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A REPORT ON DESIGN

Submitted By:
Noor-Ul-Ain
BS (Hons)Part- II (2nd Year)
Session 2014-2015

GOVT. COLLEGE OF HOME ECONOMICS GULBERG,
LAHORE.

A Report submitted to the University of the Punjab, in the Partial Fulfilment for the
requirement of Examination in the subject of Housing, Home Furnishing And

Residence Programme offered in B.S part II (2nd Year) Home Economics to be
held in Year 2015

Submitted by:
Noor.ul.ain
Submitted to:
Miss Seema

Signature: ___________________
Remarks: ___________________
Roll No: ___________________

Acknowledgement
Thanks to Almighty Allah for blessing us with such skills of reading, writing, dealing with
people, without Whome, the project couldn’t be completed. Thousands of Blessings on holy
Prophet, Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W), The Best teacher for whol world.
I would like to pay my gratitude to Miss Seema for her continuous guidance and support
throughout the report. Lastly to my family, bundle of thanks for supportingme financially as well
as morally. Thanks to all!

Contents
Chapter no.
1……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………
Introduction………………………………………………………………………
………………………………..
Chapter no.
2……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………
Elements of
design .............................................................................................
.........
1. line .................................................................................................
......................
2. Form ...............................................................................................
.....................
3. Texture……………………………………………………………………………
………………………………
4. Color ...............................................................................................
.....................
Chapter no.
3……………………………………………………………………………………
…………….……..
Principles of
design………………………………………………………………………………
………..…….
1. Pattern……………………………………………………………………………
…………………………….
2. Balance……………………………………………………………………………
………………..…………. 3.

Proportion…………………………………………………………………………
………………………….
4.
Emphasis………………………………………………………………………
………………………………. 5.
Rhytm……………………………………………………………………………
………………………….…..
Chapter no.
4……………………………………………………………………………………
………………… Goals of
design………………………………………………………………………………
……………………
1. Appropriateness…………………………………………………………………
………………………..
2. Unity………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………….
References.......................................................................................
.......................

CHAPTER 1
Introduction
Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object or a system (as
in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams and
sewing patterns).

Design has different connotations in different fields . In some cases the direct construction of an
object (as inpottery, engineering, management, cowboy coding and graphic design) is also
considered to be design.
More formally design has been defined as follows.
(noun) a specification of an object, manifested by an agent, intended to accomplish goals,
in a particular environment, using a set of primitive components, satisfying a set of
requirements, subject to constraints;
(verb, transitive) to create a design, in an environment (where the designer operates)
Another definition for design is a roadmap or a strategic approach for someone to

achieve a unique expectation. It defines the specifications, plans, parameters, costs,

activities, processes and how and what to do within legal, political, social,

environmental, safety and economic constraints in achieving that objective.

A well design home provides a pleasent atmosphere for those who live there. It is both attractive
and functional.
Design disciplines

Applied arts

Interior design

Architecture

Communication design

Configuration design

Engineering design

Fashion design

Game design

Graphic design

Information Architecture

Industrial design

Instructional design

Interaction design

Landscape architecture

Lighting design

Modular design

Motion graphic design

Product design

Process design

Service design

Software design

Sound design

Systems architecture

Systems design

Systems modeling

Transition Design

Urban design

User experience design

Visual design

The study of design may be broken down into tree main areas:
1. Elements of design
2. Principals of design
3. The goals of design

CHAPTER 2
Elements of Design
The elements design are:
1. Line
2. Form
3. Texture
4. Colour
Each of these elements plays equally important role in the overall success of a design, be it the
design of a residential structure, a specific room in a home, or a piece of furniture.

1. Line:
Line is the visual path that enables the eye to move within the piece. It gives direction to a
design. Literal lines do not exist in nature, but are the optical phenomena created when objects
curve away from the viewer. Any such elements can be of dramatic use in the composition of the
design. Additionally, less obvious lines can be created, intentionally or not, which influence the
direction of the viewer's gaze. These could be the borders of areas of differing color or contrast,
or sequences of discrete elements, or the designer may exaggerate or create lines perhaps as part
of his style, for this purpose. In design one type of line should dominate. Others may be added
for interest

.

Source of line: Movement is a source of line, and blur can create a reaction. Subject lines by
means of illusion contribute to both mood and linear perspective, giving the illusion of depth.
Oblique lines convey a sense of movement and angular lines generally convey a sense of

dynamism and possibly tension. Lines can also direct attention towards the main subject of
designe, or contribute to organization by dividing it into compartments.
The brain often unconsciously reads near continuous lines between different elements and
subjects at varying distances.

