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P.O.

Box 571 | Colville, WA 99114 | USA
T: +1.509.684.2595 | F: +1.509.684.8331
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DXAMMONIAPIPINGHANDBOOK
BruceI.Nelson,P.E.    

TABLEOFCONTENTS          

Background       

SystemConfiguration      

SystemStability      

EvaporatorSelectionandOperation     

DT1vsDTMRatings      

SensibleHeatRatio,Roomrh%,andEvaporatorRatings  

OptimizingSystemTD      

EffectofTDonExpansionValveOperation   

TypesofFrostandSelectionofFinSpacing  

CondenserSelectionandOperation    

Subcooling       

Piping––General      

LiquidLines       

SuctionLines       

HotGasLines       

EffectsofWaterinAmmoniaandItsRemoval    

Separation       

DistillationandDisposalofAmmoniumHydroxide  

LiquidTransfer      

EffectsofOilonEvaporatorPerformanceandOilSeparation 

EstimatingDXEvaporatorRefrigerantChargeInventory  

ColmacSmartHotGasDefrost     

CalculatingtheCostofDefrost     

SmartHotGasSequenceofOperation    

DefrostWaterVolumeandDrainLineSizing   

References       

APPENDIXA––DXAmmoniaP&ID     

Figure1––SingleStage 

Figure2––SingleStageEconomizedScrew 

Figure3––TwoStage                                    

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I.

Background 

Ammoniarefrigerationsystemshavetraditionallyemployedevaporatorssuppliedwith
liquidbyeithergravityflooding(withsurgedrums),orpumpedoverfeed(eitherwith
mechanicalpumpsordischargegasͲdrivenvessels).Bothofthesedesignstypicallyuse
bottomfeedcoilcircuitingwhichfeedsliquidammoniaatthelowestpointinthecoilcircuit
andcausestheammoniatoflowupwardand““percolate””throughthecoilinascending
passestotheoutletatthetopofthecircuit.Thesecoildesignsalsotypicallyuselarge
diametertubingwhichmeansrelativelylargecoilinternalvolume.Thiscombinationof
refrigerantfeed,circuiting,andtubediameter,resultsinthegreatestevaporatorcharge
inventorypossible. 

Endusersofammoniarefrigerationsystemsareincreasinglyinterestedinreducingthe
chargeofammoniainevaporators(andintheoverallsystem)intheinterestofminimizing
therisktoworkersandproductsassociatedwithammonialeaks.Oneveryeffectivewayto
significantlyreduceevaporatorammoniachargeistodesignandoperatetheevaporator
usingdryexpansion(DX)circuitingandcontrols.UsingDXammoniacanreducethe
evaporatorchargebyasmuchas30to50timescomparedtobottomfeedfloodedor
pumpeddesigns.Themagnitudeofthisreductioninammoniachargemayalsomitigate
regulatoryrequirements(PSM,RMP),andpotentiallyreduceinsuranceriskandpremiums. 

DXammoniahasbeenusedforsometimeinmediumandhightemperaturesystems
(suctiontemperaturesabove+20degreesF)withsomesuccess.However,inspiteofthe
chargereductionadvantagesmentionedabove,todateDXammoniahasnotbeenapplied
successfullyatfreezertemperatures.Atsuctiontemperaturesbelowabout+20F,the
followingparticularcharacteristicsofammoniaresultinextremelypoorperformanceof
evaporatorsunlessaddressedandmitigated: 

1. Separationofliquidandvaporphases.Theveryhighratioofvaportoliquidspecific
volumeofammoniaatlowtemperaturescombinedwithitsveryhighlatentheatof
vaporizationcausesanunavoidableseparationofvaporandliquidphasesinside
evaporatortubes.Thisseparationofphasescausestheliquidammoniapresenttorun
alongtheverybottomofthetubesleavingthetopofthetubescompletely““dry””.The
resultisextremelypoorevaporatorperformanceandlowerͲthanͲexpectedsuction
temperaturesduringoperation.TosolvethisproblemColmachasdeveloped(and
patented)anenhancementtechnique,whichwhenappliedtotheinsideofevaporator
tubes,causestheliquidammoniapresenttocoattheentireinsidesurfaceofthetubes
bycapillaryaction.PerformancewithColmacenhancedtubetechnologyresultsinDX
ammoniaperformanceatlowtemperatureswhichisasͲgoodorbetterthan
performancewithbottomfeedpumpedammoniacircuiting.
2. Refrigerantdistributortechnology.Traditionallythedistributionofexpandedrefrigerant
tomultipleparallelevaporatorcircuitshasbeendoneusingarefrigerantdistributor
havingafixedorificeplate.Thisdesigndependsonarelativelylargepressuredrop
(approximately40Ͳ45psi)acrossthefixedorificetothoroughlymixandequally
distributortheliquidandvaporphasesbeforetheyenterthedistributortubesand
evaporatorcircuits.Thisrelativelyhighpressuredropacrossthedistributorreducesthe

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pressuredropavailablefortheexpansionvalve,andconsequentlylimitshowlow
condensingpressurecanbeallowedtofallduringperiodsoflowambienttemperature.
Theveryhighlatentheatofvaporizationofammoniaresultsinlowrefrigerantmass
flowrateandconsequentlyaverysmallorificediameterforagivencoolingload(the
orificecanbeassmallas1/16””diameterinsomecases).Thissmallorificesizeisprone
tofoulingandbeingblockedbyevensmallsizedebris.Otherdisadvantagesofthis
distributordesigninclude:
a. Performanceisverysensitivetoliquidtemperature(subcooling)atthe
expansionvalve.
b. Operatingrangeissmall,atmost50%to125%ofratedcapacity.
c. Theorificeanddistributortubesrestricttheflowofhotgasduringahotgas
defrostcycle.
d. Themaximumnumberofparallelevaporatorcircuitsavailableinasingle
distributorislimitedtoonly15.
ToaddresstheseshortcomingsColmachasdevelopedanew(patentpending)
refrigerantdistributortechnology,theColmacTankDistributor,havingthefollowing
characteristics:
a. RefrigerantpressuredropacrosstheTankDistributorduringoperationisvery
low,only2Ͳ4psi.
b. AnyoilordebrisenteringtheTankDistributoriscapturedinadropleg(whichis
integraltothedesign)beforeitcanenterthecoilandfoultubesurfaces.
c. PerformanceoftheTankDistributoriscompletelyinsensitivetoliquid
temperature(subcooling).
d. Graduatedorificesineachdistributortubeallowequaldistributionof
refrigeranttoallcircuitsoveranextremelywideoperatingrangeof0%to700%
ofratedcapacity.
e. Graduatedorificesandlargediameterdistributortubesallowfullflow(minimal
restriction)ofhotgasduringhotgasdefrost.
f. ThenumberofparallelevaporatorcircuitspossibleinasingleTankDistributor
canbeashighas48.
3. Removalofwaterfromammonia.Asdescribedelsewhere(Nelson2010),evensmall
amountsofwater(1Ͳ3%)intheammoniawillsignificantlypenalizeDXammonia
evaporatorperformance.Watermustbeeffectivelyremovedduringoperation,
particularlyinfreezingsystemswhichoperateatsuctionpressuresbelowone
atmosphere(inavacuum).Currently,theonlyeffectivewaytoremovewaterfrom
ammoniaisinaheateddistillationvessel(anammonia““still””).Thisverynegativeeffect
ofsmallamountsofwateronevaporatorperformancehasnotbeenfullyrecognizedin
thepast,butmustbeaddressedduringthedesignoftheDXammoniasystem.Colmac
hasdevelopedaneffectiveammoniadistillationvesseldesignandinstallationstrategy
whichisdescribedwithinthisHandbook. 

Colmachasdeveloped,tested,andpatented(Nelson2011)anewLowTemperatureDX
Ammoniasystemwhichcorrectlyaddressesalloftheaboveissuespeculiartoammoniaasa
refrigerantthathaveheretoforepreventeditsuseatlowsuctiontemperatures.Itisnow
possibletosuccessfullyapplyDXammoniaatsuctiontemperaturesdowntoͲ50degreesF. 

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ThisPipingHandbookisintendedtoguidethereaderthroughtheprocessofsuccessfully
designingandimplementingDXAmmoniafrom+50FtoͲ50Fandrealizingthebenefitsof: 

Ͳ Dramaticallyreducedammoniacharge
Ͳ Simplifiedcontrols
Ͳ Energyefficientdrysuctionline
Ͳ Reducedlinesizes
Ͳ Eliminationofammoniarecirculatorpumps 

II.

SystemConfiguration 

ColmacDXAmmoniacanbeappliedtoanytemperaturelevelandsystemconfiguration.
P&IDdiagramsforvarioustypicalsystemsareshowninAppendixA,simplifiedforpurposes
ofclarity.Selectionandsystempipingdetails(reliefvalves,purgers,isolationvalves,vessel
designs,etc)shouldfollowindustryguidelinesasfoundintheIIARAmmoniaPiping
Handbook(IIAR2004).Thediagramsarenotintendedtopresentanexhaustiverangeof
configurations––everyindustrialrefrigerationsystemwillhaveuniquefeaturesand
requirements.Thisinformationispresentedtoillustratethegeneralsystemfeatures
particulartoasuccessfulDXAmmoniadesign. 

a. Figure1ͲSingleStageSingleTemperatureLevel
b. Figure2ͲSingleStage(EconomizedScrew)MultipleTemperatureLevel
c. Figure3ͲTwoStageMultipleTemperatureLevel

III.

SystemStability 

Withliquidoverfeedandgravityfloodedsystems,liquidreturntotherecirculatorvesselor
thesurgedrumisnormalandexpectedthroughthewetsuctionline.Therecirculatorvessel
orsurgedrumeffectivelyseparatesreturningliquidfromvaporandinsuresthatthedry
suctionlinecarriesonlyvaporbacktothecompressor. 

DXsystems,ontheotherhand,aredesignedtooperatewithadrysuctionlineandareby
definitionmoresensitivetoliquidfloodback.IndustrialDXsystemsshouldincorporatea
suctionaccumulatorvesseltopreventliquidsluggingofthecompressorduringafloodback
event,however,excessivefloodbackfromevaporatorscancausehighlevelalarmingand
systemshutdownuntiltheexcessliquidinthesuctionaccumulatorcanbetransferredback
tothehighpressuresideofthesystem.Stableandsmoothoperationofthesystemandthe
evaporatorexpansionvalve(s)iscriticaltoavoidingliquidfloodback.Instabilitiesand/or
rapidchangesindischargeandsuctionpressuresduringoperationarethetypicalcauseof
unstableoperationofexpansionvalvesandshouldbeconsideredcarefullybythesystem
designerandoperator(s). 

Rapidchangesinsystemdischargepressurecancausesysteminstabilitiesinanumberof
ways.Asuddenreductionindischargepressurecanresultinundesirableflashingofliquid
refrigerantinliquidlinesandwillalsobeaccompaniedbyasympathetic,albeitsmaller,
reductioninsuctionpressure.Asuddenincreaseindischargepressurewillbeaccompanied 

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byasympathetic,albeitsmaller,increaseinsuctionpressure.Anincreaseinsuction
pressure,iflargeenoughandrapidenough,willsuppressboilingintheevaporatorswhich
candirectlyleadtoliquidfloodbackfromtheevaporatorstothesuctionaccumulator. 

Rapidchangesindischargepressurearenormallycausedby:
a. Condenserfanscyclingonandoff,or
b. Evaporativecondenserpumpscyclingonandoff,or
c. Compressor(s)cyclingonandoff 

**NOTE:Designthesystemtolimittherateofchangeincondensingtemperaturetono
morethan5degF/minute. 

Rapidchangesinsystemsuctionpressurecanalsoresultinsysteminstabilityandpoor
performance.Itisasuddenincreaseinsuctionpressurethathasthehighestpotentialfor
liquidfloodbackfromDXevaporators.Thissuddenincreaseinsuctionpressureraisesthe
temperatureoftheevaporator,reducestheimposedload,andresultsinliquidrefrigerant
exitingtheevaporatorbeforetheexpansionvalvecanrespondandreducetheflowof
refrigerantenteringtheevaporatoraccordingly. 

Rapidchangesinsuctionpressurearenormallycausedby:
a. Compressor(s)cyclingonandoff
b. Multipleliquidfeedsolenoidscyclingonandoff
c. Evaporatorfanscyclingonandoff
d. Evaporatorsstartingorfinishingdefrost
e. Suddenchangesinimposedloadonevaporators 

**NOTE:Designthesystemtolimittherateofchangeinsuctiontemperaturetonomore
than2degF/minute. 

Followingarerecommendedsystemdesignfeatureswhichwillservetomaximizesystem
pressurestabilityandminimizethepotentialforliquidfloodbackfromevaporators. 

1. CondenserFans
a. UseofVFDfanspeedcontrolinsteadoffancyclingforcontrolofheadpressureis
recommended. 

2. CondenserPumps
a. Itisalsorecommendedthatevaporativecondensersumpwaterpumpsbeoperated
continuouslyratherthancyclingonandoff,providedambientweatherconditions
allow. 

3. CompressorCapacityControl
a. UseofVFDspeedcontrolforcapacitywherepossibleandappropriate.
b. Limitcapacityloading/unloadingsteps(on/off)tonomorethan10%oftotalsystem
capacity.

