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Exploration & Production

GENERAL SPECIFICATION
SAFETY
GS EP SAF 216

Area classification

05

01/2011

Extent of hazardous areas modified for pumps, compressors,
pig traps, flanges and valves, as well as wellheads

04

10/2009

Sections 2, 8,11, 12, Appendix 5, 8 and 9 updated Appendix
12 created

03

10/2008

Reviewed and rewritten in accordance with IP 15 3rd edition

02

10/2005

Addition of EP root to document identification and replaced
reference API RP 500 by API RP 505

Rev.

Date

Owner: EP/HSE

Notes

Managing entity: EP/SCR/ED/ICS

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Exploration & Production
Date: 01/2011

General Specification

Rev: 05

GS EP SAF 216

Contents
1.  Scope ....................................................................................................................... 5 
1.1 

Purpose .............................................................................................................................5 

1.2 

Applicability ........................................................................................................................5 

2.  Reference documents ............................................................................................. 6 
3.  Terminology and definitions .................................................................................. 9 
4.  Area classification procedure .............................................................................. 13 
4.1 

Scenarios .........................................................................................................................13 

4.2 

Procedure ........................................................................................................................14 

4.3 

Deliverables .....................................................................................................................14 

5.  Partition between hazardous and non hazardous areas ................................... 14 
6.  Hazardous zones ................................................................................................... 15 
6.1 

Sub division of hazardous areas into hazardous zones ..................................................15 

6.2 

Hazardous Zone ranking .................................................................................................16 

7.  Classification of open, sheltered and enclosed areas ....................................... 20 
7.1 

Open areas ......................................................................................................................20 

7.2 

Sheltered areas ...............................................................................................................20 

7.3 

Enclosed areas ................................................................................................................21 

8.  Determination of the hazard radius ..................................................................... 23 
8.1 

Characteristics of petroleum fluids...................................................................................23 

8.2 

Hazard radius ..................................................................................................................25 

8.3 

Typical sources of release ...............................................................................................25 

8.4 

Procedure for continuous and primary grade releases ....................................................26 

8.5 

Procedure for secondary grade releases .........................................................................26 

8.6 

Particular case of sheltered areas ...................................................................................26 

9.  Sizing and drawings of hazardous areas ............................................................ 27 
10.  Drilling rigs, equipment and well operations ...................................................... 27 
11.  Internal combustion engines and fire heaters .................................................... 27 
11.1 

Gas turbines ....................................................................................................................27 

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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Exploration & Production
General Specification
GS EP SAF 216

Date: 01/2011
Rev: 05

11.2 

Gas engines.....................................................................................................................29 

11.3 

Liquid fuel engines ...........................................................................................................29 

11.4 

Fired heaters....................................................................................................................30 

12.  Accumulator batteries in buildings ..................................................................... 30 
12.1 

Basics ..............................................................................................................................30 

12.2 

Location and hydrogen detection.....................................................................................31 

13.  Hydrocarbon storage ............................................................................................ 31 
13.1 

Under-ground or within-embankment storage tanks ........................................................31 

13.2 

Overhead, fixed roof storage tanks..................................................................................31 

13.3 

Overhead, floating roof storage tanks..............................................................................31 

13.4 

LPG storage tanks ...........................................................................................................31 

13.5 

Refrigerated LPG storage ................................................................................................31 

13.6 

LNG storage ....................................................................................................................32 

14.  Miscellaneous ........................................................................................................ 32 
14.1 

Laboratories .....................................................................................................................32 

14.2 

Analyser shelters .............................................................................................................32 

14.3 

Small storage of flammable products ..............................................................................33 

14.4 

Loading and filling operations (road tanker, rail car, drum filling) ....................................33 

14.5 

Jetties (loading, unloading) ..............................................................................................33 

14.6 

Air intakes ........................................................................................................................33 

14.7 

Air exhausts .....................................................................................................................33 

14.8 

Chimneys and exhausts ..................................................................................................33 

14.9 

Flares ...............................................................................................................................34 

14.10  Traffic ...............................................................................................................................34 
14.11  Purging ............................................................................................................................34 
14.12  Classification of enclosed buildings .................................................................................35 

Bibliography................................................................................................................. 36 
Appendix 1  Table of hazardous equipment ...........................................................................37 
Appendix 2  Area classification procedure ............................................................................38 
Appendix 3  Procedure for assessing type and degree of ventilation .................................39 
Appendix 4  Guidelines for the determination of the level of ventilation of sheltered areas40 
Appendix 5  Determination of hazard radii (R1) values for equipment.................................41 

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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..............................................6  Traffic .........................68  10....................................................................50  7..68  10......................68  10.............................66  Appendix 10 Hydrocarbon storage .........70  11...............................................1  Equipment/arrangements generally generating continuous or primary grade releases ................70  11............................................. workover and pulling operations on Non Live Wells ......................................................................................................................................................5  Well servicing (Wire-line .70  11.....................................................................................................................................................................................70  11..................................................................2  Equipment/arrangements generally generating secondary grade releases ................................................1  Foreword .2  Drilling......................................3  Fired heaters ..................3  LPG storage stored under pressure .......................................................71  This document is the property of Total..............................65  9....................................................................................................................6  Wellheads in production operation .... reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.................................................................................................................................................................................Snubbing) operations on Live Wells..2  Diesel engines ............................................69  Appendix 11 Miscellaneous ....................61  Appendix 9  Gas/liquid fuel engines and heaters ..52  Appendix 8  Gas turbines .................................Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 01/2011 Rev: 05 5........................................................................................................................................52  7......................................4  Rig gas vent ....................................65  9.............................1  Gas engines ..................................................................3  Air intakes ....................... equipment and well operations ......................1  Overhead............................................51  7............5  Chimneys and exhausts ......................................................................65  9.......................... It must not be stored...Coiled tubing .........................4  Air exhausts .....7  Enclosed buildings .50  7.................................................................50  7......47 Appendix 7  Drilling rigs......2  Small storage of flammable products ..................41  5............................................1  Laboratories ......70  11.......................................................................................2  Overhead..........................................................................45  Appendix 6 Sizing of hazardous zones......................51  7......................................... floating roof tank (Category C on release) ..70  11......................................................3  Surface mud systems................................ fixed roof storage tanks ............70  11................................................................................................. Page 4/71 ........

 The sizing of the hazardous zones.  The sub-division of hazardous areas into hazardous zones. 1. production.  Combustible dusts.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 01/2011 Rev: 05 1. which refers to IEC 60092-502. Particular case of F(P)SO’s:  This specification applies to the whole production deck facilities on FPSO’s (Floating.  Marine facilities covered by the IMO code (International Maritime Organisation) e.  Ignitable fibres. Production. Page 5/71 . Scope 1. GS EP SAF 380 applies. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. Storage and Offloading). This specification does not apply to:  Toxic gases (which on manned installations may lead to more stringent rules). storage and bulk distribution operations. The scope is limited only to petroleum fluids and all other flammable products that are present in the installations. Storage and Offloading) and to utilities on FSO’s (Floating. Area classification consists in:  The partition of a facility into hazardous and non hazardous areas. treatment.g.1 Purpose This specification defines the method called Area classification used to classify the locations where a flammable atmosphere may occur in such frequencies as to require special precautions for the construction and use of electrical apparatus or other potential ignition sources. It must not be stored. tankers.  For all spaces in the hull of a F(P)SO or concerning the cargo deck.2 Applicability This specification applies to:  New or modified installations constructed by Company or affiliates both onshore and offshore including LNG and LPG plants  All E&P operations: drilling.  The battery limits between the process areas where GS EP SAF 216 applies and marine areas where GS EP SAF 380 / IEC 60092-502 applies is defined hereafter: This document is the property of Total.

For the classification of hazardous areas in Company petroleum installations. Part 15 differ mainly in areas not adequately covered by the code or where the code requires interpretation. GS EP SAF 216 is mainly based on IP Code. GS EP SAF 216 can be used as a stand-alone document unless a relevant National Regulation is applicable. the applicable version of these documents. flanges and valves.5 of this document. Reference documents The reference documents listed below form an integral part of this General Specification. although the latter shall not be used as a general reference. This specification and IP Code. The definitions of zones comply with the requirements of the ATEX Directive 1999/92/EC. the compatibility of all electrical equipment or any potential ignition sources with the zoning classification shall be ensured (see the relevant General Specifications of Company by discipline for the design. Part 15. After the hazardous zones have been determined. as well as wellheads): for the sake of simplification and consistency between installations. including relevant appendices and supplements. Part 15 and a lot of its detailed recommendations are adopted. Page 6/71 . including API RP 505. compressors.Battery limits on FP(S)O's The case of tankers at berth that generate a hazardous area on unit limits is covered in section 14. It must not be stored. is the latest revision published at the EFFECTIVE DATE of the CONTRACT.Exploration & Production General Specification Date: 01/2011 Rev: 05 GS EP SAF 216 Figure 1 . reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. pig traps. This document is the property of Total. Since IEC 60079-10-1 does not provide detailed recommendations regarding the extent of the hazardous areas in specific industries and applications and allows reference to other codes. Company purposely specifies hazardous area extent in line with former publications of the code and the GS so as to use well-established. installation and use of equipment with potential ignition source). The general philosophy of IP Code. 2. widely accepted hazard radii. differences will be found regarding the area classification of some standard equipment/arrangements (namely pumps. Unless otherwise stipulated. Also. In some cases reference is made to standards other than IP Code. It complies with IEC 60079-10-1 “Classification of hazardous areas”. This specification is not retroactive: its application to the facilities put in operation before the issue of this specification is not mandatory. Part 15.

design. Page 7/71 .Safety of Analyser Houses IEC 61892-6 Mobile and fixed offshore units – Electrical installations Part 6: Installation IEC 61892-7 Mobile and fixed offshore units – Electrical installations Part 7: Hazardous areas ISO 10418 Petroleum and natural gas industries . Standards Reference Title EN 1834-1 Reciprocating internal combustion engines .Safety requirements for design and construction of engines for use in potentially explosive atmospheres Part 1: Group II engines for use in flammable gas and vapour atmospheres IEC 60079-10-1 Explosive atmospheres – Part 10-1: Classification of areas – Explosive gas atmospheres IEC 60079-13 Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres Part 13: Construction and Use of Rooms or Buildings Protected by Pressurization IEC 60079-16 Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres Part 16: Artificial Ventilation for the Protection of Analyzer(s) Houses IEC 60079-20-1 Explosive atmospheres – Part 20-1: Material characteristics for gas and vapour classification – Test methods and data IEC 60092-502 Electrical Installations in Ships – Part 502: Tankers .Exploration & Production Date: 01/2011 General Specification Rev: 05 GS EP SAF 216 Some of the specifications issued by the Company disciplines (instrumentation. etc.) require ATEX-certified equipment (in conformity with ATEX Directive 1994/09/EC). It must not be stored.Offshore production installations .Special Features IEC 61285 Industrial-Process Control . mechanics.Analysis. HVAC. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. installation and testing of basic surface process safety systems ISO 23251 / API STD 521 Petroleum and natural gas industries—Pressure-relieving and depressuring systems This document is the property of Total. electricity.

and Zone 2 API RP 2216 Ignition Risk of Hydrocarbon Liquids and Vapors by Hot Surfaces in the Open Air NFPA 59A Production. Page 8/71 . part 15 of the Institute of Petroleum Model Code of Safe practice Other documents Reference Title Not applicable This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored. Zone 1. storage. Part 15 Title Area classification code for petroleum for installations. Zone 0. and handling of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Regulations Reference Title ATEX Directive 1994/09/EC Directive 1994/09/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 March 1994 on the approximation of the laws of the member states concerning equipment and protective systems intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres ATEX Directive 1999/92/EC Directive 1999/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 1999 on minimum requirements for improving the safety and health protection of workers potentially at risk from explosive atmospheres Arrêté du 9 novembre 1972 modifié au 28 avril 2008 Aménagement et exploitation de dépôts d’hydrocarbures liquéfiés Codes Reference IP Code. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.Exploration & Production Date: 01/2011 General Specification Rev: 05 GS EP SAF 216 Professional Documents Reference Title API Publ 4615 Emission Factors for Oil and Gas Production Operations API RP 505 Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations for Electrical Installations at Petroleum Facilities Classified as Class I.

Exploration & Production Date: 01/2011 General Specification Rev: 05 GS EP SAF 216 Total General Specifications Reference Title GS EP CIV 402 Design and construction of oil field laboratory on production installations GS EP ELE 001 Electrical design criteria GS EP ELE 021 Electrical design criteria for floating units GS EP ELE 079 Electrical apparatus for potentially explosive gas atmospheres GS EP HVA 100 HVAC Basis of design GS EP SAF 021 Layout GS EP SAF 221 Safety rules for buildings GS EP SAF 222 "Safety rules for turbines. They are to be understood as follows: Shall Is to be understood as mandatory. restricted area and fire zones GS EP SAF 262 Pressure protection relief and hydrocarbon disposal systems GS EP SAF 312 Fire and gas detection systems GS EP SAF 380 Safety engineering requirements for an F(P)SO 3. Its use is to be avoided. Should Is to be understood as strongly recommended to comply with the requirements of the specification. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. diesel engines. the following definitions shall apply: This document is the property of Total. “should” and “may” statements. the “shall”. Can Is to be understood as a physical possibility. Alternatives shall provide a similar level of protection and this shall be documented. For the purpose of this specification. Terminology and definitions There are three types of statements in this specification. Deviating from a “shall” statement requires derogation approved by Company. unless it is necessary to describe a sequence of events. Page 9/71 . It must not be stored. Must Expresses a regulatory obligation Note that “will” is not to be understood as a statement. gas engines and process units in sheltered or enclosed areas" GS EP SAF 227 Safety rules for fired heaters GS EP SAF 228 Liquid drainage GS EP SAF 253 Impacted area. May Is to be understood as permission.

