černá. or scenarios that involve these values for students to discuss. Even though students aren´t thinking about entrepreneurship as a primary career. Develop cases. Podnikateľská etika a jej implementácia v podmienkach priemyselných podnikov v Slovenskej republike. (2012). pp. 7(6). A.. Agricultural Journal. M. The objective of results was to find suitable „key“ for strenghting and developing this sectional competence. partners and investors. 1997). that entrepreneur´s values are directly reflecting into company manners (Gurley. 2004). M. Available at: http://cuip. Cunningham. Character Education in Public Schools: The Quest for a Suitable Ontology. even in disciplines such as mathematics or statistics that on their surface may appear to lack obviously moral content. Thus one can speculate that targeted management. AlumniPress. and cooperation are emphasized and discussed. sensitivity to others' needs.. decency and integrity are very important atributes for entrepreneurs because they´re dependent on belief of their employees. 10. Conclusion Theoretical and research studies from various authors are showing that entrepreneur is a person who sets the ethical trend in company no matter it´s good or bad. SK. A. (2010). (2007). It follows that low level of ethics in entrepreneurship is the major obstacle in business.  In addition to high involvement tactics. 137 . Identify disciplinary issues with moral content—that relate to moral values. It is already known that aspects of self-regulation of moral competencies can be enhanced by appropriate educational methods.. Boyd. (Boyd.ň References [1] [2] [3] [4] Adeyemo. Ľ. The paper is the partial solution result of scientific project of MŠVVAŠ SR 031TUKE4/2016 Education of students of technical specialization for the needs of the global labor market (with an emphasis on business activities). A. Every course can become a learning community where values of mutual respect.W.

Wiechetek. The Competencies of Managers and their Business Success. (2011). M. M.R. (1993). 63-71. & Rowley.S.. Morálne súradnice ekologického poznania a etika. M. Ekonóm. (2014).. The Ethics Construct: A Multidimensional Analysis in an Academic Setting. M. W. 2. a kol. 40.M. Erlbaum. 233-241. 138 . S. J.P. Stakeholder value and equilibrium and the entrepreneurial process. Central European Business Review.. A. McNeel. D.S. (1997). In search of effective character education. USA. (2002). Rest. ES TU Zvolen. Entrepreneurial competencies: A literature review and development agenda. (1993). Narvarez. Entrepreneurship as economics with imagination. Driessen. A. The Ethical Context of Entrepreneurship: Proposing and Testing a Developmental Framework. Educational Leadership.. at al. Rokovanie v medzinárodnom obchode. Podniková kultúra v riadení ľudských zdrojov.. (2008). pp. S. Lajčiaková. Podnikateľská etika v praxi – cesta k úspechu. Celostný manažment. SK. 7-13. pp. N. pp. P. Advances in Accounting Education. 235-256. & Talik. 1(3). Starcher. Journal of Business Ethics. SK. Harwars Business Review. (2000). (2012). SK. (2010). (2003). J. 16. In Profesijná etika a prax.W. P. Moral development in the professions: Psychology and applied ethics. Remišová. J. 3. Stakeholder Visibility and Organizational Ethics: Implications for Entrepreneurial Behavior. Karlson. Venkataraman. J. (1994). Knapik. (2016). E. Laguna. pp. Withey. pp. M. SK. College teaching and student moral development. J. S. Available at: http://bahailibrary. 27-49. 17-22. Schindehutte... & Zwart. 2002. 331-361. Ruffin Series in Business Ethics 3. 92-111. G. S. Psychológia morálky. D. (2010). Available et: https://hbr. pp.. s. & McCartney. 250. Guffey. Available at: http://www. Ruffin Series in Business Ethics.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] Dirgová. 45-58. pp. The Entrepreneur Scan Measuring Characteristics and Traits of entreprenurs. Mitchelmore. P. Epos. (2008). Perspectives in Business. J. Poradca podnikateľa. Personální Giles. (1999). P. According to Leaders Around the World. 1-23. Grada. 5(2).D. Akademické nakladatelství CERM. CZ. (2006). In J. S. 51. A. SK.. Etika a etiketa ako báza pre komunikáciu a kultúru v organizáciách. (2008). E. (2007). Ratio Working Paper. J. Virtue as Competence in the Entrepreneurial Society. pp. Leming. 95–112. The Most Important Leadership Competencies. 2002. Sarasvathy. CZ. & Walton. Hitka. A Transition to a Free Market Economy in Eastern Europe Paris: European Bahá'í Business Forum. Klimková. Porvazník.entrepreneurscan. Verbum. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research. & Stýblo.

Czech and Slovakia.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Brief biographies of the authors Daniela Hrehová She works as a lecturer at the Department of social science in Košice. Author is interested in massmedia communication. Poland. marketing and culture. linguistics. rhetoric and intercultural communication. Tomáš Ilečko He works as a lecturer at the Department of languages in Košice. Scientifically focuses on the issuses of ethics. He is scientifically focused on new tendencies of communication. 139 . He has participated to intercultural projects and organized student´s activities based on multicultural context. business ethics and etiquette in social and economic transformation. communication with the emphasis on culture of communication. entrepreneurial competencies. Author is interested in modern ways of effective marketing communication and works as a supervisor in several projects. She is also reviewer of scientific studies and member of the scientific council in journal abroad. books and studies in Croatia. also educational activities of various events (such as lecturer and consultant) aimed at developing managerial. She creates and participates in a number of scientific research projects at home and abroad. She participates in a number of educational workshops at abroad. She is co/author of several monographs.

However. arrangement and sequence can be seen in fonts and typefaces. the world of art seems cognitively distant from mathematics. Symmetry is known for its universal principle of shape formation and which has inspired mathematicians. Abstract This study descibes the development of a mathematical design process based on symmetry that was designed for first year high school students' creative research program at an elite gifted science school in South Korea. symmetry. scientists and artists. and there can be no topic even more important thaan creativity in the gifted-education. Art & Design education Main Conference Topic: Education I. Intended Project Outcomes - To improve creativity through the integrated knowledge of math and design - To understand visual thinking through symmetry-from mathematical principle to aesthetic process - To learn digital graphic program and its relationship to the artist field 140 . the research project was designed. For example. The structure created focused on the creative process of art & design through mathematical concept. Introduction Creativity is widely known as a key skill in the 21st century.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference JOOYOUNG R PARK MATH IN ART & DESIGN EDUCATION: EXPLORING MATHEMATICAL CREATIVIY IN DESIGN PROCESS MAC201608087 Math in Art & Design Education: Exploring mathematical creativiy in design process Jooyoung R Park Art & Design teacher at the Korea Science Academy of KAIST Parkjooyoung@kaist. Through the theme of inspiration. Many studies have shown that arts can significantly advance gifted student’s academic and creative abilities and cognitive functioning (Seeley 1994.. Keywords: Math and Science gifted A graphic module system created a symmetrically-structured formation. concepts patterns. Smutny 2002). This paper highlights the development of a mathematical design process for gifted in math and science to enhance students’ creative ability based on their individual traits through mathematical inspiration. math is an integral part of the twin disciplines art and design. many people believe that the skills required for art and design simply have no relationship to math.

intrinsic motivation. their education should reflected these differences.and nature.1994). problem sensitivity. Is there specific creative ability in Math? Intially the Korea Science Academy of KAIST is natures math and science gifted students. and self-confidence.Rimm(2011) refer to a variety of abilities such as problem finding. Theoretical Background of Creativity “The moving power of mathematical invention is not reasoning but imagination. and an inquisitive attitude - The designed programmed includes integrated creative factors b. the terms that most commonly appear are fluency. The visionary classrooms described by leaders in the NCTM(National Council of Teachers of Mathematics) enable students to ‘confidently engage in complex mathematical tasks.1974. Beginning spring 2013. synthesis. and elaboration abilities which are measured by the Guilford tests and Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking(Torrance.e.2006) Accoring to Haylock(1987). The following statements summarize these findings: 141 . Significant findings from this data increased instructor knowledge of students’ traits allowed for the creation of customized lesson plans. problem finding and problem solving.” –Augutus de Morgan (1866) In a literature review of creativity. Creative is not limited to art through. selfexpression. thow we then do educators apply and evaluate the developments of teaching creativity in teaching in a pratical way? This study considered theree characteristics to enhance lesson planing.’(NCTM. others identified visualization and aesthetic thinking(i. the lesson plan was designed based around a definition of creativity in math. Additionally. 2000. Literature exists on creativity in math. therefore. Characteristics of gifted students and to inform art education As gifted students posses a number of unique traits.2004). nearly all definitions of creativity have indicated novelty and usefulness. Gary A. intrinsic motivation. The initial focus of how gifted students learning about art academically requires understanding “big picture” idea and problems or misconceptions that students have about art. a questioning attitude. Plucker et al. As many scholars have discussed various factors of creativity in general and specific subject fields. the author's current research is about creativity factors in those specific areas. flexibility. data has been collected for this purpose through teaching observations and freshmen year surveys. and draw knowledge from wide variety of mathematical topics. This study focuses on enhancing creativity in art and math. Runco(2014) described creativity as a multifaceted construct involving divergent and convergent thinking.Mann.The dducational programme and outcomes need to be related to mathematical issue . problem finding and problem solving. he or she “see” things in the “mind’s eye”. and the ability to regress.. self-expression. originality.. design . and mentally manipulate images and ideas(Daniels-McGhee and Davis.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference II.The class culture should evoke learners curiosity and involving the growth of divergent and convergent thinking. sensitivity to and appreciation of beauty in art. mathematical creativity includes the ability to see new relationships between techniques and areas of application and to make associations between possibly unrelated idea. it was important to research creativity in math. Consequently. Over time.) As an individual creative abilities grow. . Background a. Interestingly.Davis and Sylvia B.

and using 3-D printing technology in the schools’ maker space. vi. however.) Gifted students show strong interest in learning graphic design programs and drawing with tablet PCs. compulsion to draw perfect feature. Technological Development : Visualization. This visual experiment suggests to research art of symmetry and a visual experiment by creating symmetry patterns in computer graphic programs. and that are worth completing through a logical process. they have difficulties with less tangible ideas such as abstract thinking or emotional expression. many of these students spend their free time doodling. Over 50% of students are high interest or extremely excited to enroll in art class. Gifted students have superior abilities to in reasoning. Goal of project  Learning the steps to a designer's creative process to improve visualize abstract thinking through reasoning skills  Improving interdisciplinary thinking and discover connections between art and math  Broaden logical thinking through insight obtained by applying principles of aesthetic view  Experience positive emotions when exploring new art mediums through digital devices 1. impatient with failure. Roughly 10 % of students even have a phobia about art resulting from a personal experience (e. Methodology Development: Abstraction and Design Process 3. Symmetry is also essential concept in both art and mathematics. v. iii. problem solving and readily grasp mathematical/scientific concepts. is for just few talented people.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference i. Moreover. excessive stress in school. Most students experience boredom when the topic is conventional or routine tasks. poor achievement in middle school. Students have varied conceptualizations about art as an academic subject. the application of simple transformations or spatial objects produces symmetric patterns.2D modeling with Graphic program Mathematical Design Process  Abstraction Process 142 . forms on surface or in space) by their invariance under a group of transformations. generalization.2003) In contrast. Mathematicians define symmetry of objects(matrices. About 3040% of gifted students think that art is totally different from the fields of math and science and that art. iv. III.g. and perfectionist ii. craft making.(Doris Schattschneide. Case study: Beautiful Symmetry One interpretation of ‘symmetry’ is the secret of beauty we found in nature. Gifted students are overly critical of themselves. functions. even though interesting. Gifted students are strongly motivated to engage a topics that are related to their interests. that are at their level of comprehension. Concept Development : Research of Tessellation and Symmetry in Art and Math 2.

more interesting graphic results are produced. Fig1. One could design patterns with just 'a’. a graphic morpheme and applications of symmetry on the pattern design process a step: This is a kind of a graphic morpheme for creation. Graphic module for symmetric patterns 1 143 . Step ‘b’ step is recommended for to students to manipulate shapes and angle transformation of ‘a’ more easily.b. The variation of graphic patterns are shown in Figure 2.c steps. Abstraction Process of flower  Graphic module for symmetric patterns The creation system consists of a. Also the most abstractive (simplest) format of graphic shape. but that process generates very simple graphic patterns. As a result. b step: This step shows unit of the ‘a’ graphic morpheme. c step: The final step is the creation of patterns with ‘b’ graphic units. Fig2.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Use the graphics program Illustration to uncover the abstraction shape of an item through applications of symmetry.

Graphic module for symmetric patterns 2  a: Line with a dot (abstraction of flower petal)  b: a2 .parallel translation  c: b2 – 90degree rotation reflection Fig4.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference  a: Line with a dot (abstraction of flower petal)  b: a2-parallel reflection  c: b2 –glide reflection Fig3. Graphic module for symmetric patterns 3  a: Line with a dot (abstraction of flower petal) 144 .

MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference  b: a3 – 120degree rotation reflection  c: b3 – 120degree rotation reflection Fig5. they set goals to find and define the problem. Students attempted to discover specific mathematical theories related to art or design work. After that. the creative research program palns to repeat symmetry topic as a mutidisciplinary project to connect art and chemistry. they practice techniques to visualize solutions. and then they define those solutions with imagination. Graphic module for symmetric patterns 4  a: Line with dot in different length*3 (abstraction of flower petal)  b: a3 – 120degree rotation reflection  c: b2 – 90degree rotation reflection Conclusion This project aimed to engage the gifted students affectively and cognitively in the field of art and design a mathematical. Next semester at KSA. creative thingking experience. It was crucial for students to find pleasure of lerning art and how this pleasure gives purpose to connect math. 145 . It was discovered that symmetry and patterns are precious forms of beauty that can be appreciated on both the macro and micro levels. Then.