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c.colmaccoil.Liquidfeed solenoidsshouldbecycledsequentially. WA 99114 | USA T: +1. Box 571 | Colville.684. Useableedlinetoequalizepressureslowlyattheendofdefrost. 7.8331 www.  IV. b. Mitigateintermittentprocessloadslocatedclosetoevaporators. Defrosttheminimumnumberofevaporatorsatonetime.SomemanufacturerspublishratingsbasedonbothDT1andDTMand allowthedesignertochoosethepreferreddefinition:  DT1=AirOnTemperature––EvaporatorTemperature DTM=Average(““Room””)AirTemperature––EvaporatorTemperature  Figure1belowgraphicallyillustratesthesetwodefinitionsoftemperaturedifferencefor thesameevaporatorandtheireffectonLMTD(LogMeanTemperatureDifference).P. 6. EvaporatorSelectionandOperation  1. b.2595 | F: +1.3%(DTMLMTDof9.509.howeverthefollowing guidelinesmustbeobservedwhenappliedtoDXevapaorators: o Rateofchangeinfanspeedmustbegradualandlimitedtoresultinno morethan2degF/minutechangeinsuctiontemperature. Limittherateofchangeofsuctiontemperature(speedofscrewcompressorslide valvemovement)tonogreaterthan2degF/minute.684.and henceratedcapacity.i. b.e. . DT1orDTM. Avoidcyclingmultipleliquidfeedsolenoidsallatthesametime.  EvaporatorDefrost a.2degF)morecapacitythanthesameevaporatorratedusing DT1!  Page6of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.  LiquidFeedSolenoids a.thesameevaporatorhavingaͲ20degF evaporatingtemperatureratedusingDTM““produces””33.6degF versusDT1LMTDof7. o Minimumfanspeedmustbesettoproducenolessthan250ft/minface velocity. Avoidlocatingevaporatordirectlyabovedoorways. Iffansaregoingtobecycledon/offforcapacitycontrol.com  4.Inthisexample.509.O. DT1vsDTMratings  Asexplainedindetailelsewhere(Nelson2012(a))evaporatormanufacturerstypically presenttheircapacityratingsusingoneoftwodefinitionsoftemperaturedifference.  EvaporatorFans a. 5. FanspeedandcoolingcapacitycanbecontrolledbyVFD.nomorethan10%ofthe totalnumberofevaporatorfansshouldbecycledonoroffatthesametime.  SuddenchangesinloadonEvaporators a.

bothsensibleandlatentcomponents. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.O.Thisdifferenceinoperatingcostbetween DTMandDT1evaporatorshasbeencalculatedandtheincrementalreturnon investmentshowntodramaticallyfavorselectingevaporatorsusingDT1ratings(Nelson 2012(b)).684. Box 571 | Colville.509.colmaccoil.com  Inshort.ColmachighlyrecommendsthatevaporatorsbeselectedusingDT1ratings ratherthanDTM.byusingtheDTMratingmethodamanufacturercanshowcoolingcapacities thataremuchhigher(30to40%higher).  Unfortunately.684.onecannotget““somethingfornothing””.  2.P.inthesamearticletheauthorshowsthatthebasicDTM assumptionthattheaverageairtemperaturewithintheevaporatorequalstheaverage roomtemperatureisafundamentallyflawedandfalseassumptionbecauseofair entrainmentandmixingintheroom.2 F DTM LMTD = 9. SensibleHeatRatio.8331 www. .6 F Inconclusion.  FIGURE1 TemperatureProfilesforDT1vsDTM  (a) DT1=10F(AirOn)TempDifference(b)DTM=10F(Average)TempDifference DT1 LMTD = 7.RoomRelativeHumidity(rh%).is importanttoproperrefrigerationsystemequipmentselectionandsuccessfuloperation Page7of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc. theywillcausethesystemtorunatalowersuctionpressurewithhigheroperatingcosts thanevaporatorsselectedusingDT1ratings.andsoofferalowercostevaporatorwith muchlesssurfaceareathanthemanufacturerusingtheDT1ratingmethod.2595 | F: +1.andEvaporatorRatings  Accuratepredictionoftherefrigerationload.Additionally.509.Eventhoughevaporators selectedusingDTMratingswillbecheaperinitiallybecausetheyhavelesssurfacearea.

684.73 0. Page8of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.93  Ͳ30(Ͳ34.Therelationship betweenroomrelativehumidityandSHRisshowninTable1below:  TABLE1 SHRFORDT1=10degFATVARIOUSTEMPERATURESANDROOMRH%   SensibleHeatRatio.98 0.Thecoolingeffect associatedwiththisdehumidificationoftheairstreamistermed““latent””cooling.3) 0.Varioustypesofsensiblecoolingloadsmustbeanticipatedand includedinthecalculation.67 0.  Roomrelativehumidity(rh%).colmaccoil.        ܵ‫ ܴܪ‬ൌ    ܵ݁݊‫݈ܾ݁݅ݏ‬  ‫݈݃݊݅݋݋ܥ‬  ‫݀ܽ݋ܮ‬  ܵ݁݊‫ ݀ܽ݋ܮ ݈݃݊݅݋݋ܥ݈ܾ݁݅ݏ‬൅ ‫݀ܽ݋ܮ ݈݃݊݅݋݋ܥ ݐ݊݁ݐܽܮ‬     (1) Refrigeratedspaceswithproductbeingtransferringinandoutthroughdoorwayswill verytypicallyhavearelativehumidityinthe85to95%rangeduetoinfiltrationand othersourcesofmoisture.dehumidificationequipmentisusedatdoorways.suchas:lighting.Latentcoolingloadsarepresentwhenevermoistureisaddedtotheairin therefrigeratedspace.509.684.92 0.The sumofthesensiblecoolingloadandlatentcoolingloadistermedthe““total””load.8) 0.8331 www.O.0 0.ceilings.98 0.92 0. Box 571 | Colville.98 0. respiringfoodproducts.andfloors.andhumidificationequipment(abovefreezing). WA 99114 | USA T: +1.whichistheindicationofhownearlytheairinthe refrigeratedspaceissaturatedwithwatervapor.64  10(Ͳ12.99 0.watervaporintheairstreamiscondensedtoliquid(attemperatures above32F(0C))ordepositedtoformfrost(below32F(0C)). .Lowerroomrelativehumiditymaybefoundinsome exceptionalcaseswheretrafficthroughdoorwaysisverylight.residualwaterleftonfloorsafterwashdown(processrooms).Sourcesofintroducedmoisturetypicallyinclude:infiltrationair.SHR  RoomTemperature.etc.97  TheroomrelativehumidityandresultingSHRcanhavealargeeffectonevaporator coolingcapacity.transmissionofheatthroughwalls.84 0.forklifts.product cooling/freezing.  Wheneverevaporatorsurfacesoperateattemperaturesbelowthedewpointoftheair beingcooled.willbetheequilibriumcondition resultingfromthebalanceofmoistureintroducedintothespacewiththemoisture removedfromspacebytheevaporatorcoils(Cleland2012).98 0.99 0.89  Ͳ10(Ͳ23.95 0.2) 1.productistightly packaged.F(C) 65%rh 75%rh 85%rh 95%rh  45(7.84 0.2595 | F: +1.com  (Nelson2012(a)).2) 0.packagingandotherobjects enteringthespace.P.56  32(0) 0.andcoolingof infiltrationair.99 0.83  0(Ͳ17.4) 0.electricmotors.509.especiallyathigherroomtemperatures.97 0.The ratioofthesensiblecoolingloaddividedbythetotalcoolingloadiscalledtheSensible HeatRatio(SHR)anddefinestheslopeoftheairprocesslineonapsychrometricchart.87 0.95 0. humanrespiration.surfacemoistureonproducts.

8 0.75 0.thenaconservationapproachistoselect evaporatorsbasedonalowroomrelativehumidity(i.2595 | F: +1. Box 571 | Colville.45  1.Amanufacturerwhoshows theirevaporatorratingsas““allsensible””(SHR=1)willbemoreconservative(havemore surfacearea)thanthemanufacturerwhoshowstheirratingsat85or95%rh.95 1   SensibleHeatRatio.5  1.  Conclusion:Thelatentloadshouldalwaysbeestimatedandincludedinthetotal calculatedrefrigerationload.6 0.ResultsofthepredictedcapacityincreaseasafunctionofSHR foranammoniarefrigerationevaporatorcoiloperatingoverawiderangeofroom temperatures(+45FtoͲ30F)andhavingtypicalfinspacingsandgeometrywithDT1= 10FareshowninFigure2below.a predictionoftheincreaseinevaporatorcoilperformanceasafunctionofSHRhasbeen made(Nelson2012(a)).someevaporatormanufacturersincludethe effectofroomrh%intheirratings.Qtotal/Qsensonly  Usingacomputermodeldevelopedtoaccuratelycalculatefinefficiencyandsurface effectivenessforbothsensibleandcombinedsensibleandlatentheattransfer.9 0.  Selectingevaporatorsusing85to95%rhratingswillresultinevaporatorshavingless surfaceareaandlowerfirstcostcomparedtoevaporatorsselectedusing““allsensible”” ratings.Ifroomrelativehumidityis difficulttoestimateorcannotbeestimated.othersdonot.thelowerthe SHRthegreaterthetotalcoolingcapacityoftheevaporator.  FIGURE2   TotalCoolingCapacityFactorvsSHR  1.1  1.65to75%rh)orusing““sensible only””ratings.7 0.Sizeevaporatorsforthedesigntotalcalculated refrigerationloadattheestimatedroomrelativehumidity.4  1.509.e. OptimizingSystemTD Page9of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.AsshowninFigure2.684.2  1.SHR  Tomakethingsabitmorecomplicated.25  1.colmaccoil.3  1.684.509.05  1  0.35   1.P. . WA 99114 | USA T: +1.  3.15  1.85 0.O.Theriskinthisapproachisundersizingtheevaporatorsinthecasewherethe actualoperatingroomrh%islessthantherh%usedduringtheselectionprocess.8331 www.65 0.com  CapacityFactor.

Energy efficiencycanbecharacterizedbyaratiotermedCoefficientofPerformance(COP). Box 571 | Colville.colmaccoil. .P.Appropriatetemperaturesforstoringandprocessingvarious foodsandfoodproductscanbefoundelsewhere(ASHRAE2009).Thefigureassumes2ͲStagecompressionisusedbelowasuction temperatureofͲ20degF.  Oncetheroomtemperatureisdetermined.  ‫ݕݐ݅ܿܽ݌ܽܥ ݈݃݊݅݋݋ܥ‬ǡ ܹ݇     ‫ ܱܲܥ‬ൌ        (3) ‫ݎ݁ݓ݋ܲ ݐݑ݌݊ܫ‬ǡ ܹ݇   Figure3belowshowstypicalammoniascrewcompressorCOPvsSST(SaturatedSuction Temperature).Thehigherthesuctionpressurethe moreefficientlythecompressorwillrunandthelesspowerwillbeconsumed.684.com   Theproductbeingstoredorprocessednormallydeterminestheroomairtemperature inarefrigeratedfacility.509.DegF  Page10of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.684. WA 99114 | USA T: +1. definedas:  ܷ‫ݐݑ݌ݐݑܱ ݈ݑ݂݁ݏ‬ ‫ܱܲܥ‬        ൌ     (2) ‫ݐݑ݌݊ܫ‬  Inthecaseofarefrigerationcompressor.theevaporatortemperaturemustbe decideduponbythedesigner.  FIGURE3                       R717ScrewCompressorCOPvsSST (SCT=85DegF) 8 7 CompressorCOP 6 5 4 3 2 1 Ͳ50 Ͳ40 Ͳ30 Ͳ20 Ͳ10 0 10 20 30 40 SST.8331 www.2595 | F: +1.Compressorpowerandenergyconsumptionisastrong functionofthesuctionpressureandtemperature.509.O.

willbe affectedby: 1.  Heatistransferredfromtheroomviatheaircirculatedbytheevaporators.infact.andpattern.8331 www.colmaccoil.684. This.Theeffectivenessequationshowsthatas TDbecomessmaller. . 4. Thecoilfacevelocity.verynearlyconstantoverthetypicalnarrow operatingrangeofarefrigerationevaporator.O.theairflowratemustbecomelargerinthesameproportionfora givencoolingcapacity. 2. Finspacingandpattern 5. WA 99114 | USA T: +1. Tubediameter.P.509.  Fanpowercanbecalculatedusingasimpleequationasfollows:   ሶ     ሶ ܳ ή ݀‫ ݌‬    (5) ܹ ௙௔௡ ൌ ‫׎‬௧௢௧   Where: ܹሶ௙௔௡ ൌ ‫ݎ݁ݓ݋ܲ݊ܽܨ‬ ܳሶ ൌ ܸ‫ݎ݅ܣ݂݋݁ݐܽݎݓ݋݈ܨܿ݅ݎݐ݁݉ݑ݈݋‬ ݀‫ ݌‬ൌ ܶ‫݊ܽܨݏݏ݋ݎܿܣ݁ݎݑݏݏ݁ݎ݈ܲܽݐ݋‬ሺܵ‫ ܿ݅ݐܽݐ‬൅ ‫ܿ݅݉ܽ݊ݕܦ‬ሻ ‫׎‬௧௢௧ ൌ ܶ‫ݕ݂݂ܿ݊݁݅ܿ݅ܧ݊ܽܨ݈ܽݐ݋‬  Theairpressuredropthroughtheevaporatorcoil.however.spacing.andthereforefanpower.thehighertheevaporator(SST)temperatureandcompressorCOP.       ݉ሶ ή ‫ ܥ‬ή ߝ ή  ܶ‫ ܦ‬   (4) ‫ݍ‬ሶ ൌ ௣  Where: ‫ݍ‬ሶ ൌ ‫ݕݐ݅ܿܽ݌ܽܥ݈݃݊݅݋݋ܥ‬ ݉ሶ ൌ ‫ݎ݅ܣ݂݋݁ݐܽݎݓ݋݈ܨݏݏܽܯ‬ ‫ܥ‬௣ ൌ ܵ‫ݎ݅ܣ݂݋ݐܽ݁ܪ݂ܿ݅݅ܿ݁݌‬ ߝ ൌ ‫ ܷܶܰݎ݋ݐܽݎ݋݌ܽݒܧ‬െ ‫ݏݏ݁݊݁ݒ݅ݐ݂݂ܿ݁ܧ‬ ܶ‫ ܦ‬ൌ ‫ ݁ݎݑݐܽݎ݁݌ܱ݉݁ܶ݊ݎ݅ܣ‬െ ‫݁ݎݑݐܽݎ݁݌݉݁ܶ݃݊݅ݐܽݎ݋݌ܽݒܧ‬ Evaporatoreffectivenessis.isnotthecase.com   ItwouldappearfromFigure3thatasmallerTD(TD=RoomTemperature––Evaporator Temperature)wouldalwaysbedesirablefromanenergyconsumptionstandpointsince thesmallertheTD.This equationindicatesthatforaconstantcoolingcapacityandevaporatoreffectiveness(an expressionofhowcloselytheleavingairtemperatureapproachestheevaporating temperature). Box 571 | Colville.509.theflowrateoftheairwillbeinverselyproportionaltotheTD.684.2595 | F: +1. Frostthickness  Page11of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc. 3. Numberofcoilrowsdeep.Thecooling capacityofanevaporatorcanbecharacterizedbytheNTUͲeffectivenessequation.

684.Figure4showstheserelationshipsforan exampleevaporatorcoilhaving8rowsdeepand3FPIfinspacing.DegF      Figure4impliestherewillbesomemaximumcombinedCOPforcompressorandfans whichwillrepresenttheoptimumoperatingTDintermsofenergyefficiency. Box 571 | Colville.and4FPI AirOnTemperature:Ͳ10degF FrostThickness:0mm    Page12of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.and1000FPM FinSpacing:2. .684.509.foratypicalammoniaevaporator coilhavingthefollowingcharacteristics:  Tubing:7/8””ODAluminum TubePattern:2.3.AirOnTemp=Ͳ10DegF  7   6   5  4 Fan(500FPM)x10^Ͳ1  Fan(750FPM)x10^Ͳ1 3 Fan(1000FPM)x10^Ͳ1  2 Compressor  1  0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 TD=AirOnTempͲ SuctionTemp.This combinedCOPisshownbelowinFigures5.2595 | F: +1.and7.25””Staggered Fins:ConfiguredAluminumPlateType RowsDeep:8 FaceVelocity:500.R717.6.8331 www.750.P.509.com COP  TherelationshipsaboveindicatethatcompressorCOPwilldecreasewithincreasingTD whileFanCOPwillincreasewithincreasingTD.O.colmaccoil.   FIGURE4   COPvsTD  8Row3FPI. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.