Types of line: Different types of line have different effects on design.types of lines are as
follows.
 Straight lines:
Straight lines add affection and can make it look more detailed and challenging. Horizontal,
vertical, and angled lines often contribute to creating different moods of a design. The angle and
the relationship to the size of the frame both work to determine the influence the line has on the
design.
Horizontal lines, lead the eye nto the left or right suggesting informality and restfulness. They
can be seen in long low roofs and in lng, low furniture such as sofas and chests. Horizontal lines
can make buildings, rooms, and furniture seem wider and lower.
Vertical lines, tends to have the impression of height, and grandeur. Vertical lines lead the eye
up, addind height, formality, nd strength to a design. Thay can be seen in tall furniture, striped
wall paper, long, narrow draperies, and colums and pillers. Vertical lines can make a ceiling
appear higher and rooms seen more specious than they actually. They can also make the exterior
of a dwelling seam taller and narrower.
Diagonal lines, suggest action, movement and excitment. Since diangonal lines can be over
powering and tiring they should be used sparingly in design. Tightly angled convergent lines
give a dynamic, lively, and active effect to the image whereas strongly angled, almost diagonal

lines generally produce tension in the image. Diagonal lines are present in gable roofs, cathideral
ceilings and stare cases. Viewpoint is very important when dealing with lines particularly. By
changing the perspective only by some degrees or some centimetres lines in design can change
tremendously and a totally different feeling can be transported.
 Curved lines:
Curved lines are generally used to create a sense of flow within the design. They are also
generally more aesthetically pleasing, as we associate them with soft things. Compared to
straight lines, curves provide a greater dynamic influence in a design.
However, too many cureved lines create a busy look. Curved lines can be seen in door way,
aches, ruffled curtains, curved furniture and accessories.
2. Form:
Form may be described as any three-dimensional object. Form can be measured, from top to
bottom (height), side to side (width), and from back to front (depth). Form is also defined by
light and dark. It can be defined by the presence of shadows on surfaces or faces of an object.
There are two types of form, geometric (man-made) and natural (organic form). Form may be
created by the combining of two or more shapes. It may be enhanced by tone, texture and color.
It can be illustrated or constructed. The form pertains to the volume or perceived volume.
Threedimensional artwork has depth as well as width and heigh.

Related forms tend to look better together than unrelated forms. A room is more peasing if a form
of dominant pieces is repeated in minor pieces and accessories within a room.
3. Texture:
Texture is surface qualities which translate into tactile illusions . Meaning the way a surface feels
or is perceived to feel. Texture can be added to attract or repel interest to an elment, depending
on the pleasantness of the texture. Ribbed, crinkled, rough, and smooth texture are some words
used to dscribe various textures.texture can affect color by subduing or intensifying it.smooth
surface reflect more light than rough surfaces, making them look lighter and brighter.rough
textured surface absorb more light,making them look darker and less tense.for instance,red carpet
looks darker and duller than red ceramic tile.

Types of texture:

Physical Texture:
Physical texture, also known as actual texture or tactile texture, are the actual variations upon a
surface. This can include, but is not limited to, fur, wood grain, sand, smooth surface of canvas
or metal, glass, and leather. It differentiates itself from visual texture by having a physical quality
that can be felt by touch. Specific use of a texture can affect the smoothness. For instance, use of
rough surfaces can be visually active, whilst smooth surfaces can be visually restful. The use of
both can give a sense of personality to a design, or utilized to create emphasis, rhythm, contrast,
etc. Tactile texture is the actual three-dimension feel of a surface that can be touched.

Visual Texture
Visual texture is the illusion of having physical texture. Every material and every support surface
has its own visual texture and needs to be taken into consideration before creating a composition.
Texture in these are generally created by the repetition of shape and line.
Hypertexture:
Hypertexture can be defined as both the "realistic simulated surface texture produced by adding
small distortions across the surface of an object" (as pioneered by Ken Perlin) and a new avenue
for describing the fluid morphic nature of texture in the realm of cyber graphics and the
tranversally responsive works created. Visual texture is the illusion of the surfaces peaks and
valleys, like the tree pictured. Any texture shown in a design is a visual texture, meaning the
design is smooth no matter how rough the image perceives it to be.
Most textures have a natural touch but still seem to repeat a motif in some way. Regularly
repeating a motif will result in a texture appearing as a pattern.

4. Color:
Is the property possessed by an object of producing different sensations on the eye as a result of
the way it reflects or emits light.
"the lights flickered and changed colour"
Color is the element of art that is produced when light, striking an object, is reflected back to the
eye Color is the most exciting tool of the designer. It offers unlimited opportunities for
decorating. Color can help to create a mood within a room. It can communicate excitement,
romance, or solitude. Color is characterized by attributes such as hue, brightness,
and saturation. Color symbolism assigns additional associations, dependent on culture. For
example, white has long suggested purity, but it can also take slightly different meanings such as
peace, or innocence.
Synonyms:

hue, shade, tint, tone, tinge, cast, tincture.

Properties of color:
There are three properties to color.