25 mbar).3 of IP Code. In the case of a turbine enclosure. The minimum pressure difference between the gap and the hazardous area shall be 25 Pa (0. room or enclosed space within which. Part 15). an area is a three-dimensional region or space (as per IEC 60079-10-1) Area classification Area classification is the assessed division of a facility into hazardous areas and non-hazardous (or not classified or safe) areas. experience and supervision is able to make objective judgments Dilution ventilation Artificial ventilation sufficient to maintain generally as nonhazardous an enclosed area containing a source of release or an aperture into a hazardous area (IP Code.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 01/2011 Rev: 05 Adequate ventilation Natural. and the sub-division of hazardous areas into zones (refer to section 5. this will normally be achieved by a uniform ventilation rate of a minimum of ninety air changes per hour with no stagnant areas (Company definition from IP Code. sufficient enough to avoid persistence of flammable atmospheres within sheltered or enclosed areas but insufficient to avoid their initial formation and spread throughout the area. artificial. It must not be stored. Competent Person who by combination of training. which undertakes the control actions to shutdown equipment or processes in response to a hazardous situation (ISO 10418) Enclosed area Any building. Part 15) Emergency Shutdown (ESD) Control actions undertaken to shutdown equipment or process in response to a hazardous situation (ISO) Emergency Shutdown System System. initiate a shutdown of the installation This document is the property of Total. when activated. Part 15) ESD system System of manual stations and automatic devices that. the air movement will be limited and any flammable atmosphere will not be dispersed naturally (IP Code. Loss of differential pressure in the gap between the two doors shall also alarm in the main control room Area For the purpose of this specification. Part 15) Air-lock Two self-closing vapour-tight doors with a space in between (the “gap”) kept above the pressure prevailing in the adjacent hazardous area. activated by automatic or manual signals. Page 10/71 . This will normally be achieved by a uniform ventilation rate of a minimum of twelve air changes per hour with no stagnant areas (IP Code. Part 15). reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. or a combination of both ventilations. A local alarm buzzer plus an alarm sounding and lighting in the main control room are to be provided to warn the operators and personnel if both doors are open simultaneously. in the absence or failure of artificial ventilation.

it will burn when ignited. Part 15) Flash-point Lowest temperature to which a liquid must be heated to give off sufficient vapour to form a flammable mixture with air. electrical isolation) at pre-determined levels (Company) Fired heater A vessel in which the temperature of a fluid is increased by the addition of heat supplied by a flame within the vessel (Company from API). Fired heater is a generic term that covers all type of heaters including steam boilers. fired heaters are sorted out into the following classes:  Class A: a heater that has heat utilisation equipment operating at approximately atmospheric pressure wherein there is a potential explosion or fire hazard that could be created by the presence of flammable volatile or combustible materials processed or heated in the heater  Class B: a heater that has heat utilisation equipment operating at approximately atmospheric pressure wherein there are no flammable volatile or combustible materials being heated Flammable atmosphere Mixture of flammable gases or vapours with air in such a proportion that. emergency depressurisation.Exploration & Production General Specification Date: 01/2011 Rev: 05 GS EP SAF 216 Fire and Gas system (F&G) The Safety System which monitors the temperature or the energy flux (fire). Page 11/71 . indirect heaters (hot oil or hot water). and initiates relevant actions (alarm. and a method of loading the oil onto off take tankers (OGP) Fuel source Same as ISO definition of "source of release" (API) Hazard radius The hazard radius of a source of release is the largest horizontal extent of the hazardous area that is generated by the source when situated in an open area under unrestricted natural ventilation (IP Code. Part 15) FPSO Floating. lower) The limits of combustibility of flammable gases or vapours when mixed with air (IP Code. the concentration of flammable or toxic gases (gas). reboilers (flame tube or flue gas tube). incinerators. In the context of area classification the term “flammable” is preferable to “explosive” (IP Code. Storage and Offloading system consisting of a ship or barge-shaped floating hull incorporating tanks for storage of produced oil. ESD. without any further admixture. active fire-fighting. For the purpose of this specification. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. in addition to storage and offloading capability. Part 15) This document is the property of Total. Ignition does not occur at the flash point unless there is a source of ignition (IP Code. Production. facilities for receiving crude oil from producing wells and processing it for export by separating water and gas (OGP) FSO Floating. etc. Storage and Offloading system includes. It must not be stored. Part 15) Flammable limits (upper.

usually as a result of deliberate draining. Part 15) Over pressure obtained by artificial ventilation is referred to as simply over pressurisation in this specification Safe area Other term used for non hazardous or not classified area Self-closing doors Doors that are designed to close by themselves and to remain closed if not intentionally opened or kept opened Sheltered/obstructed area An area within or adjoining an open area (which may include a partially open building or structure) where. Typically they are found on the main oily water effluent treatment system of a facility (IP Code. shutdowns. used to separate petroleum liquids from other non-flammable liquids. routine maintenance and any degraded modes of operations foreseen during design Open area An area that is outdoors without stagnant regions. Part 15) Laboratory A specific closed room or building where analyses are carried out by personnel Normal operation Operation within the plant design parameters. Part 15) Source of release Point from which a flammable gas. water. Part 15) This document is the property of Total. owing to obstruction. The test (synonymous with conditions shall be as per IEC 60079-20-1 “auto”. typically water. Page 12/71 . reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.Exploration & Production General Specification Date: 01/2011 Rev: 05 GS EP SAF 216 Hazardous area and zone A hazardous area is defined as a three dimensional space in which a flammable atmosphere may be expected to be present at such frequencies as to require special precautions for the control of potential ignition sources (IP Code. and in which the petroleum liquids are present in smaller quantity. including start-ups. Other liquids. e. 1 and 2) are recognised (IP Code. where vapour is rapidly dispersed by wind and natural convection (IP Code. Ventilating and Air Conditioning Ignition source Source of temperature and energy sufficient to initiate combustion (API) The temperature at which a substance will begin to burn without Ignition temperature application of any source of ignition (IP Code. Part 15). Part 15). vapour or liquid may be released into the atmosphere (ISO) Sump A vessel. It must not be stored. In a hazardous area three types of zones (0. open or vented to atmosphere. natural ventilation is restricted and less than in a true open area (IP Code.and “selfignition temperatures”) Interceptor/coalescer Vessel open or vented to atmosphere.g. used to collect petroleum liquids. can enter the sump but the petroleum liquid is normally an appreciable part of the total liquid entering (IP Code. All other areas are referred to as non-hazardous areas in this context. Part 15) HVAC Abbreviation for Heating. Part 15) Over pressurisation Artificial ventilation of an enclosed area to maintain the area at a controlled pressure above the ambient pressure (IP Code.

such as the rupture of a process vessel or pipe (IEC 60079-10-1). 4. For these scenarios reliance is placed on the Emergency Shutdown System and safety distances resulting from consequence analysis calculations (refer to GS EP SAF 253) to mitigate the consequence of a failure in the installation. It must not be stored. Page 13/71 . Artificial ventilation refers to ventilation caused by air purges or mechanical means (fans) (IP Code. This document is the property of Total. The area classification process reduces the installation overall risk level through design improvements.1 Scenarios The classification of hazardous areas takes into consideration events which are "liable to occur during normal or abnormal plant operating conditions” (IP Code. pertinent grouping of equipment.g. Area classification procedure The objective of the area classification is to reduce as much as possible the probability of coincidence of a flammable atmosphere and an ignition source. The area classification shall be carried out before choosing appropriate electrical equipment or any equipment generating ignition sources. low) of risks (Company) Ventilation (natural. Part 15). artificial) Ventilation is a general term to indicate air movement and replacement by fresh air. pressure. A flow diagram summarizing the basic steps of the procedure is included in Appendix 2. optimisation of ventilation). inventory or ignition) and levels (high. Part 15) Under pressure obtained by artificial ventilation is referred to as simply under pressurisation in this specification Units Areas within the installation resulting from its partition into a reasonable number of geographical and functional groups of equipment having the same type (e. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. hydrocarbon. Additionally. the optimisation of the equipment layout shall be carried out to decrease the risk of ignition (e.g. Events not considered for Area Classification:  Large gas/vapour releases from process vents or flares. 4. Natural ventilation refers to ventilation caused by wind or convection effects.Exploration & Production General Specification Date: 01/2011 Rev: 05 GS EP SAF 216 Under pressurisation Artificial ventilation of an enclosed area to maintain the area at a controlled pressure below the ambient pressure (IP Code. Part 15). Such releases shall require appropriate dispersion calculations  Failure scenarios which are very unlikely to occur. medium.

Area classification shall be conducted in 5 steps (IP Code. for offshore plant plan view of each deck level and at least two elevations. For the modifications of an existing installation the team should include a member of the operating crew. Partition between hazardous and non hazardous areas The main principles governing the partition between hazardous and non hazardous areas are as follows:  All hydrocarbons handled at a temperature above their flash point. see section 8. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. the rest of the installation being classified as non hazardous or safe 2.  Sub-division of hazardous areas into hazardous zones which shall be ranked according to the estimated probability of the presence of a flammable atmosphere.  When relevant.  Determination of the hazard radii around each potential source of release.3 Deliverables The following results shall be delivered:  The table of hazardous equipment as per Appendix 1. the calculation notes necessary for the hazard radius determination  The drawings of hazardous zones showing the Zone envelopes and their main dimensions.Exploration & Production General Specification Date: 01/2011 Rev: 05 GS EP SAF 216 4. or whose flash point is below 21°C (69.  A hazardous area is generated when a flammable mixture may be created further to an equipment release.1) shall be considered as potential release sources where the material quantities exceed the following thresholds: 1 For new projects it is recommended that Area Classification is conducted by a senior safety engineer assisted by a process engineer. 2 As a requirement regarding the number of hazardous area drawings to be provided: for onshore plant.  All equipment containing flammable products (for the definition and characterisation of a flammable product. 5. plan view and cross sectional view. Part 15):  Partition of the installation into hazardous and non hazardous areas by identification of all the potential release sources of flammable products. are liable to generate hazardous areas. Page 14/71 .  Prepare/modify the hazardous area drawings.2 Procedure Area Classification shall be carried out by competent persons 1. It must not be stored. draw the envelopes of the zones. knowledge in electrical matters is not a must for conducting or participating to an Area Classification exercise.8 °F). This document is the property of Total. 4. It should be noted that although the results of Area Classification have direct implications on the selection of the electrical apparatus.  Sizing of the hazardous Zone around each potential source of release.

6. It must not be stored.2). The main following information shall be collected in the table included in Appendix 1:  The equipment type and codification.). instruments and flanges) and instrument tubing designed and constructed according to Company specifications shall not generate hazardous areas.2. sheltered or enclosed) and HVAC calculations. etc. furnaces.  A layout drawing showing the position of all equipment. The following documents shall be available for the determination of hazardous areas:  Equipment list. roadways.1 Sub division of hazardous areas into hazardous zones GS EP SAF 216 shall be used for:  Defining the Zones 0 and 1 inside units (see section 6.  The nature of the hazardous fluid. ventilation conditions.g. and fluid properties.  The main characteristics of the hazardous fluid.  The extent of confinement (open. 6. This document is the property of Total. temperature and pressure).Exploration & Production Date: 01/2011 General Specification Rev: 05 GS EP SAF 216 Table 1 .  A piping & instrumentation diagram  Material identification and process conditions (e.  A process flow diagram.  Defining the Zone 2 contour around the items of equipment located at the deck/unit surface limits. Page 15/71 . reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. air inlets/exhausts and main sources of ignition (e. flexible hoses (without fittings such as valves.Capacity thresholds above which hazardous area classification is required Gas: volume corrected to 1 bar (a) pressure Liquefied flammable gas Flammable liquid at a temperature above its flash point 50 litres 5 litres 25 litres 1000 litres 100 litres 200 litres Inside Outside  All-welded piping.g. flares. Hazardous zones The extent of the hazardous area depends on the rate of release.

2 Hazardous Zone ranking The determination of the following parameters shall be made in order to evaluate the rank of the hazardous zone:  The grade of release as per section 6. if it does.1.2. 3 4 For releases not considered for Area Classification see section 4. Examples: Flanges.2. is likely to do so only infrequently and for short periods: the cumulative duration of release is less than 10 hours per year 4. open to atmosphere sampling).1. pump seals.2.2 Primary grade release A release which can be expected to occur periodically or occasionally during normal operation: the cumulative duration of release is in the range of 10 to 1000 hours per year. Examples: Sampling connection (for regular. operating purge. 6.2. or present for long periods. Part 15).3 and 7. 6.1.1.  The type of area (open.1 Continuous grade release A release which is continuous or expected to occur for long periods: the cumulative duration of release exceeds 1000 hours per year. Page 16/71 .2. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. 6.g.4 All the above information shall be included in the table in Appendix 1.1 Grades of release (or types of source) Three grades of release 3 are defined in terms of their likely frequency and duration.2. The classification in zones or “zoning” is the partition of the installation into volumes in which a flammable atmosphere may be present (see section 3).  The type of ventilation as per section 6.2 Zones Hazardous areas shall be identified and classified into Zones 0.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 01/2011 Rev: 05 6. 6. It must not be stored.2. routine sampling points) they should be regarded as primary grade releases unless carried out under permit-towork circumstances (IP Code.2.3 Secondary grade release A release which is not expected to occur in normal operation and. The following definitions are from IP Code. This document is the property of Total. Where releases are likely to be present for 1 to 10 hours per year but are anticipated in normal operation (e.1. 6. drain. 1 or 2 based on the frequency of the occurrence and duration of a flammable atmosphere. sheltered or enclosed) as per sections 6. Part 15:  Zone 0 That part of a hazardous area in which a flammable atmosphere is continuously present. Example: Gaseous atmosphere in a hydrocarbon storage tank.