4 2.6 2.DegF FIGURE6 Compressor+FanCOPvsTD 8Row3FPI.6 1000FPM 1.8 750FPM 1.R717.509.6 500FPM 1.AirOnTemp=Ͳ10DegF 2.8 1.P.6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 TD=AirOnTempͲ SuctionTemp.2 1000FPM 1 0. .colmaccoil.2595 | F: +1.509.4 1. Box 571 | Colville.O.2 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 TD=AirOnTempͲ SuctionTemp.684.AirOnTemp=Ͳ10DegF 2.R717.4 750FPM 1. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.2 CombinedCOP                                   CombinedCOP             2 500FPM 1.8331 www.2 2 1.com  FIGURE5 Compressor+FanCOPvsTD 8Row4FPI.DegF Page13of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.684.4 2.8 0.

  Sincethesecostsarehighlyvariable.8 750FPM 1.AirOnTemp=Ͳ10DegF 2.com  FIGURE7 Compressor+FanCOPvsTD 8Row2FPI. b.6 2. CombinedCOPisaverystrongfunctionofcoilfacevelocity. d. Box 571 | Colville.4 1.684.R717. Inallcases.684.8331 www.combinedCOPdecreasesveryrapidlybelowabout7degFTD.509.2595 | F: +1.thecostofpower aswellasinstalledcostofthecompressor(s)andevaporatorsmustbeknown(or estimated).2 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 TD=AirOnTempͲ SuctionTemp.Thesevariablescanthenbecombinedtocalculatetheincrementalreturn oninvestmentcomparingdifferentevaporatordesigns(facevelocityandfinspacing)in termsoffirstcostvsoperatingcost.6 1000FPM 1. Theoptimum(maximum)TDincreaseswithincreasingfacevelocity.  InordertomakethefinaldecisionaboutselectingtheoptimumTD.O.509.COPat500FPMis approximately10%higherthanCOPat750FPMand20%higherthanCOPat 1000FPM.whichwillhave higherCOPthan4FPI.P.Coilswith 2FPIspacingwillhavehighercombinedCOPthancoilswith3FPI.4 2.colmaccoil.thefinalreturnoninvestmentcalculationmustbe madeonacaseͲbyͲcasebasisandpresentedtotheclientinawaywhichallowsthefinal decisiontobemadegiventheprojectfinancialconstraintsandrequirements.2 CombinedCOP                         2 500FPM 1.DegF ThefollowingisobservedfromFigures5through7: a. . WA 99114 | USA T: +1. c.    Page14of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc. CombinedCOPincreasesasthedistancebetweenfinsisincreased.

O.Adisadvantageofthissystemistheadditionalsuperheatrequiredto overcomethethermalresistanceofthepipewall. Forcoilfacevelocitiesbetween500and750FPMadesignTDbetween10degFand 15degFisrecommended.509. 2. FinaloptimizedevaporatordesignandTDmustbedeterminedbasedonspecific projectfinancialconstraintsandacceptablereturnoninvestment.Thecontrolsignalisnormallytheamountofsuperheatinthe refrigerantsuctiongas. ForhighestsystemCOP/energyefficiency.Thetheoreticalmaximumamountofsuctiongassuperheatthat canbegeneratedisequaltotheoperatingTD(TD=AirOnTemperature––Evaporating Temperature).684. Box 571 | Colville.Theadvantageofthistype ofvalveistheirlowcostandcompactness. EffectofTDonExpansionValve(EV)Operation  Withdirectexpansion(DX)evaporatorstheflowofrefrigeranttotheevaporatoris meteredbyanautomaticexpansionvalveinresponsetoacontrolsignalmeasuredat theevaporatoroutlet.Withthistypeofvalve.  Theamountofsuperheatrequiredforstableoperation(modulation)oftheexpansion valvevarieswiththetypeofvalveemployed.This.Thisadditionalsuperheatforcesthe operatingTDtobeapproximately5degFgreaterthanforanelectronicexpansionvalve thatusesatemperaturetransducertomeasuretemperaturedirectly.temperaturesensing isaccomplishedbyarefrigerantͲfilledbulbstrappedtotheoutsideofthecoilsuction connection.com  Conclusions: 1. 3.Advantagesofthistypeofvalve includemoreaccurateandresponsivesensingofsuperheatwhichallowsstable operationatsmallerTDthanthermostatictypevalves.  Thermostaticexpansionvalvesmeasureandmechanicallycalculatesuperheatbymeans ofatemperaturesensingbulbandpressureequalizingline.Colmacrecommendsmaximum facevelocityof600FPMandfinspacingof3FPIorwider(lowerFPI).P.Bothuse superheatinthesuctiongasasthecontrolsignal.selectevaporatorsforthelowestface velocityandwidestfinspacingfinanciallypractical.Thermostatic(TEV)andElectronic(EEV).Theexpansionvalveitselfmayoperatebasedonan““open/close””(pulsing) principleoronamotorizedpositioningprinciple.however. .colmaccoil.PIDcontrolparameterscanalso beadjustedinthecontrollerto““finetune””operationoverawiderangeofconditions.  4.2595 | F: +1.  Electronicexpansionvalvesoperatebasedonasignalreceivedfromasuperheat controllerwhichreadssuctiongastemperatureandpressurefromacombinationof sensors.ischangingasvalvemanufacturersare findinglowercostsolutionsandbeginningtooffercostcompetitiveelectronicvalvesto themarket.Twobasictypesofexpansionvalvesare currentlyavailableonthemarket. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.  Page15of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.Thesevalvesandtheir operationaredescribedindetailbythevalvemanufacturers.509. Theprimarydisadvantageofelectronicexpansionvalvesisthehigherfirstcost comparedtothermostaticvalves.8331 www.684.

theSHR.WhenevertheSHRislessthan1. Bydeposition.  5.509.0.O.andthe surfaceareaoftheevaporator. Deposition:  Wheneverthetemperatureoftheevaporatorcoilsurfaceisbelowthedewpoint temperatureoftheroomair. Box 571 | Colville.509. TypesofFrostandSelectionofFinSpacing  Frostcanaccumulateonevaporatorcoilfinsbyoneoftwomechanisms:  1.  Thesurfaceeffectivenessofarefrigerationevaporatorisrelativelyhigh(usuallygreater than80%)duetothetypicallysmallTDandlowheatfluxcomparedtoairconditioning andprocessevaporators.colmaccoil.Thishighsurfaceeffectivenessresultsinamoreorless constantsurfacetemperatureanduniformdepositionoffrostovertheentiresurfaceof theevaporator. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.degF Setting.2595 | F: +1.Thisassumptionofuniformfrostdepositionismadeinthefollowing equation:    Page16of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.andisdrivenbythe differenceinwatervaporpressurebetweentheairandthesurfaceofthecoil.684.8331 www.The amountofheatassociatedwiththismasstransferprocessistermedlatentheatandis quantifiedbytheSHR(seepreviousdefinition).com  MinimumrecommendedTDandsuperheatsettingsforbothtypesofexpansionvalves areshowninTable2below:  TABLE2 MINIMUMRECOMMENDEDDXAMMONIATDANDSUPERHEATSETTING  ExpansionValveType MinimumRecommended RecommendedSuperheat TD. . AsairͲborneicecrystals  Designingevaporatorstoproperlyhandlethesetwotypesoffrostisdescribedinthis section.Thismasstransfer process.and/or 2.Therateatwhichfrostwillbedepositedonthecoil surfacescaneasilybecalculatedasafunctionofthetotalcoolingload.degF Thermostatic 15 12 Electronic 10 8  Note:Colmacoffersfactorysuppliedandmountedexpansionvalvesandcontrollers.684.the depositionoffrostwilltakeplace.  1.whenrelatedtotheformationoffrostiscalleddeposition. boththermostaticandelectronictype.moisturewillcondenseandbedepositedonthesurface eitherasliquidwater(abovefreezing)orasfrost(belowfreezing).P.

509.684.8331 www.Whatwillbetherateoffrost deposition?  Answer: FromTable1theexpectedSHRatthisroomairtemperatureandrh%willbe0.O.000 Btu/h(20TR)andoutsidesurfaceareaof4100ft2. WA 99114 | USA T: +1. Box 571 | Colville.684.  ʹͶͲǡͲͲͲሺͳ െ ͲǤͺ͹ሻ ܴܽ‫ ݊݋݅ݐ݅ݏ݋݌݁ܦݐݏ݋ݎܨ݂݋݁ݐ‬ൌ ή ͵ͲͶǤͺ ൌ ͲǤʹͳ݉݉Ȁ݄ ͳͲ͸ͺ ή ͳͲǤͶ ή ͶͳͲͲ   Asfrostisdepositedontheevaporatorcoilsurfacesthelocalairvelocitybetweenfins willincreaseandresultinincreasedairpressuredropacrossthecoil.P. .com    ‫ݍ‬ሶ ሺͳ െ ܵ‫ܴܪ‬ሻ     ൌ  ௧௢௧    (6) ‫ݔ‬ሶ௙௥௢௦௧ ή ͵ͲͶǤͺ ݄௙௚ ή ߩ௙௥௢௦௧ ή ‫ܣ‬௢   Where: ‫ݔ‬ሶ௙௥௢௦௧ ൌ ܴܽ‫݊݋݅ݐ݅ݏ݋݌݁ܦݐݏ݋ݎܨ݂݋݁ݐ‬ǡ ݉݉Ȁ݄ ‫ݍ‬ሶ ௧௢௧ ൌ ‫ݕݐ݅ܿܽ݌ܽܥ݈݃݊݅݋݋ܥݎ݋ݐܽݎ݋݌ܽݒܧ‬ǡ ‫ݑݐܤ‬Ȁ݄ ܵ‫ ܴܪ‬ൌ ܵ݁݊‫݋݅ݐܴܽݐܽ݁ܪ݈ܾ݁݅ݏ‬ ݄௙௚ ൌ ‫ݎ݁ݐܹ݂ܽ݋݊݋݅ݐܽݖ݅ݎ݋݌ܸ݂ܽ݋ݐܽ݁ܪݐ݊݁ݐܽܮ‬ǡ ͳͲ͸ͺ‫ݑݐܤ‬Ȁ݈ܾ݉ ߩ௙௥௢௦௧ ൌ ‫ݐݏ݋ݎܨ݂݋ݕݐ݅ݏ݊݁ܦ݁݃ܽݎ݁ݒܣ‬ǡ ͳͲǤͶ݈ܾ݉Ȁ݂‫͵ݐ‬ ‫ܣ‬௢ ൌ ‫ܽ݁ݎܣ݂݁ܿܽݎݑܵݎ݋ݐܽݎ݋݌ܽݒܧ‬ሺ‫݁݀݅ݏݐݑ݋‬ሻǡ ݂‫ʹݐ‬  EXAMPLE: Anevaporatorhaving8rowsdeepandfinspacingof3FPIisoperatingwitha10degF TD(DT1)ina+10degF/85%rhroom.2595 | F: +1.509.colmaccoil.87.Theevaporatorhasacoolingcapacityof240.Theincreaseinair pressuredropduetoaccumulationoffrostcanbeapproximatedbythefollowing equation:  ଶ ͳ  െ ‫ݐ‬௙௜௡ ߮    ᇱ ൌ ݀‫݌‬      (7) ݀‫݌‬ ൲  ௖௟௘௔௡ ή ൮ ߜ ͳ ௙௥௢௦௧  ൰ െ ൬‫ݐ‬௙௜௡ ൅ ʹ ή ߮ ʹͷǤͶ     Where: ݀‫݌‬ᇱ ൌ ‫ߜ݂݋ݏݏ݄݁݊݇ܿ݅ܶݐݏ݋ݎܨ݄ݐ݅ݓ݌݋ݎܦ݁ݎݑݏݏ݁ݎܲݎ݅ܣ‬௙௥௢௦௧  ݀‫݌‬௖௟௘௔௡ ൌ ‫݈݊ܽ݁ܥ݁ݎܽݏ݊݅ܨ݄ܹ݊݁݌݋ݎܦ݁ݎݑݏݏ݁ݎܲݎ݅ܣ‬ሺ݊‫ݐݏ݋ݎ݂݋‬ሻ ߮ ൌ ‫݃݊݅ܿܽ݌ܵ݊݅ܨ‬ǡ ‫݄ܿ݊ܫݎ݁ܲݏ݊݅ܨ‬ሺ‫ܫܲܨ‬ሻ ‫ݐ‬௙௜௡ ൌ ‫ݏݏ݄݁݊݇ܿ݅ܶ݊݅ܨ‬ǡ ݄݅݊ܿ݁‫ݏ‬ ߜ௙௥௢௦௧ ൌ ‫ݏݏ݄݁݊݇ܿ݅ܶݐݏ݋ݎܨ‬ǡ ݉݉  Page17of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.

O.Thatis.8331 www.Perhapsitissimplyanadditional““catchͲall””safetyfactor.684. Itisnotclearwhenorwhythisruleofthumbcameintopractice. SHR.thecompressorswillunloadtomaintainaconstantsuction temperatureasthecoilcapacityfallsoffduetofrosting.2595 | F: +1.  TABLE3 MINIMUMEVAPORATORCAPACITYTOINITIATEDEFROSTATVARIOUSDESIGN RUNTIMES  DesignRuntime.allowsthe constructionofasimplemodelwhichwillpredictthechangeincoilcapacityovertime.Knowinghowcapacitychangeswiththeseparameters.defrostingshouldbeinitiated whenevaporatorcapacityfallstoalevelequaltothedesignruntimeratio(design runtimedividedby24).509. . Box 571 | Colville.colmaccoil.twocoilsmustbeinoperationwhile thethirdcoilisinhotgasdefrostinordertoprovideasufficientquantityofhotgasfor thedefrostcycle. Simplifyingassumptionsinthemodelinclude:  o Frostisdepositeduniformlyoverthesurfaceofthecoil o Frostdensityisuniformandofafixedvalue o Suctiontemperatureremainsconstant  Normally. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.andfrostthickness.and7above. Coolingcapacityoftheevaporatorcanbecharacterizedasfunctionsoffacevelocity. combinedwiththerelationshipsshowninequations5.Thisreductionincoolingcapacitywill ultimatelydeterminedefrostfrequencyandefficiency.Itmakesthe mostsensetotheauthorthattheruntimeadjustmenttothedesignrefrigerationload shouldbeusedtoaccountforthedegradationincoilperformanceovertimedueto accumulationoffrost.Table3belowshowsthemaximumreductioninevaporator capacityduetofrostingthatshouldbeallowedbeforedefrostisinitiated.684.P.Asthecompressorsunloadto maintainsystemsuctionpressure.theywillrunlongertomaintainroomtemperature.refrigerationloadsarecalculatedbasedon16to18hoursofruntimeperday.h/day MinimumEvaporatorCapacityat  InitiationofDefrost  14 58%  16 67%  18 75%  20 83%  Page18of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.Notethatthis tableobviouslydoesnotapplytoevaporatorsoperatingabovefreezing.6.andoverallsystemenergy efficiencyandpowerconsumption.  Inalargerefrigerationsystemhavingaconstantrefrigerationloadandcompressor unloadingcapability.One industryhistorianmentionedthatthe16Ͳ18runhoursrulecamefromsplitsystem applicationswherecapacitydropsoutduringdefrostcomparedtoacentralsystem whichwouldrebalancetheTDontheremainingevaporators(Welch2013). Thisimpliesthatinordertomaintainroomtemperature.com  Therateofblockageofthecoilwithfrostandassociatedpressuredropwillresultina reductioninairflowandcoolingcapacity.509.Perhapsitisacorollary tothe““2ͲtoͲ1””ruleforhotgasdefrosting.