Sylvia B. Maher.151-176 Doris Schattschneide.San Diego:Acadimic Press Heylock. 187–191). Constructivist views on the teaching of mathematics. Runco.(2002).Vol.A framewrok for assessing mathematical creativity in schoolchildren.No..(1983).(2011). N.pp. VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. 146 . Noddings (Eds.Del Siegle.. Journal for the Education of the Gifted.282-300 Smutny.html Eric L. M. pp.K.Arts curriculum for the gifted.236. pp.and future directions in creativity research.(1994).(1866).Integrating the Arts into Curriculum for Gifted Students(pp.29.Rimm.W. In R.Mann. & N.developmet. Boston:Allyn & Bacon..Pearson. C. Mathematics and Art.Comprehensive curriculum for gifted learners.. (1990).R.The Mathmatics Educator.. Seely.(2014)..pitfalls.20-21 Davis.1.R.ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education Arlington VA. R.G.Gentleman’s Magazine and Historical Review.&Dow. Suggestions for the improvement of mathematics education.Davis.K. Maher.221-226.&Davis.(2004). the development of emotional resiliency in adolescents. Gary A.Educational Studies in Mathematics. 4 .The imagery-creativity connection. A.128-134 Daniel McGhee..(1994). Journal of Creative Behaviour. A.S. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education Monograph No.). Characteristics and special needs of the gifted student in mathematics. de Morgan.Vol.(1987). and practice.A. Reston.(pp.(2006) Creativity: The essence of Mathematics.VanTasselBaska(Ed.pp.1).In J. Mathematics Teacher. & Noddings.(2004)..MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] Bharath Sriraman.Beghetto.227 Plucker.2.30. Davis.14.83-96. p.Creativity:Theories and themes:Research.A.59-74.The Characteristics of Mathematical Creativity.a.pp..Sir 76.mathaware. Her research interests include the in relationships between design thinking and gifted education.D. B.J. and learners’ preconceived notions about Art. B.Why isnt' creativity more important to educational psychologists?Ptentional.pp.Educational Psychologist.39...M.).1.PP.No.A.Hamilton.(2003).Education of the gifted and talented. pp. Heid. http://www.1 Brief biography of the author Author (Jooyoung Park) Jooyoung Park is teacher of Art and Design at the Korean Science Academy of KAIST. C.G.Joan Franklin.p.

Elastic fibres observed close to the inner mesothelial layer under a high power magnification also increased during the experiment. These results will be relevant to a better understanding of the histologic implication of RWM in stages of acute otitis media involving pneumococcus-evoked otitis media. compared with that of the normal RWM. Republic of Korea In attempts to better understand the pathogenesis of inner ear (IE) damage caused by otitis media(OM). The thickness of the RWM had increased in the various stages of the pneumococcus-provoked otitis media. 6 days. All layers of the RWM were affected by the pneumococcal infection. The thickening was most pronounced on day 1. the round window membrane(RWM) structure was investigated in a rat model for pneumococcal otitis media. The RWM of 25 rats was evaluated light-and electron microscopically at 1 day. being about 4 to 5 times greater than that of the normal RWM. Together with alterations to the BM. but with the major changes confined to the subepithelial space close to the basement membrane (BM). 147 . Jin Yoon2 Department of Otorhinolaryngology Chonbuk National University Medical School1 and Wonkwang University2.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ROUND WINDOW MEMBRANE DURING PNEUMOCOCCAL OTITIS MEDIA Yong Joo Yoon1. 3 days. the most distinct pathological feature is characterized by an increase in and hypertrophy of fibroblasts in association with abundant collagen fibres. 10 days and 20 days after the unilateral inoculation of type 3 pneumococcus suspension into their middle ear cavities.

Some research studies have questioned the value of student evaluation of teaching while others have seen merit in them and therefore supported administering them. The presenter will start by highlighting the theoretical underpinnings of the topic of student evaluations of teaching effectiveness. Najat Al Kalbani Affiliation: Sultan Qaboos University Country: Oman E-mail: najatsqu@gmail. the only government university in the Sultanate of Oman. The survey includes 18 statements on a 5-point Likert scale with 1 being strongly agree and 5 being strongly disagree. The survey may also highlight elements related to the personality of the teacher. the seriousness they show when completing it. There have been many discussions on the area of validity and reliability of the results solicited by these surveys particularly with the fact that these results may affect high-stake decisions such as contract renewal and promotion. The survey also includes 3 open-ended questions. She will then report the results obtained from the survey highlighting in particular students' opinions of the importance of administering the Teaching Evaluation Survey (TES). 148 . The presentation will finish with implications and Abstract: Evaluating teachers is an established practice in universities around the world. The presentation discusses the results of a survey that was administered to a group of 80 students studying at Sultan Qaboos University. In most universities this takes the form of students responding to a survey that includes statements pertaining to what goes on inside and outside the classroom. Students normally rate the statements on a 5-likert scale.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Student perceptions of teaching evaluations: fruitful or a waste of time? Presenter: Ms. their perceptions of how TES results are viewed by the university and factors affecting their response to TES. This presentation investigates the student perceptions toward evaluating their teachers.

6%) and mothers(87. ‘going to the movie theater’(30.9%).5%) in appreciation/seeing area.1%).9%) in appreciation/seeing area.9%) in recreation/socializing area. the developments for the leisure of their children with disabilities were addressed as ‘expanding the leisure program for students with disabilities in schools’(58.5%). Third. Whereas. ‘the lack of the communication skills of their children’(24. Total 106 parents who have children with developmental disabilities in secondary schools participated in the research.7%). Yang·Misuk. The results of the study were as follows. also the most frequent leisure activities of their children were ‘watching TV’(31.2%).7%). Lee Kongju National University This study examined the perception of parents and status on leisure of adolescent students with developmental disabilities including the challenges and developments of their leisure. and they had intellectual disabilities(63.5%) in hobby/refinement area. The biggest environmental challenge was ‘absence of persons who can support their children’s leisure activities’(27. Most of students with developmental disabilities enjoyed their leisure activities with their family members(65. In 149 . Their children were mostly boys(65.6%). ‘conversation with friends’(17. They were mainly 41-50 years old(72.3%). and ‘the lack of the willpower of their children’(24. ‘going to the movie theater’(24. they wanted their children to participate were ‘preparing food’(18.2%) in hobby/refinement area. ‘the impossibility of independent traveling of their children’(25.3%) in health/sports area. Second. the personal challenges that disturb leisure of their children were ‘the lack of the perception on the ‘leisure’ itself’(22. There were ‘using smartphone’(23.1%). ‘improving the atmosphere of sharing with students with disabilities in local communities’(26. parents thought that the general meaning of leisure is that the time of playing or having fun(45.0%).1%) in recreation/socializing area. First. autism spectrum disorders(32.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Perception of Parents and Status on Leisure of Students with Developmental Disabilities Sohyun. and ‘jogging and taking a walk’(24.1%).1%) in their houses(55. and ‘jogging and taking a walk’(16.6%).7%).3%).

with these results. 150 . school-wide leisure programs should be provided and the atmosphere for students with developmental disabilities is needed to be fostered. Moreover.0%). schools need to extend teaching leisure subject.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Addition. however they felt the necessity of curriculum on leisure to make them to live meaningful postsecondary lives(33. Finally.4%). and provide wide range of experiences of leisure activities for students. a lot of parents didn’t know about the presence of curriculum on leisure in special education curriculum(60.

and practice is an effective method. Thailand surarong@gmail. p-value <0. and practice of students on how to provide smoking cessation to smokers. Results: Students gained more knowledge and understanding. Keywords: smoking cessation. the score (out of 10) of posttest was significantly higher than the pre-test ( attitude and practice of pharmacy students. Practicing with friends and a simulated smoker enabled students to learn better on delivering smoking cessation methods to the actual smokers. Chiang Mai University. We assessed on knowledge.. health education. Quitting smoking is an important strategy to prevent morbidity and mortality caused by smoking.27± Abstract Introduction: Pharmacists in Thailand play an important role in helping smokers quit smoking. 2010). Conclusion:Combination of learning using all 3 strategies through self-learning. Chiang Mai.81. 2016). and practice. Students were more confident in helping smokers quit smoking. past experiences of teaching smoking cessation and students’ opinions on how to learn to help smokers. pharmacy students should be provided with smoking cessation trainings to assist smokers more efficiently. Methods: A lesson plan of smoking cessation was created according to pharmacy curriculum. around 6 million people were killed due to tobacco(Wolrd Health Organization. enabling students to gain knowledge and be prepared for helping smokers quit smoking. Each year. Faculty of Pharmacy. Thus.. lecture.Thus. health care providers are important to serve as the key persons for tobacco control and prevention. 2010). pharmacy students.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Teaching pharmacy students to assist smokers in smoking cessation SurarongChinwong* and DujrudeeChinwong* *Department of Pharmaceutical Care. attitude. lecture. Pharmacists in Thailand put their efforts for tobacco control through many strategies including providing smoking cessation services at the community pharmacies to help smokers quit smoking(Nimpitakpong et al. and practice. In Thailand.36± This paper reported a new learning style for smoking cessation module including self-learning. Learning Styles and Learning Outcomes Introduction It is well-established that smoking is an important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality(Chandler & Rennard.71. health education Main Conference Topic: Health Education.c@cmu.001). training and educating pharmacy students to be able to provide smoking cessation is important. involving knowledge. lecture. dujrudee. Health care professionals are in important positions to help with smoking cessation. 2. 151 . The smoking cessation course in this semester consisted of 3 strategies: self-learning.

role plays. counseling techniques. As smokingcessation is essential for pharmacists. drug/food interaction with smoking. 2009). assessment of nicotine addiction. assessment of the intention to quit smoking. 2005). 2011). health effects of smoking. attitude and practice towards smoking cessation course of pharmacy students. We also assessed knowledge. 2009) such as the United States (Hudmon. Tobacco use is more prevalent (39. Moreover. health effects of smoking. However. we have been teaching the smoking cessation course to students via different types of learning methods.1%) in people with a lower education level (Vathesatogkit & Charoenca. 2011). Zwar. History of teaching smoking cessation at the Faculty of Pharmacy. and Thailand(Nimpitakpong. a new learning module for smoking cessation which consists of self-learning.. Smoking cessation courses are included in the curriculum of pharmacy education in Thailand(Nimpitakpong et al. there was a variety in each school in terms of content of smoking cessation.Counseling techniques and smoking cessation aids are the top common topics taught in Thai pharmacy schools (Nimpitakpong et al. & Dhippayom.. 2005). without considering the type. time. Chiang Mai University began from only lecture. Brewster. case study discussions and problem-based learning exercises. Australia(Saba. Hunnisett. Canada(Brewster & Ashley. the content and time devoted for the topic or related topic varies. Content of smoking cessation that were taught in Thai pharmacy schools included the following topics: epidemiology of smoking... the 5 D’s approach. of which 46. 2011).2%. Fenlon. Common topics taught covered epidemiology of tobacco use. The contents also cover related theories used in delivery of smoking cessation aid such as Transtheoretical model (TTM). Time spent for topics related to tobacco control or smoking cessation varies from school to school. the 5A’s approach. Many methods were used for teaching. 2011). only some contents had been taught in schools of pharmacy in Thailand. 2011). Bittoun.1% among women. & Saini. is 27.. Taylor. lecture. A survey conducted in Thailand showed that 12 Pharmacy schools in Thailand had included smoking cessation or tobacco control in their curriculum. and referring to appropriate health care setting. the 5R’s approach( 152 . This paper reports a smoking cessation course provided to pharmacy students at the Faculty of Pharmacy. and teaching methods(Nimpitakpong et al.4% were used among men and 9.0) minutes(Nimpitakpong et al. Chaiyakunapruk. such as lectures. However.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Smoking cessation has been taught in many schools of health care professionals in many countries(Richmond. & Corelli. principles of nicotine addiction. However. Malaysia(Simansalam.0-250. screening and recording patient’s smoking episodes. etc(Richmond et al. 2009). and practice is hereby proposed. Kroon. Concepts and Theories The prevalence of tobacco use among Thais. 2013). health effects of passive smoking. 2011). Generally. smoking cessation aids. tobacco control laws. and nicotine dependence(Richmond et al. the median time dedicated to content related to smoking cessation or tobacco control was 198. and lecture and role-play with friend along with real smokers (but finding an actual smoker to participate was a challenge). second hand smoking. factors associated with smoking addiction. Bardel. to a combination of lecture and role-play with friends..0 (interquartile range of 165. Chiang Mai University. & Hyslop. documenting and monitoring outcomes of smoking cessation. & Mohamed).

The transtheoretical model is used to assess behavioral change and change in process of smoking in each individual. roadblocks. based on pharmacy course syllabus. mechanism of nicotine dependence. The activities performed in practice class were as following: 153 . techniques to quit smoking. do something else. Methods The pharmacy program at the Chiang Mai University is a 6-year Pharm. the smoking cessation course in this semester consisted of 3 strategies: self-learning. practicing with real patients.. This smoking cessation course took place at the Faculty of Pharmacy. and destination. is also a powerful teaching method(Richmond et al. The 5 D’s approach is techniques that will help smokers to response when they want to smoke. The videos’ topics were about dangers of smoking and how to give suggestion to people who want to quit smoking. students were divided into a group of 25-30. rewards. 5 A’s technique for smoking cessation. assess willingness to make a quit attempt and assess smoking addiction. Courseware that all registered students can get access was used to communicate with students. Chiang Mai University involving 2 lecturers with more than 10 years of experiences in teaching smoking cessation methods. dangers of smoking. roles of pharmacists in helping patients to quit smoking. The 5R’s approach is to increase motivation to quit smoking: relevance. risks. (take a) deep breath. pharmacotherapy in smoking cessation.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Nimpitakpong et al. Students’ expectation was also taken into account during designing the course for this semester. we have 4 sections for all fourth year students. and arrange followup. The 5A’s approach is recommended for smoking cessation counselling by applying the 5 A’s: ask and identify tobacco use. Content of lecture comprised of epidemiology of smoking.D program. & Chaiyakunapruk. 2011. Lecture is the most popular method of teaching.. was designed to enable students to gain knowledge and prepare themselves before entering the practice section. Self-learning. This course is compulsory for all fourth year pharmacy students in their second semester. A patient-centred teaching approach. special projects and assignments. 2009). After considering all related issues. In order to do so. the objective of the dispensation subject was for the students to gain knowledge and be able to dispense medication along with providing patients with counseling. These techniques include delay (to delay smoking for at least 5 minutes). lecture. Thus. 2008). and practice. The smoking cessation course was planned as a 3-hour lecture and 3-hour practice in classroom. assist in quit attempt. other methods of teaching are case study discussions. and repetition. This course is a part of dispensation subject which consisted of 15-hours lecture and 45 hours practice. advise smoker to quit. such as role plays. students were informed through courseware to watch 2 videos from YouTube which were about 17 minutes in total. Nimpitakpong. drink water. For practice class. class readings. Thananithisak. past experiences of lecturers on teaching smoking cessation as well as past experiences of students on learning smoking cessation to help smokers to quit. as mentioned. problem-based learning exercises. The 3-hour lecture was given one month prior to the practice to enable students to have sufficient time for self-learning before entering the practicing section provide by the lecturers.

students spent about 30 minutes in each station until they complete all 3 stations.27±0. how to quit smoking. chewing gum. the other 2 groups joined in the morning and afternoon session in the other day. . One month after the lecture. role-play.Role-play station with a simulated smoker helped students to have a real experience in helping smokers to quit smoking. Students were divided into 3 small groups of 8-10 to participate in 3 stations: posters.test (9. and practice using observation and writing feedback by their friends.36±0. About 30-45 minutes was spent in this part. with a role-play case study provided by lecturers in class. all students wrote feedbacks for the course on a piece of paper. All students watched a video of real-life situation on how a health care professional deliver a counseling to help a smoker quit smoking. attitude using feed-back writing individually at the end of the class and in class discussion. The students’ score (out of 10) for post-test was significantly higher than the pre.71. Statistical analysis: we used descriptive statistics: means with standard deviations for continuous variables and count with frequencies for categorical variables. Assessment of learning outcomes: students were assessed on their knowledge using pre-test and post-test.Posters station showed information and knowledge related to tobacco control.0%) and 87 women (77. p-value <0. dangers of smoking. It was about 10 minutes for this part. We found that students gained more knowledge at the end of the smoking cessation class. All students discussed about how the lesson had helped them to gain more knowledge and how it would be applied in real situation. This was done in pairs with their friends. laws related to tobacco control in Thailand. . tobacco packing warning labels both in Thailand and abroad. for example. the students were divided into 4 groups to participate in an all-day practice class where 2 groups participated in the morning and afternoon session of the first day. Knowledge. The feedbacks included 1) how they felt about the lesson provided 2) how difficult they think it was to help people to quit smoking. .0%). and practice The knowledge of students was measured by a test before and after the smoking cessation class. Although students felt that providing counseling to help smokers quit smoking was quite difficult. 2. Students worked as a team for this station. 4. All students had the chance to practice counseling to help smokers quit smoking. attitudes.Chewing gum station allowed students to have real experiences in using chewing gum which aided smoking cessation. All students attended a 3-hour lecture by a lecturer (SC). Results and Discussion Characteristics of pharmacy students In semester 2/2016 – January to middle of May 2016 – a total of 113 fourth year pharmacy students registered for smoking cessation class: 26 men (23.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference 1. 3.001). students did have positive 154 .81. 2. For the last 10 minutes. which was about 30 minutes in length. Then we discussed about the technique used in providing smoking cessation. 5.