Page 17/71 . For further guidelines refer to IP Code. the pressure relative to the surrounding areas and their Zone classification.2. partially enclosed.Exploration & Production Date: 01/2011 General Specification Rev: 05 GS EP SAF 216  Zone 1 That part of a hazardous area in which a flammable atmosphere is likely to occur in normal operation. no walls and floor made of grating) or  A sheltered. The extent of confinement governs the determination of the level of ventilation.2. "Type of sources" and "zones" are not synonymous as the type of a Zone depends on the level of ventilation in the considered area and for enclosed areas. and.2. restricted.  Zone 2 That part of a hazardous area in which a flammable atmosphere is not likely to occur in normal operation.2. the zones are represented as follows: Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 6.3  The degree of ventilation (unrestricted. The level of ventilation achievable for the three categories is described below (section 6. enclosed area) and an intermediate case (sheltered or obstructed area) are defined in section 6.  This specification defines only the functional requirements for ventilation or pressurisation systems to effectively dilute flammable gases or prevent the ingress of flammable gases in areas not suitable for the presence of a flammable atmosphere This document is the property of Total. ceiling and walls or equivalent obstructions to natural draft) or  An enclosed area. will exist only for a short period.3 Confinement (types of location) An area can be classified in three categories with respect to confinement:  An open area (basically no roof/ceiling.4. Throughout this specification. 6.  Two boundary cases (open area. if it occurs. Part 15. adequate or inadequate) is a key factor in determining the Zone classification of an area  The level and extent of hazardous area classification depends on the ventilation of the zones where flammable vapours are likely to be present and to accumulate  Conditions of ventilation and likelihood of detecting the leak may change the Zone definition for each grade of release. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.4 Ventilation and pressurisation The openness of an area is an important factor in determining the effectiveness of ventilation and the extent and severity of a hazardous area.4). partially confined area (various combinations of solid floor. It must not be stored.

1 Types of ventilation The different types of ventilation are as follows: 6. then the cumulated release shall be considered. reaffirmed 11/2002). air velocities will frequently be above 2 m/s and rarely less than 0. 6. first edition 11/1997. It must not be stored.5 m/s. 5 Methods to calculate minimum introduction rates to achieve adequate ventilation are proposed in API RP 505 (Appendices B.4.2. By definition. Should simultaneous releases from more than one secondary grade releases be likely. in case toxic fluids are involved or in case high cooling requirements).1. Typical ventilation rates covering all scenarios for dilution ventilation cannot be proposed.2. This will normally be achieved by a uniform ventilation rate of at least 12 volumetric air changes per hour with no stagnant areas. pipe rupture). A calculation shall be carried-out to estimate hydrocarbon leaks 5 .1 Adequate/Inadequate ventilation Adequate ventilation is defined as ventilation sufficient enough to prevent the accumulation of concentrations of flammable gas-air.4. the default values for gas leaking rates should be those of API Publ 4615.1. Page 18/71 . This can only be achieved by a very large number of air changes (well in excess of 12 per hour). the ventilation air shall be taken from a non-hazardous area and shall not. It does not cover in particular HVAC requirements for human comfort. Unless otherwise specified. assuming the equipment is in poor condition (leaking rates) but there is no failure (e. 6. any ventilation that does not match the above criteria will be considered as inadequate which normally results from natural draft less than 0. by virtue of any chemical products or impurities which it may contain produce harmful effects or introduce a reduction of the safety level.2. It shall be based on the largest secondary grade release. Open areas are considered as adequately ventilated and typically.g. This document is the property of Total. Ventilation rates higher than those required for dilution ventilation may be required in case ventilation also serves other purpose than dilution to prevent flammability (e.2 Dilution ventilation Dilution ventilation shall be sufficient to immediately bring the flammable gas concentration below 20% of the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) and keep it so all the time. temperature control and the extraction of smoke during/after a fire (refer to GS EP SAF 221 for ventilation in buildings and to GS EP HVA 100 for basis of HVAC design)  Ventilation can either be natural when it is caused by wind or convection effects or artificial when it has to be provided to dilute and remove flammable gases or vapour released within a room or a building  Pressure differential with respect to surrounding areas can only be achieved for enclosed areas and in conjunction with artificial ventilation  For all artificial ventilation systems.4.5 m/s or artificial ventilation rate less than 12 volumetric air changes per hour (sheltered areas or loss of ventilation of an enclosed area for example). reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 01/2011 Rev: 05  It is not a specification for the design and operation of ventilation and pressurisation systems.g.

The pressurizing gas shall not. It must not be stored.4. This section does not deal with the electrical apparatus for which protection by pressurisation in hazardous areas follows the electrical codes (the protection of the electrical apparatus in hazardous areas shall comply with Company specification GS EP ELE 079). it can be made adequate or better (e.Exploration & Production General Specification Date: 01/2011 Rev: 05 GS EP SAF 216 6. 6. 6 A room or building is an enclosure of sufficient size to permit the entry of a person.2.2.4. This document is the property of Total.4 Pressurisation Pressurisation shall be provided to ensure the protection of a room or building 6:  Containing electrical equipment or other potential sources of ignition and located in a hazardous area where flammable gases or vapours may enter (over pressurisation)  Containing sources of release and surrounding by a safe area containing electrical equipment or other potential sources of ignition (under pressurisation) The ingress of gases or vapours into a room is prevented by maintaining inside it a protective gas at a higher pressure than that of the outside atmosphere. the level of ventilation shall be established on the basis of API RP 505 (see Appendix 4)  For enclosed areas. by virtue of any chemical products or impurities which it may contain. with or without delay). Page 19/71 .2. dilution) by providing artificial ventilation to disperse any flammable atmosphere 6.2 Loss of artificial ventilation in enclosed areas Loss of artificial ventilation can cause the level of ventilation of the area to be less than dilution ventilation or even less than adequate. sheltered or enclosed). reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.g. The level of ventilation available in a location shall be established in order to allow Zone classification:  Open areas shall be deemed adequately ventilated (natural draft exceeding 2 m/s)  For sheltered areas (or obstructed areas). ventilation is inadequate.4. The egress of gases or vapours from a room is prevented by maintaining inside it a protective gas at lower pressure than that of the outside atmosphere. The types of pressurisation and associated construction requirements for buildings are addressed in IEC 60079-13.  All potential sources of ignition incompatible with the downgraded zoning shall be isolated (electrically or else.3 Ventilation assessment A method included in Appendix 3 of this specification will help to assess the type and level of ventilation for each type of area (open. The protection by pressurisation of rooms and buildings containing electrical equipment shall comply with IEC 60079-13 and with this specification (some of the requirements of this section exceed the requirements of IEC 60079-13). In such event:  The Zone classification is temporarily down graded. produce harmful effects or introduce a reduction of the safety level.

7 If gas detection is not provided or if a source of primary grade of release is installed in the building (each of them requiring derogation to this specification approved by Company). the area shall be classified as an enclosed area (see table in section 7.4. Isolation of these ignition sources on loss of under pressure may be delayed to allow the loss to be investigated. The level of ventilation may then be adequate or inadequate (see definitions in section 6.1 Over pressurisation protection Protection by over pressurisation is achieved when artificial ventilation or static pressurisation controls the pressure inside an enclosed area sufficiently above that of the surrounding hazardous area to prevent ingress of a flammable atmosphere from an outside fuel source. the following classification applies:  Zone 0 is generated by a continuous grade release  Zone 1 is generated by a primary grade release  Zone 2 is generated by a secondary grade release.“inadequate” column). The difference in pressure to be maintained shall be greater or equal to 25 Pa (0.1 Open areas Where a facility is categorized as an open area (provided with adequate natural ventilation).3 . the natural ventilation may be restricted. When the level of ventilation of a sheltered/obstructed area is assessed as adequate.2. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. and isolate all ignition sources located in the vicinity of the enclosed area and not suitable for Zone 1. 6.2. Overpressure should be monitored or detected by a pressure switch as a minimum.2 Under pressurisation protection Protection by under pressurisation is achieved when artificial ventilation keeps the pressure inside an enclosed area sufficiently below that of the surrounding area to prevent possible egress of a flammable atmosphere to an outside less or non hazardous area.2.25 mbar).4). It must not be stored. When the level of ventilation of a sheltered/obstructed area is assessed as inadequate.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 01/2011 Rev: 05 6. 7. Under pressure should be monitored or detected by a pressure switch as a minimum.25 mbar). 7.4.2 Sheltered areas For a sheltered or obstructed area. Loss of under pressure shall initiate an immediate alarm. This document is the property of Total. the classification rules for open areas shall apply (see section 7. loss of overpressure shall automatically and immediately isolate all ignition sources not suitable for Zone 1. sheltered and enclosed areas 7. Classification of open.1). The difference in pressure to be maintained shall be greater or equal to 25 Pa (0. Loss of overpressure shall initiate an alarm.4. Pressurised enclosed areas shall be provided with fixed gas detection as per GS EP SAF 312 to immediately and automatically isolate all ignition sources not suitable for Zone 1 7. Page 20/71 .4.

and air-locks should not be considered as apertures.4). Page 21/71 . the ventilation will be regarded as inadequate (refer to section 6. Areas having a direct opening onto another area:  Shall take the Zone classification of adjacent areas if they are more stringent  Shall extend their own classification to adjacent areas of openings if they would otherwise be less stringent. The outside areas in contact through an aperture with the enclosed area shall be considered for classification. in the absence or breakdown of artificial ventilation. A vapour-tight door or hatch. floors and any ducting are vapour-tight by construction.3 Enclosed areas An enclosed area is any building.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date: 01/2011 Rev: 05 7. This document is the property of Total. One ordinary door or one door of a vapour-tight design (self-closing or not) shall be considered as an aperture. It must not be stored.2. room or enclosed space within which. locked in normal operation and opened only under a permit to work procedure. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. ceilings. The Zone classification of the outside areas shall be taken into account when classifying the enclosed areas in contact (via an aperture) with them unless the enclosed walls.

Such design shall require formal derogation to this specification. continuous or primary grade sources shall not be located within an enclosed area. if surrounded by a safe zone Zone 1 or 2 depending on the ventilation rate. i. e. (2) An area within a larger enclosure subject to local artificial ventilation.1). i.e. by extractor fan.g.e. Zone 0 if surrounded by a Zone 0 or 1 Zone 1 if surrounded by a Zone 2 Zone 0 if surrounded by a Zone 0 or 1 Zone 1 if surrounded by a Zone 2 Adequate Dilution (2) Type of ventilation Dilution + Dilution + under overpressure pressure Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not classified Not classified if surrounded by a safe if surrounded Zone containing an by a Zone 0. typically about twice the extent. the local ventilation may be high enough to prevent the source from influencing the classification of the whole enclosure. Not classified Not classified if surrounded by a safe if surrounded Zone containing an by a Zone 0. (4) Typical case of living quarters where ventilation rate is low.Exploration & Production Date: 01/2011 General Specification Rev: 05 GS EP SAF 216 Zone classification of enclosed areas Grade of internal release (1) (3) Continuous (1) (3) Continuous (1) (3) Primary (1) (3) Primary (3) Secondary Secondary (3) Internal ignition sources yes no yes no yes no No source yes No source no Inadequate Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Zone 1 if surrounded by a safe zone Zone 1 if surrounded by a safe Zone or a Zone 1 or 2. 1 ignition source or 2. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. either dilution or adequate ventilation depending on which is met. General Note: In the above table. a sample point. Page 22/71 . if surrounded by a safe zone Under pressure (4) Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Zone 2 Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not classified if surrounded by a safe zone Zone 2 Not classified if surrounded by a safe zone Zone 0 if surrounded by a Zone 0 Zone 1 if surrounded by a Zone 1 Zone 2 if surrounded by a Zone 2 Not classified if surrounded by a safe zone Not classified Not classified if surrounded by a safe zone Not classified Not classified if surrounded by a safe zone Zone 0 if surrounded by a Zone 0 Zone 1 if surrounded by a Zone 1 Zone 2 if surrounded by a Zone 2 Not classified Not classified Not classified Not classified Not classified Zone 1 or 2 depending on the ventilation rate. 1 ignition source or 2. ‘If’ to be taken as a restrictive condition This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored. if surrounded by a safe zone Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Zone 1 or 2 depending on the ventilation rate. if surrounded by a safe zone (1) With the exception of accumulator batteries (see section 12. Overpressure (4) Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Zone 1 or 2 depending on the ventilation rate. (3) With a source of small hazard radius. There should still be a local Zone 1 or 2 around the source and the extent of this Zone should be greater than in the open air. shall be classified according to the local ventilation rate in that local area.

