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Mechanical Engineering Department

**Mechanical Engineering 370
**

Thermodynamics

Fall 2010 Course Number: 14319

Instructor: Larry Caretto

**Unit Twelve Homework Solutions, December 7, 2010
**

1

A refrigerator uses R-134a as the working fluid and operates on an ideal vaporcompression refrigeration cycle between 0.12 and 0.7 MPa. The mass flow rate of the

refrigerant is 0.05 kg/s. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to the saturation

lines. Determine (a) the rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and the power

input to the compressor, (b) the rate of heat rejection to the environment, and (c) the

coefficient of performance.

3

2

Condenser

Throttling

Valve

Compressor

Evaporator

4

1

**The state points for the cycle are shown on the
**

diagram. For the ideal cycle there is no

pressure drop or work in a heat transfer device

so P1 = P4 = 0.12 MPa and P2 = P3 = 0.7 MPa.

The compressor is assumed to be isentropic so

s2 = s1. State 1 is a saturated vapor and state 3

is a saturated liquid.

We apply the first law for open systems

assuming steady flow and negligible changes

in kinetic and potential energies; each device

has one inlet and one outlet. Thus our first law

hout hin

for each device is Q W m

**We can find the enthalpy values from tables A-11 to A-13.
**

h1 = hg(Pevap = 120 kPa) = 236.97 kJ/kg

s1 = sg(Pevap = 120 kPa) = 0.94779 kJ/kg∙K

**h2 = h(P2 = Pcond = 700 kPa, s2 = s1= 0.94779 kJ/kg∙K) = 273.54 kJ/kg∙K by interpolation.
**

h3 = hf(Pcond = 700 kPa) = 88.82 kJ/kg

For the throttling valve, h4 = h3 so, h4 = hf(Pcond = 700 kPa) = 88.82 kJ/kg

Since there is no useful work in the evaporator, we can find the heat removed from the

refrigerated space (the evaporator) using the first law as follows.

0.05 kg 236.97 kJ 88.82 kJ

h1 h4

Q

evap m

s

kg

kg

kW s

1 kJ

Q

evap 7.41 kW

**Since there is no heat transfer to the compressor, we can find the compressor power input using
**

the first law as follows.

0.05 kg

h1 h2

W

comp m

s

**Jacaranda (Engineering) 3519
**

E-mail: lcaretto@csun.edu

236.97 kJ

273.54 kJ

kg

kg

Mail Code

8348

kW s

1 kJ

W

comp 1.83 kW

**Phone: 818.677.6448
**

Fax: 818.677.7062

46 kW For this cycle. will remain the same as they were in problem 1.2749) kg kg kg With this value of h4. h4 from the quality in the usual fashion. The isentropic turbine work can be used to reduce the work input to the compressor.41 = 4.7062 . The values of h1.41 kW 1.368 kW The net cycle work is just the difference between the compressor input and the turbine output: W net Wcomp Wturb 1. h2. Refer to the diagram for problem 1.24 kW Finally.33230 kJ 0. Q H Qcond Q L W Qcond Wcomp 7.78 kW 1 kJ 7. Here we compute the enthalpy. 0.677.6448 Fax: 818. We can find this high temperature heat transfer from the general cycle relationship: Q H Q L W .49 kJ 214.83 kW Q H 9. (and the value of h1 from problem 10-11) the evaporator heat transfer becomes h4 h f ( P4 120kPa) x4 h fg ( P4 120kPa) 0.2749 0.82 kJ 81.97 kJ 81. 1 is replaced by an isentropic turbine.09725 kJ kg K kg K 0.The heat rejected to the environment is the evaporator heat transfer. Jacaranda (Engineering) 3519 E-mail: lcaretto@csun. At the evaporator pressure of 120 kMPa.edu Mail Code 8348 Phone: 818. determine the percentage increase in the COP and in the rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space. The available work from the turbine is found as follows.85503 kJ kg K 22.368 kW W net 1. this becomes. we find the coefficient of performance the values computed above for work and heat.41 above the value in problem 1.05 If the throttling valve in Prob. cop 2 Q evap W comp 7. this entropy value is in the mixed region.7 MPa) = 0.48 kJ 81.454 kJ kg kg kW s 1 kJ W turb 0.45 kJ (0. x4 s 4 s f ( P4 120kPa) s fg ( P4 120kPa ) 0.05 kg h3 h4 W turb m s 88. only the value of h4 will change. For an isentropic process from point 3 to point 4.83 kW cop = 4.33230 kJ/kg∙K. For the refrigeration cycle. the coefficient of performance is the ratio of Q to W evap net . and h3.97% for the heat removed form the refrigerated space 7.677.05 kg 236.45 kJ h4 h1 Q evap m s kg kg This is an increase of kW s 7.41 kW 1. If the throttling valve is replaced by an isentropic turbine. s 4 = s3 = sf(Pcond = 0.828 kW 0.78 7.