Practicing counseling with real smokers is an effective strategy.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference attitudes towards this smoking cessation course. Having other learning strategies in addition to lecture enabled them to learn how to help smokers quit smoking. Some schools have only lecture. they still would need additional training before practicing with the real smokers. and practice is a good strategy enabling students to gain better knowledge. and practice. including self-learning. students still need further experience with real smokers. we have tried a variety of techniques to help students gain more knowledge. the students preferred it because they have the chance to gain real. and practice for smoking cessation. However. we sometimes can find a real smoker for students to practice. students were able to help smokers quit smoking since their first attempt without any past experience. this is the first time that the fourth year pharmacy students at the Chiang Mai University have experience in helping smokers quit smoking. If they do not have this experience. Learning techniques from a professional on how to provide smoking cessation to a real patient helped them to transform information from lecture to the real practice. However. lecture. Thus. a variety of teaching methods. lecture. challenging experience in helping smokers quit smoking. and helping smokers to quit. a method that is different from chewing normal gum. Conclusion We found that a new learning style for smoking cessation module including selflearning. lecture. and lack of practice. However. Thus. For example. however. selflearning videos helped them learn interactive knowledge for understanding the dangers of smoking. Chiang Mai University. 155 . Although the students had more understanding for smokers and were more confident with positive attitudes in delivering smoking cessation to help smokers. Learning smoking cessation in Thailand varied from school to school due to many factors such as limitation of time and course available. From teachers’ observations and feedbacks from students and friends. Lecture-only course limits students from learning. and practice. replacing an actual smoker with a simulated smoker is another option to help students practice on delivering smoking cessation instead of practicing with friends. had helped them to have a better knowledge and understanding of smoking cessation. at the Faculty of Pharmacy. Feed-back from friends during role-play made the students know their strengths and weakness in providing smoking cessation counseling. they might not fully understand the correct method of chewing the nicotine gum. finding a real smoker is difficult. Students were satisfied with these learning styles which composed of a combination of self-learning. and practice to help smokers quit smoking. Students cannot utilize knowledge from lecture for their practice. The feedbacks from students showed that a combination of learning methods help them to learn smoking cessation because providing smoking cessation to a patient is quite difficult due to lack of experiences. Also. it is quite difficult to persuade smokers without motivations in quitting smoking. positive attitudes. and can help smokers to quit. In the past. Having experience of chewing a real nicotine chewing gum allowed them to have real experience which will ease them when explaining the appropriate methods of chewing nicotine gum to the patients. positive attitudes. We also asked students about the overall satisfaction of learning smoking cessation.

. N.. Pharmacy Education. Chotbunyong.S. K.. Bittoun. B. 156 . Simansalam. M.. S. Nicotine Tob Res.. 484-497. Tobacco control: lessons learnt in Thailand. 11(1)(1). (2010). (2013).. 137(2). References Brewster. Richmond. Hunnisett. J. Chest. Nimpitakpong. Chaiyakunapruk. N.. J. Nimpitakpong. & Charoenca. P. & Rennard. Taylor. from http://www.who. (2010). Public Health. A. 38(3). R. Dhippayom. Gov't]. & Mohamed.. Nimpitakpong. A workshop on smoking cessation for pharmacy students. 228-233... & Ashley. Drug Alcohol Rev.. P. P. Chaiyakunapruk. (2005). Chandler. I. 77(9). N. T. R. S. 131-135.S.. Activities and perceptions of pharmacists providing tobacco control services in community pharmacy in Thailand. Tobacco Retrieved 1 June 2016. & Corelli.. (2008). M. Bardel. & Saini. (2016). M... & Dhippayom. Compliance of drugstores with a national smoke-free law: a pilot survey. Tobacco education in U. Saba. Wolrd Health Organization. 921-925.. 225-232. (2009). Thananithisak. 428-435. 28(5). 124(3). Hudmon. S. M. 24-25. Fenlon. [Research Support. Smoking cessation.. On the front line of smoking cessation: Survey and workshop for faculty. 198. 55(3). M. (2011). Non-U. N. C. Smoking cessation education in Thai schools of pharmacy. S.. T. (2011). Kroon. L. M. Am J Pharm Educ.. H. Brewster. Teaching about tobacco in medical schools: a worldwide study. Zwar. C. Aromdee. Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal. J.. S.. F. P.. N. M. Indian J Public Health. We are grateful to AvikaUpra for her assistance in editing this paper. schools of pharmacy. J. J. & Chaiyakunapruk. N. 10(5). & Charnnarong. L. & Hyslop. Smoking cessation in Malaysian Pharmacy Curricula: Findings from environmental surveys. 8-11. 7(2). (2005).. A. Nicotine Tob Res. R. Vathesatogkit..MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Acknowledgements We would like to thank you all pharmacy students for their enthusiastic participation. R.

received his Ph. Chiang Mai University. received her PhD in Clinical Epidemiology from Chiang Mai University. He has been a member of National Essential Medicines List Selection Committee: Cardiovascular disease.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Brief biographies of the authors SurarongChinwong. conducting research in the area of clinical epidemiology. She is a member of Thai Pharmacy Network for Tobacco Control. at the Faculty of Pharmacy. Assistant Professor. smoking cessation. Thailand. pharmaceutical care in community pharmacy and smoking cessation. diabetes mellitus).D. DujrudeeChinwong. 157 . His current academic responsibility includes teaching undergraduate and postgraduate in various topics. and health service research in community pharmacy. smoking cessation. dyslipidemia. outcomes research. (Pharmaceutical Sciences) from the University of Strathclyde. for example Pharmacotherapy (cardiovascular diseases. and Thai Pharmacy Network for Tobacco Control. Thailand. His research interest includes validation of medication assessment tool (MAT) for cardiovascular disease. both undergraduate and postgraduate. Thailand. Scotland in 2004. Assistant Professor. and providing services to the community including helping smokers to quit. Her roles are teaching pharmacy students. hypertension. Chiang Mai University. at the Faculty of Pharmacy.

The response rate was 15 %. information packages. A remarkable part of the injuries can be prevented. adolescents. The main delivery channel is www.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference TEKO – an intervention via internet to comprehensive schools to decrease sport injuries in Finland Anne-Mari Jussila.tervekoululainen. to increase quality and contents of PE and to promote safety of sports widely in school settings. maturation.4. Keywords sport safety. Raija Oksanen. videos and PP-slides for teaching. Teachers who had used TEKO material at schools were pleased to it. TEKO has built up education material e. Background In Finnish schools sport injuries happen mostly in physical education (PE) classes and in recess. rest and sleep.Safety in School Sports (2010‒) is part of the Sports and Exercise Safety program LiVE.g. secondary schools 158 . UKK Institute. Jari Parkkari Tampere Research Center of Sports Medicine. According to the survey 72 % of the PE and HE teachers knew TEKO. mean grades (scale of 4-10): expertise 8. environment and equipment. physical activity. electric homeworks. TEKO has kept over 60 education events. exterior 8.6 and suitability for the target group 8. injuries and support network. Conclusions The reach of teachers has been rather good with the used methods and financial investment 120000 € per year (mostly funded by the Ministry of Education and Culture). Results After 6 years websites ha 10000 visits per month and YouTube videos have been watched 43000 times. sports skills. The repeated survey will give more information about the stabilization of TEKO to the basic school work. physical activity (PA). Safety promotion focuses on 10 segments. Objective TEKO has produced free of charge educational material and methods to internet to encourage PA. TEKO . A web-based project evaluation survey was done in 2015 to PE and HE teachers (n=1000). health care. feasibility 8. TEKO has also built up a large collaborator network. The primary target group for TEKO is PE and health education (HE) teachers in secondary schools. atmosphere and rules.9. nutrition. which enables the spreading of sports safety message.5.

writing. Computational thinking couldn’t integrated into education even the computers are used in schools almost 30 years (Kafai &Burke 2013). In her paper There are important clues regarding the meaning of CT.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference SERHAT BAHADIR KERT COMPUTATIONAL THINKING ACTIVITIES USED FOR IN-SERVICE COMPUTER TEACHER EDUCATION MAC201608113 Computational Thinking Activities Used For In-Service Computer Teacher Education Serhat Bahadır KERT Yıldız Technical University sbkert@yildiz. computer teachers. thinking activities. not just for computer scientists. the corner stones of CT’s modern definition were recreated by Wing(2006). these two below can show as the samples: “Computational thinking is a fundamental skill for everyone. the effect of CT was not so much among the educational scientists. robotic and programming language education methodologies. we should add computational thinking to every child’s analytical ability. unplugged computer science education. 2006) 159 . To reading. computational thinking. Computer educators were not ready for this remarkable change in both academic perspective and educational vision of computer education. In 2006. Computational thinking was the first phase of the education. and arithmetic. Main Conference Topic: Computer Abstract This study was prepared for giving information about a project content related to in-service computational thinking education intended for secondary school computer teachers. when Papert (1980) mentioned it for the first time in his book. the reason of this starting point was to create a systematic fundamental to build up effective pedagogical approach to computer science education. Keywords: Computer science teacher. Actually. the scientific and social interest of the people to the concept was increased. Security and Information Technology Introduction Since Hence.” (Wing. In the project. Some of the activities used in this phase were explained in this paper. brick-based software development. computational thinking (CT) concept influences the educational literature in different dimensions. After Wing (2006) published her short but effective article titled ”Computational thinking”. it is believed that the activities presented in the paper gives clues for researchers studying on integrating computational thinking skills into education. computer education was taken into account under 5 sections as computational thinking.

studies about CT education was carried out in the last five years. In another study. Fisher. Butler and Popovic(2015) proposed to use educational games to teach CT skills. it is not trying to get humans to think like computers.2006)” As seen on the statements.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference “Computational thinking is a way humans solve problems. some activity samples for teacher were presented in this paper. computational practices and computational perspectives. and called their teaching approach as divide and conquer. Woogt. strategies used for problem-solving are practices and individual approach is the perspective dimension of CT. They mentioned that making a certain definition of computational thinking is a major challenge. Fisher. In this definition. Brennan and Resnick (2012) explained 3 dimensions of computational thinking as computational concepts. Mishra and Yadav (2015). Related work In the literature. Even the core concepts are clear in minds of scientists. International Society of Technology in Education (ISTE) and Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) published an operational definition of computational thinking. They preferred to use Dragon-Architect. Computers are dull and boring. However. humans are clever and imaginative. Bauer. 160 . In order to show the connections among different sub-concepts of CT. scientists are agree with the idea of CT is an important 21st century skill. 2011). made a study regarding the integration of computational thinking in compulsory education. Kert(2016) published a concept map of computational thinking. six CT practices proposed by College Board (2006) was explained by Woogt. CT is detailed as a systematic problem-solving process to deal with complex issues ( ISTE & CSTA. there are still discussions about the peripheral concepts of CT. Good. they gave examples on how computational thinking can be used in educational activities. In the paper. he summarized the concept map under these titles:      What is computational thinking? What is not computational thinking? How this concept can be integrated into education? What is appropriate for the beginning of the computational thinking education How can the computational thinking skills be assessed? Additionally. Given. In their study. Good. the definitions and descriptions of the concept. a block-based coding game. (Wing . it affects all educational process by changing the thinking approaches of human-being. CT is not thought as a part of computer science. Mishra and Yadav (2015) so: Practice 1: Connecting computing Practice 2:Developing computational artifacts Practice 3:Abstracting Practice 4: Analyzing problems and artidacts Practice 5: Communicating Practice 6:Collaborating. Codes and programming variables are the concepts.

CSTA and ISTE (2013). 2008). the enhancing the variety of educational CT scenarios is an important point to support these process. Implementation The activities taken into account in this paper was described under two core concepts of computational thinking: “Abstraction” and “Decomposition”.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Figure 1: Dragon-Architect a block-based coding game (Bauer. Butler and Popovic. Players need to divide the complex problem into the parts like towers and walls of the castle and write codes step by step. published a detailed CT activity book titled “computational thinking teacher resources. Abstraction. In another paper. As seen on Figure 1. unplugged in-class activities used to enhance CT skills of the students can be seen. 2015). in the literature. second edition” for teachers. Model This study shows some activities which will be used an in-service computer teacher education that’s going to be carried out by the researchers from Yildiz Technical University and supported by the scientific and technological research council of Turkey (TUBITAK). can be explained as focusing on the main 161 . Activity Title 1: Abstractions Abstraction is one of the important core concepts of CT. additionally. Therefore. managing a fund raising organization. In literature. In this book. In this part. she mentioned that “The essence of computational thinking is abstraction” (Wing. scenarios and CT learning experiences were presented together. The activities are related the one part of whole education process. players are given empty procedure and wanted them to design a castle by using a single block by using iterations. enhancing research skills and sequencing experiences can be listed as some of the samples. The man reason to use “divide and conquer” as the approach is the working style in the game. Wing (2007) defined “Abstraction” and ”Automation” as “The Two A’s of Computational Thinking”. it can be seen that teachers need to use different kind of activities to be able to integrate in to CT. activities which can be used to enhance CT skills of the students was prepared for sharing with the teachers in order to use in secondary school computer education courses. Short definitions of these concepts were presented under the titles. therefore. Developing a food chain using scratch.

MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference point by removing the useless complex details in the whole problematic situation. a traffic intensity map can be shown as a sample of abstraction. Figure 3: A sketch of a classroom In early ages. 162 . on the other hand. In this concept. this map was retrieved from the ibb (2016). street. In this manner. campus or class. such kind of process starts with asking students to draw a 2d sketch of a physical environment like school. On such maps. simple physical environment can be preferred. the complex details of the city view are eliminated and it can be possible to focus on the traffic intensity as the main goal. Figure 2: Traffic intensity map of Istanbul city. drawing an interface scheme of a web site such as Figure 3 is an important abstraction implementation for the students at higher levels. on June 25th. in-class sketching activities would be used to support abstraction skills of the students.

in this regard. He shared it free. XYZ1 company tracked the source of the software and found the university e-mail address of the student. we can think the roles and solutions for each of them as the small parts of the problem. Decomposition for the scenario: The main purpose of a decomposition process is to divide the problem into smaller part. 163 . which provides users to make edit on the videos easily.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Figure 4: An interface scheme of a web site If this scheme drawing process is supported by developing the web site. a university student developed a software using the algorithm and started to deliver it through the different online environments. After noticing this situation. In this concept. XYZ1 company share the algorithm with the universities on condition that using it only for educational purposes. accepted donations of the users. After a while. it can be proposed that case-based activities in computer ethics lectures is used to support decomposition so: Scenario: As a result of one year of research and development process. teachers can see the individual growth of CT skills of the students with process and product assessment implementations. They urged to university to find a solution immediately. Activity Title 2 : Decomposition Barr and Stephenson (2011) defines decomposition as “breaking problems down into smaller parts that may be more easily solved”.but. The engineers of XYZ1 software company developed an algorithm.

I was not selling. & Popović.. The complex structure of ethical issues always need to be divided into small parts and this process provide to improvement of decomposition skills of the students. 121-123). (2015. 2015 IEEE (pp. 48-54. university must produce a solution and our loss” Bauer. The opinions of the teachers and the implementation results will be presented in another paper. (2011). In further studies. Bringing computational thinking to K-12: what is Involved and what is the role of the computer science education community?. Z. 164 . In Blocks and Beyond Workshop (Blocks and Beyond). 2(1). Approaches for teaching computational thinking strategies in an educational game: A position paper.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Roles and solutions: Student Dean XYZ 1 company Figure 5: Implementing decomposition for a computer ethics scenario After this step. References Barr. V. IEEE. Butler. “I used the algorithm for my educational experience by developing a software. Conclusion A few samples regarding the core concepts of computational thinking was presented in this paper. E. On the other hand.. only accepting donations” “We used the algorithm for educational purposes only. They are supported by the teacher to create their own solutions. it is not possible to check out all students” “our company met a big loss because of this software. These activities will be increased and detailed in our project study and shared with the teachers during an in-service computer teacher education process. assessment of individual development after the implementation process of CT activities is another gap in the literature. & Stephenson.. to develop different approaches to assess the CT skills of the students can be an important purpose for researcher.compansate A. It is believed that the educational literature should be supported with such kind of activities. October). C. a brainstorming activity is implemented to compare the ideas of the students. Acm Inroads.

E-mail: sbkert@yildiz. M. Retrieved from: http://www. & Burke. (2013). Computational thinking in compulsory education: Towards an agenda for research and practice. (2015). P. He completed his Phd at Anadolu University. Computer programming goes back to (1980).csta. S. Rize. New York. 20(4). NY: College Board. Brief biography of the author Serhat Bahadır KERT Serhat Bahadır KERT.pdf . (2015). and powerful ideas. J. computers. is an Associate Professor at the Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technologies. Voogt. 3717-3725. Turkey. Y. A. (2007).org/home/about-theproject/docs/csp-cf-2013. Phd. Kert. Computational thinking and thinking about computing.. Second Edition.cmu. Papert.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1. Inc. Yildiz Technical University.. Prof. J. Komputasyonel düşünme kavram haritası. & Yadav.ibb.pdf adresinden erişildi.acm. Faculty of Education. Fisser. Turkey... Istanbul. Canada. J. (2006).org/ Curriculum/sub/CurrFiles/ 472. Kafai.aspx on June 25th. His research interests include technology education.Education Week. 165 .edu/afs/ cs/usr/wing/www/Computational_Thinking. Computational thinking. S. Wing. Education and Information Technologies. (2008). Vancouver.49(3). (2012.11CTTeacher Resources_2ed -SP-vF. Dr. Philosophical transactions of the royal society of London A: mathematical. 10th International Computer & Instructional Technologies Symposium (ICITS). Citty traffic may.cs. M. Mishra. (2016. retrieved from http://tkm. 25 Aralık 2015 tarihinde http://www. Mindstorms: Children. K. April)..MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Brennan. educational electronic games and mobile learning. J.csprinciples. Basic Books. Good. Mayıs). Wing. ISTE & CSTA (2011). Retrieved from http://www. The College Board. Serhat Bahadır KERT. P. Computational thinking: Teacher resources.. 61-65. Ibb (2016). Contact: Assoc.. physical and engineering sciences. AP computer science principles draft curriculum framework. M. 715-728. Computational Thinking. Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technologies. on June 25th. Phone: +90 212 383 4850. & Resnick. 33-35. In Proceedings of the 2012 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. B. 366(1881). Q. Communications of the ACM.. New frameworks for studying and assessing the development of computational thinking.

According to Cashin (1990) the students’ evaluation should determine instructors to improve their way of teaching by reflecting upon the previous activity and thinking about the following journey as an instructor. There are three main objectives that an instructor achieves after interpreting the students’ anonymous evaluation: 1. to check if one’s goals as an instructor were fulfilled.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference A Case Study on Students’ Evaluation of the Academic Staff Mihaela Badea.Gas University of Ploiesti in the academic year 2015-2016. mmparaschiv@upg-ploiesti. that of improving teaching effectiveness and the students have to be the ones to gain the most from this evaluation. to target items that can be changed or improved. questionnaire. “the main objective of the evaluation consists in the continuous improvement of the teaching process quality. Keywords: evaluation. Romania mbadea@upg-ploiesti. feedback Main Conference Topic: Higher Education Introduction The most important benefit of students’ assessment is the feedback that the official evaluation process implemented in universities offer to the teaching staff . In terms of teachers’ evaluation by the students. 3. as direct 166 .ro Abstract The present paper is intended to examine students’ views on the effectiveness of the courses and seminars they attend as part of their pedagogical training. academic staff. By calling attention to students’ opinions about the courses they are in order to become teachers they have to enrol in a special programme which usually lasts for three years. so that they can refine their courses and teaching practices to provide students with better learning experiences. Petroleum – Gas University of Ploieşti. it is really important to know exactly what their perception is in order to improve the quality of the teaching process. Maria Mirabela Paraschiv Teacher Training Department. some suggestions and recommendations were made for the improvement of the evaluation process. the climate of teaching and learning is improved. All these aims focus on the same core. the Petroleum – Gas University of Ploieşti has implemented a clear methodology of undergoing the process of teaching staff evaluation by students. to understand which are one’s strengths and weaknesses. students. Taking into account the fact that. Petroleum – Gas University of Ploieşti. of knowledge transfer efficiency and of developing students’ competences. According to this official document. The aim of students’ evaluation is truly achieved only by interpreting the data and the open-ended comments clearly and correctly. Based on the data analysis from 183 students enrolled in the Petroleum . 2. Romania Philology Department.

keeping in mind the purposes of the evaluation process is an aspect that should be taken into consideration. that is to improve the teaching process. a good point is emphasized by Cashin (1990) who considers that using multiple sources will accurately evaluate or improve the teaching process within any institution. there are four basic conditions which should be accomplished:    to bring new information regarding the process of teaching.  methodological aspects of the students’ evaluation may also raise controversies concerning the items design within the questionnaire. 2010. 2013. 2009) because teachers may feel like their academic performance is controlled. Carrell & West. 2009) consider that some students have the tendency of giving better marks to teachers who give higher grades. in Cashin’s (1990) opinion. against all negative opinions. the information given to the teacher should be considered by him/her as relevant and trustful. Romainville. 1984). the teacher should know how to analyse the given information. Thus. Fleisher & Hashimoto. 2010. Hanna & Kremer.  this kind of evaluation comes against the academic freedom (Romainville. For the evaluation to be relevant. some researchers have identified various reasons for which some members of the teaching staff do not consider it as a reliable source of feedback:  they consider students as unable to make a proper assessment because either they do not have any teaching experience. Regarding the voices against this kind of evaluation. 2009). thus being a subjective process. that is: evaluation (this being part of the data on which personnel decisions are made). while others (Duflo. there are three main purposes. 2009. The questionnaire format or the process of conducting the evaluation procedure has determined several debates concerning this type of academic staff evaluation. 167 . 2007. Also. but they are more reticent about sharing their teaching experience. Lavy. Review of Literature According to various researchers. improvement (in order to make changes that are beneficial for the students) and advising (to help students in selecting teachers or courses to be attended). 2006). Weinberg.  teaching is a private professional act which Shulman (1993) named as “pedagogical solitude”. Younès. Some authors (Braga. The academic staff discuss upon their research activity or administrative problems. the students’ evaluation of teachers has become a common practice in many universities all over the world. However. for example Likert answers or open answers (Detroz. 2009) consider that these evaluations provide reliable data as they help in understanding how the teachers should or should not conduct their classes. Paccagnella & Pellizzari. there is a lot of controversy regarding the evaluation of teaching done by the students. or they do not have the professional knowledge about their course content (Dejean.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference beneficiaries of the education services provided by the Petroleum – Gas University of Ploieşti” (2015). But.  teaching is rather a piece of art than a science properly speaking (Dawe.

The academic staff should also be responsible after they receive the results of the evaluation and take them into account for a better teaching activity. All these subjects are taught to students from all faculties in our university in first. (Berthiaume. the teacher should leave the classroom until all the students finish the evaluation. Methodology of the Conducted Research The aim of the present study is to find out and interpret students’ perceptions of the courses and seminars they take attend as part of their teacher training programme in the Petroleum – Gas University of Ploieşti during the academic year 2015-2016. number of hours allocated to a certain subjects. subjects. The principle of confidentiality is both student and teacher oriented. (Methodology of Conducting Teacher Evaluation. At the same time. They decide which course and teacher should be evaluated. Pedagogy. The fourth principle. as not all the students who are enrolled in various programs of the university intend to choose a teaching career when they graduate university. while 52 were enrolled in their second year of study. Lanarès. Jacqmot. 2011). We should mention the fact that the teachers who were evaluated deliver courses and seminars on subjects such as Psychology of education. The second principle is responsibility and has to be taken into consideration by the Department and Faculty management. 52 in the second year and 27 in the final year. As regards the participants from the second semester.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference  the teacher should be stimulated to change his way of teaching. Participants in the study The 106 students who took part in the research in the first semester specialise in Philology and Engineering. second and third years of study and they do not represent compulsory subjects. reflection is also oriented towards the teaching staff. the results communicated by the dean to the teacher and the head of department through an individual synthetic sheet should be done within a confidential meeting. adaptability and reflection. The third principle of adaptability concerns the teachers’ flexibility before (because he/she has to consider that the evaluation takes place in his/her last course/seminar/laboratory) and after receiving the results of the evaluations. and it means that they should think about how the results of the evaluation will influence their future academic methods and professional trajectory. In order to have an evaluation with a formative character and susceptible to sustain the professional development of the academic staff four principles should be kept in mind: confidentiality. but optional ones. 2015). Also. Didactics and Computer Assisted Instruction. 25 were freshmen. students should not sign their questionnaires because in this way they guarantee the honesty of their answers. The academic staff will reconsider all the teaching process: methods. while the 77 students who were required to evaluate their teachers classes in the second semester specialise in Economic Sciences and Philology at the Petroleum – Gas University of Ploiesti. seven teachers who were evaluated were by the students 168 . Winer & Rochat. On the one hand. curricula. responsibility. The participants who were involved in the research in the first semester were 27 in their first year. On the other hand.

systematic and coherent character The course/seminar/laboratory/project promotes active. treats students with respect and consideration The course/seminar/laboratory is a proof of professional commitment of 169 Score .seminar. The questionnaire administered to the students is shown below: Table 1: Questionnaire for evaluating the teaching activity Tick the applicable answer: Activity type: ….. all of them having classes within the Teacher Training Department. the expected performance of the students has been clearly enunciated since the beginning of the course/seminar/laboratory/project Professional scientific language used by the teacher is accessible. The content of the course/seminar/laboratory/project has an organized. available at communication.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference were participants in the research. Teaching style and content are attractive. stimulating the desire for knowledge in the respective domain The teacher supports and encourages students’ questions. centred on student’s involvement in the teaching-learning process.. the course/seminar/laboratory/project determines the student to think and promotes general intellectual capacities or adapted to a certain domain. the main instrument being a questionnaire that consisted of 15 items. I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 I6 I7 I8 I9 I10 I11 I12 Statement There is an initial organization of the activity. project Your frequency at the evaluated activity: …≤25%. Research instrument We based our study on a quantitative method. course support. dialogue and personal solutions Students are early and clearly informed about the criteria and the evaluation methods of their professional activity The subject study. the exam preparation are supported by learning resources (lectures..participatory methods..course….60% … ≥80% The teacher skipped the classes ……once……twice …….. its understanding is facilitated by conclusive explanations and examples Due to organization and quality of questions/problems. this being part of the evaluation process implemented in our university.) The teacher is accessible.. interesting...laboratory …. Time is efficiently used during the course/seminar/laboratory/project and the pace of covering the subject sustains the understanding and retention of new knowledge.. It should be mentioned that the instrument used is the official one adopted by the management of the university. references etc.. their alternative views.several times Please write in the “Score” column the number of points corresponding to the performance level which you consider appropriate according to the following scale: 1 Satisfactory level 2 Medium level 3 Good level 4 Very good level 5 Excellent level No. out of which 14 were closed items (a Likert scale was used) and the final one an open item for which students had to provide their personal comments and suggestions. 40% ….