 9.65SHR  100%  90%  80%  70%  60%  RBR(Stagg)8R2F  50% RBR(Stagg)8R3F  40% RBR(Stagg)8R4F  30%  20%  10%  0%  0 0.5 1 1.% Theevaporatorperformancemodeldescribedabovewasusedtoexaminetheeffectof finspacingandSHRonlossofcoolingcapacityduetofrostaccumulation.684.2595 | F: +1.evenwhenrelativehumidityishigh.  FIGURE8  CapacityvsTimeforVariousFinSpacings   7/8StaggPattern. .5 2 2.509.O.h Page19of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.10. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.5 4  Time.509. Box 571 | Colville.75SHR  100%   90%  80%  70%  60%  RBR(Stagg)8R2F 50%  RBR(Stagg)8R3F 40%  RBR(Stagg)8R4F  30%  20%  10%  0%  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7  Time.colmaccoil.0.5 3 3.P.h   FIGURE9  CapacityvsTimeforVariousFinSpacings  7/8StaggPattern.SeeFigures8.8331 www.and11below.  FromTable1itisclearthatthehighestfrostload(lowestSHR)willoccurinhigh temperature(+32F)roomswithhighrelativehumidity.% CoolingCapacity.0.684.com  CoolingCapacity.Thelowestfrostloads(highest SHR)occuratfreezertemperatures.

684.and Table3:  Page20of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.509.colmaccoil.Table1.95SHR  100%  90%  80%  70%  60%  RBR(Stagg)8R2F 50%  RBR(Stagg)8R3F  40% RBR(Stagg)8R4F  30%  20%  10%  0%  0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40  Time.509.% FIGURE11  CapacityvsTimeforVariousFinSpacings   7/8StaggPattern. Box 571 | Colville. .8331 www. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.%                     60% RBR(Stagg)8R2F 50% RBR(Stagg)8R3F 40% RBR(Stagg)8R4F 30% 20% 10% 0% 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Time.684.com   FIGURE10 CapacityvsTimeforVariousFinSpacings 7/8StaggPattern.h   AnumberofobservationscanbemadewhenconsideringFigures8Ͳ11.O.0.P.h CoolingCapacity.2595 | F: +1.0.85SHR 100% 90% 80% 70% CoolingCapacity.

 .8331 www. Therateatwhichfrostaccumulatesonanevaporatorincreasesastheroom temperatureincreasesforagivenroomrelativehumidity.Estimatethedefrostfrequencyusing Tables1and3. 4.509. No.684.andtherefore SHR.O.87 FromTable3:CoolingCapacityatTimeofDefrost=67% FromFigure10:Timebetweendefrosts=5.Finspacingselectedis3FPI. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.designruntime.684.RUNTIME.h/day 14 16 16 18 SuggestedDefrostFrequency. AirͲBorneIceCrystals:  Page21of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.Frostonan evaporatoroperatinginaroomat+32Fand85%rhwillaccumulatemuchfaster thanonthesameevaporatoroperatingatͲ10Fand85%rh.e. Asdesignruntimeisincreased.andFigures8through11.FPI 2 3 4 4 RecommendedMaximum DesignRuntime. designruntime.75)usingdesignruntimegreater than14h/daymayresultinaninabilityoftherefrigerationsystemtomaintainroom temperature.  2. 2. Foragivenreductioninevaporatorcapacity.colmaccoil.andcoilfinspacingareknown.85 0.P.com  1.ANDDEFROSTFREQUENCYVSSHR       SHR SuggestedMaximum FinSpacing.  TABLE4 SUGGESTEDFINSPACING. Figures8through11canbeusedtoestimatedefrostfrequencywhenroomSHR. Inthecaseofveryhighfrostload(SHRlessthan0.2h Therefore.Notethatroomrelativehumidity.2h=5defrostsperday  Conclusion:Table4belowshowssuggestedmaximumfinspacing.i.TheeffectsofairͲborneicecrystalsarediscussedinthefollowing section.Thisimpliesthatoptimumdefrostfrequencymaybedifferentinsummer monthsvswintermonths. Box 571 | Colville.widerfinspacingalwaysresultsin longeractualruntimebetweendefrosts.thenumberofdefrostsperdayrequiredincreases. FromTable1:SHR=0.2595 | F: +1.Defrosts/day 9 8 6 2 0.estimateddefrostfrequency=24h/day/5.95   Theabovediscussionandrecommendationsarebasedonfrostaccumulationby depositionanddonotincludetheeffectsofairͲborneicecrystalsonfinspacingand defrostfrequency. 3.65 0.Thisisduetothehigher watervaporpressureinairathighertemperaturesandtheresultinglowerSHR.willlikelychangethroughouttheyeardependingonlocationandclimate conditions.Thistableisintendedtobeusedasageneral guidelineinconjunctionwithTable1.509.75 0. Example: Anevaporatorhasbeenselectedfora+10F/85%rhroombasedondesignruntime of16h/day.and defrostfrequencyforvariousvaluesofSHR.

operatedwithoutaccumulatingiceonthecabinetandorinthepanand defrostednormallyandeffectively.asupersaturatedconditionis indicatedwhenthemixedairconditionfallstotheleftofthesaturation(100%rh)line (thinkoffogthathasfrozeninmidͲair).  AirͲborneicecrystalsasatypeoffrostthatcanbedepositedoncoilsurfaceshasbeen recognizedanddiscussedforsometime(Cleland2002.Stoecker1988).com  Thistypeoffrostisformedquitedifferentlyfromthefrostformedbydepositionas explainedabove. heavyaccumulationoffrost.and ismoredifficulttoquantifyandpredict. CondenserSelectionandOperation  Anumberofdifferenttypesofcondensersareavailableforusewithammonia.684.Theevaporatordirectlyoverthedoorwayhadchronicproblemswithrapid.variablefin spacingisrecommended.509. .Itaccumulatesonevaporatorsurfacesbyadifferentmechanism.509.two identicalevaporatorswereinstalledinthesamerefrigeratedspace(aͲ10degFfreezer) alongthesamewall.2595 | F: +1.colmaccoil.  Ratherthanaccumulaterelativelyuniformlyovertheentirecoilsurfaceasisthecase withfrostformedbydeposition.Onapsychrometricchart.butalsoontheconditionofdoorwaysandhowtheyare operated.8331 www.and2/4fpi.Inoneparticularcaseobservedbytheauthor. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.Theseice particulatesformwheninfiltrationairmixeswithrefrigeratedairtoproducea supersaturatedcondition.Theevaporatorlocatedonly20feetawaybetween doorways.  Ͳ WaterCooled Ͳ AirCooled Ͳ Evaporative Ͳ Hybrid(Adiabatic)AirͲEvaporative  Page22of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.P.1.andwithdefrostissuesrelatedtoaccumulationoficeon theunitcabinetandinthedrainpan.Itisthereforerecommendedthatevaporatorsnotbe locateddirectlyabovedoorwayswheneverpossible.684.Typicalarrangementsare1/2fpi(finsperinch).afinspacingarrangementwhichhasfinsonthefirst onetotworowsontheairenteringsideofthecoilspacedwiderthanintheremaining rows.  V.O.Thatis.  WhenevaporatorsarelocateddirectlyabovedoorwayswhereairͲborneicecrystalsare formedthistypeoffrostcanaccumulateveryquicklyandhaveseriousconsequencesin termsofdegradedperformanceandinabilitytodefrosteffectivelyduetoexcessive accumulationofhoarfrostandice.onedirectlyoverthedoorwayandthesecondoffsetbetween doorways.Thistypeoffrostis moredifficulttopredictsinceitsformationdependsonnotonlytheconditionoftheair outsidetherefrigeratedspace.airͲborneicecrystalsaccumulateontheleadingedges ofthecoilfinsandhavetheprimaryeffectofrestrictingairflow.5/3fpi. Box 571 | Colville.  Ifitisknownthattheevaporatorwillbeexposedtothistypeoffrost.

com  VI.684.  Itisrecommendedthatthesystemdesignercarefullyconsiderthefollowingpointswhen selecting/designingcondensingequipment: Ͳ Energyefficiency Ͳ Partloadoperation Ͳ Lowambientoperation Ͳ Internalvolumeandammoniacharge Ͳ Gasinletandliquidoutletpiping Ͳ PurgingofnonͲcondensiblegases Ͳ VFDcondenserfancontrol(highlyrecommended)  Subcooling  Refrigerantliquidleavingthecondenseristypicallyatornearsaturationtemperatureand pressure.colmaccoil.Thepressure dropisthesumof1)thelossinpressureduetoelevationgainintheliquidline.2)liquidline pressuredropduetofriction.509.Iftheliquidhasnotbeensubcooledbeforeitenterstheliquidline.P.  Subcoolingtheliquidafteritleavesthereceiveristhereforeanecessityforpropersystem operation.  Table5showsthepressuredropinliquidlinesproducedbyelevationgainbetweenthe receiverandevaporatorswithammonia.Adequatesubcoolingoftheliquidwillpreventthe formationofflashgasinliquidlines.8331 www. Incertaincasesthetypeofcompressionequipment(screwvsreciprocating)selectedand theexpectedmaximumambienttemperaturewilldeterminewhetherornotaircooled condensingwillbepossible.Inothercasestheavailability(orunavailability)ofwatermay requiretheuseofaircooledcondensing.theflashgas increasestherefrigerantvelocityandcausesanexcessivepressuredropintheliquidline. Thisreducesthecapacityandinterfereswiththeoperationoftheexpansionvalve.and3)pressuredropthroughserviceandcontrolvalves.O. Box 571 | Colville.willcausetheliquidtoboiland““flashgas””willbeformed.        Page23of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.2595 | F: +1.ThegoodnewsisthatDXammoniaiscompatible withalltypesofcondensingsystems!  Properselectionandoperationofammoniacondensingequipmentisoutlinedinthe condensermanufacturers’’literature. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.Theamountof subcoolingrequiredcorrespondstotheliquidlinepressuredropandheatgain.anydropin pressure.509.684. .and/oranyheatinput. Becauseoftheverylargevolumeoccupiedbyvaporcomparedtoliquid.and consequentlywillreducesystemcapacity.Notethatanysubcoolingdonewithinthecondenserorbetweenthecondenser andthereceiverwillbeeliminatedinthereceiverduetotheequalizerline.

1 2.7 9.1 Page24of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.6 4.9 4.com              TABLE5  PressureDropinAmmoniaLiquidLinesDuetoElevationGain ElevationGain PressureDrop ft m psi kPa 1 0.2 6.8 2.4 0.5 1.0 6.8 2.8 7.7 11.9 1.684.3 0.7 16.3 10 3.1 5.2 84.7 45 13.5 0.8  40  45 310.4 5.0 9.7 6.4 4. .3 18 124.1 5.4 30 206.5 2.3 2.1 2.7 4.3 12.4 37.7 14 96.1 56.1 3.2 0.P.1 8.7 1.3 8.0 4.3 14.5 65.1 7.2 0.4 1.6 9.2595 | F: +1.1 20 137.8 10.5 13.684.3 3.8 12.6 3.4 1.8 3.6 5.7 12.9 12 82.3 0.8 6.O.1 18.6 3.6 5.5 93.  TABLE6                   TotalLiquidLine PressureDrop psi kPa 1 6.2 13.4  Oncethetotalliquidlinepressuredrop(thesumofelevationpressuredropplusfrictional pressuredroppluspressuredropthroughvalves)iscalculated.2 10.8 6.1 28.8 2.2 9. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.4 8.5 4.9 4 27.4 11.0 0.8 7.9 1.7 15 4.3 275.5 1.8 1.2 16.7 2.3 1.9 25 172.6 1.7 18.3  50 344.0 50 15.1 0.7 RequiredAmountofSubcooling(Ammonia) 120F(49C)SCT 95F(35C)SCT 65F(18C)SCT degF degC degF degC degF degC 0.2 4.509.2 1.2 11.8 8.1 5.3 0.colmaccoil.5 7.7 30 9.6 3.9 1.9 1.1 2.0 1.2 10 68.3 25 7.8 74.8 35 241.8 46.8 1.0 35 10.4 9.2 8.4 40 12.1 2.5 10.6 6 41.4 3.5 9.4 8 55.8 2.therequiredamountof subcoolingtopreventflashgasinthelinecanbedeterminedfromTable6.4 5.0 14.0 21.6 2.2 4.3 1.Notethatthe amountofsubcoolingrequiredforagivenpressuredropincreasesascondensing temperaturedecreases.8331 www.0 8.6 1.0 2. Box 571 | Colville.2 6.0 3.9 23.9 5 1.5 4.5 16 110.6 6.7 3.4 3.5 6.0 20 6.509.8 4.

andisrequiredtoinsureproperoperationofColmacDXAmmonia evaporatorcontrols.Therefore.com    AcommonlyusedmethodofsubcoolingliquidrefrigerantistermedMechanicalSubcooling.684.2595 | F: +1.liquidtemperatureleavingthemechanicalsubcoolerisshownas 40degF. .           Page25of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.howevertheamountof subcoolingwillbelimitedtothecondenserTD.A heatexchanger(typicallyaplatetypeexchanger)isinstalledintheliquidlineinsuchawayasto cooltheliquidrefrigerantononesideoftheexchangerbyevaporatingarelativelysmallamount oftherefrigerantontheothersideoftheexchanger. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.thismethodadds complexityandwillcausetheliquidlinetooperateatapressurewhichishigherthan condensingpressure.Thisinvolvesusingaseparatecircuitwithinthecondensertoroute liquidrefrigerantfromthereceivertothesystemcausingtherefrigeranttoapproachthe ambientairtemperature.O.  NOTE:ReferringtoFigures1Ͳ3.  LiquidPumping.Thisisarelativelysimpledesign.Herealiquidpumpisinstalledattheexitofthereceivertopressurizethe liquidlinesufficientlytoovercomethetotalpressuredropduetofrictionandelevationgain.684.509.colmaccoil.509.Withmechanicalsubcoolingthereisnonetlossofrefrigeratingeffector systemenergyefficiency.  Alternatemethodsforsubcoolingrefrigerantliquidcanbeapplied.8331 www.thismethodisNOTrecommended.Theevaporatingsiderefrigerantis meteredbyaTXVormotorizedvalveinresponsetoliquidlinetemperatureandtheevaporated refrigerantthenreturnedtothesuctionline.Aswithambientsubcooling. Whileeffectiveateliminatingflashgasregardlessofoperatingconditions.  SubcoolerPiping:  Figure12belowillustratestypicalmechanicalsubcoolerheatexchangerpiping. Box 571 | Colville.buthavevariousdrawbacks:  AmbientSubcooling.P.This istheCOLMACRECOMMENDEDmethodofliquidsubcoolingandreferstousingaportionof liquidrefrigerantfromtheuncooledliquidlinetoevaporateandcooltheremainingliquid.Thisliquidtemperatureisconservativeandshouldpreventtheformationofflashgas inliquidlinesinmostifnotallcases.Thismethodofsubcoolingproducespredictable resultsunderallconditions.this methodofsubcoolingisNOTrecommended.Thismaynotbeasufficientamountof subcoolingtoavoidformationofflashgasduringcertaintimesoftheyear.