or  A point source method developed in present section 8.1 Classification of petroleum fluids based on closed cup flash points (IP Code. 13 and 14. Determination of the hazard radius This section provides the general requirements for the determination of the hazard radius. Part 15. 12. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. However. Page 23/71 . 8 For further guidance on petroleum fluids classification refer to IP Code. see Appendix 5.1 Characteristics of petroleum fluids For Area Classification in petroleum installations. first in classes then in categories:  The Class of liquid hydrocarbons relates to their flash point and handling temperature at actual storage or process conditions  The Category is derived from the class and indicates to which extent a fluid on release can form a flammable mixture with air.1)  The release pressure  The hole release size For the determination of hazard radii. the classification of petroleum fluids shall be done in two steps. It must not be stored. Part 15). their flash point temperature 8. Hazard radii depend on the following parameters:  The grade of release (determined in section 6.Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 8. Unclassified are liquid hydrocarbons with a flash point above 100°C. Hazard radii may be determined by either:  Direct examples limited to common facilities given in sections 10. Part 15) CLASS 0 I II III Fluid LPG Liquid hydrocarbon with TF < 21°C Liquid Hydrocarbon with 21°C≤TF<55°C II(1): TH < TF II(2): TH≥ TF Liquid Hydrocarbon with 55°C≤TF<100°C III(1): TH < TF III(2): TH≥ TF Where: TF is the flash point of the fluid in °C.2. they should be considered as class III (2) when handled at. 8. 8. 11.1. Appendix A. or  A risk based method for secondary grade release equipment or when the release rate (hole size and pressure) is unknown (IP Code.1)  The fluid category (determined as per section 8. TH is the temperature at which the fluid is handled in °C. This document is the property of Total. This is a determining factor in the calculation of the hazard radius (see section 8 and Appendices 5 & 6). or above.

not in Category A or B. Part 15. would vaporise rapidly or substantially. not in Category A. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. Also includes any flammable liquid at a temperature sufficient to produce. C Any flammable liquid.1. Crude oil may be regarded as stabilised when separation from gas has been at a pressure at or below 1. but which can be at a temperature above its flash point or form a flammable mist or spray. 8.1. more than 40% vol vaporisation with no heat input other than from the surroundings. It must not be stored.Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 8.g. 9 For further guidance on petroleum fluids classification refer to IP Code. Includes LPG and lighter flammable liquids e. on release. B Any flammable liquid. (2) Cryogenic fluids need special consideration. but at a temperature sufficient for boiling to occur on release.2 Fluid Categories Following are guidelines for application of Categories to the oil and gas production installations 9 . Page 24/71 . This document is the property of Total.  Unstabilised crude oil should be put in Category B because of the wide boiling temperature range involved  Stabilised crude oil should be put in Category C. Category Definition G(ii) Refinery hydrogen G(i) A typical methane-rich natural gas.1 bar(a). Appendix A. A Any flammable liquid that. on release. LNG.3 Relationship between fluid classification and fluid category The following table may be used to convert classification to fluid category: CLASSIFICATION OF PETROLEUM BASED ON CLOSED CUP FLASH POINTS FLUID CATEGORY Class Description Handled above flash point 0 LPG Yes A I Flash point less than 21°C Yes B (1) Handled above boiling point Can be released as mist A Handled below boiling point and cannot be released as mist (2) A C C (1) C C N/A(1) C II (2) II Flash point 21-55°C Flash point 21-55°C No Yes N/A B III (1) III (2) Flash point 55-100°C Flash point 55-100°C No Yes N/A B (1) C C N/A(1) C Unclassified (1) (2) Unclassified Flash point > 100°C Flash point > 100°C No Yes N/A(1) B C C N/A(1) C (1) Not applicable because liquids not handled above their flash point cannot be above their boiling point.

reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. vents. filter/strainers Secondary Drains and sample points Drain sampling point Primary or secondary (depends on the frequency of sampling) Compressors Seals and joints Secondary Process vents (includes degassing and cold vents) Discharge point assuming that all welded collecting piping = safe area Continuous. should be considered as primary source of release (2) In case of frequent failure in “normal operation”. primary or secondary (depends on the frequency of venting) Instrument vents Discharge point Continuous. The hazard radius is not the result of a fully deterministic approach. primary or secondary (depends on the frequency of venting) None Safe area Seals and joints Secondary Pig receivers Door Primary Sumps Ventilated concrete slab/metal grill Continuous or Primary Interceptors or coalescers Ventilated concrete slab/metal grill Primary Pumps All welded piping Flanges and valves (2) (1) In case of frequent seal failure in “normal operation”. The hazard radius does not take into consideration all the actual physical properties of the gas.2 Hazard radius The hazard radius of a source of release is the largest horizontal and vertical extents of the hazardous area that is generated by the source when situated in an open area under unrestricted natural ventilation. should be considered as primary source of release. shall be carried out as per GS EP SAF 253.Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 8. using codes (computer programs) approved by Company. It must not be stored.3 Typical sources of release The typical grades and sources of release for the current standard equipment/arrangements are included in the following table: Type of equipment (1) Sources of release Typical release Grade Seals. drains. It should be regarded as a standard to be used when no better method is available. 8. It is not a substitute for good engineering judgement. valves. This document is the property of Total. Page 25/71 . piping flanges. For example one may consider that a particular item of equipment gives rise to a critical risk and decide to enlarge the associated hazardous area. Gas dispersion calculations. if necessary. characteristics of the environment and conditions of release.

Note 3: S is the shortest distance from the source to the edge of the retaining wall. Note 1: R1 is the hazard radius obtained from section 8. 8.5 Procedure for secondary grade releases The hazard radii may be determined using the generic hazard radius values included in the tables in Appendix A2. however. 8. Figure 2 . adjacent structure or open-sided roof  Others where a partial restriction to natural air flow is in-built by design in the form of a structure that has pierced openings or louvers to provide weather protection. It must not be stored.6 Particular case of sheltered areas There are many cases of natural ventilated situations where there is some restriction to free air circulation:  Some associated with an otherwise open area layout but where there is an obstruction in the form of a wall. Page 26/71 . reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.Exploration & Production General Specification Date : 01/2011 GS EP SAF 216 Rev : 05 8. Note 2: The wall should extend to at least the full vertical height of the hazardous area if it is to be used as a deflection wall. a more accurate value of hazard radius may be determined using dispersion models when data for the equipment are available. a more accurate value of hazard radius may be determined using dispersion models when data for the equipment are available.4 Procedure for continuous and primary grade releases The hazard radii may be determined using the generic hazard radius values included in the tables in Appendix A1.Extent of hazardous area around wall producing sheltered area This document is the property of Total. however.

Internal combustion engines and fire heaters Reference is also made to GS EP SAF 222. oil pump) or not a source of release (alternator. Page 27/71 . it shall be assumed that sources of secondary grade release are located at a distance of 0.g.g.1 Gas turbines 11. 11. It is only in case of difficulty that the exact location of the sources of release shall be considered. GS EP SAF 227. equipment and well operations. it shall be assumed that secondary grade release sources (see section 6. the following rules apply:  For skid mounted equipment (e. equipment and well operations See Appendix C for the classification of drilling rigs. the natural or artificial obstacles in the gas path.g. As a consequence. the ventilation in the area. gas turbines shall drive equipment that is either a source of secondary grade release (hydrocarbon gas compressor. and the buoyancy of the release.1) can be anywhere at the periphery of the equipment skid. A detailed study of each single secondary grade release is not required. Gas turbines shall be installed in an enclosed area (called turbine enclosure) in order to reduce the noise level and make the area safe by dilution ventilation. To draw the line between hazardous areas and non hazardous areas. It must not be stored. Sizing and drawings of hazardous areas The extent of hazardous areas shall be conducted in two steps:  First the hazard radius around each potential release source is determined as per section 8  Then this hazard radius is used to set up the three dimensional envelope of the hazardous area taking account of the type of zone. Hazardous zones sizing is detailed in Appendix 6. Drilling rigs. 11.8 m from the equipment external limits (e.1.2. water pump).Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date : 01/2011 Rev : 05 9. Gas turbines shall not be installed in Zone 0 or Zone 1. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. This would require input from the equipment Vendor  For non skid mounted equipment e. packages).1 Main principles for classification Gas turbines are potential sources of ignition and release. 10. vessels. This document is the property of Total. vessel shell)  The accurate location of each primary or continuous grade releases shall be considered for drawing the hazardous areas they generate  Two adjacent hazardous areas shall be merged in any point where their distance does not exceed 3 m  Generally a whole offshore deck or a whole onshore unit containing essentially hydrocarbon processing or storage equipment should be classified as Zone 2 after identifying the Zones 0 and 1 if any  Extension of Zone contours at unit borders should be considered on a case by case basis.

the driven equipment and all the auxiliaries are enclosed in a bigger enclosure (called unit room). shall be rendered safe as follows:  A unit room containing a secondary fuel source and surrounded by an external hazardous area shall be adequately ventilated  A unit room containing a secondary fuel source and surrounded by an external safe area shall be adequately ventilated and under-pressurised at a minimum of 25 Pa  A unit room containing no fuel source and surrounded by an outside Zone 2 hazardous area shall be maintained at a minimum overpressure of 25 Pa with respect to all This document is the property of Total.g. In cases where the driven equipment does not require a safe environment or is installed in a safe area of the plant (e. 11. For the classification of gas turbines. It must not be stored. compressor or pump) if it has to be installed in a hazardous area (e.g. onshore).g. The turbine enclosure shall be ventilated before energizing of any electrical equipment not suitable for Zone 1. In both cases (under pressure and overpressure). offshore). Where provided. either Zone 2 or safe area. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.3 Unit room principles Any electrical equipment outside the turbine enclosure (power generator or auxiliaries) shall be suitable for use in the type of hazardous area that prevails.25 mbar).2 Turbine enclosure principles The turbine enclosure shall be provided with a ventilation system for cooling and dilution purposes. the unit room is not mandatory. the unit room of the totally enclosed type. an alarm shall be initiated in the control room if the differential pressure drops below 25 Pa (0. The purge ventilation shall be suitable for operation in Zone 1 and shall ensure a minimum of 5 air changes. Page 28/71 .Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date : 01/2011 Rev : 05 It may happen that the turbine enclosure. 11.1. The main justification of a unit room is to provide a safe environment to the driven equipment (e. if any. Stand-by ventilation shall be supplied by an emergency power source independent from normal power and shall be suitable for Zone 1. generator. After the turbine is shutdown. The turbine enclosure ventilation system shall be independent from the ventilation system of the unit room. the auxiliary power source shall be capable of keeping the ventilation running until hot surfaces have been cooled down below the auto-ignition temperature of the gas/air mixtures that may be present in the enclosure. Turbine enclosure ventilation is ensured by a “main” ventilation system backed up by a “stand by” ventilation system. The stand by ventilation shall automatically start on loss of main ventilation. Differential pressure shall be provided as applicable:  Under pressure where the turbine enclosure is surrounded by a safe area  Overpressure where the turbine enclosure is surrounded by a hazardous area. see Appendix 8. The electrical equipment within the enclosure shall be certified for use in Zone 2 as a minimum.1.

see Appendix 9. 11. exhaust pipes) When located in hazardous area. acetylene) may be present  Shall not be installed in areas where liquid hydrocarbon spillage or liquid mist may occur and result in the release of vapours with an auto-ignition temperature lower than 135°C  Should not be installed in a hazardous area.4. Diesel engines:  Shall not be installed in Zones 0 or 1  Shall not be installed in a Zone 2 where a category G(ii) gas (e. hot surfaces shall be thermally insulated. an alarm shall be provided in the control room if the differential pressure drops below 25 Pa.1. See Figures 8.2 Gas engines Gas engines.g. they do not generate a hazardous area. For the classification of gas and liquid fuel engines. Gas engines. Offshore.3 in Appendix 8.2. Hydrogen. It must not be stored. The above requirement is not mandatory for onshore gas engines if requirement specified in Appendix E1 are met.g. The quantity of hydrocarbon vapour involved is small enough to be disregarded. 11.e. their auxiliaries and driven equipment. when fed with crude oil. i. Gas engines:  Shall not be installed in Zones 0 or 1  Shall not be installed in a Zone 2 where a category G(ii) gas (e. A Diesel fuel engine and its fuel circuit are not considered as a source of release. as gas turbines. A Diesel fuel engine is a source of ignition. are considered as sources of ignition and release. Hydrogen. By default the surface temperature shall not exceed 200°C (corresponding to ATEX requirement for T3 skin temperature).Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date : 01/2011 Rev : 05 surrounding classified areas with potential openings to the room including the turbine enclosure itself  In both cases. gas engines installed in Zone 2 shall be installed in an enclosure. mainly due to its high skin temperature and the possibility of spark emission. 11. Page 29/71 . For more details refer to API RP 2216.4 Hot surfaces in areas not provided with dilution ventilation (e.3 Liquid fuel engines Spark ignited gasoline-fuelled engines shall not be installed in hydrocarbon plants.1. acetylene) may be present This document is the property of Total.g. protected by internal overpressure and dilution ventilation which complies with the requirements of section 6. However. a Diesel fuel engine shall be considered as a source of release. shall in any case be adequately ventilated even if their driven equipment does not constitute a fuel source. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. Their surface temperature shall not exceed 80% of the ignition temperature (in °C) of any flammable gas mixtures likely to be present.1 to 8.

accumulator batteries are regarded as primary sources of release: they release hydrogen when they are being charged. 12. for circulation of air. and GS EP ELE 021 for the electrical design of floating units.4 Fired heaters Fired heaters themselves do not generate hazardous area.2. Diesel engines installed in Zone 2 shall conform to EN 1834-1or be installed in an enclosure. shall in any case be adequately ventilated even if their driven equipment does not constitute a fuel source. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. It must not be stored. Refer also to GS EP HVA 100 for the dilution ventilation criteria for accumulators.4.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date : 01/2011 Rev : 05  Shall not be installed in areas where liquid hydrocarbon spillage or liquid mist may occur and result in the release of vapours with an auto-ignition temperature lower than 135°C  Should not be installed in a hazardous area. all shelves shall have not less than 50 cm space. As a consequence of what precedes. Two types of accumulator batteries shall be considered:  Open batteries which include recombination type or vented batteries  Sealed batteries. the concentration of hydrogen is kept below the LFL limit. The purpose of ventilating a battery location or enclosure is to maintain the hydrogen concentration below the 4% volume hydrogen Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) threshold. Particular attention shall be given to the fact that the gas emitted is lighter than air and will tend to accumulate in any pockets at the top of the space. The above requirement is not mandatory for onshore Diesel engines if requirement specified in Appendix 9. Offshore. Page 30/71 . their auxiliaries and driven equipment. Diesel engines. Battery locations and enclosures are to be considered as safe from explosions when. by natural or forced (artificial) ventilation.2 are met. Main burners. This document is the property of Total. protected by internal overpressure which complies with the requirements of section 6. For the classification of fired heaters. igniters and pilots do not generate hazardous area. front and back.1 Basics With the exception of small capacity sealed batteries which are outside the scope of this specification.2. see Appendix E3. Reference is made to international standard IEC 61892-6 and IEC 61892-7 for the installation of accumulator batteries in enclosures/buildings. When batteries are arranged in two or more tiers. see Appendix 9. For the classification of Diesel engines. This section 12 sets out the basic safety requirements for the design of installations designed by or on behalf of Company. as long as they are outside the Zone 2 hazardous area generated by the fuel or the process lines. Refer to GS EP ELE 001 for the classification of accumulator batteries. air intakes for natural draught fired heaters can be located in the immediate vicinity of the burner. 11. Accumulator batteries in buildings 12.