In order to analyse the data gathered from the students.55 4.83 4. I9).00 2. I13). I5. Data Analysis and Results The findings of our study offered relevant answers to the aim of the research.75 4. dissertations. the items of the questionnaire were grouped into four main variables according to the individual synthetic sheet used by our university after analysing the students’ responses to the questionnaire.81 2.68 Score V4 4. I6.48 4. Modern strategies of teaching.91 4. V4.49 4. The four variables are: V1. V2. scientific personal needs. Teacher-student dialogue (communicational dimension: I2. research projects or personal development projects I14 Synthetic assessment of the overall quality of evaluated work Other issues and feedback. I10.18 4. Teaching activity organization and coordination.59 4. Flexibility.79 4. We are aware that the data we obtained cannot be generalized but they can be used as a point of reference by teachers who wish to improve their instructional strategies by taking into account students’ feedback.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference the teachers towards the discipline (interest for his/her good training. I12).24 4. I14).73 4.56 .89 4. suggestions related to this activity: The students’ answers to the items included in the standard survey provided us with interesting information that helped us to have a general image of the way in which the pedagogical training of students is achieved in our university.73 4. I4.25 4.73 5.00 4.52 170 Score V3 4.85 4. interpretation of new issues in the domain) The teacher is responsive to students’ individual professional. I8.63 2. comments. helping us to draw several conclusions based on the analysis below. he/she advises them successfully in developing their own I13 projects: term papers. I7. the quality of teacher-student relation (relational dimension: I11. rational and emotional support of the subject.68 4.49 Score V2 4. learning and evaluation (didactic dimension: I3.15 4. The results obtained by each teacher evaluated by the students involved in the study are indicated below: Table 2: Teachers’ scores for each variable Teacher T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Score V1 4.69 5. V3.42 4. Course management (managerial dimension: I1.

but to his/her open-minded character and empathy towards them.50 2.91 4. The results for the fourth dimension proved that only two from the assessed teachers do not give enough time and attention to students’ personal development projects. As regards the teacher-student dialogue.68 2.48 4.42 4.85 4.24 4.59 4.25 4. encouraging them to express their personal opinions through questions during interactive lectures.55 5. They also appreciated their teachers as a person.83 3. No suggestions were provided by the respondents and this can be a result of the fact that either they do not consider themselves prepared to do that or they are 171 . except for teacher 4 who scored lowest in item 5.89 4. fortunately most teachers obtained good ratings.73 4. which means that students appreciate the didactic and communicational dimensions involved in the teaching process.79 4.00 5.19%. as shown by the results.50 0. that is 8.50 4.73 4.18 4. this proving that his/her students did not consider the classes sufficiently coherent and organized. most of the students considered that they were appropriately informed by their teachers with regard to the criteria and evaluation methods. not necessarily referring to his/her teaching abilities.81 4.73 4.00 0. Students also complained of the fact that their teachers are not available for them as much as they feel the need.00 4. research and administrative activities they have to complete.63 4. adapting their methods and strategies to their students’ needs and requirements.00 2. completed the open item in the questionnaire and all of them mentioned positive aspects connected with the teaching activities they attended.52 4. It is worth noticing that a very low percentage of students.49 4. However. This can be explained by the fact that teachers’ timetables are overloaded because of the large amount of teaching.00 4. although the differences between V2 and V3 are not significant.50 1. respondents value their teachers’ ability to adapt the scientific content of the course to their understanding.56 1 2 2. As far as the managerial dimension is concerned.68 4.00 3.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference 5. This proves that the teachers evaluated give high importance to the teaching process.50 3 2. most of the assessed teachers obtained very high scores to variables 2 and 3.00 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Figure 1: Teachers’ scores for each variable As seen from the figure above.49 4. higher rates were obtained for the third variable.75 4.69 4.00 4 1. At the same time.15 4.

pp. C. (1984). M.. some questions such as “what made you rate the course as high as you did” and “what kept you from rating the course higher”. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Berthiaume. Conclusion As a conclusion. S. pp. the ultimate purpose being that of improving the quality of the teaching and learning as well as the quality of student-teacher relation. & Pellizzari. L. J.ideaedu. It is really beneficial for both learners and teachers to be able to rely on the data obtained through the evaluation process. Lanarès. vol.E. In Journal of Political Economy. Winer. Dejean. Center for Faculty Education and Development. Volume 41. In Economics of Education Review. LXV. (2006). (2011). 409–432. (2013) Evaluating students’ evaluations of professors. 548-552. Cashin. Students’ Rating of Teaching: Recommendations for Use. Kansas State University. n° 8. Braga. J. M. Phi Delta Kappan.71-88. 118 (2010).M.. signe de la culture professionnelle des enseignants-chercheurs ou trait de la culture française ? In 172 . M.. L’évaluation des enseignements par les étudiants (EEE). This shows that they do not trust the confidentiality of such surveys and they believe that teachers may discover who wrote certain considerations due to the fact that they have to complete the questionnaire in writing. only students who have at least 75% attendance should be allowed to fill in the evaluation form. D. & Rochat. 53-72. but during the semester as well so that the data provided by the students are more reliable and teachers can change their approach if they find out that some aspects are not really appreciated by their students.E.pdf). 22. Dawe H. Only by means of mutual trust and respect students’ and teachers’ motivation will increase and the evaluation will be reliable and will provide practitioners with valid results. (2010). (www. but in other universities as well:      the evaluation should not be done only at the end of the semester. In IDEA Paper..M. Teaching: A Performing Art. pp. A. an online evaluation process would be more reliable and more trusted by the students who would definitely be more sincere when completing their answers. it is advisable to adapt the form of the questionnaire depending on the subject taught. as suggested by some researchers from the Center for Teaching and Learning of Stanford University (1997) could be included in the evaluation forms to have qualitative data as well. pp. as well as on the person teaching the subject. Paccagnella.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference afraid of expressing their opinions for fear of possible consequences during examinations. & West. et 67. They fear of being noticed by the teachers would thus disappear. the following recommendations can be made in order to improve the evaluation process not only in our university. Les réticences à l’évaluation de l’enseignement en France. (1990). no.. Does professor quality matter? Evidence from random assignment of students to professors. W. Jacqmot. J. Carrell. In Recherche formation.

191-211. Bruxelles: De Boeck. Université de Fribourg. in Education Sciences from the University of Bucharest and she is involved in national and international research projects. Fribourg: Centre de Didactique Univers. mimeo. 173 . Une expérience d’élaboration collective de critères de qualité. works in the Teacher Training Department of the Petroleum – Gas University of Ploiesti. L’évaluation de l’enseignement par les étudiants. Bruxelles: De Boeck.A. p. L’évaluation de l’enseignement par les étudiants comme seuil de changement. & Kremer. Lavy. Assoc. Performance pay and teachers’ effort. (http://www.. her research concerns being materialized in various studies published in Romania and abroad. (2009). Romainville M. (1993). Incentives Work: Getting Teachers to Come to School. She also teaches Methods of Language Education Activities and the Methodology of Romanian Language and Literature for Young Children. (2010). pp. R.. In M. XXV. Her research draws upon influences of the foreign authors on the Romanian literature. Evaluating teaching in higher education. Coggi (Eds. Romainville & C. L’évaluation de l’enseignement par les étudiants. B. Prof. She holds a PhD in Philology (Comparative Literature).. Évaluation des enseignements : de la contrainte administrative à l’amélioration des pratiques.M.pdf) Brief biographies of the authors Mihaela Badea Mihaela Badea. 61-80. Coggi (dir. *** (2015). Romainville & C. 95 (2009). E. Fleisher. D. Teaching as community property: Putting an end to pedagogical solitude. B. Rege Colet & M. In Journal of Economic Education. Younes. 145-165. n° 6. La pratique enseignante en mutation à l’université. MIT. In Change. N. In American Economic Review. 227–261. pp. where she lectures on Romanian Language Teaching. pp. pp. Weinberg.). D. (2009). V. She holds a Ph..%20Metodologia%20de%20desfasurare%20a%20eval uarii%20personalului%20didactic%20de%20catre%20studenti. Duflo. but also English Practical Courses and English for Computing. (2009). M. (2007). In M. Metodologia de desfăşurare a evaluării personalului didactic de către studenţi.upgploiesti. Bruxelles: De Boeck. Romainville (Eds. pp. 6-7.). English Language Teaching and Pedagogy. Shulman L.). She teaches French Literature and French Phonetics at the Faculty of Letters and Sciences. 40 (2009). Detroz Ph. vol. & Hashimoto. Hanna. M. (2009). She was also an Erasmus coordinator for the Faculty of Letters and Sciences within the Petroleum – Gas University of Ploiesti. 1979–2011. Maria Mirabela Paraschiv Maria Mirabela Paraschiv is Assistant Lecturer at the Petroleum – Gas University of Ploiesti. productivity and grading ethics.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] N.

the world-wide knowledge of the English language by foreign people. and by former British colonies such as Nigeria.Expatriates continued to leave. Teaching and E-learning. E-mail : sahel_malika@yahoo.Indeed. based on new methods and new syllabuses with such help as could be provided by television. Malika SAHEL Ecole Normale Supérieure/Bouzaréah (E. 2016. Multidisciplinary Academic Conference on Education. commercial and political influence.EnglishLanguageTeaching.N. Prague (MAC-ETeL 2016) Friday .in their teaching of it hasbecome a very important educational investment of the British Council. B.S. Czech Republic. in general.offers an opportunity to protect British interests.Besides. lacking the adequate needed tools. to teach English and assist foreign people overseas-in different institutions and universities. Introduction The Nigerian continual declining standard of‘English language teaching’ during the post-colonial era increased the need for the Council’s assistance and strengthened its position by offering growing dimensions.the more the people who understand and speak English world-wide. Nigeria. August 5-6.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference The British Council’s Post-Colonial Educational Investment in Nigeria: English Language Teaching Abstract Since the beginning of the post-colonial era. spread and further cultural.O – Algiers/Algeria. the wider are the prospects for every Briton looking for any Business. Keywords:British Council. The objective of the present paper is to consider the British Council’s invested efforts in the Nigerian English language teaching field on which the whole Nigerian educational system relied to develop.E.Saturday. social or academic exchanges with overseas people. radio. 80%of primary school teachers were still unqualified and pupils continued to fail in English. the problem worsened and more pupils being taught by an insufficient number of trained teachers proficient in English language teaching. there was a need for the provision of great numbers of text-books of a suitable type for teaching English. In 1965.B) Department of English Mailing address : 05. To what extent was this British Council’seducational investmentable to satisfy the Nigerian needs and raise the standard of English in this former British colony? 174 . whereas schools were being built at a greater pace. Indeed. visual aids and language laboratories. in a more particular way. Rue Ahmed Hassina. Post-Colonial. the Key Posts Scheme did not fill enough posts.

with its English Language Unit. holdingconferenceswith inspectors. He managed to make interesting contacts in the Education Departments. music. here again. This expansion allowed further influence to spread. Port Harcourt Centre became a very lively place. through different activities such as those related to library. visited Lagos and Ibadan to inspect the state of English language teaching in preparation for the coming of an English language officer.2Besides. was like Ibadan very attractive to teachers. the University College and Schools. to the fore. or unofficially. Western and Northern Provinces. either officially. the Education Ministry Audio-visual officer had been placed in the Council’s centre even before its official opening. …. film shows. organising in-service training and assisting in textbook writing and editing. and teachers were. British Council’s activities in Lagos were extended to Eastern. it is interesting to refer brieflyto the Council’s expansion in colonial Nigeria. Kaduna. the Council’s Centres in Nigeria concentrated on teachers and teacher training colleges. as in Ibadan where the centre was an official Education Ministry Regional In-Service Training and Information Centre. the educational policy the Council followed dictated the encouragement of teachers to come to the Council. the British Council’s total investment in English Language Teaching field had to wait the post-colonial era to be encouraged by both independent Nigeria and Britain to preserve existing ties and initiate more co-operation between the two countries. In this context. in this British colony advancing towards selfgovernment. After 1947. MrDrumond Thompson. in 1968. the Council’s Librarian advised on public library development as did the Council educational officials do as regards syllabus and text-book production. In Benin. the British Council Linguistics adviser. Ibadan (West). II-The British Council Post-Colonial English Language Teaching (ELT): During the post-colonial era. the British Council started to focus on English language teaching. as in Enugu.1 Yet. Port Harcourt (East). study groups continued and teachers met to discuss scientific and problems of English and see the ‘View and Teach’ series.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Before considering the British Council’s main work in Nigerian English language teaching area. Kaduna (North). Council Centres were opened in Enugu (East).the British Council in Nigeria pointed out: The English language staff of the British Council have achieved much in curriculum reforms. H. organizing teachers’ associations. To slow the decline in the standard of spoken English. lectures. Kano (North). By the end of the colonial era.3 175 . I. it developed positively and this despite a shortage of funds and staff. Mr H. arrived in February 1959 and was at once warmly welcomed by the Education authorities and the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation. books and periodicals. the English language officer. drama and broadcasting. Cartledge. and was able to exchange expert advice. Although many other organisations and professional groups used the Council’s premises as their cultural centre.The British Council’s Expansion in Colonial Nigeria: The Council’s work in colonial Nigeria knew a gradual growth after the Second World War. In Lagos.

In this. Indeed. Moreover.4Therefore. it was still uncertain for the British Council to detect where the strategic work was to be. university departments. Besides. the Council’s ELO who occupied the post of Adviser at the Eastern Region’s Ministry of Education initiated a policy to ameliorate the teaching of English at primary 176 . For instance. seconded with a language laboratory. indeed. the Council’s audience included professionals from different walks of life of the given country. the ELT became a very important field on which the British Council invested efforts were recognised world-wide . The British Council’s ELO. The Council arranged co-operation with the various agencies involved in ELT in Nigeria. it was difficult for the Council to carry out the kind of co-operation required in English language teaching throughout Nigeria every time. in 1964. among them was found a developing number of governments. UNESCO and others. the Council English Language officer (ELO). the UNESCO expatriate adviser on English to the Eastern Ministry of Education and a representative of the University of Nigeria at Nsukka. the Aid to Commonwealth English officer (ACE) at Owerri advanced Teacher Training College. and the potentialities of the Ahmadu Bello University were not disregarded by the forth coming arrival of an ACE at Zaria. like other countries. US AID. in 1966. the British Council’s English language teaching operation flourished. under the Council’s supervision. a fact that significantly consolidated the Council’s work. Advanced Teacher Training Colleges. as well as much bodies as the Ford Foundation. a fact that was to give this post a key position. to train the latter to run series of short courses in oral English throughout the Western and Mid-Western Regions. has been aware that knowing about the cultural and social life of a given country is very helpful if one wants to undertake consciously and successfully different affairs (political or commercial and other). the British Council’s English language teaching centres have been a source of reliable information since everywhere it was represented. with the Teacher Training Colleges and Inspectorates as its major targets. commercial and industrial clients with home the British Council established friendships which were to be the bridge through which British influence could be channeled.5 An efficient Coordination Committee. requests for more Council’s assistance resulted in the appointment of the second ELO at Kaduna and the establishment of a special language demonstration centre. The British Council’s ELT efforts continued to be directed towards the primary school level. The Council’s ELO collaborating with an ACE appointed to Ibadan (1963-1964). contribute to better understanding and ensure that [British] achievements are not overlooked’. particularly in former British colonies such as Nigeria. was created. during the post-colonial era. In the meantime.000 primary school teachers a year and were an established part of the Ministry’s work.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Britain.6 However. most of the students involved were learning English for professional purposes. Thus. worked well together on the Committee. For instance. The British Council hoped to cultivate a special relationship emerging between the University and training colleges in North Nigeria. but some doubt prevailed around the degree of influence that could be exerted by this University. embarked upon the ‘snowball’ scheme of courses for Assistant Inspectors. This cooperation involved Ministries of Education. provide support for Britain when [British people] need it.7 More Council’s efforts were also registered in Nigeria. the Council’s English officer continued to be very convincing and to enjoy the full confidence of the Ministry. Such friendship. as the British Council put it: ‘… lead to the exchange of ideas and transfer of technology. These short-courses trained 3.