ascanbefoundintheIIARAmmoniaRefrigerationPiping Handbook(IIAR2004).O.e.  MechanicalSubcoolerSelection:  ColmacofferspreͲengineeredMechanicalSubcoolerswhicharefactorypipedandpackaged inafreeͲstandingframe. .colmaccoil.Thesmallinternalpassagesfoundinexpansionvalves(andothercontrol valves)inDXammoniasystemsareparticularlysensitivetofoulingandpluggingwith Page26of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc. Cleanliness.   SUBCOOLED LIQUID OUT  TEMPERATURE  TRANSDUCER  T   TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER   SOLENOID VALVE GLOBE VALVE PRV VALVE   ANGLE VALVE STRAINER T TEMPERATURE GAUGE   Toinsureeffectiveliquidsubcooling. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.P. 2.684.509.NOTbetweenthecondenserandreceiver. Piping––General  1.2595 | F: +1. Sizepipingandvalvesforthemaximumrefrigerantflowconditionanticipated.com   FIGURE12  SUBCOOLER KIT  SUCTION  HOT LIQUID IN   N.andincludethefollowingcomponents: Ͳ StainlesssteelplateͲtypesubcoolingheatexchanger Ͳ Electronicexpansionvalveandtemperaturecontroller Ͳ Service(isolation)valves Ͳ Pressurereducingvalveforcontrolledleavingliquidlinepressure Ͳ ULlistedandwiredcontrolpanel  SeeseparateEngineeringBulletinforsubcoolerselectionandspecificationdetails. Usegoodpipingpractice.C. 3. Alwaysinsulateliquidlinestopreventheatgainandlossofsubcooling. Box 571 | Colville.i. Locatesubcoolerheatexchangerdownstreamofthereceiverattheentrancetothe liquidline.509.besuretoobservethefollowingrules: 1.SeeP&IDexamplesabove.Thisconditiontypicallyoccursduring wintermonths.684. lowestheadpressure/highestsuctionpressure. 4.8331 www.  VII.

ontheotherhand.Typicallythiswouldoccurwithfloatinghead pressuresystemsduringwintermonths.1.2)Motorized.suctionpressureisatitsmaximum. WA 99114 | USA T: +1. alternatebetweenwideopenandfullyclosedataratewhichcorrespondstotheduty calledforbytheelectroniccontroller.  2.Usegood qualityinsulationsystemswithadequateinsulationvalueandprotectionagainst physicalandweatherdamage. . Designmassflowrate.and3)PulseͲwidthModulating. 2.and compressorsarerunningfullyloaded.theliquidlinepressureleavingthe subcoolerassemblyismaintainedat75psigbyapressureregulatingvalve.WhenPWMvalvesareused.Themaximummassflowrateconditionwilloccurwhen dischargepressureisatitsminimum.AsshowninFigures1Ͳ3.Insulationofliquidlinesdownstreamoftheliquidsubcoolerbecomes criticallyimportantinDXammoniasystemstoavoidheatgainandthepotentialfor developingflashgasintheliquidlineupstreamoftheexpansionvalves.itisvery importanttofollowgoodpressuretestingandevacuationprocedurespriortocharging thesystemwithammonia.509.the““local””liquidlinefromthe liquidsupplymaintotheindividualevaporatormustbesizedtohandlethemaximum capacityofthevalve. followtheguidelinesexplainedbelow.com  VIII.Forthisreason. EvacuationPriortoChargingtheSystemwithAmmonia.Liquidlinesmustbesizedappropriatelyforthetypeofline (condensertoreceiver. Insulation.2595 | F: +1.8331 www.colmaccoil.509. 4.andothertypesofdirtanddebris. 3.When defrosthotgaspressureisregulatedtomaintain90psig(alsoshowninFigures1Ͳ3)this Page27of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.Becausethemassflowrateofrefrigerantwillbe determinedbythewideopencapacityofthePWMvalve.Additionally.etc.particularcareneedstobe takenduringtheinstallationofsystempipingtoinsurecleanlinessandtominimizethe introductionofweldscaleanddust. PressureRegulatingValve.above). relativelysmallamountsofdirtanddebris.theliquidsupplymainlinemustbe sizedtohandlethis““wideopencapacity””byusingadiversityfactorbasedonthe numberofevaporatorsexpectedtobeoperatingatthesametimedividedbythetotal numberofevaporators. TypeofExpansionValve.684.Designingliquidlinesforthehottestdayofthe year(commonlytakenasthe““designpoint””)willlikelyleadtoundersizedliquidlines andhigherͲthanͲexpectedpressuredropwiththepotentialofformingflashgasinthe liquidline.  1.Thermostatic andmotorizedvalvesmodulateinresponsetotheimposedloadonthecoilandsoliquid linesshouldbesizedforthemaximumexpecteddesignmassflowrate(seeparagraph V. Box 571 | Colville.O.BecausetheperformanceofDX ammoniaevaporatorsisdramaticallyaffectedbyevensmallamountsofwater.684.PulseͲwidthmodulating(PWM)expansionvalves.P.ThreetypesofexpansionvalvesarecommonlyusedinDX systems:1)Thermostatic.)andtheexpectedmaximum massflowratecondition.  LiquidLines  IndustryͲacceptedmethodsandpracticeforpropersizingandarrangementofliquidlines canbefoundintheIIARAmmoniaRefrigerationPipingHandbook(IIAR2004).receivertoexpansionvalve.Recommendedevacuationprocedurecanbefoundinthe separateColmacEngineeringBulletinonthistopic.

 .  1. 2.Withan Page28of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.  IX.684.RefertotheIIARAmmoniaRefrigerationPipingHandbook (IIAR2004)andANSI/IIARStandard2Ͳ2008(IIAR2008)fordetailedpipematerial specificationrequirementsforammonialiquidpiping. Box 571 | Colville.Aswithliquidlines. Trappedverticalrisers. whichmayrequireimpacttesting.509.8331 www.Refertothe IIARAmmoniaRefrigerationPipingHandbook(IIAR2004)forpropersizingandarrangement ofdrysuctionlines. evaporatorsequippedwithColmacSmartHotGas™™controlscaneffectivelydefrostan evaporatorwithhotgasflowingtotheevaporatorforonly8to10minutes.  1.RefertotheIIARAmmoniaRefrigerationPiping Handbook(IIAR2004)andANSI/IIARStandard2(IIAR2008)fordetailedpipematerial specificationsandrequirements.nowetsuctionlinesareneededforDXammonia.Particularattentionmustbepaidtocarbonsteelpipe materialspecificationsinlowtemperature(suctiontemperaturesbelowͲ20degF).  HotGasLines  IndustryͲacceptedmethodsandpracticeforpropersizingandarrangementofhotgaslines canbefoundintheIIARAmmoniaRefrigerationPipingHandbook(IIAR2004).Suctionlinesmustbepitchedaminimumof1/8””perfoottoward thesuctionaccumulatortofacilitategooddrainageofanyliquidrefrigerantand/oroil thatentersthesuctionline.2595 | F: +1.Suctionlineswithverticalupflow(suction““risers””)mustbe installedwithapͲtrapatthebottom(entrance)oftheriseranddischargeintothetopof theoverheadsuctionmainpipe.followtheguidelinesexplainedbelow.com  pressuredifferentialallowsdefrostcondensateleavingtheevaporatorsduringdefrost tobefeddirectlybackintotheliquidlineandsenttootheroperatingevaporators.However.Additionally.Additionally.RefertotheIIARAmmoniaRefrigerationPiping Handbook(IIAR2004)forexamplesofdoublesuctionriserdesigns.Again.suctionlinepressuredropshouldbecalculatedtoreflectdryoperation.Hotgas(defrost)linesshouldbesizedforthemassflowrate correspondingtothemaximumnumberandsizeofevaporatorsexpectedtodefrostat thesametime.a doubleriserdesignshouldbeused. Designmassflowrate.colmaccoil. 4.684.suctionpressureisatits maximum. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.Conventionalwisdommaintainsthateachindividualevaporatorrequires aflowofhotgasequalto2xtimestheflowrequiredduringcooling.O.Whenvaryingloadsontheevaporatorareexpected.drysuctionlinesshouldbesizedforthe expectedmaximummassflowratecondition. Pitchedsuctionlines.andsothiswould limitthenumberofevaporatorsbeingdefrostedatthesametimetoamaximumof1/3 thetotalnumberofevaporatorsinthefacility(the““twoͲtoͲonerule””). Pipematerialspecifications.andcompressorsarerunningfullyloaded. Unlikepumpedammoniasystems. 5. SuctionLines  X.509. 3. Althoughtheyshouldbepitchedandtrappedtoaccommodatetheoccasionalpresenceof liquid. Pipematerialspecifications.P. followtheguidelinesexplainedbelow. Designmassflowrate.themaximummassflowrate conditionwilloccurwhendischargepressureisatitsminimum.

leaksinpartsofthesystemwhich normallyoperateinavacuum.Condensatewillthereforeforminthehotgaspiping whichmustthenbeeffectivelytrappedanddrainedbeforeitreachestheevaporators.Usealiquid draineroranappropriatelysizedsteamtraptoallowonlyliquidtoleavethedripleg.itispossibletolimittheamountofdefrosthotgasflowingat anygiventimetoonlythatrequiredforthelargestsingleevaporatorinthefacility.the Page29of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc. Liquiddrainers.accumulatingcondensedliquidupstreamofhotgas solenoidvalveswillcausecavitationontheseatsofthesolenoidvalveswhenthevalve isclosed(Jensen2013). Pitchedhotgaslinesanddriplegs.2595 | F: +1.P.Insulationofhotgaslinesiscriticallyimportanttoinsurefastdefrosting.684.This approachobviouslyhasthepotentialtoreducethehotgaslineandPRVsizeandcost.thehotgaslinecomingfromthe compressordischargelineismaintainedat90psigbyapressureregulatingvalve.com  2. incompleteevacuationofthesystempriortostartup. PressureRegulatingValve.AsshowninFigures1Ͳ3. 5. 4.8331 www. .509.Ataconcentrationof20%(bymass)waterinammonia.  Thisresidualwatergoesintosolutionwiththeammoniaandincreasesandtheboilingpoint (bubblepoint)temperature.Ashotgasfordefrosttravelsfromtheengineroomtotheevaporators someofitsenergywillbereleasedtoheatupthepipingitself.Hotgaslinesmustbepitchedaminimumof1/8””per foottowardtheevaporatorstofacilitategooddrainageofanycondensedrefrigerant (““condensate””)todriplegsinstalledaheadoftheevaporatorcontrolvalvegroup(s).Condensatewillcollectindriplegs(describedabove)andmust bereturnedtoeitheranearbysuctionline.509. Usingliquiddrainersalsoeffectivelykeepshotgaslinescontinuallyheatedandreadyto supplyfullflowofhotgastoevaporatorsimmediatelyondemandfordefrosting. EffectsofWaterinAmmoniaandItsRemoval  Asexplainedindetailelsewhere(Nelson2010). Unfortunately. Pipematerialspecifications.oracondensatereturnline.etc.  XI.Maintainingthehotgaslinepressureat thereduced90psigalsominimizesheatlosstothesurroundingambient. 3.When defrosthotgaspressureisregulatedtomaintain90psigandtheliquidlineis maintainedat75psig(alsoshowninFigures1Ͳ3)thispressuredifferentialallowsdefrost condensateleavingtheevaporatorsduringdefrosttobefeddirectlybackintotheliquid lineandsenttootheroperatingevaporators.anddependingonthefrostloadand frequencyofdefrosting.RefertotheIIARAmmoniaRefrigerationPipingHandbook (IIAR2004)andANSI/IIARStandard2Ͳ2008(IIAR2008)fordetailedpipematerial specificationrequirementsforammoniahotgaspiping.thepresenceofevensmallamountsof waterinammoniahasasignificantnegativeeffectonDXevaporatorperformance.O.colmaccoil. Expectedmassflowrateofhotgasfordefrostofagivensizedevaporatorcanbe calculatedusingthemethoddescribedbelowintheHotGasDefrostsection. WA 99114 | USA T: +1. 6.684. Box 571 | Colville. effectivebuildingmanagementcontrolsystem.Use goodqualityinsulationsystemswithadequateinsulationvalueandprotectionagainst physicalandweatherdamage. Insulation.waterisdifficulttoentirelykeepoutofindustrialammoniarefrigeration systemsforanumberofreasons:ResidualwaterinpressurevesselsleftfromhydroͲtesting.andsomereleaseddue toheatlossthroughinsulation. Unlessitiseffectivelyremoved.

5 Composition(MassFractionWater)    Anexampleoftheincreaseinbubblepointtemperatureoverthecircuitlengthofan evaporator.O.onlyammoniavaporis generatedduringtheevaporationprocess.4 0.684.Inthecaseofanevaporatoroperatingwitha10degFTD.1bar)  18.2 psia(3.3bar) 30 10.1 0. .509. Box 571 | Colville.4psia(Ͳ40degFSST).684. Sotheevaporationprocessresultsinanincreaseinwaterconcentrationanda correspondingincreaseintheboilingpointoftherefrigerantasitpassesthroughthecoil circuit.P.  Figure13belowshowstheincreaseinboilingpoint(bubblepoint)forvariousinitialwater concentrationinammoniaatvariouspressures.7bar)   25   20  15   10   5   0  0 0.thepointatwhichboilingstopsdependingontheinitialconcentrationof waterandsuctionpressure.  AstheammoniaͲwaterliquidenterstheevaporatorcircuititbeginstoboil.3bar) 30.com  IncreaseinBubblePointTemperature.4psia(0.isshowninFigure14belowforan initialwaterconcentrationinammoniaof3%atapressureof10.therefrigerantwillstop boilingoncethewaterconcentrationreachesabout20%sincetheboilingpointwillhave risenby10degF.2 0.Atthepointwheretheincreaseinthewaterconcentrationhas causedanincreaseintheboilingpointequaltothecoilTD.colmaccoil.509.representedbythechangeinvaporquality.SeeFigure13below.3 0.2595 | F: +1.Thiscessationofboilingwilloccuratsomepointalongthelengthofthe evaporatorcircuit.  FIGURE13  IncreaseinBubblePointTemperaturevsComposition  AmmoniaͲWater  40   35  48.8331 www.In Page30of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.liquidrefrigerantwillexitthe evaporatorandenterthesuctionline.Becauseofthe largedifferenceinvaporpressuresofammoniaandwater.leavingthewaterbehindintheremainingliquid.3psia(1.F boilingpointrisestoapproximately10degFabovetheboilingpointofpureammoniaatthe samepressure.4psia(2.