The fans in this battery room shall be suitable for operation in Zone 1 for category G(ii) gases. Hydrocarbon storage For storage containing Category C or non-hazardous fluids on release. 13.1 Under-ground or within-embankment storage tanks For under-ground or within-embankment storage tanks containing liquids of Class I. see Appendix F3. section 3 shall be complied with. floating roof storage tanks For the classification of overhead. section 3 for more details. Hydrogen detection shall be installed. see Appendix F1. Part 15. 13. with the exception of the electrical equipment certified for Zone 1 category G(ii) gases.  Sealed batteries: can be located in the same room as electrical equipment and no hydrogen detection is required  Open batteries shall be located in a dedicated battery room. floating roof storage tanks. This is illustrated in sections 13. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. 13. This section addresses additional requirements that depend on the capacity and discharge voltage of the accumulator batteries. 13. the extent and classification of hazardous areas around the surface vents depend on whether the tank is pump or gravity fed. Page 31/71 .3. The requirements set out in section 12.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date : 01/2011 Rev : 05 When dilution ventilation is achieved by artificial means. On hydrogen detection the battery charge shall be switched off (in order to stop hydrogen release) and all ignition sources in the room shall be isolated.2 and 13. see Appendix F2. Refer to IP Code.1 shall apply to all batteries liable to release flammable gases.3 Overhead.5 Refrigerated LPG storage LPG stored at atmospheric pressure (below 0°C) is outside the scope of this specification. 12. It must not be stored.1. Arrêté du 9 novembre 1972 modifié au 28 avril 2008 for liquefied hydrocarbons stored under pressure at more than 0°C ambient temperature (Category A2 under French classification). The safety of personnel handling the acid fluids associated with open batteries in this room shall be considered: provision of an eye wash station. fixed roof storage tanks For the classification of overhead. fixed roof storage tanks. Refer to the local regulations and standards prevailing in the country of application. IP Code. This document is the property of Total. 13. For the classification of LPG storage tanks. Part 15 recommendations shall apply even if the ambient temperature exceeds 30°C.2 Location and hydrogen detection Accumulator batteries and their charger may be located in the same cubicle only if this cubicle is provided with natural or artificial dilution ventilation as per the requirements of this section. IP Code. As part of this specification. 13. the battery charge shall be stopped on loss of ventilation. 13. II (2) or III (2). Part 15.4 LPG storage tanks The extent and classification of hazardous areas around storage vessels containing Class 0 liquids (LPG) shall be based on French regulation.2 Overhead.

1 Laboratories A laboratory contains potential sources of release such as hydrocarbon gas samples.1) shall be implemented in laboratories to ensure that they can be continuously and safely occupied by personnel.1. The design of analyser shelters shall comply with the requirements of IEC 60079-16. The following dilution rates apply only in the laboratories containing no toxic materials and no sources of primary grade of release. They shall be considered by default until the leak rates of secondary grade releases are assessed:  A laboratory handling flammable gases or liquids shall be provided with an exhaust fan certified for Zone 1. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. and vapours from heated hydrocarbon liquids. air inlets may be common to two ventilation systems. lighting switches inside the laboratory shall be certified for Zone 2 and defined as per GS EP ELE 079. 14. in suitable locations. junction boxes. 14.g. The laboratory ventilation system should be independent from the ventilation of the remainder of the building 10. chromatograph) and therefore shall be considered as ignition sources. In particular:  The analyser shelter shall be a separate building or shall be completely isolated from other parts of the building 10 In certain cases. For the classification of laboratories. For laboratories where a pressure below that of the surrounding area is maintained. with an exhaust fan certified for Zone 1 which will achieve a ventilation rate of at least thirty air changes per hour.4. it should be completely isolated from other parts of the building. The inventory of flammable products in laboratories shall be minimised: flammable products other than the minimum quantities necessary for the day-to-day work shall be stored outside the laboratory. Adequate ventilation (refer to section 6. located in a non-hazardous area. All products contained in laboratories shall be checked for toxicity and flammability. Some of the equipment used for hydrocarbon gas and liquid analysis cannot be made suitable for use in a hazardous area (e. sockets. Electrical equipment such as fixed lighting. This document is the property of Total. The doors of a laboratory should be self-closing and of a vapour-tight design.2 Analyser shelters An analyser shelter or house is a specific closed room or building containing one or more analysers for sampling of flammable fluids which are or may be connected to a process installation together with electrical equipment and auxiliary devices (IEC 60079-16). Dilution ventilation rates shall be determined on a case by case basis to take into consideration the hazards specific to each case. A laboratory should be a separate building.2. which will achieve adequate ventilation  A fume cupboard shall also be provided. Page 32/71 . Miscellaneous 14. IEC 61285 and present specification. Also some leak sources may be toxic for health.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date : 01/2011 Rev : 05 13. see Appendix G1. If incorporated in a larger building. It must not be stored.6 LNG storage NFPA 59A or more stringent national regulations shall be followed. air-locks may be permitted between the laboratory and the remainder of the building.

electrical apparatus not suitable for operation in Zone 2) and secondary grade of release sources shall be provided with dilution ventilation (see section 6. Part 15). For the classification of small storage of flammable products.1.4 Loading and filling operations (road tanker.2. 11 If a primary source cannot be vented outside the shelter. Air intakes for ventilation of analyser shelters should also be taken from outside the hazardous area.4. cylinders containing liquefied hydrocarbons or hydrocarbon gases under pressure (acetylene. 14. LPG). It must not be stored. air intakes to heating and ventilation systems and to combustion chambers. False ceilings and floors shall not be used in analyser shelters.1. rail car. 14. Part 15. see Appendix G2.g.4.1)  The analyser shelter containing ignition sources (e. Storage locations shall be identified and designated on layouts during the design of an installation for this equipment such that the hazard of ignition or explosion associated with such storage be minimised.3 Small storage of flammable products This section addresses the case of portable containers with small volumes of flammable products e. Blowout panels should be provided to minimise the consequences of an explosion.7 Air exhausts For the classification of air exhausts. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. unloading) Refer to IP Code. 14. dilution ventilation shall be provided even if there are no ignition sources in the shelter (this shall require a derogation to this specification approved by Company and an assessment of the dilution rate). For the classification of air intakes. see Appendix G3.Hydrocarbon vent lines shall be fitted with a flame arrester.2. section 3.5 Jetties (loading. 14. The dilution ventilation shall ensure thirty air changes per hour as a minimum (IP Code. drum filling) Refer to IP Code. see Appendix G4.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date : 01/2011 Rev : 05  If the analyser shelter is located in a hazardous area the ingress of the external atmosphere into the shelter shall be prevented by an internal overpressure produced by forced ventilation (refer to section 6.g. 14.8 Chimneys and exhausts Exhausts and chimneys releasing hot gases shall not be located in hazardous areas Zone 1 or Zone 0. Part 15. Sampling operations which involve the intentional release of flammable substances shall be carried out in a suitable location outside the shelter 11.6 Air intakes Air intakes shall be located to prevent ingress of flammable gas or vapour in areas containing ignition sources: e. Page 33/71 . 14. This document is the property of Total.1). Continuous or primary grade of release sources shall be vented.g. section 3.

refer to IP Code. 14. The external skin temperature limits as given above apply to all hot exhaust chimneys and exhausts within the restricted areas of all petroleum installations (for the definition of the restricted area refer to GS EP SAF 253). For the classification of chimneys and exhausts. Part 15. In any case the minimum volume of sweeping air shall be five times the total volume of the enclosure/premises. 14.11 Purging Purging is the operation of passing a quantity of air through an enclosure and its associated ducts in order to reduce to a safe level any concentration of flammable gas or vapour within the enclosure and its associated ducts (from IEC 60079-16). This requirement covers not only the ship hull and decks but also its chimney. radio aerials and radar antenna and other appurtenances regarded as sources of ignition. particularly the confined areas such as: This document is the property of Total. Flares shall be designed in accordance with GS EP SAF 253 and GS EP SAF 262.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date : 01/2011 Rev : 05 They may be installed in Zone 2 hazardous areas only if their external skin temperature does not exceed 200°C. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. presence of a HLO (Helicopter Landing Officer) or other personnel qualified to authorise landing and take-off (design and risk mitigation measures shall be approved by Company).10.1 Roads and railways For railways.2 Helidecks.6 are not applicable. It must not be stored. 14. traffic restrictions shall be implemented based on fixed gas detection which initiates visual and audible alarms (design and risk mitigation measures shall be approved by Company). helipads and air strips In case requirements of the relevant section of Appendix 11. The safe distances should be materialised by signs wherever an access road enters a hazardous area.10 Traffic 14.9 Flares Flares shall be installed in a non-hazardous area. fixed or portable.3 Boats In case requirements of the relevant section of Appendix 11.10. 14.6 are not applicable. Page 34/71 . traffic restrictions shall be implemented based on fixed gas detection which initiates visual and audible alarms (design and risk mitigation measures shall be approved by Company). Purging shall be done with air being totally free of flammable gas. 14. see Appendix G5. Care shall be taken that all areas have been effectively purged. For the precautions specific to the operation of fired heaters refer to GS EP SAF 227. The purging process shall last long enough to keep the flammable gas content under 25% of the lowest flammable limit in the worst conditions. This shall be established with flammable gas detectors.10. In case requirements of the relevant section of Appendix 11. traffic restrictions and control procedures shall be implemented based on fixed gas detection which initiates visual and audible alarms.6 are not applicable.

Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date : 01/2011 Rev : 05  Pits. It must not be stored. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. This document is the property of Total.3). Page 35/71 . with due consideration for ventilation and pressurisation (as per section 6. 14.2.4) and in conformity with the relevant section of Appendix 11. Flammable gas detectors shall be used to check all spots where gas is likely to accumulate. if heavier than air gas or vapour is present.12 Classification of enclosed buildings The classification of the enclosed buildings shall be based on the rules defined in present specification (refer to section 7.  Ceiling recesses if lighter than air gas or vapour is present  Blind corners.

It must not be stored.Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Bibliography Reference Title API Publ 4615 Emission Factors for Oil and Gas Production Operations GS EP INS 101 Instrumentation engineering. supply and construction general requirements This document is the property of Total. Page 36/71 . reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

(3) For liquids only. (2) Design pressure and design temperature or the most critical combination of P and T for hazardous releases. (4) Only for vents that are covered by this specification (see Appendix A). It must not be stored. Instrument vent 2 - 2 1 (4) This document is the property of Total.Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 1 Appendix 1 Table of hazardous equipment Hazardous equipment Tag number Description Flammable fluid Phase MW T P Flash °C bar(a) Point °C Category Area Density Auto ignition T°C Explosive limits Type Ventilation Source of release Nature Grade Flow Classification Zone m3/h % LFL Hazard radius Remark Gas group Temp class II A T3 m % UFL V 110 Separator Vapor 22 50 75 - (5) (1) (2) (2) (3) G(i) L 502 4% 16% Sheltered Adequate (1) Range of MW to cover all situations. Page 37/71 . (5) Vapours from a release are to be considered either heavier (H) or lighter than air (L). reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

2.§ 10. 13 & 14 & Appendices A & B give hazardous radius and envelope at once Hazardous area envelope .Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 2 Appendix 2 Area classification procedure This procedure shall be followed at each stage of a development project and whenever there is a modification to an existing installation. 6.Open.§ 8. 11.2 to 8.2. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.2. It must not be stored.3.§ 6.2. Page 38/71 .§ 6.1 Zone ranking .2.§ 8.§ 9 & Appendices A & B This document is the property of Total.§ 6.6 and Appendix A Direct example method .2 Location . 12. enclosed area .4 Fluid category .§ 6.1 Hazard radius .4 & 7 Ventilation . Equipment Grade of release . sheltered.

Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 3 Appendix 3 Procedure for assessing type and degree of ventilation This method for assessing type and degree of ventilation applies in areas where sources of flammable gases are present. the ventilation rates given in the figure are not relevant. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.5 m/s and frequently > 2 m/s Are there any significant obstacles to natural wind ventilation? Does enclosed area contain internal source of release? No No Yes Yes If external source exists is enclosure pressurised to > 25 Pa Yes Consider general or local artificial ventilation No Does ventilation system give >12 air changes per hour? No Yes Are there sufficient air changes to give dilution ventilation at all ignition sources? Yes Open area: Adequate Natural ventilation Sheltered or obstructed area: Restricted natural ventilation Over pressurized enclosed area: No Enclosed area: Enclosed area: Enclosed area: Dilution ventilation Adequate ventilation Inadequate ventilation Non hazardous This document is the property of Total. Where toxic gases may be released. It must not be stored. Determine openness of region to be classified by inspection of installation layout Open Area Enclosed Area Open air conditions (wind speed rarely < 0. Page 39/71 .

one at the top i. Walls (% surface) (2) > 0 to 25 Top and bottom parts > 25 to 50 > 50 to 75 > 75 to 100 Type of ventilation Floor + ceiling Adequate Inadequate (3) Inadequate Inadequate No floor (1) + ceiling Adequate Adequate Inadequate Inadequate Floor.6. close to the roof/ceiling. no ceiling Adequate Adequate Adequate Inadequate No floor (1).e. It must not be stored. Page 40/71 . reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.6. and the space under the roof is adequately ventilated  Buildings where the walls are provided with louvers or other types of slits purposely designed for ensuring that natural ventilation will be adequate. close to the floor/ground.4. This document is the property of Total.6 of API RP 505. no ceiling Adequate Adequate Adequate Adequate (1) Gratings are regarded as no floor (2) Plain walls (no louvers) (3) In some cases may be regarded as adequate. shall run along the full length of the wall. It should also be checked that these buildings offer a sufficient free area of inlet openings as per the formula given in section 6. first edition 11/1997. reaffirmed 11/2002). each with a minimum vertical width of 1 m. The buildings described below are regarded as sheltered areas and may be used as weather protection for equipment handling flammable fluids:  Buildings where walls height is less than 2.e.2.Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 4 Appendix 4 Guidelines for the determination of the level of ventilation of sheltered areas Guidance from this table is broadly in line with API RP 505 (section 6. As a minimum the louvers should be present on three (out of the four) sides of the building: two strips of louvers. the other at the bottom i.5 m above ground.

reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. If for any reasons equipment drains were not blinded they would generate hazard radii as per Table 5. i. draining should be done to a closed drain system.3). a risk based approach may be used to determine release hole size (see Appendix 5. This document is the property of Total. instrument drains and liquid sample points that discharge directly to atmosphere. Hazard radii (R1) are given using dispersion calculation methodology applied to particular fluid compositions. The maximum hazard radii for categories A. with a release to atmosphere. using codes (computer programs) approved by Company. Part 15.e. The risk based methodology provides a means of adjusting release frequency and hence hazard radii. 5. As such they are normally blinded and used only after the equipment is isolated and depressurised.1 Drains and liquid sample points This section applies to process equipment drains. The following rules shall apply:  Draining and sampling of Category A liquids shall not be done directly to atmosphere. Page 41/71 .  Equipment drains (with the exception of the instrument drains) shall be designed as per GS EP SAF 228. however.  They shall require a closed collection system. Samples should be taken in a sealed container designed to be connected to the drain point for the duration of the sampling.1.4 applies).3rd Edition . They generate a hazardous area as for valves and flanges (see Appendix 5. shall be carried out as per GS EP SAF 253. All distances in this section are given in meters. If used more than once a day they should be regarded as primary sources as a minimum.Exploration & Production General Specification Date : 01/2011 Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 5 Appendix 5 Determination of hazard radii (R1) values for equipment For further guidance. to fit specific process scenarios. a more accurate value of hazard radius may be determined using dispersion models which take into consideration all the actual physical properties of the gas. C and where appropriate G(i) and G(ii) are given in the following tables.2.  Draining and sampling of Category B liquids directly to atmosphere should be avoided: Wherever feasible. B. shall generate a hazard radius equivalent to an instrument vent (Appendix 5.2.3).  Sampling of gases to an open system. and GS EP SAF 228 for the design of closed drain systems). characteristics of the environment and conditions of release. see section 5 and Appendix C of IP Code. Where appropriate.1 and in this case the possibility for draining category B liquids shall be considered. There shall be a hazardous area resulting from the flanges and the valves (see Appendix 5. Drains and sample points should be graded based on the expected frequency of use.2).1. if necessary.1 Equipment/arrangements generally generating continuous or primary grade releases 5. Gas dispersion calculations.July 2005. designed to be safely vented to an appropriate disposal system such as a flare (refer to GS EP SAF 262 for the design of hydrocarbon disposal systems. It must not be stored.

For some vents there may be a small continuous or primary grade release flow (generating a Zone 0 or 1) with a larger secondary grade release occasional flow (generating a Zone 2) for This document is the property of Total. All vent flow-rates in this section are given at Normal conditions. The hazardous area will extend from the point of draining/sampling.2.Drains (not blinded) and liquid sample points Fluid category Pressure (Bar(a)) A Hazard radius R1 (in m) Diameter (2) 2 mm Diameter (2) 5 mm Diameter (2) 10 mm Diameter (2) 20 mm 100 (3) (3) (3) (3) B 100 4 10 20 (1) C 100 5 12 22 (1) (1) For this diameter the radius exceeds 30 m. B and C for the “worst case” discharge pressure.Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 5  Sampling to a closed system with normally no release to atmosphere shall generate a hazard radius as for flanges and valves (Appendix 5.g.1.e.2 gives the hazard radii from the storage tank vent of a typical category C fluid: Table 5. line. or a smaller diameter (e. primary or secondary grades of release depending on the frequency of operation. Table 5.g.3 Process vents Permanent or occasional outflows of combustible vapour shall be collected and discharged away from possible sources of ignition. a restriction). Page 42/71 . daily) should be classified as primary grade as a minimum. Alternative design options should be considered such as a closed collection system (refer to the text of this section). Vents shall be classified as continuous.Tank vents Hazard Radius R1 (in m) 3 Vent rate (Nm /h) 250 500 1000 2500 Vent Diameter (in mm) 50 80 100 250 2 3 3 4 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 3 4 6 6 5. 5.1. (2) This is the diameter of the smallest item on drain or sample line i. Table 5. Vents used frequently (e. Table A1 gives the maximum hazard radius for fluid categories A.3).1 . (3) Draining and sampling of Category A liquids directly to atmosphere shall not be allowed. It must not be stored. valve or restriction orifice. Material that could condense shall not be vented directly to atmosphere.2 Tank vents (category C fluid) Freely vented tanks will allow vapour /air mixtures to be released in normal operation. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. in particular the instrument drains and sampling of liquids to an open system. In all other cases. The size of the potential release is greater than normally considered for area classification and should be avoided.2.

4 .Instrument vents Fluid category Hazard radius R1 (in m) Diameter 1 mm Diameter 2 mm Diameter 5 mm A 2. Page 43/71 . It must not be stored. the Zone 0 or 1 hazardous area shall be surrounded by a larger Zone 2 area defined by the larger flow (refer to Appendix 6). A dispersion calculation is also recommended for vents with flow rates exceeding 100 Nm3/h. the distance to LFL given in ISO 23251 / API STD 521 (section 6. These recommended distances are based on unrestricted upward discharge and dispersion of vapour without condensation. It may be necessary to fit a flow restrictor on high pressure systems.Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 5 example during abnormal or emergency operation.3 . 3 (2) For vents with flow rates exceeding 200 Nm /h a dispersion calculation shall be carried out to check if the distances of this table are adequate (gas dispersion calculations shall be carried out as per GS EP SAF 253). The hazard radii for process vents have been calculated for a matrix of venting rates and vent diameters and are given in Table 5. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.3. Table 5.1. The peak venting flow rate of the release is to be considered for determining the hazard radius. (3) Gaseous sample points should be designed so that the flow rate is less than 10 Nm3/h at ambient conditions. Table 5. C. G(i) and G(ii) for the “worst case” discharge pressure of 100 bar(a).5 9 G(i) <1 <1 1 G(ii) 1 1 2 This document is the property of Total. 5. In this case.5 4 9 B 2 4 9 C 2.3 fifth edition 01/2007) should be adopted.Process vents Hazard Radius R1 (in m) Vapor Emission rate (Nm3/h) Vent diameter (mm) 50 100 250 3 5 6 3 5 6 250(2) 3 5 6 (2) 4 5 7 5 5 9 10 (1) (3) 100 500 (1) (2) 1000 (2) (1) For vents with flow rates kept below 100 Nm3/h and where the velocity of all the releases are above 150 m/s.4 which gives the maximum hazard radius for fluid categories A. B.4 Instrument vents The maximum hazard radii from vents on instrument systems shall be based on Table 5.5 4.

the area shown as Zones 0 and 1 would be Zones 1 and 2 respectively.1 .5 in cases when it can be assumed that entry of only Category C fluids can occur. or that Category A or B material could inadvertently enter.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date : 01/2011 Rev : 05 Appendix 5 5.1. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.5. However it is recommended that this height is verified by calculation. Generally this assumption can be made only in the case of storage and tank areas. It must not be stored. Note 2: Dimension from Table 5.Open sump . Figure 5. Note 4: For a secondary grade release. for volatile fluids or at elevated temperatures.5 Sumps in oily water treatments units The typical layout of a sump is shown in Figure 5. then a hazard radius of 15 m should be used with an increased vertical distance of 3 m. of at least 3 m should be applied. h. Note 3: h depends on the temperature of release and the volatility of the material released. When there is a possibility that hot material could enter the sump in sufficient quantity to produce appreciable quantities of gas. a nominal height. This area should be classified as Zone 1 or Zone 2 depending on whether the source is primary or secondary grade of release. including installations and depots.Zoning shown for primary grade source This document is the property of Total. Note 1: The Zone 2 is applicable where there is a possibility of a secondary grade release and the hazard radius R1.1. Page 44/71 . For Category C fluids up to 50°C. h is nominally 1 m. The hazardous area above ground and outside the sump walls should be drawn as shown from the periphery of the sump using the appropriate hazard radius obtained from Table 5. for the primary grade release is less than 15 m.

5 m if the equipment is purged with nitrogen and water washed through before opening. The hazardous area should be classified as Zone 1. Likewise a seal failure resulting in an appreciable release of liquid is unlikely. irrespective of fluid category. filters opened and vents and drains operated infrequently. The hazardous area should extent from the edge of the pool. drains. This hazard radius shall be used for discharge This document is the property of Total. The design of the pig traps shall be such that they cannot be opened while under pressure.1. the doors of the pig traps should be regarded as sources with a hazard radius (Zone 1) of 3 m around the trap door. For this purpose the term "pump" should include the associated equipment which can be source of release. this is normally achieved by a mechanical interlock between the door mechanism and the drain or vent systems.Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 5 Table 5. They are normally all secondary grade sources because flanges are broken. valves.6 Pig receivers and launchers Pig receivers and launchers are likely to be opened frequently and should normally be regarded as sources of primary grade release.5 .5 15 Note 1: This table should be used only for Category C liquids. a uniform hazard radius of 7. 2. Note 2: L is width of the sump. independently from the pump they are associated with. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. Vents and drains which are not blinded in normal operation generate their own hazardous areas. On this basis.1 Pumps LNG pumps. Sources of release on pumps include their seals. do not generate a hazardous area. 5.2.1. A pressure gauge shall be provided with a range suitable for checking zero pressure before opening the door. On pig receivers and launchers without an interlock between the door mechanism and the drain or vent systems. vents.Sumps (all distances in meters) L Less than 5 5 to less than 10 10 or greater R1 3 7. Should any of these events be part of “normal operation” (as defined in section 3) or occur frequently then the item should be regarded as an individual primary grade source.2 Equipment/arrangements generally generating secondary grade releases 5. For the sake of simplification. The hazardous area generated by the pump should be drawn from the periphery of the pump. for which motor and pump are submerged in a “can” or in a storage tank.5 m shall be considered for high integrity pumps. Page 45/71 . 5.5 m. This distance may be reduced to 1. piping flanges and filter/strainers. It must not be stored. Vents and drains should discharge to a safe location and the hazard radius they generate shall be estimated using Appendices 5. there should be an additional Zone 2 area from the trap door with a hazard radius of 7. 3 & 4.

a uniform hazard radius of 3 m shall be considered for fluid categories A.Calculation of hazard radii.5 m for pressures below 20 bara and shaft diameters of 50 mm or less. This document is the property of Total. For higher pressure releases. For non dry gas seals centrifugal compressors (purged labyrinth or floating ring seals). refer to IP Code.Appendix C. appropriate dispersion calculations shall be carried out. or fitted with a double mechanical seal system with a means of detecting leaks through the inner seal should be regarded as “high integrity pumps”. Flanges routinely broken in normal operation e. Blow out of part of a gasket has not been considered since it is regarded as an incident with a low probability that is considered in consequence analysis for the determination of fire zones (refer to GS EP SAF 253).5 m shall be considered for both G(i) and G(ii) fluid categories handled by high integrity (dry gas seals) compressors.2. Vents and drains which are not blinded in normal operation generate their own hazardous areas. For non high integrity pumps (single seal with or without throttle bush). 5. a uniform hazard radius of 7. This hazard radius shall be used for discharge pressures up to 100 bar(a).g. All-welded (without fittings such as valves. For the sake of simplification. with a frequency greater than once a week. This hazard radius shall be used for discharge pressures up to 100 bar(a). appropriate dispersion calculations shall be carried out. For non dry gas seals reciprocating compressors. The pumps of glandless type. glands and joints. The term "high integrity" refers to a pump for which the design reduces significantly the probability of release. Part 15 3rd edition .Exploration & Production General Specification Date : 01/2011 Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 5 pressures up to 100 bar(a). C. a hazard radius of 15 m shall be applied for both G(i) and G(ii) fluid categories. independently from the compressor they are associated with. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. All valves shall be considered as sources of release. refer to IP Code. appropriate dispersion calculations shall be carried out. B. flanges and valves Hazard radii are from the periphery of flanges and valves in piping and instrument tubing. instruments and flanges) piping and instrument tubing designed and constructed to Company specifications should not be considered as sources of release. instrument tubing. Part 15 3rd edition -Appendix C . The radius may be reduced to 7. It must not be stored. 5. For higher pressure releases. For the sake of simplification.2. Page 46/71 . For higher pressure releases. G(i) and G(ii).3 Piping.2 Compressors Sources of release on compressors include seals. should be considered as primary grades of releases. The hazardous area should be drawn from the periphery of the unit.