78 kJ 239 .677.05)/4.9322 kJ/kg∙K) = 275. Phone: 818.32 The percent increase in the cop is (5.37.16 kJ/kg – (239.2%.s)/s = 239.16 kJ/kg s1 = sg(Pevap = 140 kPa) = 0. Since the compressor is a work input device.47 kJ h1 h4 kg kg 281 .40 kJ/kg. Determine (a) the quality of the refrigerant at the end of the throttling process. each device has one inlet and one outlet.s = s1= 0.7062 . s2. The refrigerant enters the compressor as a saturated vapor at 140 kPa and is compressed to 800 kPa. State 1 is a saturated vapor and state 3 is a saturated liquid. h3 = hf(Pcond = 800 kPa) = 93. 3 A 300 kJ/min refrigeration system operates on a vapor-compression refrigeration cycle with refrigerant 134a as the working fluid and an isentropic efficiency of 85 percent for the compressor.78 kW 1.edu Mail Code 8348 COP = 3. h4 = h3 so. For the ideal cycle there is no pressure drop or work in a heat transfer device so P1 = P4 = 140 kPa and P2 = P3 = 800 kPa. COP q evap wcomp 239. Thus our first law hout hin for each device is Q W m We can find the enthalpy values from tables A-11 to A-13.16 kJ 95.cop Q evap W net 7.46 kW cop = 5. 16 kJ h2 h1 kg kg Jacaranda (Engineering) 3519 E-mail: lcaretto@csun. We apply the first law for open systems assuming steady flow and negligible changes in kinetic and potential energies. 3 2 Condenser Throttling Valve Compressor Evaporator 1 4 The state points for the cycle are shown on the diagram.s = s1. x4 h4 h f ( P4 140 kPa) h fg ( P4 140 kPa) 95.47 kJ/kg We can find the quality at the throttling valve exit as follows.42 kJ/kg For the throttling valve.47 kJ 27.08 kJ kg x4 = 32.08 kJ kg kg 212.32 – 4.677. h4 = hf(Pcond = 800 kPa) = 95.94456 kJ/kg∙K h2.05 = 31.39 kJ/kg∙K)/(85%) = 278. The ideal compressor is assumed to be isentropic so s2.5%. (b) the coefficient of performance and (c) the power input to the compressor.39 kJ/kg∙K by interpolation. We find the COP from the usual equation in terms of the cycle enthalpy values.16 kJ/kg – 275. we can find the actual value of h 2 by the equation h2 = h1 – (h1 – h2.s = h(P2 = Pcond = 800 kPa.6448 Fax: 818. h1 = hg(Pevap = 140 kPa) = 239.