509.com  Increase in Tbub.P.684.684. 0.2595 | F: +1.  Tsat = -40. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.8331 www.4 0.  FIGURE15                  Page31of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc. F thisexamplethebubblepoint(Tbub)hasincreasedby10degFatavaporqualityofapprox.O.6 0.0F  50   45  40   35  30  25   20  15   10  5   0 0 0.2 0.8 1  NH3 Vapor Mass Fraction (Quality)   Thisincreaseinbubblepointsignificantlyreducesthemeantemperaturedifferenceand thereforethecoolingcapacityoftheevaporatorisreducedasillustratedinFigure15. .509. Box 571 | Colville.89.00% Water in NH3. FIGURE14  Incr in Bubble Point vs NH3 Vap Quality. 3.colmaccoil.

  ColmacoffersarangeofpreͲengineeredfactoryassembledsuctionaccumulator packagesspecificallysuitedtooperationwithDXammonia.Wiencke2002).  Asmentionedabove.com   Inadditiontotheperformancepenaltyseenwhenrelativelysmallamountsofwaterare presentintheammonia.Furtherdistillationofthesolutionisneededtobringthe ammoniaconcentrationinthesolutiondowntothepracticalminimumbeforeitis removed. Page32of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc. Transferexcesstrappedliquidtothehighpressurereceiver.Thesuctionaccumulatormust thereforebeproperlydesignedtoperformthefollowingfunctions:  i. .89)=0.calledAmmoniumHydroxide.2595 | F: +1.P. DistillationandDisposalofAmmoniaͲWaterSolution(AmmoniumHydroxide)  Distillation:  AmmoniaishighlysolubleinwaterduetothepolarityofNH3moleculesandtheir abilitytoformverystronghydrogenbonds(Nelson2010). Separateliquidandvaporrefrigerantandallowonlyvaportoreturntothe compressor.Thishighsolubilitymakes ammoniaͲwateragoodworkingfluidpairinabsorptionrefrigerationmachines.or11%of themassofrefrigerantexitingtheevaporatorasliquidwillhavetobecaptureddownstream inthesuctionaccumulator.11.509. Box 571 | Colville.8331 www.  1. Captureanddistill(byheating)ammoniaͲwaterliquidtoaconcentrationthat cansafelyberemovedfromthesystemfordisposal.However.colmaccoil.Refertorecognizedpublishedsizinganddesignmethods (Stoecker1988.684. ii. Separation  LiquidͲvaporseparationinsuctionaccumulatorvesselsiswellunderstoodanddesign methodswelldocumented.  KnowingthatammoniaͲwaterliquidofapproximately20%waterconcentrationwill unavoidablyleavetheevaporatorswheneverevensmallamountsofwaterarepresentin theammoniaisimportantforthedesignertounderstand.SeeseparateEngineering Bulletinforselectionandspecificationdetails.thissamebehaviormakeswaterremovalfromammonia refrigerationsystemssomewhatchallenging.684.ammoniaͲwatersolutionconcentratedtoapproximately20% waterwillreturnfromevaporatorsviathesuctionlinetobetrappedinthesuction accumulator.orintothereduced pressureliquidline.thisalsomeansthatthemassfraction(1––0.taking advantageofthelargevaporpressuredifferencesbetweentheammoniavaporand weaksolution.Thisaqueousammoniasolution.509. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.O.ata concentrationof80%ammonia(20%water)wouldbeverydifficulttosafelyremove fromthesystemfordisposal. iii.  2.

2595 | F: +1.andE.inFigure16. Page33of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc. Box 571 | Colville.Basedonthis.O.andare listedinTable7below.684.Itisapparentfromthefigureandthetablethatthestillisableto achievehigherwaterconcentrationsatlowersuctionpressures. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.theheatingelementinthestillmust becontrolledtobringthesolutiontemperatureuptoamaximumof100to120degF.com   TheonlypracticalwaytodistilltheAmmoniumHydroxideisbyheatinginaseparate distillationvessel.Abovethis temperature.Thispointisshownon Figure16as‘‘PointA’’.calleda““still””.P.nearlypure ammoniavaporwillleavethestillandtravelthroughtheventlinebacktothesuction accumulatorwhereitwillthenbetakenbacktothecompressor.8331 www. .AmmoniumHydroxidetrappedinthesuction accumulatordrainsbygravityintothestillwhereitisheatedtoatemperature correspondingtothepointonaPhaseEquilibriumdiagramwheretheslopeofthedew pointlinechangesrapidlyfromnearlyverticaltomorenearlyflat.Themaximum waterconcentrationspossibleareshownasPointsB.Belowthistemperature(between100and120degF).684.D.509. atwhichpointitisreadytoberemovedsafelytoastoragecontainerforfurther processingand/ordisposal.watervaporwillbegintoleavetheAmmoniumHydroxidesolutionand exitthestillventlinewhereitwillgobackintosolutionwithanyammonialiquid presentinthesuctionaccumulator.C.colmaccoil.  FIGURE16                         Figure16alsoshowsthatthemaximumwaterconcentrationintheAmmonium Hydroxidesolutionheatedto100degFvarieswithsuctionpressure.509.

0 35. (SaturationTemp.anestimatecannowbemadeofthevolumeof AmmoniumHydroxidesolutionthatwillbegeneratedbythestillforagivensystem ammoniachargehavingagiveninitialwatercontent.04920 0.01835 0.5 30.F)  Content.5 42.684.00246 0.01614  20 0.03229    EXAMPLE: Asystemhasaninitialammoniachargeof5.01055 0.509.0 18.000lbsx0.% 48.00550 0.00633 0.5 10.  TABLE8 EXPECTEDVOLUMEOFDISTILLEDSOLUTIONAMMONIUMHYDROXIDE@100F (GALLONSperPOUNDINITIALAMMONIACHARGE)   InitialWater SaturatedSuctionPressure.2(+20F) 57.5%AmmoniumHydroxideforDisposal: 5.00211 0.00917 0. Box 571 | Colville. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.O.03669 0.5 27.2(+20F) 30.3(Ͳ20F) 72.684.0055gal/lbs  TotalExpectedVolumeof27.00000 0. .Table8belowshowsthe expectedvolumeofAmmoniumHydroxidesolutionperpoundofinitialammonia chargethatwillhavetoberemovedbythestill(anddisposedof)inorderto completelyremovethewaterfromrefrigerationsystem.00484  5 0.00161  3 0.2595 | F: +1.01230 0.5gallons  StorageandDisposal:  Page34of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.00000  1 0.0  Usingtheaboveinformation.Thestill isinstalledontheͲ20degFsuctionaccumulator.8331 www.00000 0. AmmoniaConcentration.02109 0.00807  10 0.0 20.0055gal/lbs=27.02460 0.509.4(Ͳ40F) 80.colmaccoil.3(Ͳ20F) 10.P.00000 0.000lbswith3%watercontent.Whatwillbethetotalvolumeof distilledAmmoniumHydroxidesolutiondrainedfromthestill?  Answer: FinalDistilledSolutionAmmoniaConcentrationforDisposal(fromTable7):27.psia WaterConcentration.5% ExpectedVolumeofDistilledSolutionperPound(fromTable4):0.00738 0.com   TABLE7 AMMONIAͲWATERCONCENTRATIONS@100degFvsSUCTIONPRESSURE SuctionPressure.4(0F) 18.00183 0.4(Ͳ40F)  0 0.psia(SaturatedTemp.04218 0.4(0F) 65.F) %bymass %bymass 48.

5 90 10.4(0F) 35.intersectingalineof constantbubblepointtemperature(Tbub)atatmosphericpressure(14. StorageTemperature.astheycanformexplosivecompounds.F) %bymass DegF 48.509.0 64 18.1000lbs/454kg).iodine. (SuctionTemp.  ItisimportanttopreventcontactoftheAmmoniumHydroxidesolutionwith chemicalssuchasmercury.684.com  AmmoniumHydroxideislistedasahazardoussubstanceunderCWA(40CFR 1164.684.2(+20F) 42. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.O.psia AmmoniaConcentration.Table9belowshowstheambient(storage)temperaturesbelowwhich ammoniavaporwillnotbegeneratedfromtheAmmoniumHydroxidesolution dischargedfromthestill.and soneutralizingofthesolutionbyunqualifiedpersonnelisnotrecommended.Contactwithchlorineforms chloraminegaswhichisaprimaryskinirritantandsensitizer.colmaccoil.  ItisinterestingtonotethatsuitablydilutedAmmoniumHydroxidemaybedisposed ofonagriculturallandasfertilizer.4(Ͳ40F) 20.and hypochlorites.thematerialshouldbekeptfrom enteringstreamsandlakesasitisharmfultoaquaticlifeandcancause environmentaldamage.2595 | F: +1.silveroxide.40CFR117.chlorine. Box 571 | Colville.Assuch.This““vaporneutral””temperatureisfoundusingtheammonia concentrationsshowninTable7forvarioussuctionpressures.P.0 108  AmmoniumHydroxidesolutionhasacorrosivereactionwiththefollowingmaterials whichshouldnotbeusedtostorethedistilledAmmoniumHydroxidesolution (LaRocheIndustries1987): x Galvanized(zinccoated)surfaces x Copper x Brassandbronzealloys x Certaintypesofelastomers  ThedistilledAmmoniumHydroxidesolutioncanbesafelystoredincontainersmade ofthefollowingmaterials: Page35of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.8331 www.3ReportableQuantityCategoryC.  Figure16incombinationwithTable7canbeusedtopredictthetemperatureabove whichammoniavaporwillbegeneratedwhenthedistilledsolutionisstoredinan opencontainer.509.itis importanttocomplywithalllocalandnationalregulationsforsafehandlingand disposalofthesolutionremovedfromthesystemstill(Smith2010).3(Ͳ20F) 27.  TABLE9 RECOMMENDEDMAXIMUMAMMONIUMHYDROXIDESTORAGETEMPERATURES SuctionPressure.7psia)on Figure16.  AmmoniumHydroxidewillreactexothermically(heatisgenerated)withacids. .bromine.5 42 30.However.

07 5.P.0 0.  MoredetailedhandlingandsafetyinformationcanbefoundonMSDSsheets publishedbysuppliersofAmmoniumHydroxide(TannerIndustries2000.684.  3. .% (20%waterconcentration)LeavingDX Evaporators.684.ft3/h/TR 0.509.isanexceptiontothis rule.aluminumalloysarenotrecommendedforexposuretoaqueous solutionshavingapHgreaterthan9.0duetoacceleratedcorrosionandmetalloss.  TABLE10 VolumeofAmmoniaͲWaterLiquidLeavingDXEvaporators  InitialWaterContentin VolumetricFlowrateofAmmoniaͲWater Ammonia.AmmoniumHydroxidesolutioncollectedfromthestillshouldbestored inanappropriatelyconstructedcontainerlocatedinacoolspaceoutofdirect sunlight.Iftheevaporatorsareoperatedasdirectexpansion(DX).Itisrecommendedthatthedistilledsolutionbedisposedofusingalocal qualifiedwastedisposalvendor. AmmoniumHydroxidehowever.eveninhighconcentrations.(Davis1999). howmuchammoniaͲwaterliquidisexpectedtoreturnfromtheevaporatorstothe suctionaccumulator? Answer: 500TRx0.8331 www.24  Example: Ithasbeendeterminedthattheammoniachargeina500ton(TR)ammoniasystem hasawatercontentof3%.07ft3/h/TR=35ft3/h=4.4gal/min Page36of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.509.  Inconclusion.01 1.12 10. Box 571 | Colville. LiquidTransfer  TheanticipatedvolumeofammoniaͲwaterliquidleavingtheevaporator(s)basedon anaverage20%waterconcentrationattheevaporatorexithasbeencalculatedand showninTable10below.02 3.com  x x x x Carbonsteel Stainlesssteel Aluminum CastIron  Generallyspeaking.2595 | F: +1.O.0 0.5 0. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.0 0.0 0.Multiplythevalueshowninthetablebythetotalcapacity ofthesystemintons(TR)todeterminethevolumeofammoniaͲwaterliquid returningtothesuctionaccumulator.colmaccoil.LaRoche Industries1998).

006   0.P.002   0.003   0.O. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.DXevaporator performanceisseverelypenalizedifimmiscibleoilisallowedtoreachevaporatorsand coatinternaltubesurfaces.immiscibleoilispreferredovermiscible.684.Evenathinlayerofoildepositedonevaporatortubeswill resultinarelativelylargefoulingfactorasshowninFigure17below.004 0.005  OilFilmThickness.com  InsideFoulingFactor.  Thisvolumeofliquidreturningtothesuctionaccumulatorduetowaterinthe ammonia(atleastinitially)mustbeaddedtothevolumeofliquidrefrigerant floodbacknormallyconsideredwhendesigningthesuctionaccumulatortransfer vessel.colmaccoil. .however.509.dirt)  Therefore.95%pureammonia.2595 | F: +1.  EffectsofOilonEvaporatorPerformanceandOilSeparation  ImmisciblelubricantsarerecommendedovermisciblelubricantsforlargeindustrialDX ammoniarefrigerationsystemsforanumberofreasons: o Lowercost o Easeofseparation o Relativeinsensitivitytocontaminants(water.001 0.inches   InatypicalDXammoniaevaporator. NotethatIndustrialRefrigerationgradeanhydrousammoniaiscertifiedtobe 99. Box 571 | Colville.002 0.004   0. Page37of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.005   0.Thetransfervesselis designedtohandleupto5%initialwatercontentinthesystemammoniacharge.ft2Rh/Btu XII.  FIGURE17  InsideFoulingFactorvsOilFilmThickness  0.001   0  0 0.thisfoulingfactorcausesasignificantreductionin coolingcapacityasisshownbelowinFigure18.509.684.003 0.  AliquidtransfervesselisincorporatedintotheColmacPreͲEngineeredSuction AccumulatorSkidpackage(seeseparateEngineeringBulletin).8331 www.

0035 0.colmaccoil. separationbecomesmoredifficult.003 0.8 0.509.Generallyspeaking. WA 99114 | USA T: +1. Box 571 | Colville.O.Ͳ5FAirOn 1 0.Theliquiddropletscanbecaptured mechanicallyintheoilseparatorvesselbycontrollingvelocityandbyincorporating coalescingelements.Theamountofoilwhichisnotcapturedintheseparator andreturnedtothecompressorisreferredtoas““oilcarryover””.2595 | F: +1.75 0 0.85 0. Compressoroilseparatordesignandefficiency c.Theoilwhichiscombinedwiththeammoniainvaporformismore difficulttocapture.509.0005 0.Ͳ15FSST.9 0.  Page38of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc. Oilcaptureinthesystemreceiverandaccumulator(s) d.inches   ItisapparentfromFigures17and18abovethatitishighlydesirablefromanenergy efficiencystandpointtopreventcompressorlubricatingoilfromreachingtheevaporators. .004 OilFilmThickness.001 0.P. Typeofcompressorlubricatingoil b. Oilcaptureattheevaporator  TypeofOil:  Dependingonthetypeofcompressorused(reciprocatingorrotaryscrew).asvolatilityandsolubilityoftheoilincrease. Toachievethis.0015 0.8331 www.684.com   FIGURE18  CapacityReductionvsOilFilmThickness AmmoniaEvaporator.95 CapacityReductionRatio                   0.684.thefollowingshouldbecarefullyconsideredandspecifiedinthesystem design:  a.varyingamounts oflubricatingoilwillunavoidablybedischargedwiththeammoniavapor.0025 0.002 0.Oilwillleavethe compressorbothinliquiddropletformandasoilvapor.