Hue:
The first is hue, which simply means the name we give to a color (red, yellow, blue, green,
etc.).

Intensity:
The second property is intensity, which refers to the vividness of the color. For example, we may
describe an intense blue color as "bright, rich, and vibrant". We may conversely describe a lowintensity blue color as "dull, subtle and grayed". A color's intensity is sometimes referred to as its
"colorfulness", its "saturation", its "purity" or its "strength". A color's perceived intensity is
related to its perceived brightness (brighter colors are more intense).

Value: The third and final property of color is its value, meaning how light or dark it is.
The terms shade and tint are in reference to value changes in colors.
In painting, shades are created by adding black to a color, while tints are created by adding
white to a color.

Color wheel:
A color wheel or color circle is an abstract illustrative organization of color hues around a circle
that shows relationships between primary colors, secondary colors, tertiary colors etc.
Some sources use the terms color wheel and color circle interchangeably; however, one term or
the other may be more prevalent in certain fields or certain versions as mentioned above. For
instance, some reserve the term color wheel for mechanical rotating devices, such as color tops
or filter wheels. Others classify various color wheels as color disc, color chart, and color scale
varieties.

As an illustrative model, artists typically use red, yellow, and blue primaries (RYB color model)
arranged at three equally spaced points around their color wheel. Printers and others who use
modern subtractive color methods and terminology use magenta, yellow, and cyan as subtractive
primaries. Intermediate and interior points of color wheels and circles represent color mixtures.
In a paint or subtractive color wheel, the "center of gravity" is usually (but not always) black,
representing all colors of light being absorbed; in a color circle, on the other hand, the center is
white or gray, indicating a mixture of different wavelengths of light (all wavelengths, or two
complementary colors, for example).

Contents:
Colors of the color wheel. Color wheel with red, green, and violet "plus colors" and magenta,
yellow, and cyan blue "minus colors"

Primary colors: The typical artists' paint or pigment color wheel includes the blue, red, and
yellow primary colors.

Secondary colors: The corresponding secondary colors are green, orange, and violet or purple.

Tertiary colors: The tertiary colors are red–orange, red–violet, yellow–orange, yellow– green,
blue–violet and blue–green.
Most color wheels are based on three primary colors, three secondary colors, and the six
intermediates formed by mixing a primary with a secondary, known as tertiary colors, for a total
of 12 main divisions; some add more intermediates, for 24 named colors. Other color wheels,
however, are based on the four opponent colors, and may have four or eight main colors.

Goethe's Theory:
Goethe's Theory of Colours provided the first systematic study of the physiological effects of
color (1810). His observations on the effect of opposed colors led him to a symmetric
arrangement of his color wheel, "for the colours diametrically opposed to each other… are those
that reciprocally evoke each other in the eye." (Goethe, Theory of Colours, 1810 ). In this, he
anticipated

Wavelengths of colors: A color circle based on spectral wavelengths appears with red at
one end of the spectrum and violet at the other. A wedge-shaped gap represents colors that have
no unique spectral frequency. These extra-spectral colors, the purples, form from additive
mixture of colors from the ends of the spectrum.

In normal human vision, wavelengths of between about 400 nm and 700 nm are represented by
this incomplete circle, with the longer wavelengths equating to the red end of the spectrum.
Complements are located directly opposite each other on this wheel. These complements are not
identical to those in pigment mixing (such as are used in paint), but when lights are additively
mixed in the correct proportions appear as a neutral grey or white.

Newton's color circle: Arranging spectral colors in a circle to predict admixture of light
stems from work by Sir Isaac Newton. Newton's calculation of the resulting color involves three
steps: First, mark on the color circle the constituent colors according to their relative weight.
Second, find the barycenter of these differently weighted colors. Third, interpret the radial
distance (from the center of the circle to the barycenter) as the saturation of the color, and the
azimuthal position on the circle as the hue of the color. Thus, Newton's color circle is a
predecessor of the modern, horseshoe-shaped CIE color diagram.

Color scheme:
A color scheme is the choice of colors used in design for a range of media. For example,
Achromatic: The "Achromatic" use of a white background with black text is an example of a
basic and commonly default color scheme in web design.
Color schemes are used to create style and appeal. Colors that create an aesthetic feeling when
used together will commonly accompany each other in color schemes. A basic color scheme will
use two colors that look appealing together.

Analogous: More advanced color schemes involve several related colors in "Analogous"
combination, for example, text with such colors as red, yellow, and orange arranged together on
a black background in a magazine article. The addition of light blue creates an "Accented
Analogous" color scheme.
Monochromatic: Color schemes can contain different "Monochromatic" shades of a single
color; for example, a color scheme that mixes different shades of green, ranging from very light
(white), to very neutral (gray), to very dark (black).
Complementary: colors make each other look brighter and more intense. When red is next to
green, the red looks “more red” and the green looks “more green”.
Double complementary: Uses two complementary schemes together such as green and red wiyh
blue and orange.
Split complementary: Color scheme, one hue is chosen, and the two hues on either side of its
complement are used with it.
Triad: Is the combination of any three colors that are of equal distance from each other on the
color wheel.