62 kJ/kg. To handle the variable heat capacity. P3 RT3 RT3 RT3 v1 RT3 P (CR )T3 (95 kPa )(8)(1539 K ) (CR ) 1 3. The cycle efficiency is found as from the usual equation. The isothermal compression process from point one to point two is computed as follows using the vr values from Table A-17. For the constant volume heat addition. constant-volume processes: |qL| = |u1 – u4| = |214.07 kJ/kg – 571. v 4 v r (T4 ) v 3 v r (T3 ) v r (T4 ) v r (T3 ) v4 571. and (d) the mean effective pressure for the cycle. (b) the net work output. = |w|/|qH| = (392.2 77.5 K and u 4 v3 kg The low temperature heat rejection is found from the first law for closed-system.69 kJ (6.588)(8) 52. we find T3 = 1539 and vr(T3) = 6.70 T4 774.677.38 kJ/kg) / (750 kJ/kg) or = 52. v2 v r (T2 ) v1 v r (T1 ) v r (T2 ) v r (T1 ) v2 1 491.15 K ) P1 The isentropic expansion from point 3 to point 4 is computed in the same way as the isentropic compression from point 1 to point 2. Jacaranda (Engineering) 3519 E-mail: lcaretto@csun. vmax = v1 and vmin = v2 = v1/CR.7062 .677.07 kJ/kg and vr(300 K) = 621.48 kW An ideal Otto cycle has a compression ratio of 8.edu Mail Code 8348 Phone: 818.588. use the ideal gas tables for air (Table A-17.2 kJ/kg. At this value of internal energy.38 kJ/kg. we apply the first law to get u3 = u2 + qH = 491. At the beginning of the compression process.2 kJ/kg + 750 kJ/kg = 1241.6448 Fax: 818. We can then find the new work as the difference between the two cycle heat transfers: |w| = |qH| .2 kJ 621.The required power input to the compressor is found from the refrigerant heat load and the cop. Thus. Taking into account the variation of specific heats with temperature. air is at 95 kPa and 27oC.15 K we find u1 ≈ u(300 K) = 214. The pressure at point 3 can be found from the ideal gas law.69 kJ/kg| = 357.898 kPa v3 v2 v1 v 2 RT1 T1 (300.37 Q evap W comp 1. starting on page 849).2. The mean effective pressure is defined by the equation mep = |w|/(v max – vmin). we can find our mean effective pressure as follows. (c) the thermal efficiency.3%.|qL| = 750 kJ/kg – 357.62 kJ/kg or |w| = 392. At the initial temperature of 27oC = 300.1 K and u2 v1 8 kg The values of T2 and u2 are found by interpolation. For the Otto cycle. and 750 kJ/kg of heat is transferred to air during the constant-volume heat addition process. determine (a) the pressure and temperature at the end of the heataddition process. W comp 4 300 kJ min kW s min 60 s 1 kJ cop 3.65 T2 673.

04 kJ/k . The inlet enthalpy to the turbine is found from the first law for the heat addition step: q H = hturb. isentropic turbine.19 kJ/kg – 586.83 kJ/kg.edu Mail Code 8348 Phone: 818.0 kJ/kg The compressor work input as a fraction of the turbine work output is now found. Air enters the compressor of a gas-turbine engine at 300 k and 100 kPa.0 kJ/kg) |wcomp|/|wturb| = 52.905. For each component in the gas turbine cycle we assume that the component is steady flow with negligible kinetic and potential energy changes.s) = Pr(Tin)(Pout/Pin) where Pr(Tin) = 474.285.287 kJ (300. For a turbine efficiency of 86% determine (a) the fraction of the turbine work ouput used to drive the compressor and (b) the thermal efficiency.0%.in – hcomp.04 kJ/kg. starting on page 849). we find the end state from the ideal gas table relation for isentropic processes: Pr(Tout. The actual turbine work then is found as w = s(hin – hout.to compute the air properties with variable heat capacity.6448 Fax: 818. We will use the air tables (Table A-17. Assume variable specific heats for air.= 950 kJ/kg + 586.04 kJ/kg = 1536. The efficiency is found from the usual equation. = h(300 K) – h(580 K) = 300. Interpolation in the ideal gas tables gives h out.in = qH + hcomp.85 kJ/kg. For the compressor.s = 905.677.out.s) =(86%)(536.0 kJ/kg .04 kJ/kg = -285.7062 . We assume that there is no work input in the heat addition step and that the compressor and turbine are adiabatic. For the ideal.73.11 and Pout/Pin = (100 kPa)/(700 kPa) so that Pr(Tout.38 kJ kg 0.83 kJ/kg) = 542. with q = 0.677. becomes w = h in – hout. Wturb = s(hin – hout.s) = 474. where it is compressed to 700 kPA and 580 K. = |wnet|/|qH| = (542.15 K ) 1 kg K 1 95 kPa 8 mep = 495 kPa. the first law.7%. Jacaranda (Engineering) 3519 E-mail: lcaretto@csun. Heat is transferred to air in the amount of 950 kJ/kg before it enters the turbine.85 kJ/kg| / (542. |wcomp|/|wturb| = |-285.85 kJ/kg) / (950 kJ/kg) or = 27. We also assume that there is no pressure loss during the heat addition step so that the compressor exit pressure of 700 kPa is the same as the turbine entrance pressure. so that hturb.11/7 = 67. We can then find the turbine work.out.s).mep 5 w 1 v1 1 CR w RT1 P1 1 1 CR 392. Each component has one inlet and one outlet so that the general first law for each component in this system is q = w u + hout – hin.

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