WA 99114 | USA T: +1. Today.P.2595 | F: +1.  OilSeparator.Thehigherthevaporpressureoftheoil.desuperheatingthedischargegas from80degCto35degCreducestheoilvaporpressure.Sincethisoilvaporis difficulttocaptureintheseparator.684.O.AlkylBenzeneandNaphthenicbaseshavethehighestaromaticcontent.andsolubility.  ForsuccessfulDXammoniasystemoperation.anoilseparatorwithcoalescingelements capableofguaranteeing5Ͳ7ppmcarryovershouldbespecifiedandinstalled.509.8331 www.itispossible forsomeverysmallamountofoiltoreachtheentrancetotheevaporators.  Anotherfactoraffectingoilvaporpressureistheoiltemperature.Thebasefluidcontrolsvolatilityandsolubiltyoftheoil.509.andthelowestsolubility.commonlyusedbasefluidsinclude: Ͳ Napthenic Ͳ SolventRefinedParaffinic Ͳ AlkylBenzene Ͳ 2ͲStageHydrocracked Ͳ PAO/AB  Thearomaticcontentofthebasefluidhasalargeeffectonvaporpressure(volatility)and solubility. vaporpressure.itisdesirabletoselectanoilwhichhasthelowestvapor pressurepossible.itisalsorecommendedthatthedischargegasbe desuperheatedasmuchaspracticalpriortoenteringtheoilseparator.  Itisthereforerecommendedthatammoniarefrigerationoilhavinga2ͲStageHydrocracked basefluidbeusedintheDXammoniacompressionsystemdesign.com  Alllubricatingoilsusedintheammoniarefrigerationindustryareblendsofabasefluid(s) withadditives(Wierbosch2010). vaporpressure. Box 571 | Colville.thehigherthevaporpressure.Thehighertheoil temperature.2ͲStageHydrocrackedbaseshavelowestaromaticcontent.  NOTE:““MeshPad””oilseparatorsasfoundonolderscrewcompressorpackagesand reciprocatingcompressorswillnothavetherequiredseparationefficiencyandarenot recommended!  OilCaptureattheEvaporator:  Evenwhen2ͲStageHydrocrackedoilisusedwithahighlyefficientoilseparator.byapproximately85%(Wiencke2012). .  Forreasonsmentionedabove.colmaccoil.  Page39of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.684.themoreoilvaporwillleavethe compressorwiththeammoniainthedischargegas(Briley1984).Forexample.2ͲStageHydrocracked mineraloilmanufacturedbyCPI(““CPIͲ1008Ͳ68””)isrecommendedforapplicationin reciprocatingandscrewtypeammoniacompressorsfortemperaturesaboveͲ40.andthereforecarryoverofoil vapor.Reducingthedischargegas(andoilvapor) temperaturebeforeitenterstheseparatorwillthereforereduceoveralloilcarryoverand increasetheefficiencyoftheseparator.

P.509.com  Toseparateandcapturethisoilbeforeitreachestheevaporator.Designersnormallycalculatetheevaporatorchargeasa percentageoftheevaporatorinternalvolumetimestheliquiddensityofammonia.  Page40of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.684.anestimateoftherefrigerantchargeheldinthe evaporatorsmustbemade.8331 www.  Itisalsorecommendedthathighpressurereceiversbedesignedwithanoilsumpanddip tubeforcollectionandperiodicremovalofoil. EstimatingDXEvaporatorRefrigerantChargeInventory  Inordertoproperlysizethevolumeofthesystemvessels(highpressurereceiverand lowpressureaccumulator).O.colmaccoil.509. Box 571 | Colville.  XIII.2595 | F: +1.  Figure19belowshowsacrosssectionoftheColmacTankDistributorwithitsintegraldrop legfeatureforcapturingandremovingoil. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.684. .TheColmacTankDistributor(patentpending) incorporatesadroplegintothebodyofthedistributortankwhichservestocollectoiland debriswhereitcanbeperiodicallydrainedandremovedfromthesystemattheevaporator.  FIGURE19 COLMACTANKDISTRIBUTOR(CROSSSECTION)                     OilCapturefromtheSystem:  ColmacpreͲengineeredsuctionaccumulatorandintercoolervesselskidpackagesincludean integraloilpotforcollectionandperiodicremovalofoil.Colmachasdesigneda proprietaryDXammoniadistributor.

3(Ͳ20F) 0.Table11belowshowsDXammoniaevaporatorchargeasa percentageofinternalvolume.Manysystemdesignersestimate evaporatorchargeforbottomfeedpumpedammoniaevaporatorstobeasmuchas 80%oftheinternalvolumetimestheliquiddensitytoaccountforlowloadandidle conditions. Page41of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.83 18.509.52  Thissignificantlyreducedsystemchargenotonlyreducestherequiredsizeofthe receiver(and/orothersystemvessels).8x42.8331 www.P.  EXAMPLE: AColmacDXammoniaevaporatoroperatingatasuctiontemperatureofͲ20degFhas aninternalvolumeof12ft3. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.2(+20F) 1. lbs/ft3ofInternalVolume 48. OneofthemainadvantagesofDXoperationisthesignificantlyreducedevaporator ammoniachargecomparedtopumpedammonia.colmaccoil.4(Ͳ40F) 0.4(0F) 0.Thisservestoshortentotaldefrosttimeandincrease theeffectivenessofhotgasdefrosting. Box 571 | Colville.F) EvaporatorChargeInventory.reducingenergyconsumptionandoperating costs.63 10.DXammoniaevaporatorchargecanbeestimatedusingtwophasevoid fractionequations.75to90psig(50to60F) shouldbeadequate.684. . Minimizingconvectiveheatloss. • UsetopfeedorDX(directexpansion)evaporatorfeedtoreducetime requiredforpumpout. 2.01 30. • Uselowestpracticaldefrostregulatorsetting.509.O.Note:Ifhigherpressuresareneeded.6lbs Pumpedammoniacharge=12ft3x0. • Openthehotgassolenoidonlylongenoughtoclearcoil(6Ͳ8minutes).lookfor problemselsewhere.WhatistheexpectedDXammoniaoperatingcharge?What wouldtheoperatingchargebeforpumpedammoniaoperationusingthe““80%””rule?  Answer: ColmacDXammoniacharge=12ft3x0.com  XIV.psia ColmacDXAmmonia (SaturationTemp.  TABLE11 COLMACDXAMMONIACHARGEINVENTORY SuctionPressure.2lbs/ft3=405lbs  ColmacSmartHotGasDefrost  Theenergyefficiencyofhotgasdefrostingevaporatorsdependsonthefollowing (Nelson2011(1)):  1. Shortendefrostduration.63=7.italsogreatlyreducespumpouttimeforthe evaporatorspriortodefrosting.684.2595 | F: +1.

  CalculatingtheCostofDefrost  Asmentionedabovedefrostefficiencycanbesignificantlyimprovedbyreducingthe amountofenergylosttotheroombyconvectionduringdefrost. • Reducethenumberofdefrostsperdaytomatchthefrostload.Alternately.509.Theoperatingcost savingsduetoareductionindefrostdurationhasbeencalculatedandpresentedbelow basedon:  1.installelectricresistance drainpanheating. Increasingfrostthicknessfrom1mmto2mm(reducingthenumberofdefrosts perdaybyhalf).              Page42of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.and 2.684.684.P. . • Mitigateinfiltrationofhumidairintotherefrigeratedspaceby: x Properdesignandoperationofdoorways. • Chooseevaporatorswithwidefinspacing(3fpiinsteadof4fpi)to maximizefrostcarryingcapacity.and x Keeploadingdocksatthelowestpracticaldewpoint temperature.colmaccoil. Box 571 | Colville.8331 www.  Thecalculationsassume:  Ͳ Evaporatorcapacity:100TR Ͳ Compressorruntime:16h/day Ͳ CostofElectricity:$0.509.10/kWh  Table12showscalculatedcostsavingsforfourdifferentroomtemperatures.2595 | F: +1. Reducethenumberofdefrostsperday. 3. Reducingdefrostdurationfrom30minutesto10minutes.O.com  • Installaseparatehotgassolenoidanddefrostregulatorforpreand postͲheatingofthepanloop. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.

% Defrost Convective Losses. Baseline (30 min.334 $31.2 2.071 $14.438 753.987 $4.133 17% 63% 545.colmaccoil.509.022 43% 27% 90.com   TABLE12 CALCULATEDCOSTSAVINGS($/y/100TR)FOROPTIMIZEDVSCONVENTIONALDEFROST                SHR System COP: Frost Removed. C (F) 0 (+32) -18 (0) -23 (-10) 0.178 $2.684.66 0. $/y: II.359 $26. kWh/y: Baseline Cost of Defrost (Convective).               Page43of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.93 3.273 46% 26% 125.97 2 245 89.684. %: Defrost Convective Losses. Optimized (10 min. 1 mm) Defrost Efficiency.679 $11.2 2.136 40% 30% 47.096 328.014.TheColmacSmartHotGasDefrostsystem (Nelson2011(2))resultsinthehighestpossibledefrostefficiencyandlowestoperating costbyutilizingtopfeedDXcircuitingwiththehotgaspanlooppipedseparatelyfrom thecoil. $/y: SmartHotGasDefrostPiping Savings  Optimized vs Baseline.639 $30.795   Conventionalammoniaevaporatorsaretypicallyarrangedforbottomfeedwiththehot gaspanlooppipedinserieswiththecoil.89 0. % Defrost Convective Losses.366 $25.784 -34 (-30) 0. %: Defrost Convective Losses.815 14% 65% 283.2595 | F: +1.5 2.778 899 572 1.Thisresultsin:  ƒ Pumpoutperiodshortenedto5minutes ƒ Defrostduration(timecoilhotgassolenoidisopen)ofonly6Ͳ8minutes  ColmacSmartHotGasDefrostcontrolvalvegroupsareshowninFigures20and21 below.012. kg/day: Frost Removed.090 208. .154 61% 15% 168.8331 www. kg/y: I. 2 mm) Defrost Efficiency.111 $20. kWh/y: Optimized Cost of Defrost (Convective).740 $5.922 $24. $/y: Room Temp.509. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.P.556 $5. Box 571 | Colville.O.479 32% 18% 46% 61% 1.

509.P.colmaccoil.684. Box 571 | Colville.684.com   FIGURE20 COLMACDXSMARTHOTGASDEFROSTCONTROLVALVEGROUP HIGHPRESSURELIQUID(HPL)FEED                                           DC GLOBE VALVE ANGLE VALVE SOLENOID VALVE ELECTRONIC EXPANSION VALVE STRAINER HAND EXPANSION VALVE SUCTION STOP VALVE CHECK VALVE TANK DISTRIBUTOR AUTO VENT SIGHT GLASS Page44of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.O.509. .8331 www.2595 | F: +1. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.

P.509.509.colmaccoil.2595 | F: +1.684. . Box 571 | Colville.684.8331 www.O. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.com   FIGURE21 COLMACDXSMARTHOTGASDEFROSTCONTROLVALVEGROUP INTERMEDIATEPRESSURELIQUID(FROMINTERCOOLER)FEED                                 GLOBE VALVE   SOLENOID VALVE   STRAINER   SUCTION STOP VALVE  DC ANGLE VALVE CHECK VALVE ELECTRONIC EXPANSION VALVE SIGHT GLASS HAND EXPANSION VALVE PRV VALVE TANK DISTRIBUTOR    Page45of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.

itrequiresthatthehotgassolenoid remainsopentokeepthedrainpanheatedlongenoughforallwatertocompletely drainandexitthroughthedrainpiping.Convectiveheatlosstotheroomcontinuesafter thecoilisclearoffrostwhilethepanisdraining. Page46of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.509. Panloopsolenoidenergizedfortimedpanpreheat(2Ͳ3minutes) 6.aminimumoftwoevaporatorsinthesametemperature zonemustberunning(liquidlinesolenoidsopen)atthesametimeoneevaporatoris defrosting.  AproperlysizedcontrolvalvegroupfortheColmacSmartHotGasDefrostpiping arrangementislessexpensivethanaconventionalbottomfeedhotgasdefrostpiping arrangementwithdefrostregulator. 2.P.  HotGasFlowrateandValveSelection  Colmacprovidestoitsrepresentativesandselectedcustomersacalculationtoolfor estimatinghotgasflowrategivenoperatingtemperaturesandevaporatordimensional data. . Coilhotgassolenoidandpilotsolenoid(closessuctionstopvalve)open 7.2595 | F: +1.  Amoreefficientarrangementistocontrolhotgastothecoilblockandtothedrainpan loopseparatelythroughtwoseparatelytimedhotgassolenoidvalves. LiquidLineSolenoid(LLS)closes 3. After5minutecooldowndelayfansrestart  DiversityandDefrostTiming  Aswithallhotgasdefrostsystems.8331 www. Aftercoilpressureisequalizedtosuctionpressure(3Ͳ5minutes).684. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.  ColmacDXSmartHotGasDefrostSequenceofOperation  1. Briefpumpoutperiod(5minutes) 4. PanloopsolenoiddeͲenergized 12.684.the““twotoone””rulemustbeobservedinthe executionofdefrosts. OpenLLS 11. Coilhotgassolenoidcloses 9.however. Defrostisinitiated.Thiscommonly usedarrangementiseffectiveandsimple.colmaccoil.com   Withaconventionalbottomfeedandhotgasdefrostpipingarrangement.SuctionStop Valveopens 10. Timeddefrost(6Ͳ8minutes) 8. Box 571 | Colville.O. Fan(s)stop 5.Thisarrangement shortenstheamountoftimehotgasisflowingthroughthecoilblock.509.Thisstrategyisneededtoprovideenoughloadtobalanceevaporatingto condensing(defrosting)capacityintherefrigerationsystem.minimizingthe convectiveheatlossandmaximizingdefrostefficiency.Thatis.hotgasisfirst sentthroughthedrainpanloopandtheninseriesthroughthecoilblock.

O.684.509.colmaccoil.70 10 0. canbeestimatedusingthefollowingformula:   Gal / day 1. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.2595 | F: +1.509.Assumingaroomrelativehumidityof90%.8331 www.P.F AirSHR 45 0.93 Ͳ30 0.theSHRforanair cooleroperatingatvarioustemperatureswillbeasshowninTable13below:  Table13 SHRfor90%rhAiratVariousTemperatures  RoomTemp.85 Ͳ10 0.  ThecompleteColmacDXSmartHotGasDefrostevaporatorcontrolvalveisalsooffered fromColmacasakitorfactorymountedontheevaporator.com  XV.35t 1  SHR. Box 571 | Colville.684.thehoursperdaythecooler(s)operatealongwiththeSensibleHeatRatio (SHR)mustbeknown.59 32 0.  Thissectionwillpresenttwosimplecalculationmethodsfordeterminingthese importantdesignparameters(Nelson2008).98  Theamountofmoistureaccumulatedonthesurfacesoftheaircooler(s)thatwillbedrained ascondensedwaterinhightemproomsorasmeltedfrostinmediumandlowtemprooms.  DeterminingTotalVolumeofMoistureRemoved:  Inordertoestimatethevolumeofwatergeneratedfromdefrosting(orwetfin)air coolers.and B) Properdrainpipingsizestohandlepeakflowratesduringdefrost.  DefrostWaterVolumeandDrainLineSizing  Followingisasimplemethodtocalculatetheamountofmoistureremovedbytheair coolersfromairintherefrigeratedspacesinordertodetermine:  A) Totalseweragerequirementsforthefacility.