Yet. He also revised the Ministry of Education’s Handbook on English Teaching in Primary Schools. This Council’s ELT dynamism was witnessed in Northern Nigeria where the focus was on the Teacher Training Colleges. tastes and needs. . 177 .to choose the appropriate ground for the cultivation of an appreciation of Britain and the promotion of British cultural. appointed to the Ministry of Education as a Senior Inspector. by offering assistance and suggesting solutions that coincided with Nigerians’ objective. The second one was to provide a thorough training for local Inspecting Assistants to allow them setting professional standards of English language teaching. The end of the same year witnessed the Council’s assistance in supervising this experimentation in three selected Teacher Training Colleges. finished his ‘One Term Experimental Remedial’ course in English. ‘the Permanent Secretary asked for a British assistance in the training of the newly expanded Inspectorate in the whole range of the primary education in Eastern Nigeria’. The third one was to spread this improvement among primary school teachers through the in-service courses the Inspecting Assistants held with the Council’s staff help. Consequently. in 1966-1967.9 This successful experience was extended to the other parts of the country. the British Council’s ELO in Western Nigeria gave two-week courses on the use of the language laboratory to two Inspecting Assistants from the Ministry of Education. in September 1967. through its teaching operation. the British Council cooperated with US Peace Corps and Ford Foundation agencies to upgrade Grade III teachers. Besides.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference schools by a three-pronged drive. the standard of English language teaching in Nigeria continued to be in most need for more significant assistance to improve. a fact that guided the Council . the British Council’s cooperated with the different American agencies working in English teaching. The first one was to raise the standards of English at the Region’s Teaching Training Colleges by instituting an oral examination. organised and took part in the panels established to produce syllabuses. In this context. Besides. For instance. For instance. For instance. in 1970. answering the demand of the Institute of Education of the Zaria Teacher Training College. particularly in the Northern Region. commercial and political influence. the Council’s ACE officer. as a Senior Lecturer in the Institute of Education. This trained staff was expected to supervise daily classes of the Teachers Training College’s students in remedial English using the British Council’s tape ’60 steps in spoken English’ with the ELO’s assistance. the Council’s ACE (Zaria) part in the briefing of volunteers in the US and run an in-country briefing for the English language specialists. The British Council headed the controlling committees of this scheme. The results of this experiment were reported in the ‘Journal of the Nigerian English studies association’ and the Ministry of Education solicited the Council to extend this course to a dozen Training College tutors. by the beginning of 1967. to provide necessary advice.11 Thus. the British Council made contact with the maximum number of Nigerians. To have extended contact means to be aware of the Nigerian perceptions.8This initiated policy was very appreciated by the Ministry of Education.and the British embassy behind .10 This course was administered by the Council’s ELO and the Ministry attached ACE with some assistance from ACE officer who was seconded to the University of Ibadan by the Council in 1966. the British Council’s ACE at Ahmadu Bello University continued to advice at the Areas Boards of English Studies and assisted to prepare schemes of work in methods of teaching English for teachers’ colleges in the Gambe Board.

the Head of the English Department. at a time a fierce competition to dominate the Nigerian educational market was led by the main actors of the Cold War. BW128/16. BW128/16.Representative’sAnnual Report1958-1959. they had asked Council assistance. 2. Regional Representative’s Annual Report 1966-1967. 1967. and had embarked on the preparation of a new type of course in Ibadan in ELT. represented a potent force in forming and maintaining useful overseas links through which not only cultural but political and commercial benefits could be secured. Regional Representative’s Annual Report 1966-1967. p. allowed the Council to win the confidence of the local authorities and other British educational services to flourish. spread British culture and influence in such a way that British educational services in particular.000 to the University of Ibadan. 2. 1967. The British Council.B) in Algiers/Algeria. The British Council.Representative’sAnnual Report1967-1968. The British Council. 1963. 5. Representative’s Annual Report 1962-1963. The British Council. 2. universities. 11. Western Nigeria. Confidential. p. The Work of the British Council in Nigeria. Confidential. see BW128/9. The British Council. 1964. p. Brief biography of the author Dr. p. they left a British touch and registered a considerable impact on Nigerian development.Confidential. Eastern Nigeria.S.p. 6.TheBritishCouncil.N. UNESCO had a curiously mixed programme. The British Council. For details.Nigeria. the professionally devoted efforts to improve the declining English language teaching standard in this former British colony. BW128/16. ‘The British Council’s Annual Report 1986-1987’. 1. 10. Ibid. p. London. 1967. Head of the English Department Scientific Committee from 2008 to 2016. 7.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Conclusion Thus. the British Council’s English language Teaching operation in Nigeria. 2. 3. Confidential. 5. became highly demanded during the independence days.p. Malika SAHEL is a Senior Lecturer of British Civilization in the Department of English at the ‘EcoleNormaleSupérieure of Bouzaréah (E. ATTC’S. pp.Nigeria. 8. 4. The Rockefeller Foundation had offered to help staff Lagos Medical School and Lagos Teaching Hospital. p. Representative’s Annual Report 1963-1964. BW128/16. 10. The Ford Foundation made a grant of £800. p. US AID has provided staff for schools. 3. Ibid. Moreover.1968. US AID had 10 major educational projects. Nigeria. References BW128/1. 1. She was the Head of the Aggregation Department. and training in USA …. 27 January 1964. BW128/16. and has been a permanent member of the Scientific Committee of the English Department from 1997 to nowadays. Indeed. The Council had encouraged them to co-ordinate their ELT work with them and other agencies by means of a Committee. Nigeria. 1987. 9. 178 . 5 BW128/8. 5. This Council’s educational investment in Nigeria was able to promote British achievements. The British Council.1959.TheBritishCouncil. Northern Nigeria.Confidential. Regional Representative’s Annual Report 1966-1967. 6-7.

1967.London. Confidential. Confidential. The British Council.Confidential.TheBritishCouncil. Nigeria. Regional Representative’s Annual Report 1966-1967. 1987. BW128/16. Nigeria. BW128/16.1968. The British Council.Nigeria. Northern Nigeria.Representative’sAnnual Report1967-1968. BW128/16. 1964. The British Council. 1967. BW128/8.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Bibliography          BW128/1. BW128/16. Representative’s Annual Report 1962-1963. Confidential. The British Council. Nigeria. The British Council. 179 . The British Council. The British Council. Representative’s Annual Report 1958-1959. 1959. Regional Representative’s Annual Report 1966-1967. BW128/9. 1963. The Work of the British Council in Nigeria. Confidential. The British Council’s Annual Report 1986-1987. Representative’s Annual Report 1963-1964. Western Nigeria. The British Council. BW128/16. 1967. Eastern Nigeria. Regional Representative’s Annual Report 1966-1967. 27 January 1964.

The research was carried out in the secondary school maintained by the Hungarian National Federation of Consumer Cooperative Societies and Trade Associations. Faculty of Education and Psychology releonora@freemail. In our previous research deals with the international mobility programs we underlined the importance of using the Internet during them. it means not only use the Information and Communication Technology tools. The research deals with the experiment which takes into account the advantages of using the digital board in order to prepare the online communication with the Internet in professional collaboration between the members of the teaching staff and the teachers who take part in the international thematic mobility programs together with their students. the Internet. That is why we decided to involve digital board together with the Internet into the school projects and the staff’s everyday work. will affect the development of the digital and communicative competences of all of them. digital board. the students can get acquainted with the standard and the computer-mediated communication during their school years. Keywords: digital and communicative competences.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference The Role of the Digital Board and the Internet in Getting a Higher Level of Digital and Communicative Competences Eleonóra Riczkó MA Eötvös Loránd University (Budapest).hu Abstract During the last years the use of the digital board and the Internet has become an integral part of the teaching process. The author who has a broad experience in organizing international mobility programs for her students aged 14-18 years set an aim to find the new ways of communication during the projects and to upgrade the ways of communication used. their students and school partners. Due to our investigations we have proved that using the Internet significally influences the key competences of the participants of the mentioned programs. 180 . but involves the confident use of them for learning. Teaching and Learning Introduction Digital competence is one of the key competences. international mobility programs Main Conference Topic: Education. The way the teachers communicate with the students has become very different. The author sets the following hypothesis: she assumes that using the digital board by the staff of the mentioned school will significally change the communication between the teachers. self development. employment and participation in society.

With the aim of involving digital board not only into the teaching process but into the communication in the school between the teachers and the students and also between the staff and the school partners the director of the school motivated the teachers participated in the international mobility programs in the previous years to share their experience in the ways of communication during the projects with the colleagues. I would like to note that we tried to form homogeneous groups. Our goal was to show the influence of using the digitals tools on the development of participants’ competences. also they have to find the ways that can influence and stimulate the competences with the help of the digital tools. Our research tasks were to verify the effect of using the digital board together with the Internet in the school projects and to find out the changes in the communication of the staff. also on the experience of the colleagues who teach methods of communication and involving digital tools into the studying process. 16 students from the experimental and 16 students from the control group participated in the research have approximately the same academic results. How do they do it? We did our best to choose and to maximally prepare the research methods also to evaluate the effectiveness of the research. Altogether 21 teachers from the 29-member staff and 58 students joined the research (31 students in experimental group and 27 students in control group).The teachers have to stimulate students’ motivation for learning. The students like in our previous research mainly come from the bilingual classes of the school. e. The aim of the experiment was to upgrade the staff’s and students’ digital and communicative competences. social status and socio-cultural background. We set the hypothesis: we assume that using the digital 181 .g.What are the ways of communication in the school between the colleagues. For fulfilling the mentioned tasks we had to choose a research sample. especially broad experience of the director of the school in organizing the international thematic projects for the staff and the students.How do the students prepare for and communicate during the international projects? .How do the teachers prepare for their lessons and how do they prepare for fulfilling the tasks of the school projects? . Also the school leaders hoped to achieve to start the members of the staff to interact through technologies and collaborate through digital channels.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference The pedagogical experiment: the influence of using the digital board and the Internet during the international projects of the institution on the level of the digital and communicative competences of the staff and students The experiment was carried out in the secondary school maintained by the Hungarian National Federation of Consumer Co-operative Societies and Trade Associations. The idea of the research came from the experience of the school in the international mobility programs. We would like to answer a lot of questions: . We based our research on the theorethical basis related to the connection between students’ digital and communicative competences and their social background. the school partners and the students. students and school partners? . We hoped to discover positive changes in the digital and communicative competences after the experiment consciously guided by the director of the school during one academic school year.

school partners and students.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference board by the teachers of the mentioned staff will significally change the communication between the teachers. Results The results of the executed experiments we got by the means of quantitative and qualitative analyses. processing the questionnaries prepared for the teachers. their students and school partners. POSSIBILITIES COMPETENCES COMMUNICATION Figure 1: The areas and concepts 182 . statistical processing of the given results. afterwards we compared the academic results of the participated students. DIGITAL BOARD STAFFSTUDENTSPARTNERS EDUCATION. will effect the development of the digital and communicative competences of all of them. Description of used methodology. We also compared the ways of communication of the teachers involved into the research with the others who did not take part in the international projects before and after the experiment. The main areas and concepts of the research are shown in Figure 1: INTERNET. After the research we carried out output measurements in the experimental group and control group.

online communication of the participants and in the institution’s business administration and correspondence as well. common presentation). school partners) Participants Students. interviews. Table 1: The research Procedure No. face-to-face. T-SP pairs) oral. Skype). written. written (team work. online (team work). DB oral. S-SP. digital and communicative competences have developed. Digital board (DB) 2 Starting communication October 2014 3 Continuing communication November 2014April 2015 oral. DB. students. interviews. DB Online. creative staff solving the everyday tasks using the digital board. school partners). competence tests (staff. face-to-face. written. online communication (team work. Tests (staff. questionnaries). SP-school partners. T-teachers. students). Facebook groups. face-to-face. We have noticed that the majority of the teachers participated in the experiment have joined to the teacher networks and many of them have applied for international courses deal with improving digital competences of the participants. academic results (students). I-Internet. students. Accordind to the results we have found that after the experiment the students’ social. questionnaries). written. guidance August 2014October 2014 online (Internet: email. DB * S-students. face-to-face. language. teachers. written.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference We carried out our experiment in one school academic year between August 2014 and August 2015. DB 4 May 2015-June 2015 5 July 2015August 2015 6 The results September 2015 Research methods Questionnaries (teachers. also they reached better results in reading comprehension during competence tests and better academic results in the end of the previous school year. In September 2015 we studied the output measurements in the groups and the changes in communication of the target groups. T-T. As the result of the executed experiment the staff has become an innovative. Steps and periods Ways and methods of communication 1 Involving. One of the goals of the school was to have a staff not only using the Internet but having the ability to identify digital competence gaps. online communication (team work. TS. school partners (S-S. DB oral. 183 . We found out positive changes in the oral.