The key features are:  Releases below (H) of 1 m are influenced by the ground and have a hazard radius R2  Releases above 1 m. Page 47/71 . reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. This document is the property of Total.Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 6 Appendix 6 Sizing of hazardous zones The relationship between the hazard radius R1 and the full 3-dimensional envelope of the hazard Zone is determined using the following figure: (c) Releases where H > R1 +1 Figure 6.Shape factors for pressurised releases The shape factor depends upon the height and orientation of the release and the hazard radius. It must not be stored.1 . but at heights below the hazard radius R1 + 1 m are influenced by the ground if the release is directed downward and passes below 1 m  Releases at height above the hazard radius R1 + 1 m are independent of the ground.

5 6 8 4 5 11 14 A B C (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) For this diameter the radius exceeds 30 m.5 2. It must not be stored.5 5 2 3 7 11 G(ii) 5 10 50 100 <1 <1 1 2 <1 1 2 3 2 2. This document is the property of Total.5 3 3 4 4. directly using Table 6.5 6 20 21 21 21 (1) G(i) 5 10 50 100 <1 <1 <1 1 <1 <1 1.5 2.5 3 3 4 4.5 5. R2 shall be higher (or equal) to the hazard radius (R1). reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.5 5.1: Table 6. The size of the potential release is greater than normally considered for area classification and should be avoided.5 6 16 20 20 20 (1) 5 10 50 100 2 2.5 2 1 1.1 . Page 48/71 . Note: The hazard radius determined at ground level (R2) shall be consistent with the radii defined before in Appendix 5: in any case.5 3.Hazard Radii at ground level R2 Fluid category Release Pressure (bara) Hazard radius R2 (m) Release hole diameter 1 mm 2 mm 5 mm 10 mm 5 10 50 100 2 2.Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 6 The ground effect R2 can be estimated from the hazard radius R1.5 3 4 4 5 5 14 16 17 17 (1) 5 10 50 100 2.

Exploration & Production
General Specification
GS EP SAF 216

Date : 01/2011
Rev : 05
Appendix 6

Note 1:

Vent pipe opening should have at least R1 metres of free space around it in all directions to allow dispersal
of vapour, and be away from open windows, doors, etc.

Note 2:

To avoid placing a working platform in a Zone 1 area, h should be measured from any working level within
R1 metres of the vent stack.

Note 3:

In (c), R1 for Zone 1 should be for the primary grade release and R1 for Zone 2 should be for the
secondary grade release.

Figure 6.2 - Typical hazardous areas around vents

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 49/71

Exploration & Production
General Specification

Date : 01/2011

GS EP SAF 216

Rev : 05
Appendix 7

Appendix 7 Drilling rigs, equipment and well operations
7.1 Foreword
This section sets out onshore and offshore Company requirements for the area classification of:
 Drilling, workover and pulling operations on Non Live Wells
 Well servicing operations on Live Wells
 Wellheads in production operations.
It does not cover the production equipment located downstream of the wellheads.

7.2 Drilling, workover and pulling operations on Non Live Wells
Classification of areas for drilling, workover and pulling operations on Non Live Wells, on single
and clustered wells for an onshore or offshore location is shown on Figures 7.1 to 7.4, based on
the potential sources of hydrocarbon release at:
 The rig substructure (from rig floor to main platform deck - offshore - or ground level onshore-) in which the bell nipple, diverter and blow out preventers are located
 The wellhead area down to the cellar
 The upper works of the rig, above the rig floor
 The circulating surface mud system
 Tanks, flanges, vents or drains
 Gas vents from any of the above.
In an open area a spherical hazardous area (Zone 1) of 3 m radius shall extend from the centre
of the bell-nipple.
A hazardous area (Zone 2) surrounding the spherical 3 m radius hazardous area shall extend
7.5 m vertically and horizontally from the centre of the bell nipple and down to ground or sea
level. When a solid deck or platform is more than 9 m above the sea then the hazardous area
may stop 9 m below this deck or platform.
Hazardous areas from miscellaneous sources such as vents, drains, valves and flanges on the
BOP, its stack and the riser assembly will conservatively be within the hazardous area shown
on Figures 7.1 to 7.4. Alternatively, they can be determined as per the relevant sections of
Appendices 5 and 6.
The occurrence of a blow-out or a ‘kick’ is not considered in this area classification specification.
Kicks are regarded by Company as rare and accidental events because mud degassing
equipment, continuous monitoring of pit level, hydrocarbon gases level and gas extraction is
mandatory on its drilling and work-over rigs.
On drilling installations, the "dog house" and all other technical facilities shall be classified as
Zone 2.
Generally, sheltered areas shall generate a hazardous area extending 3 m outside the shelter
(beyond the 7.5 m from the bell-nipple if necessary). Any apertures from an enclosed area
containing a source of release should be regarded as a secondary grade source and the
resulting hazardous area should be drawn from the apertures.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 50/71

Exploration & Production
General Specification
GS EP SAF 216

Date : 01/2011
Rev : 05
Appendix 7

If the derrick is enclosed, and if it contains a secondary grade source of release (e.g. flanges,
valves in hydrocarbon pipes) the internal space shall be classified as Zone 1, with a Zone 2
extending 3 m outside the enclosure.
If the sub-structure is enclosed and if it contains a secondary grade source of release (e.g.
flanges, valves in hydrocarbon pipes), the internal space should be classified as Zone 1 with a
Zone 2 extending 3 m outside the enclosure or 7.5 m from the bell-nipple whichever is greater.
All electrical equipment on the drilling mast shall be suitable for Zone 2 as a minimum (sufficient
if the derrick is adequately ventilated).
All electrical equipment needed for controlling drilling operations in an emergency (i.e. kick, blow
out) shall be suitable for Zone 1.

7.3 Surface mud systems
Open tanks should be regarded as sumps. The larger of the distances indicated in Appendices
5 and 6 and those defined in this chapter shall be used to define the hazardous zones.
The surface mud system includes the mud circulating pumps, the shale shaker area and the
setting tank, together with any mud degassing equipment.
The possibility of the mud being itself hazardous shall be considered. A mud shall be
considered hazardous whenever its temperature may reach its flash point or the auto-ignition
temperature during:
 Storage or
 Circulation (as a result of high subsurface temperature and/or mixing with reservoir
hydrocarbons) or
 Upon release (e.g. heated by sun radiation, other hot objects or when spray atomisation
leading to mist formation can occur).
Advice from geologist should be obtained to estimate the maximum operating temperature of
the mud.
Mud pumps and manifolds in the surface mud system should normally not be regarded as
sources of release.
Typical hazardous areas around mud tanks and shale shakers located in open areas are shown
on Figures 7.5 and 7.6.
In an open area, the space within the mud tank walls shall be classified Zone 1 with a Zone 2
area outside (See Figure 7.5).
In an open area, a shale shaker should generate a horizontal Zone 1 area and an additional
Zone 2 extending from Zone 1 (See Figure 7.6).
When a shale shaker or a mud tank is located in an enclosure with adequate artificial
ventilation, the enclosure should also be classified as Zone 1 extending 3 m from any opening.
Enclosures containing a mud tank should, unless there is adequate (artificial) ventilation, be
classified as Zone 1, with an additional Zone 2 area extending 3 m from any openings in the
enclosure.

7.4 Rig gas vent
Primary grade sources of release such as vent line outlets shall not be allowed within an
enclosed area (derrick or the shielded portion of a derrick).

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 51/71

8 based on the potential sources of hydrocarbon release on surface and at the source point of release.6 Wellheads in production operation Area Classification for production operations are shown on Figures 7.Coiled tubing . 7. For an onshore well. 7. the ground cellar is classified as Zone 1 for all servicing and production operations. they should be collected in a purposely designed system discharging at a safe location (away from ignition sources. When the maximum anticipated vent rate can be estimated. It must not be stored. then the extent of the hazardous area should be based on the recommendations on process vents given in Appendices 5 and 6. Page 52/71 .Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date : 01/2011 Rev : 05 Appendix 7 Vents should not be released directly to atmosphere i. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. When this information is not available. The gas vent outlet of the main mud system shall be located at the top of the derrick (outside the enclosure if the derrick is enclosed) or be remote from the drilling area.snubbing) on Live Wells is shown on Figures 7. This document is the property of Total.5 Well servicing (Wire-line . With a vent at the derrick top.10.coiled tubing . refer to Appendices 5 and 6).Snubbing) operations on Live Wells Area classification for well servicing operations (wire-line .e.7 and 7. The gas vent should normally be considered as a source of primary grade release. any area within the derrick less than 15 m from the vent shall be considered hazardous.9 and 7. the hazardous area shall extend at least 15 m in all directions from the vent.

Page 53/71 .Offshore single wellhead during operations on Non Live Wells (drilling.NIPPLE (RIG FLOOR LEVEL) FLOWLINE BOP Main deck 3m HP RISER WELLHEAD W 9m or to sea level Cellar deck Sea level 7. workover and pulling) This document is the property of Total. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. Figure 7.5m TOP OF WIND BREAK RIG FLOOR BELL.Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 7 7.1 . It must not be stored.5 m starting from the edge of Zone 1. the Zone 2 becomes a Zone 1 and it shall be surrounded horizontally by an additional Zone 2 of 7.5m ZONE 1 ZONE 2 Note: For an eruptive well.

It must not be stored. Figure 7.Offshore cluster wellhead during operations on Non Live Wells (drilling. Page 54/71 .5m 7.5m RIG FLOOR BOP Main deck 3m 3m HP RISER WELLHEAD X X W W X X W W 9m or to sea level Cellar deck X X Sea level 7.5m 7.5 m starting from the edge of Zone 1. workover and pulling This document is the property of Total.5m to 3m between wells ZONE 1 ZONE 2 MAXIMUM LIMIT OF THE ENVELOPE CONSIDERING ALL THE WELLHEADS Note: For an eruptive well.5m 7.2 .Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 7 TOP OF WIND BREAK 7.5m 1. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. the Zone 2 becomes a Zone 1 and it shall be surrounded horizontally by an additional Zone 2 of 7.

the Zone 2 becomes a Zone 1 and it shall be surrounded horizontally by an additional Zone 2 of 7.5m 7. workover and pulling) This document is the property of Total.5m TOP OF WIND BREAK 7.5 m starting from the edge of Zone 1.Onshore single wellhead in operations on Non Live Wells (drilling.5m BELL-NIPPLE (RIG FLOOR LEVEL) FLOWLINE 3m BOP Ground level W WELLHEAD L R1 ZONE 1 ZONE 2 Note: For an eruptive well. Page 55/71 .Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 7 7.5 10 or greater 15 Figure 7. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. Equivalent diameter of well cellar L(m) Hazard radius R1(m) less than 10 7.3 . It must not be stored.

the Zone 2 becomes a Zone 1 and it shall be surrounded horizontally by an additional Zone 2 of 7.5 m starting from the edge of Zone 1.5 10 or greater 15 Figure 7. It must not be stored. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.4 .5m 7.Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 7 TOP OF WIND BREAK 7.5m 7.Onshore cluster wellhead in operations on Non Live Wells (drilling.5m 3m X MAS TREE X X X X W W L BOP W L Ground level X X W L L WELLHEAD R1 3m to 5m 3m to 5m between wells 3m to 5m R1 ZONE 1 ZONE 2 MAXIMUM LIMIT OF THE ENVELOPE CONSIDERING ALL THE WELLHEADS Note: For an eruptive well. Equivalent diameter of well cellar L(m) Hazard radius R1(m) less than 10 7. Page 56/71 . workover and pulling) This document is the property of Total.5m RIG FLOOR 7.

Page 57/71 . reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 7 3m Drilling mud Ground level L R1 Figure 7. It must not be stored.6 .Hazardous area around a shale-shaker in an open area This document is the property of Total.5 10 or greater 15 Figure 7.5 .Hazardous area around mud tanks 3m Ground level or Deck level 15m L R1 Equivalent diameter of pool L(m) Hazard radius R1(m) ZONE 1 ZONE 2 less than 10 7.

head injection for coiled tubing and bowl stripper for snubbing. Figure 7.Offshore wellhead during well servicing operations on Live Wells (wireline-coiled tubing .5m ZONE 1 ZONE 2 Note 1: For a non eruptive well.Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 7.snubbing) This document is the property of Total.5m Appendix 7 STUFFING BOX BOP Main deck X MAS TREE WELLHEAD W 9m or to sea level Cellar deck X X Sea level 7. Note 2: Source point of release is at stuffing box for wireline. Page 58/71 . the Zone 1 generated by the wellhead and the well service equipment becomes a Zone 2 and the Zone 2 becomes a safe area. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.5m 7. It must not be stored.7 .