000Btuh) 1.068Btu/lbs=latentheatofvaporizationofwater  Page47of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc. .hours/day SHR=AirSensibleHeatRatio Q=SystemCoolingCapacity.Q     (8)  where: t=OperatingTime.35(constant)=12.33lbs/gal=liquiddensityofwater 1.068Btu/lbs) 8.33lbs/galx1.000Btuh/ton/(8.tons(note:1ton=12.

2595 | F: +1. WA 99114 | USA T: +1. . 1/6ththatofliquidwater.500x(1/4Ͳ0.8331 www.509.firstcalculate thevolumeofwateryieldedbyacoolingcoilduringdefrostusingthefollowingequation:                      ª§ 1 ·º  t fin ¸ » « ¨¨ ¸» « © S fin ¹  0.approx.012)/2x0.com  Example1:  RoomTemp:45F  OperatingTime:12hours/day  RoomSHR(fromTable1):0.509.colmaccoil.35x16x(1Ͳ0.O.59)x50=332gal/day  Example2:  RoomTemp:Ͳ10F  OperatingTime:16hours/day  RoomSHR(fromTable1):0.5  VolumeofDefrostWater=0.P.500sqft  FinSpacing=4finsperinch  FinThickness=0.684.93  SystemCoolingCapacity:100tons  DefrostWaterVolume=1.0937  u Asurf  u«   » u H 2 « » « » ¬ ¼   Vdef    : where        (9)    Vdef Asurf S fin t fin H Note:Thisequationassumesfrosthasaveragedensityof150kg/m3(Besant1999).93)x100=151gal/day  DeterminingPeakDefrostWaterFlowrate  Todeterminethepeakdefrostwaterflowrateleavingafrostedcoilsurface.012inches  FractionofFrostBlockage=0.684. Box 571 | Colville.5=25gallons Page48of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.35x12x(1Ͳ.  Example1:  TotalSurfaceArea=4.59  SystemCoolingCapacity:50tons  CondensedWaterVolume=1.0937x4.

8 2. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.  Tocalculatepeakflowrate.4 2.  SizingSlopingDrainLines  TheAmericanSocietyofPlumbingEngineers(ASPE)publishessizingmethodsforvertical andslopingdrains(ASPE1999).page8.  Page49of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.com   Inordertothendeterminethepeakflowrate.n=0.Forhotgasdefrosting.42 15/8 4.themajorityofdefrostwaterflowstothedrainina relativelyshortperiodoftime.509.72 2½ 15.fps 13/8 3.simplydividethevolumeofdefrostwaterbytheestimated durationofdefrost.13 1.99 3 24.81 1.57 8 340 4.  Table14 ApproximateDischargeRatesandVelocitiesinSlopingDrains.P.Toestimatepeakflowrateofdefrostwateranestimated durationofdefrostof5minutescanreasonablybemade(Stoecker1983).50 2 8.684.Themaximum peakflowrateforafacilitywillbethecombinedflowratesforthemaximumnumberof coolingcoilsexpectedtodefrostsimultaneously.509.34 1½ 3.inches Basedon¼inch/ftSlope Discharge.anestimateofthelengthofdefrosttime mustbemade.16 6 157 3.3 1.8331 www. Box 571 | Colville.42 1.ThefollowingtableistakenfromtheASPEDataBook Volume2.  Colmacprovidestoitsrepresentativesandselectedcustomersacalculationtoolfor estimatingdefrostflowrategivenoperatingtemperaturesandevaporatordimensional data.25 4 53.colmaccoil.2595 | F: +1. .gpm Velocity.6 3.684.O.Fortheexample:  Estimatedpeakdefrostflowrate=25gal/5min=5gpm  Drainlinescannowbesizedbasedonthecalculatedpeakdefrostflowrate.67  *n=Manningcoefficient.04 12 999 5.015*  ActualInsideDiameter ½ͲFullFlowDischargeRateandVelocity ofPipe.73 5 96.34 10 616 5.91 1.whichvarieswiththeroughnessofthepipe.

““AquaAmmoniaInformationManual””.C.ColmacCoil Manufacturing.Pt.  DrainlinesshouldalsohavepͲtrapsinstalledjustoutsidetherefrigeratedspacetoprevent backflowofwarmhumidambientairthroughthedrainlineintotherefrigeratedspace.2012.   XVI.S.InternationalInstituteofAmmonia Refrigeration.1998.““Lubricant(Oil)Separation””.  IIAR2004.colmaccoil.pp38.684.London.  Drainlinesrunningthroughfreezingspacesshouldbeactivelyheatedwithheattracecable andthenwellinsulated.ProceedingsoftheIIAR1984AnnualMeeting.Inc. Alexandria.TechnicalBulletin.““MaterialSafetyDataSheet#4003(AmmoniumHydroxide)””.  IIAR2008.2011Ͳ12.J.ANSI/IIAR2Ͳ2008““Equipment.UK.5.J. Box 571 | Colville.pp201Ͳ236.““ThermodynamicEffectsofWaterinAmmoniaonEvaporator Performance””.pp107FͲ131F.1  Cleland.VA. ASHRAETransactions2002V.RefrigeratingandAirͲConditioningEngineers.NC.Inst.O’’HaganA.““AmmoniaRefrigerationPipingHandbook””. .com  Horizontaldrainlinesmustbepitchedatleast¼””perfoottoinsurepositivedrainage.509.VA.1984. MaterialsPark.N.R.  Davis.B..109.Design.VA.  LaRocheIndustries.J.2008.LaRocheIndustriesInc.R.D.2595 | F: +1.““PerformanceofanAirCoolingCoilUnderFrosting Conditions””.G.Concord.2013..OH. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.InternationalInstituteofAmmoniaRefrigeration.509.NC.AmericanSocietyofHeating.  Jensen.  Nelson.  Page50of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.WA.  LaRocheIndustries.InternationalInstituteofAmmoniaRefrigeration.2002.I.ASMInternaional. References  Briley.““CorrosionofAluminumandAluminumAlloys””.InternationalInstituteofAmmonia Refrigeration.Chap2.8331 www.Alexandria. LaRocheIndustriesInc..  Nelson.1987.Personalcorrespondence.I.O.2010.  ClelandD. ProceedingsoftheIIAR2010AnnualMeeting.““TheEffectofWaterVapouronFoodRefrigerationSystems””.VA.Proc.Alexandria.P.““DeterminingDefrostWaterVolume””.The InstituteofRefrigeration.1999.B.Alexandria. Concord..684.andInstallationofClosedͲCircuitAmmonia MechanicalRefrigeratingSystems””.Colville.

8331 www..CondenserMagazineAugust2010.Inc.TechnicalBulletin. TechnicalBulletin.pp63Ͳ133.Colville.““IndustrialRefrigerationHandbook””.I.B.2011(2).ColmacCoilManufacturing.2012.2012(b).  Welch.WA.Patent7.Inc.B.I.958.NL.ColmacCoilManufacturing.RMͲSupportBV.B.2012(a).2002.O.  Nelson.  Stoecker.M. ProceedingsoftheIIAR2002AnnualMeeting.S..2011.InternationalInstituteofAmmoniaRefrigeration.I.1988.andSandler.Henglelo.U.ColmacCoilManufacturing.E..  Nelson.I.WA.Colville.I.  Smith.2013.Colville.com  Nelson.509.  Wiencke. Alexandria.P.Personalcorrespondence.TechnicalBulletin.““TechnicalNote””.VA.““DirectExpansionAmmoniaRefrigerationSystem andaMethodofDirectExpansionAmmoniaRefrigeration””.Inc.  Wiencke. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.B.WA.Inc.M.684.BusinessNewsPublishing Company.““ColmacIntroducesDXAmmoniawithSmartHotGas‘‘SHG’’Defrost””.““ComparingAirCoolerRatings––Part2:WhyDTMRatingsCostYou Money””.Inc.738.““SizingandDesignofGravityLiquidSeparatorsinIndustrial Refrigeration””. .Personalcorrespondence.InternationalInstituteofAmmoniaRefrigeration(IIAR).2010.VA.2011(1).  Nelson.Southampton.““MaterialSafetyDataSheet(AmmoniumHydroxide)””.2010.             Page51of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.Tanner Industries.  Nelson. Box 571 | Colville.B.2000.J.W.F.B.  Wierbosch.PA.““ComparingAirCoolerRatings––Part1:NotAllRatingMethodsare CreatedEqual””.ColmacCoil Manufacturing.Alexandria..B.WA.““OptimizingHotGasDefrost””.““BaseFluidEffectonPerformanceinanAmmonia RefrigerationSystem””.2595 | F: +1.colmaccoil..Colville.TechnicalBulletin.  TannerIndustries.684.Michigan.509.

O.684. . Box 571 | Colville.com  XVII.509.P.509.684.8331 www.  APPENDIXA  ThreeP&IDdiagramsareshownrepresenting:  Figure1ͲSingleStageSingleTemperatureLevel Figure2ͲSingleStage(EconomizedScrew)MultipleTemperatureLevel Figure3ͲTwoStageMultipleTemperatureLevel                                   Page52of52 ENG00019544REV0©2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc. WA 99114 | USA T: +1.2595 | F: +1.colmaccoil.

GLYCOL OIL COOLER e SUBCOOLER SUCTION 75 psig (50.3°F SAT) T SUBCOOLED to 40°F SUBCOOLED REDUCED PRESSURE LIQUID PRV VALVE W/ ELECTRIC SHUT OFF HAND EXPANSION VALVE ANGLE VALVE STRAINER DOUBLE ACTING RELIEF VALVE LP LEVEL PROBE Copyright2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc. .e LP HLCO SH OPTIONAL BPRV DX EVAPORATOR AIR DEFROST e SH P DX EVAPORATOR HOT GAS COIL ONLY P SH FIGURE1 COLMACDXAMMONIA SINGLESTAGESINGLETEMPERATURELEVEL           DRY SUCTION OPERATION TRAP      OIL POT  T HTR  110°F WATER STILL TRANSFER        e  SOLENOID VALVE ELECTRONIC EXPANSION VALVE   VALVE DRAIN VALVE 3-WAY  RELIEF VALVE GLOBE VALVE  AUTO VENT CHECK  VALVE  TANK DISTRIBUTOR PUMP  PRESSURE GAUGE REFLEX LEVEL EYE   SUPERHEAT TRANSDUCER TEMPERATURE TRANSDUCER T     EXPANSION TANK EVAPORATIVE CONDENSER 90 psig 60°F GLYCOL OIL COOLING LOOP COMPRESSOR LEVEL RANGE HIGH PRESSURE RECEIVER MOTOR COALESCING OIL SEPARATOR SUBCOOLER N.C.

C.FIGURE2 COLMACDXAMMONIA SINGLESTAGE(ECONOMIZEDSCREW)MULTIPLETEMPERATURELEVEL   90 psig 60°F  70 psig  (47°F)   LP  HLCO LEVEL FLASH COOLER/  RANGE ECONOMIZER RECEIVER   SUBCOOLER  N. . T  SUBCOOLED  SUBCOOLED to 40°F e by 10°F  ECONOMIZER T    SUCTION  LP  HLCO  SUCTION DRY TRAP OPERATION  MOTOR   COMPRESSOR  COALESCING OIL SEPARATOR  OIL POT T HTR 110°F WATER STILL TRANSFER GLYCOL  OIL COOLER   e SOLENOID VALVE ELECTRONIC EXPANSION VALVE PRV VALVE W/ ELECTRIC SHUT OFF   DRAIN VALVE 3-WAY VALVE HAND EXPANSION VALVE  RELIEF VALVE GLOBE VALVE ANGLE VALVE  LIQUID DRAINER CHECK VALVE STRAINER  TANK DISTRIBUTOR DOUBLE ACTING RELIEF VALVE PUMP   AUTO VENT PIPE CAP (CLEANOUT) LP LEVEL PROBE e SH P HOT GAS PAN LOOP DX EVAPORATOR SMART HOT GAS COIL & PAN MEDIUM TEMPERATURE e SH P HOT GAS PAN LOOP DX EVAPORATOR SMART HOT GAS COIL & PAN LOW TEMPERATURE P PRESSURE GAUGE SH SUPERHEAT TRANSDUCER REFLEX LEVEL EYE T TEMPERATURE TRANSDUCER PRV VALVE EXPANSION TANK EVAPORATIVE CONDENSER GLYCOL OIL COOLING LOOP Copyright2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.3°F SAT)  N.  OIL POT  SUBCOOLER 75 psig e (50.C.

C.C.3°F SAT)  COALESCING OIL T SEPARATOR N.  SUBCOOLED  to 40°F e SUBCOOLED GLYCOL  by 10°F OIL COOLER T     LP  BOOSTER  COMPRESSOR HLCO SUCTION DRY OPERATION TRAP  MOTOR    COALESCING OIL  SEPARATOR OIL POT T  HTR 110°F  WATER STILL TRANSFER GLYCOL OIL COOLER   e  SOLENOID VALVE ELECTRONIC EXPANSION VALVE PRV VALVE W/ ELECTRIC SHUT OFF  DRAIN VALVE 3-WAY VALVE  HAND EXPANSION VALVE RELIEF VALVE GLOBE VALVE ANGLE VALVE  LIQUID DRAINER CHECK VALVE STRAINER  TANK DISTRIBUTOR DOUBLE ACTING RELIEF VALVE PUMP  e SH P HOT GAS PAN LOOP DX EVAPORATOR SMART HOT GAS COIL & PAN MEDIUM TEMPERATURE e SH P HOT GAS PAN LOOP DX EVAPORATOR SMART HOT GAS COIL & PAN LOW TEMPERATURE P AUTO VENT PIPE CAP (CLEANOUT) PRESSURE GAUGE REFLEX LEVEL EYE SH SUPERHEAT TRANSDUCER LP LEVEL PROBE T TEMPERATURE TRANSDUCER PRV VALVE EXPANSION TANK EVAPORATIVE CONDENSER GLYCOL OIL COOLING LOOP Copyright2013ColmacCoilManufacturingInc.FIGURE3 COLMACDXAMMONIA TWOSTAGEMULTIPLETEMPERATURELEVEL  90 psig  60°F  70 psig (47°F)   LP  HLCO  LEVEL INTERCOOLER/ RANGE ECONOMIZER  RECEIVER  HIGH STAGE COMPRESSOR SUBCOOLER  MOTOR  N. .  OIL POT  SUBCOOLER 75 psig e (50.