Proccedings of the 7th MAC 2016. Rainie. (Country Reports and Case Studies of a Central-European Project). Building for Growth: Business Priorities for Education and Skills Survey. Learning from Innovative Partnerships. Academic Conferences Association. London. Jacklin. M. B. L. also the teachers used the digital board for sharing one’s competences. K. The results of the executed experiment have shown arguments in favour of developing the digital and communicative competences of the students and the members of the staff using the digital board together with the Internet.. Conclusion One of the aims of the experiment was to achieve to start the staff members to interact through technologies and collaborate through digital channels. Riczkó. London. K.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference The digital board and the Internet during the thematic projects were used for the communication and project activity. Using Internet Projects to Teach Communication and Collaboration. How Teens Do Research in the Digital World.. 184 . A. D. E. Budapest. K. D. Nathan. (2011). Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy. Edge.. NY.. URL: http://www. S. knowledge or for changing information with the colleagues teaching different subjects. B. 1. the representatives of the maintainer. Oslo. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Bellanca. Stirling.) has changed. Institute of Education. Erstad. (2009). As the proof the activity of the members of the staff has grown up in teacher networks deal with online and offline professional collaboration in order to develop the digital and communicative competences.. A. C.. Classroom without Borders.. Teacher College Press. etc. The Role of School Leadership in the Improvement of Learning.. International Mobility Programs and the Level of Students’ Competences.. T. J. Buchanan. Educating the Digital Generation.. Tempus Public Foundation. Purcell.. MAC Prague consulting Ltd. Shratz. Heaps. K. Sannoh. (2010). As an addition we have found out that the digital board was used not only for teaching or preparing the meetings or the international project activity but for sharing information within the staff.. The use of the digital board with the Internet for fulfilling the project tasks and for the communication with the shool partners significally influences the quality of the school projects and administration.pewinternet. Plan UK. Prague. L. Friedrich. Katugo.. (2016). Slavikova. CBI. J.. (2011). parents. (2011). Lénárd S. A. Frew. (2012).. Zickuhr. G. Chen. O. As the result the communication between the representatives of the school and all its partners (organizations. Hua. partner schools. sponsors. Creese.

She is a PhD student at the Doctoral School of Education at the Department of Educational Theory at the Faculty of Education and Psychology of Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest. 185 . Her pedagogical interests include new teaching methods and finding the ways for motivating the students and developing their competences.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Brief biography of the author Eleonóra Riczkó She is a director-chief counsellor of the secondary school maintained by the Hungarian National Federation of Consumer Co-operative Societies and Trade Associations. Mathematician. The work examines the role of involving the digital tools in the international school projects for achieving positive changes in the schools’ communication with the partners and digital competences of the staff and the students. She has been an educational professional for more than 20 years.

the present study investigated who studied as a student in education faculty in Turkey. and their academic self efficacy states were at a high level. Keywords: Pre-service teachers. Social Network Adoption Scale and Academic Self Efficacy Scale. Percentage. Adoption of social networks and academic self efficacy levels of pre-service ICT teachers were significantly higher than pre-service early childhood teachers. The sample group of this study comprised of 514 pre-service teachers. frequency. There is a significant positive relationship between the social network adoption levels of pre-service teachers and the level of academic self efficacy.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference The Relationship between Social Networks Adoption and Academic Self Efficacy of PreService Teachers Dr. academic self efficacy 186 . There was no relationship between the adoption of social networks and academic self efficacy states and the gender of the pre-service teachers. status of the pre-service teachers to adopt social networks was medium. At the end of the research. Therefore. Semseddin Gunduz semsedding@gmail. Turkey The popularity of social networks has increased recently. The aim of this study was to investigate what the academic self efficacy and social network adoption of pre-service teachers were and to elucidate the relationship between academic self efficacy and social network adoption. The data collection tools of the study are “Personal Information Form” designed by the researcher. social networks adoption. ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used for the statistical analysis of the Necmettin Erbakan University Ahmet Kelesoglu Education Faculty Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technologies Konya. t-test. Human can learn easily use of social network. The obtained research findings were discussed with literature and suggestions have been made.

toileting problems. it is one of self-care skills which is expected from the childto primarily develop by parents and teachers. One of the most important components in the toilet training is to include family into the training Abstract Teaching toileting skills are among the most essential educational objectives for children with autism. Also. Toileting skills are the basis of personal cleaning. 2012). PURPOSE Main purpose of this study is to determine whether “Program for Supporting Homeand Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families” enablesmothers toacquire the skill of teaching toileting control to their children and for children to acquireday-time toileting control. The purpose of this study is to determine whether “Program for Supporting Home. there are few investigations of the utility of various toilet training approaches for this population of children.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Parent İmplemented Program for Supporting Home and Institution Based Toileting Skills Emre ÜNLÜ. Special Education Department. parents make important contributions to the toilet training of children by being role modelsto their children. parent training. Although toilet training which is within the selfcare skills is not a requirement for enrollment in public or private education institutions. Parent Training INTRODUCTION The purpose in the family environment and pre-school education institutions is to allow children to reach lifelong independence in basic skills such as self-care. Conference Topic: Special Education. 1986. The procedures followed during these activities and the outcomes regarding each participant are presented in the report Key Words: Autism spectrum disorder. feeding.and Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families” enables mothers to acquire the skill of teaching toileting control to their children and for children to acquire day-time toileting control. special and adapted methods are known to be usedmost of the time for teaching Toileting skills to these children. It is important for all children to have self-care skills whether they have disability or notin terms of being the indicator of independence of children from their parents (Özyürek.Kroger &Sorensen-Burnworth. According to conducted studies. it is known that these skills promote health and social interaction as well as self-management skills. The children attained toileting skills rapidly and consistently throughout the program. It is seen that normally developed children can develop these skills as of 20-month-oldwhile development of toileting skills by children with different disabilities particularly by children with autism spectrum disorder takes more time and these children complete skill development late (Rinald & Miranda. toilet training. however. 2009). 187 . Bülent Ecevit University eskemre@gmail. Additionally. dressing.

independent variable is implemented. is used in this study in order to determine whether “Program for Supporting Home. Also she follows directions including single action. 1984. mother of one child. DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT VARIABLE Two dependent variables are utilized in the research. The subject speaks with a one-word sentence structure.and Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families”. Mother of the 1st Subjectis 25 years old. however. it could not be successful. and observation and recording of the dependent variable are continued during the intervention. father. The A phase represents baseline level while the B phase represents treatment level in the AB design. Richards et al. pee. He followed directions including single action. She has gone to private special education institution since 1-year-old.and Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families” enables mothers to acquire the skill of teaching toileting control to their children and for children to acquire day-time toileting control. Does the intervention of the “Program for Supporting Home. At the end of treatment process. The first one is skill levels of mothers inteaching toileting control to their children.and Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families” enable children to acquiretoileting control? 3.5-year-old female student with Down’s syndrome.5-year old male student with autism. Alberto and Troutman. She has previously attended all family trainings given in the private special education institution. understandability of speech is low. etc.1986.and Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families” enable children to sustain toileting control skills they acquire7 and 14 days after the training? RESEARCH MODEL AB design. During the B phase. removing hat.1999). pulling down trousers. Dependent variable is observed in natural process and data are recorded during the A phase. The 2nd Subject M is a 3. etc. 188 . He shows by gestures that he needs a pee. and housewife.. data obtained at the baseline level and the end of treatment are compared. She has self-care skills such as pulling of socks. Although toilet training was given before.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Following questions are tried to be answered in order to evaluate the main purpose of the study: 1.and Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families” enablemothers to acquire the skill of teaching toileting control to their children? 2. Does the intervention of the “Program for Supporting Home. a high school graduate. He has attended individualized education program in special education institutions since 2-year-old.). The second one is toileting controllevels of children. SUBJECTS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS The 1st Subject Ş is a 2. Does the intervention of the “Program for Supporting Home. water. then effects of implemented method are revealed (Barlow and Hersen. which is a type ofsingle subject experimental designs. Independent variable is “Program for Supporting Home. She speaks with one-word sentence structures (such as mother.

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Mother of the 2nd Subject is 29 years old, a high school graduate, mother of two children,
and housewife. She attended presentation of toilet training made within the scope of the
study. She decided to start giving toilet training for the first time after this presentation.
The 3rd Subject İ is a 3-year-old male student with autism. He has attended individualized
education program in special education institutions since 3-year-old. He follows directions
including single action, gabbles, removes hat, and has self-care skills such as pulling of
Mother of the 3rd Subject is 30 years old, a secondary school graduate and housewife. She
attended presentation of toilet training made within the scope of the study. She decided to
start giving toilet training for the first time after this presentation.

This researchis planned as a case study for the purpose of examining family training
research in detail which is conducted with parents of students who do not have toileting skills
and receive training in a private rehabilitation center. Within the scope of the study, a family
training program which could be implemented both in the institutions and at home was
developed by the coordinator of the institution and a supervisor specialized in the special
education field for parents who had trouble in teaching toileting skills to their children.
Developed program includes an ongoing process ranging from providing extensive support to
individual support. In line with this, a general meeting was held with 33 families which were
volunteered for participating in the study, and various strategies and techniques to be able to
be utilized in the intervention were showed with examples.The coordinator and supervisor
were asked to prepare more individualized support training program for volunteer participant
families who believed that they still needed support after the training. Then, these families
were asked to implement the program.
Skill levels of mothers in teaching day-time toileting control and toileting control
levels of children were determined in the A phase of the study. Interview was made with
mothers by means of “Family Interview Form” in order to determine baseline level of the
first dependent variable before the intervention in this phase.
“Dry Period Record From”was implemented by mothers for 3 days, in hours when the
child was awake and at home in order to determine day-time toileting control levels of
children, which was the second dependent variable of the research. During this process, their
individual teachers continued to keep dry period records of children who went to the special
education center during the hours in the center. The B phase, in other words, intervention of
the program startedafter toileting control levels of children was determined.
Improvements of children were recorded by means of “Day-Time Toileting control
Progress Form” used by mothers during intervention of the program. “Program for
Supporting Home- and Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families”, which was
independent variable, was implemented on three mothers, and the effect of independent
variable on dependent variable of mother and childbehaviors was tried to be revealed.


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According to data obtained from interview at the baseline level (A) phase, as it is seen
in Graphic 1, it is understood that Mother No. 1 does not have information about
accompanying the child to the toilet in compliance with dry period of the child, toileting
activity, non-toileting activity, and about what will be done when there are mishaps, the child
wants on her own; and she accomplishes sub-purposes of teaching the skill of day-time
toileting controlat level“0”. In other words, the mother cannot accomplish any sub-purpose
related to teaching the skill of day-time toileting control. Mother No. 1accomplishes 14 of 17
sub-purposes of skill of teaching toileting control in the first teaching session, 16 of 17 subpurposes in the second teaching session, and 17 of 17 sub-purposes in the third teaching
session during the intervention of “Program for Supporting Home- and Institution-based
Toileting Skills for Families”. Also, she accomplishes all of 17 sub-purposes ofskill of
teaching day-time toileting control in all three end-of-teaching assessments including three
sessions at the end of implementing teaching unit.
Graphic, 1. Mothers Performance on Toileting Skills Sub-Goals

Acquired Toileting Skills Subgoals





Mother 1

Mother 2




Mother 3


According to data obtained from interview at the baseline level (A) phase, as it is seen
in Graphic, it is understood that Mother No 2 does not have information about accompanying
the child to the toilet in compliance with dry period of the child, toileting activity, nontoileting activity, and about what will be done when there are mishaps, the child wants on his
own; and she accomplishes sub-purposes of teaching the skill of day-time toileting control at
level“0”. In other words, the mother cannot accomplish any sub-purpose related to teaching
the skill of day-time toileting control. Mother No. 2 accomplishes16 of 17 sub-purposes of
skill of teaching toileting control in the first teaching session, and 17 of 17 sub-purposes in
the second teaching session during the intervention of “Program for Supporting Home- and
Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families”. Also, she accomplishes all of 17 subpurposes of skill of teaching day-time toileting control in all three end-of-teaching
assessments including three sessions at the end of implementing teaching unit.


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According to data obtained from interview at the baseline level (A) phase, as it is seen
in Graphic, it is understood that Mother No.3 does not have information about accompanying
the child to the toilet in compliance with dry period of the child, toileting activity, nontoileting activity, and about what will be done when there are mishaps, the child wants on his
own; and she accomplishes sub-purposes of teaching the skill of day-time toileting control at
level“0”. In other words, the mother cannot accomplish any sub-purpose related to teaching
the skill of day-time toileting control. Mother No. 3 accomplishes 14 of 17 sub-purposes of
skill of teaching toileting control in the first teaching session, 15 of 17 sub-purposes in the
second teaching session, and 17 of 17 sub-purposes in the third teaching session during the
intervention of “Program for Supporting Home- and Institution-based Toileting Skills for
Families”. Also, she accomplishes all of 17 sub-purposes of skill of teaching day-time
toileting control in all three end-of-teaching assessments including three sessions at the end
of implementing teaching unit.
In conclusion, all three mothers accomplish all purposes of the skill of teaching
toileting control to her child in the end-of-teaching assessment at the end of implementing
“Program for Supporting Home- and Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families”.
Accordingly, it is considered that the intervention of “Program for Supporting Home- and
Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families” enables mothers to acquire the skill of
teaching toileting control to their children.
According to Graphic 2, it is seen in diaper controls of İ. made at the baseline level
that İ.urinates into his diaper during day, in other words, percentage of urinating in toilet is
0% while percentage of urinating outside the toilet (in his diaper) is 100%.
Considering the records kept by his mother 7 and 14 days after the program ends, it is
seen that İ. always urinates in toilet. In other words, he sustains toileting control he acquires
at level 100%.
Graphic 2. Children’s Performance on Toileting Skills




Toileting Skills

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
Participant 1

Participant 2



Participant 3

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According to curve indicating rates of urination in toilet, the percentage of urinating
regularly in toilet is 80% or higher since day 15. Therefore, it is revealed that “Program for
Supporting Home- and Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families” enables mothers to
teach toileting control to subjects.
According to Graphic, it is seen in diaper controls of M. made at the baseline level
that M. urinates into his diaper during day, in other words, percentage of urinating in toilet is
0% while percentage of urinating outside the toilet (in his diaper) is 100%.
Considering the records kept by his mother 7 and 14 days after the program ends, it is
seen that M. always urinates in toilet. In other words, he sustains toileting control he acquires
at level 100%.
According to curve indicating rates of urination in toilet, the percentage of urinating
regularly in toilet is 80% or higher since day 12. Therefore, it is revealed that “Program for
Supporting Home- and Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families” enables mothers to
teach toileting control to subjects.
According to Graphic, it is seen in diaper controls of Ş. made at the baseline level that
Ş. urinates into her diaper during day, in other words, percentage of urinating in toilet is 0%
while percentage of urinating outside the toilet (in his diaper) is 100%.
Considering the records kept by her mother 7 and 14 days after the program ends, it is
seen that Ş. always urinates in toilet. In other words, she sustains toileting controlshe acquires
at level 100%.
According to curve indicating rates of urination in toilet, the percentage of urinating
regularly in toilet is 80% or higher since day 14. Therefore, it is revealed that “Program for
Supporting Home- and Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families” enables mothers to
teach toileting control to subjects.
The main purpose of this study is to determine whether “Program for Supporting
Home- and Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families” enables mothers to acquire the
skill of teaching toileting control to their children and for children to acquire day-time
toileting control. According to findings of the study:
The first purpose of the study, which is the intervention of the “Program for
Supporting Home- and Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families” enables mothers to
acquire the skill of teaching toileting control to their children,
The second purpose of the study, which is the intervention of the “Program for
Supporting Home- and Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families” enables children to
acquiretoileting control,
The third purpose of the study, which is the intervention of the “Program for
Supporting Home- and Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families” enables children to
sustain toileting control skills they acquire 7 and 14 days after the training.
Obtained data show consistency with findings of other researches in which day-time
toileting control skills are taught in similar processes (Kırcaali-İftar, Kürkçüoğlu, Çetin &
Ünlü, 2009; Sönmez-Diler, 2008; Ardıç, 2008, Rinald & Miranda, 2012).