5m X MAS TREE X X Ground level W WELLHEAD R1 L R1 ZONE 1 ZONE 2 Note 1: For a non eruptive well.Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 7 7. the Zone 1 generated by the wellhead and the well service equipment becomes a Zone 2 and the Zone 2 becomes a safe area.5m 7.5m STUFFING BOX BOP 7. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. head injection for coiled tubing and bowl stripper for snubbing.5m 7.coiled tubing . It must not be stored. Page 59/71 .8 . Equivalent diameter of well cellar L(m) Hazard radius R1(m) less than 10 7.5 10 or greater 15 Figure 7.snubbing) This document is the property of Total.Onshore wellhead during well servicing operations on Live Wells (wireline . Note 2: Source point of release is at stuffing box for wireline.

Equivalent diameter of well cellar L(m) Hazard radius R1(m) less than 10 7.Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Main deck 7.5m X MAS TREE Cellar deck 7. the release source to be considered is the stuffing box. It must not be stored.5m or up to fight deck Appendix 7 X X WELLHEAD 9m or to sea level W Sea level 7.Production or injection (open area) Ground level X MAS TREE X X W WELLHEAD R1 L ZONE 1 ZONE 2 Note: In the case of a beam-pumped well. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.9 .5 10 or greater 15 Figure 7.Offshore wellhead .10 . Page 60/71 .Onshore wellhead .5m Figure 7.Production or injection (open area) This document is the property of Total.

It must not be stored. Page 61/71 . The following figures (Figures 8.Exploration & Production General Specification Date : 01/2011 Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 8 Appendix 8 Gas turbines This section sets out the Company specific requirements for the classification of gas turbines.1  Gas turbine driving a compressor without a unit room  Gas turbine driving a generator without a unit room. This document is the property of Total. Figure 8.2  Gas turbine driving a compressor in a unit room within a Zone 2 hazardous area  Gas turbine driving a generator in a unit room within a Zone 2 hazardous area.3  Gas turbine driving a compressor in a unit room within a safe area  Gas turbine driving a generator in a unit room within a safe area.3) give details for each typical case:  Ventilation and pressurisation requirements  Hazard radii around the vents outlets.1 to 8. Figure 8. Figure 8. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

25 Pa Safe area GENERATOR Turbine enclosure P = Patm Safe area Figure 8. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company./h P = Patm + 25 Pa Safe area VENTILATION AIR d>2 m COMPRESSOR Turbine enclosure P = Patm Zone 2 hazardous area Ø=3m COMBUSTION AIR d>5 m Dilution ventilation>90 Vol.Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 8 Ø=3m COMBUSTION AIR d>5 m h>2 m Dilution ventilation>90 Vol.1 . It must not be stored./h VENTILATION AIR P = Patm .Turbine enclosure without unit room This document is the property of Total. Page 62/71 .

/h Unit Room P = Patm + 25 Pa P = Patm safe area Zone 2 hazardous area Figure 8. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company./h TURBINE ENCL.Turbine enclosure within a unit room in a hazardous area This document is the property of Total.2 .Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 8 Ø=3m d> 5 m h>2 m COMBUSTION AIR Dilution ventilation>90 Vol. It must not be stored. VENTILATION AIR P=Patm + epsilon+25 Pa Safe area d>2 m UNIT ROOM VENTILATION AIR d>2 m COMPRESSOR Turbine enclosure Adequate ventilation > 12 Vol./h P = Patm + epsilon Zone 2 hazardous area Unit Room P = Patm Zone 2 hazardous area Ø=3m d> 5 m h>2 m COMBUSTION AIR Dilution ventilation>90 Vol. Page 63/71 . VENTILATION AIR P < or = Patm Safe area d>2 m UNIT ROOM VENTILATION AIR d>2 m GENERATOR Turbine enclosure Ventilation > 6 Vol./h TURBINE ENCL.

/h P=Patm + epsilon-25 Pa Safe area GENERATOR UNIT ROOM VENTILATION AIR Turbine enclosure Ventilation > 6 Vol. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company./h P > or = Patm Safe area COMPRESSOR UNIT ROOM VENTILATION AIR Turbine enclosure Adequate ventilation 12Vol.Turbine enclosure within a unit room in a safe area This document is the property of Total./h P = Patm + epsilon P = Patm Unit Room safe area safe area Figure 8. It must not be stored. Page 64/71 .25 Pa Unit Room Zone 2 hazardous area P = Patm safe area Ø=3m d> 5 m COMBUSTION AIR TURBINE ENCL.3 .Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 8 Ø=3m d> 5 m Ø=3m COMBUSTION AIR TURBINE ENCL. VENTILATION AIR Dilution ventilation>90 Vol. VENTILATION AIR Dilution ventilation>90 Vol./h P = Patm .

Onshore. Process vessels shared by several Diesel engine driven compressors or pumps shall be considered as a separate unit. Diesel engines in hazardous areas driving different type of equipment (e. can be installed in a Zone 2 providing the unit comprising the engine. Ignition sources should be made suitable for Zone 2. not in conformity with EN 1834-1 and not installed in an overpressurised enclosure.1). a Diesel engine. in line with requirements of GS EP SAF 021 and GS EP SAF 253.2 Diesel engines Offshore. in line with requirements of GS EP SAF 021 and GS EP SAF 253. It must not be stored. protected by internal overpressure which complies with the requirements of section 6. gas engines installed in Zone 2 shall be installed in a pressurised enclosure with dilution ventilation in accordance with the requirements of section 6.Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date : 01/2011 Rev : 05 Appendix 9 Appendix 9 Gas/liquid fuel engines and heaters 9. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.1). Page 65/71 . its driven equipment and their “auxiliaries” 12 is installed at a safe distance “d” of other units. compressors and pumps) shall be grouped in different units segregated as per GS EP SAF 021. Several engine driven packages of the same type and function may be grouped in the same unit (refer to Figure 9.g.4. a gas engine. All Diesel engines and driven equipment shall be grouped together in one functional unit separated from other units (process or utility) by minimum distances as per GS EP SAF 021.1 Gas engines Offshore. not installed in an overpressurised enclosure fitted with dilution ventilation. Onshore. its driven equipment and their “auxiliaries” 13 is installed at a safe distance “d” of other units. Diesel engines installed in Zone 2 shall conform to EN 1834-1 or be installed in an enclosure. 12 Process facilities and technical rooms shared by several gas engines such as the fuel gas treatment unit are not regarded as “auxiliary” and shall be installed at the distance specified below. This document is the property of Total. can be installed in a Zone 2 providing the unit comprising the engine. Several engine driven packages of the same type and function may be grouped in the same unit (refer to Figure 9. 9. Ignition sources should be made suitable for Zone 2. distinct from the Diesel engines' and associated driven equipment. 13 Process facilities and technical rooms shared by several Diesel engines such as the fuel gas treatment unit are not regarded as “auxiliary” and shall be installed at the distance specified below.4.2.2.

filters.Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 a boundary e ncroach s are ou ing rd t on Ha z a Appendix 9 oe ng in es ENGINE ENGINE d ENGINE Unit edge Unit edge Figure 9. Page 66/71 .1 .Diesel and gas engines in a hazardous area onshore 9. igniters and pilots shall be suitable for use in Zone 2. igniters and pilots shall be located at least 3 metres off of the closest joint pertaining to the fuel gas system and from any process flanges  Any equipment within a radius of 1. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.5 metre around the main burners. This document is the property of Total.3 Fired heaters The extent and classification of hazardous areas around fired heaters and other fuelled utilities shall be based upon the following principles:  Any fuel gas line (s) and appurtenances (flanges. It must not be stored. valves. instrument tapping) shall generate a Zone 2 with a radius of 3 m  Any valve. set of flanges on the liquid-fuel network shall generate a Zone 2 of a radius of 3m  Main burners.

Exploration & Production General Specification GS EP SAF 216 Date : 01/2011 Rev : 05 Appendix 9 Non hazardous area but material suitable for Zone 2 required Figure 9. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.2 .Hazardous areas around fired heaters This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored. Page 67/71 .

Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 10 Appendix 10 Hydrocarbon storage 10.Fixed roof storage tank (Fluid class II (1). if any. with a small Zone 1 around roof vents and openings. the extent and classification of hazardous areas shall be as shown below: 2m Zone 1 2m Zone 2 Pit. II (2) and III (2)) Liquids of Classes II (1) or III (1) or unclassified are normally non-hazardous on release. floating roof tank (Category C on release) For floating roof storage tanks containing liquids of Classes I. Considering however the possible changes in ambient temperature. Zone 1 Figure 10.2 .3 .2 Overhead.1 . Zone 1 Figure 10. II (2) or III (2) that are normally of Category C on release. it is recommended to classify the ullage space as Zone 0. It must not be stored. II(2) or III(2)) This document is the property of Total. Page 68/71 . II(2) or III(2) that are normally of Category C on release. the extent and classification of the hazardous areas shall be as shown below: Zon 3m e1 2m Zone 0 3m Zone 2 Pit.1 Overhead. III (1) or unclassified) 10.Fixed roof storage tank (Fluid class I.Floating roof storage tank (Fluid class I. fixed roof storage tanks For fixed roof storage tanks containing liquids of Classes I. and that the flash-point of heavy fuels or bitumen in heated storage is not reliable. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. Zone 1 1m Zone 0 Figure 10. if any.

instrument vents and all other equipment shall be determined as per the standard rules given in Appendices 5 and 6 This document is the property of Total.4 and 10.5 m 7.LPG storage vessel < 200 m3 assumed to be 15 m PSV discharge at this location Storage vessel Capacity > 200 m3 Zone 2 Zone 1 10 m 0. It must not be stored.Exploration & Production Date : 01/2011 General Specification Rev : 05 GS EP SAF 216 Appendix 10 PSV discharge 7.5 m 7. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company. cylinder)  The hazardous areas generated by piping connections. sample points. Page 69/71 .5 m 10.4 .5 . and the Zone 2 envelope is made of cylinders with a vertical axis containing the PSV discharge point  The size and shape of the hazardous areas are determined by the location of the storage vessel and the volume of the vessel containing LPG under pressure (less or more than 200 m3).3 LPG storage stored under pressure Zone 2 5m assumed to be Zone 1 at this location 7.6 m Ground Figure 10. They do not depend on the shape of the storage vessel (sphere. The Zone 1 envelope is a sphere centred on the PSV discharge point.5 m Storage vessel Capacity < 200 m3 Ground Figure 10.5:  The figures are the cross-sections of the LPG storage vessel which contain the Pressure Safety Valve (PSV) discharge point.LPG Storage vessel > 200 m3 Notes on figures 10.

Page 70/71 . 3m Self-closing airtight door Laboratory ZONE 2 3m Adequate ventilation Exhaust fan creating under pressure Figure 11. 11. helipads and air strips Any point of these areas as well as any area being part of a helicopter/plane approach Zone shall be no less than 2 m away from the border of any Zone 2 and 9 m away from the border of any Zone 1 and Zone 0. This standard design is regarded as safe considering the risk specific to this situation. may exit into the outlet of the turbine main exhaust chimney.2 .1 .1.Flanges and valves. such containers should generate a hazardous area Zone 2. 11.6. 11. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.5 Chimneys and exhausts Chimney outlets shall be at least 2 m away from the border of any hazardous area Zone 2 and 9 m away from the border of any hazardous areas Zone 1 or 0 14.2 Helidecks.Laboratories 11. 11. although generating a Zone 1 hazardous area. extending X m from the envelope of the containers(s).1 Roads and railways The main roads of a plant (peripheral roads) shall be kept no less than 2 m away from the border of any Zone 2 and 9 m away from the border of any Zone 1 and Zone 0.6. It must not be stored. 14 Vents from turbine lube oil tanks.6. This document is the property of Total.3 Boats The boat landing and/or the mooring facilities shall be such that tugs or supply boats are kept 2 m away from the border of any hazardous area Zone 2 and 9 m away from the border of any hazardous areas Zone 1 and 0.Exploration & Production General Specification Date: 01/2011 GS EP SAF 216 Rev: 05 Appendix 11 Appendix 11 Miscellaneous 11.2 Small storage of flammable products Since a leak from properly designed containers can only be accidental. 11. X should be determined as per Table 5.9 of Appendix 5. 11.1 Laboratories The hazardous areas generated by the doors (vapour-tight or not) and the fan exhausts shall extend to 3 m as shown in Figure 11.6 Traffic 11.4 Air exhausts Air exhausts from a classified enclosed area should generate a hazardous area of 3 m radius with the same classification as the enclosed area.3 Air intakes Air intakes shall be located at least 2 m away from the border of any hazardous area.

2.Classification of enclosed buildings This document is the property of Total. Figure 11. Page 71/71 .7 Enclosed buildings This section is intended to provide examples of the application of these rules. reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.2 . It must not be stored.Exploration & Production General Specification Date: 01/2011 GS EP SAF 216 Rev: 05 Appendix 11 11. Installation of self-closing airtight door is recommended. Note 1: Zone classification and extent to be defined according Appendices 5 and 6 assuming the door is wide open. as shown in Figure 11.