Chapter 3
Principles of design
Principles applied to the elements of design that bring them together into oWhen successfully
combined with the elements of design they aid in creating an aesthetically pleasing or interesting
work of design. How one applies these principles determines how successful a design may be.
Principles of design are:
1. Pattern
2. Balance
3. Proportion
4. Emphasis
5. Rhythm

1. Pattern:
Pattern is showing consistency with colors or lines. Putting a red spiral at the bottom left and top
right for example, will cause the eye to move from one spiral, to the other, and everything in
between. It is indicating movement by the repetition of elements. Rhythm can make an artwork
seem

2. Balance:

Balance is arranging elements so that no one part of a work overpowers, or seems heavier than
any other part. The two different kinds of balance are symmetrical, asymmetrical.
Symmetrical (or formal) balance is the most stable, when both sides of an design on either side
of the horizontal or vertical axis of the picture plane are exactly (or nearly exactly) the same the
work is said to exhibit this type of balance. It gives a quiet, orderly feeling to a room. It is also a
principle that deals with the visual weight of an artwork.
Asymmetrical balance is the placement of different, but equivalent, objects on either side of a
central point. Various forms, texture, and colors can be used togather to achieve informal
balance.

3. Proportion:
Proportion is a measurement of the size and quantity of elements within a composition. In
ancient arts, proportions of forms were enlarged to show importance. Using the relative size of
elements against each other can attract attention to a focal point. When elements are designed
larger than life, scale is being used to show drama.
Furniture and accessories should be in proportion to the room in which they are placed, and they
should be in proportion to each other. E.g a large canopy bed would look best in a large bed room
with a high ceilng. A small dinning room table would look best with a small light fixture above
it.

4. Emphasis:
Emphasis is created by contrasting size, positioning, color, style, or shape. The focal point
should dominate the design with scale and contrast without sacrificing the unity of the whole.
Emphasis is where the artist makes a certain part of the artwork stand out, or catch your eye.

To achieve affective emphasis, two guidelines need to be kept in mind. First, the point of
emphasis should dominate, but it should not overpower every thing else in the room or design.
Second, no other features should compete with the focal point.

5. Rhythm:
Rhythm leads the eye from one place to an other in a design. Rhythm is created when one or
more elements of design are used repeatedly to create a feeling of organized movement. Rhythm
creates a mood like music or dancing. To keep rhythm exciting and active, variety is essential.
Rhythm can be created through repetition gradation transation and radiation.
Rhythm by repetition can be achieved by repeating color, line, form, or texture.
Gradation is rhythm created by a gradual change in color value, from dark to light, a change in
form, from large to small.
Rhythm through transition is created by curved lines that carry the eye over and architectural
feature. It is also used to carry the eye over rounded parts of furniture.
Radiation is rhythm created by lines that flow outward from a central point. It can be found in
the lines of flower arrangemnt, a light fixture, or the leg supports of the table.

Chapter 4

Goals of design
The elements and principles of design can be used to meet the goals of deigsn. Goals of deisn
include appropriateness and unit.

Appropriateness:
Good design should be appropriate for its intended function and for the life style of the house
hold.
Example: the furniture and accessories in a living room should be appropriate for thr function of
relaxation, conversation and intertaining. Comfortable chairs and soft lighting would be
appropriate for these functions. Appropriatenees for the life style of a family should also be
considered.a family with several small children would find durable, easy care furniture and
carpeting most appropriate for their living room.a household member who designs pottery as a
hobby may find a pottery display case in the living room appropriate.good design is appropriate
for personality, needs, and value of family members.

Unity:

Unity is a main goal of graphic design. When all elements are in agreement, a design is
considered unified. No individual part is viewed as more important than the whole design. A
good balance between unity and variety must be established to avoid a chaotic or a lifeless
design. Harmony is achieved in a physical body of work by using small similar particles
throughout the course, and gives a complicated look to a piece of work or drawing.
Colour harmony or colour theory is also considered a principle through the application of the
design element of colour. Unity is the feeling of harmony between all parts of the work of art,
which creates a sense of completeness.
Unity is achieved by repeating certain elements of design. A dominant type of line, form, texture
and color, should be apparent in the design. Contrasting lines, forms, textures, and colors can be
used to add inerest and variety, but they should not compete with the dominant elements.
Example: E.g light browns and bages may be used through out the room for unity.

References:

www.google.com www.wikipedia
Downer, Marion (1947). Discovering Design. Lothrop Lee & Shepard. ISBN 0-688-41266-1.