B. The same study can be repeated by other interventionists in different environments with other subjects in order to increase generalizability of data obtained in this study. The similar study may be implemented on mothers of normally developed children who do not have toileting control. This study is conducted on home and institution basis.. &Ünlü. 607-618 193 . Uyarlanmış yoğun tuvalet eğitimi yönteminin otistik özellik gösteren çocuklara tuvalet becerilerinin öğretiminde etkililiği yüksek lisans Tezi. A. E. (1999). (2009)..and Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families” can be recommended in teaching toileting control to individuals with special needs. [2] Cavkaytar A. Anadolu Üniversitesi [3] Kırcaali-İftar.Tek Denekli Araştırma Yöntemleri. Anadolu Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü Özel Eğitim Anabilim Dalı.(1997).and Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families” is effective for children to acquiretoileting control. S. E. (2009). 117-126. Zihin Engellilere Öz bakım ve Ev içi Becerilerinin Öğretiminde Bir Aile Eğitimi Programının Etkiliği (Doktora Tezi). and it can be found out whether these mothers teach toileting controlto their children or not. 3. Ö. (2008). Intensive daytime toilet training of two children with autism: implementing and monitoring systematically guarantees success! International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education (INT-JECSE). Efficiency and effectiveness of home based family training program and institution based family training programs in teaching toileting control can be compared. References [1] Ardıç. A ve Sorensen-Burnworth. “Program for Supporting Home. Ve Tekin. Ülke-Kürkçüoğlu. The effect of implementing “Program for Supporting Home. 1(2). According to findings of the research.and Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families” can generalize this skill in different environments or not can be investigated.and Institution-based Toileting Skills for Families” by mothers who complete the program to other mothers can be examined. [4] Kırcaali-İftar. Whether children who acquiretoileting control thanks to intervention of “Program for Supporting Home. Utilization of “Program for Supporting Home.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference RECOMMENDATIONS This study is conducted with families of students diagnosed with autism and intellectual disability. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Ankara: Türk Psikologlar Derneği yayınları. Toilet training individuals with autism and otherdevelopmental disabilities: A critical review. G. 01/01/2010 [5] Kroger. Çetin. Anadolu Üniversitesi. G.

Ankara: Gazi Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü Özel Eğitim Anabilim Dalı. presentations and chapters in national books. (1986). Z. (2012) Effectiveness of a modified rapid toilet training workshop for parents ofchildren with developmental disabilities. 33.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference [6] Lovaas. 9. (2005).521-537. (1994). He became a Research Assistant in Special Education Department in Anadolu University in 2006 and completed his doctorial degree in 2012 and started to work as a Research Assistant Doctor in Bülent Ecevit University in 2013. Research in Developmental Disabilities. ve Kanık. N. Teaching individuals with developmental delays: Basic intervention techniques [7] Özyürek. He has been working as an Assistant Professor in Special Education Department of Bülent Ecevit University since eğitimi Programları (Örnek Çalışma). He has national and international articles. [10] Sucuoğlu. S. Ankara Üniversitesi eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi.2. 933-943 [9] Sönmez-Diler.149-155. Doktora Tezi. I. [12] Tavil. K.. N. S. was born in Eskişehir in 1982. Küçüker. M. B. (1993). Yayımlanmış doktora tezi. Ankara: Kök Yayıncılık. N. [11] Sucuoğlu. ve Kanık. Eve ve Kuruma Dayalı Gündüz Tuvalet Kontrolü Aile Eğitimi Programının Annelere Kuruluk Kaydı Tutma ile Gündüz Tuvalet Kontrolünü Kazanmasındaki 194 . 25. projects. Brief biographies of the author Emre Ünlü. ve Mirenda. (2005a). Özel eğitimde Anne. completed primary and secondary school in Eskişehir and graduated from Faculty of Technical Education in Kocaeli University. Y. Gazi Üniversitesi. O. 2014. [13] Varol. Türk Psikoloji Dergisi.36-43. Küçüker. His research interests are Autism Spectrum Disorders. m. Beceri Öğretimi ve Öz Bakım Becerilerinin Kazandırılması.beun. (2003). Davranış Denetimi Aile Eğitim Programının Annelerin Davranışsal işlem Süreçlerini Kazanmalarına Etkisi (Doğrudan Öğretim Yaklaşımı ile Sunulan).. B.2. [8] Rinald. Applied Behavior Analysis and Parent Training. Zihinsel Yetersizlik Gösteren Çocuklarda Öz bakım Becerilerinin Kazandırılması Anadolu Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi. 1. (2008). Detailed information about the author are available in http://egitim. Anne Babalara Öğretme Becerilerinin Kazandırılması. N. Technology in Special Education.

İzmir. Keywords: technology integration.7 meters tall and weighing 700 kilograms springs from the forest and attacks your sister. Using its head with 1. What would you do? Abstract A lot of time and thought have been given to how technology can be used to further learning in the 21st century classroom. in all its bone-crushing glory is standing over you. What do you do now? Hans pretended to be dead. 195 . Suddenly a monster measuring 2.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Identifying social aspects of game mechanics that can enhance learning in the modern high school classroom Marsha A. On the one hand that's good your sister is safe. No: 476 35290 Göztepe. gamification. Out for blood. You hear a twig snap behind you and then turning slowly. He laid still while the creature poked and prodded him. 21st century skills. you see a figure in the shadows with two big white eyes. It starts its new attack. It's November. It's FREEEZİNG. After a few minutes it was all over and the elk lost interest and went back into the forest. This monster. it strikes your back and you fall to the ground. But what about you? Now the creature is focused on you and it's angry. Maxwell.PhD American Collegiate Institute. And you're walking home with your 10 year old sister. teens Main Conference Topic: Effective Teaching Pedagogies Introduction Imagine you are a 12 year old boy. run for help? Well if you were Hans Jorgen Olsen you would taunt the animal to draw it's attention away from your sister. This essay will look at the social aspect of game mechanics. İnönü Cad.8 meter long antlers. less attention has been given to the mechanics needed to alter the current educational environment.  However.k12. the resulting student and teacher satisfaction after implementation and the questions they raise about classroom engagement. In Norway. TURKEY mmaxwell@aci.

how did a 12 year old have the knowledge. with glasses that have thick Coke bottle lenses. First people don't think of elk as being so dangerous.which is true by the way. 19th century French poet Charles Baudelaire said “Life has but one true charm: the charm of the game. we might dabble in Farmville. the wherewithal to remain calm under such a harrowing encounter? WoW. While "feign death" is a skill acquired by hunters at level 30 that allows them to collapse to the ground. Who are gamers? Gamification has many applications in education. And you think THAT’S NOT ME!! I'm not a gamer. In WoW.his only cyberspace." In reality we all are gamers. he responded that he used the skills he learned playing WOW. These are 196 . That's world of warcraft. When asked how he knew what to do when attacked by the moose. Apparently it works on real-world beasts too. track the % completed bar on Linkedin or Facebook. if grown people are wounded sometimes fatally by moose. or shop at stores to gain points on our loyalty cards. the ability to draw the attention of the attacking beast away from the lower-level and less-armored party members is a low level newbie skill. This is only a small example of how skills learned during game play can transfer into useful real life skills. taunting. When the word GAMER is mentioned a few thoughts usually pop into mind. In WOW players go on quests and develop skills and trades in order to overcome challenges. and convince their enemies that they’ve died. We might manage our health with a fitbit.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference There are a couple of surprising things about this story. Sitting in a dirty dark room with stale cold pizza playing some murderously violent game with his "friends". log our diet online forum. An over or underweight pimply teenaged boy. World of Warcraft (WoW) is a multiplayer online role-playing game that launched in November 2004. But in Alaska more people are attacked and harmed by elk than bears. The second. We play social games (Words with Friends).

As teachers. All of these things utilize elements of gaming. our primary question should be: What keeps a person engaged day after day and night after night in an activity? Remember the quote from before: “Life has but one true charm: the charm of the game"? I didn't complete it. One boy admitted that he has spent over 1000 hours playing his favorite game. Sustainable social systems One major element from game mechanics that will help us redesign our lessons is that good games create a sustainable social systems. Broadly definedgamification is the process by which we take the strategic elements of games -the thinking. 1000 hours. His full statement was “Life has but one true charm: the charm of the game. According to a recent Pew report (Lenhart et al. 2008) 97% of US teens aged 12-17 play games on a multitude of platforms. Why should we look to adapt professional game design techniques for classroom use? We should simply because every day game designers are challenged to create activities and environments which foster intrinsic motivation. 31% play every day. 21% play three to five days a week. That's 2 and a half times the number of English lessons he will have for the entire school year. But what if we’re indifferent to whether we win or lose?”  Sometimes students are indifferent about their education. I recently asked my class about their gaming behavior. Some of them would rather spend 1000 hours playing Pokemon than suffering through in a year’s worth of English classes. 197 . We are particularly interested in how we can use these game mechanics to design learning experiences to digitally engage and motivate students to achieve their goals. design and mechanics and apply them to non-game environments.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference all games we play daily.

Due to societal influence we see that most boys like competition. Who's playing? How do they like to interact with others? Here the main difference comes down to whether they students are boys or girls. Gamification allows learners to share information. and other players within a multimodal environment. We don't need science to tell us this. networked.we're looking at what makes users keep coming back. It means exactly that. A MMORPG is a persistent. and reflect on learning. resources. plan. and interact with objects. strategize.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Keep them coming back In advertising we use the term "stickiness". Each one of us is tasked with creating within our classroom (whether we are real or virtual) a sustainable social system that students will feel a part of and that they can fully engage with.or stick to the game. narrative environment in which players collaborate. This definition can easily be applied to our our classes. More and more we are realizing that when we look at the environment in these games we see that they are carefully crafted communities. The first step then is to know the social styles of our players. Likewise in our classes are we encouraging conversation and collaboration? Are we supporting social negotiations?Research has shown that playing games together in real life as opposed to online raises the amount of civic and political engagement in students. Within any learning environment. In MMORPGs conversation and discourse are important features. test understandings. Anecdotal evidence shows that cops and robbers. 198 . it is important for learners to have opportunities for exploration and manipulation in order to foster the construction of knowledge. The stickiness comes from the social context (Smyth. 2007). Games are basically social systems where we interact with others and need to learn things to move from one stage to the next with some overarching goal. interactive.

Just looking at the sex of the player is not enough. Etc. they immediately point to Class Dojo or Kahoot. There are clear winners and losers here. Tea parties. building and destroying. We need to break the class down into motivation types. "Achievers". They are basically "Kıllers" motivated by action. "Socialites".MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference heroes and villains. While there are varying degrees of competitiveness in girls.motivated by gaining points.motivated by interaction with other players and "Explorers". When most teachers think about gamification. Like their professional game design counterparts. Figure 1: The Bartle taxonomy of player types is a classification of gamers according to their preferred actions within the game. dolls. find easter eggs. Somebody is the mommy. the daddy the baby.motivated to discover or create their own path. bragging rights. Richard Bartles established a matrix of 4 player types (Bartles. Dress-up. teachers can use these archetypes to craft lessons that appeal to a particular audiences in their classroom. by and large most girl games (again probably due to social reinforcement) has been collaborative in nature. In Figure 1 we see where players are getting their motivation to play. 1996). or sports are popular on the school yard. These point focused games typically engage players interested in seeing their 199 .

A survey of students after the first semester of use found that 77. 200 . it only really appeals to one type of gamer. “Explore” and “Collaborate”. And the matrix incorporates other motivations. 83. “Compete”. We are completely missing the other 3 interactive types. These social engagement verbs are “Create”. we need to mix it up a bit. If we are just doing this we are just engaging the "Achiever" types primarily. An astounding 74.2% of teachers felt that their students were more actively engaged during the lessons that incorporated some aspect of gamification. exploration and collaboration in the classroom? These techniques were implemented across the entire preparatory curriculum consisting of 170 students in 13 disciplines and 24 teachers. While it does have an element of gaming involved. Using this social engagement matrix how can we integrating activities that stimulate creativity. 2014). Amy Jo Kim replaced Bartles matrix with the associated social engagement verbs (Kim. Therefore when we decide to inject elements of gaming into our lessons. We know that games are more than just competitive.MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference name at the top of the scoreboard. competitiveness.9% of teachers also reported that they saw a marked improvement in assessed student work that was a direct result of gamifying their content offerings.4% of the students found their classes more interesting.

but they also are willing to spend a considerable amount of time doing so. In order to better engage students. By adding specific elements of game design into their practice. 201 .MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference Figure 2: Amy Jo Kim’s model of gamers classified by motivational patterns in social gaming. Src: http://amyjokim. so attention must be paid to intrinsic drivers in the class. we need to make sure that we consider that they not only enjoy game play. Student motivations are not all the same. The modern teacher must recognize that classrooms share many characteristics of social games. teachers can not only better engage students in the classroom -they can also enable students to become more fully engaged in civil life beyond Conclusion We have considered the benefits that come from analysing the social engagement aspect of game design.

Spades: Players who suit MUDs. and Civics. K. E. A. Cambridge (2006) Kim. J. Salen. CyberPsychology & Behavior. Marsha has been involved in developing deployment strategies for web-based technologies for educational clients in both the K12 and corporate environments. For the past 20 years. 10(5). 2008. teacher and technology specialist. (2007). Chris Evans.M. Her work has been used in projects for institutions as varied as NASA and Sony. Diamonds. Joseph Kahne. DOI: 10. A. “Teens. 2014 Lenhart. reprint in The Game Design Reader. Video Games. Vitak. R. J.2007. 1996. February 28. Ellen Middaugh. 202 .MAC-ETeL 2016 Multidisciplinary Academic Conference References Bartle. Smyth.. and Journal of MUD research n°1.9963 Biography Marsha Maxwell is a neuroscientist. Alexandra Rankin Macgill.: Hearts. Currently she is pursuing a second MS researching the effects of gaming technologies on language learning in adolescents at Columbia University. Marsha`s focus has been transforming neuropsychological findings into practical applications.1089/cpb. AmyJoKim. & Zimmerman. Amanda. ed. Web blog post. She holds a MS degree in Biology and a PhD in Neuroscience from the California Institute of Technology. Beyond Self-Selection in Video Game Play: An Experimental Examination of the Consequences of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game Play. 717-721. Clubs. MIT Press. : Beyond Player Types: Kim’s Social Action Matrix.

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