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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 26, NO.

3, MARCH 2011

897

A High-Efficiency PV Module-Integrated DC/DC
Converter for PV Energy Harvest
in FREEDM Systems
Zhigang Liang, Student Member, IEEE, Rong Guo, Member, IEEE, Jun Li, Student Member, IEEE,
and Alex Q. Huang, Fellow, IEEE

Abstract—The future renewable electric energy delivery and
management (FREEDM) system provides a dc interface for alternative energy sources. As a result, photovoltaic (PV) energy can be
easily delivered through a dc/dc converter to the FREEDM system’s
dc bus. The module-integrated converter (MIC) topology is a good
candidate for a PV converter designed to work with the FREEDM
system. This paper compares the parallel connected dc MIC structure with its counterpart, the series connected MIC architecture.
From the presented analysis, the parallel connected architecture
was shown to have more advantages. In this paper, a high-efficiency
dual mode resonant converter topology is proposed for parallel connected dc MICs. This new resonant converter topology can change
resonant modes adaptively depending on the panel operation conditions. The converter achieves zero-voltage switching for primaryside switches and zero-current switching for secondary-side diodes
for both resonant modes. The circulation energy is minimized particularly for 5–50% of the rated power level. Thus, the converter
can maintain a high efficiency for a wide input range at different
output power levels. This study explains the operation principle of
the proposed converter and presents a dc gain analysis based on
the fundamental harmonic analysis method. A 240-W prototype
with an embedded maximum power point tracking controller was
built to evaluate the performance of the proposed converter. The
prototype’s maximum efficiency reaches 96.5% and an efficiency
increase of more than 10% under light load conditions is shown
when compared with a conventional LLC resonant converter.
Index Terms—DC-DC power converters, photovoltaic systems,
smart grid, solar power generation.

I. INTRODUCTION
HE global demand for electric energy has continuously
increased over the last few decades. Energy and the environment have become serious concerns in today’s world [1].
Alternative sources of energy generation have drawn more and
more attention in recent years. Photovoltaic (PV) sources are

T

Manuscript received July 1, 2010; revised January 9, 2011; accepted January
10, 2011. Date of current version May 13, 2011. Recommended for publication
by Associate Editor J. M. Guerrero.
Z. Liang and A. Q. Huang are with the Future Renewable Electric Energy
Delivery and Management (FREEDM) Systems Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC
27695 USA (e-mail: zliang2@ncsu.edu; aqhuang@ncsu.edu).
R. Guo is with the International Rectifier Rhode Island Design Center,
Warwick, RI 02818 USA (e-mail: rguo1@irf.com).
J. Li is with the ABB U.S. Corporate Research Center, Raleigh, NC 27606
USA (e-mail: jun.li@us.abb.com).
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2011.2107581

Fig. 1.

Part of the FREEDM system diagram.

predicted to become the biggest contributors to electricity generation among all renewable energy generation candidates by
2040 [2], [3]. In 2009, almost 7.5 GW of new PV capacity was
added worldwide and it is expected that the global installed PV
capacity could reach 10 GW in 2010 [4].
The large-scale utilization of renewable energy depends on
an advanced smart grid infrastructure where the users have the
ability to manage their energy consumption as well as use plugand-generate and plug-and-store energy devices at home and
in industrial applications [5], [6]. The future renewable electric
energy delivery and management (FREEDM) system is an intelligent electric power grid integrating highly distributed and
scalable alternative generating sources and storage with existing power systems to facilitate a renewable energy-based society [5]. The 400-V dc bus in the FREEDM system provides an
alternative interface for PV converters. Fig. 1 shows part of the
FREEDM system including an Intelligent Energy Management
(IEM) module. As a result, PV converters in a FREEDM system only need to have a dc/dc stage to interface with the dc bus.
Generally, this structure has several advantages.
1) Since the solid state transformer (SST) is the component
interfacing with electric grid, the PV converters’ controller
does not require a phase locked loop, current regulator, or
anti-islanding controller. Thus, the control task becomes
much simpler.
2) The PV converter can be comprised of a single power
stage.

0885-8993/$26.00 © 2011 IEEE

but the mismatch loss is serious in partial shading conditions [21]. In summary. 5. shown in Fig. COMPARISON OF MICS IN SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTIONS Both dc MICs and ac MICs are available in the market. . As shown in Fig. [19]. Cr is the resonant capacitor. MARCH 2011 Fig. Type II dc MICs. and the fact that any single failure of an MIC will not impact any other part of the system. the high gain requirement usually compromises its efficiency. it is difficult for an LLC resonant converter to maintain high efficiency for a wide input range under different load conditions. the HWR and voltage doubler will support the 400-V dc bus with their summed outputs. At present. Among these topologies. Table II summarizes the operation modes for the proposed converter and Vth is a predefined threshold voltage that is usually equal to the nominal voltage Vnom . As a result. dc MICs have two kinds of connection structures. a string or multistring of PV panels shares a single MPPT controller. Generally. However. zeta. Diode D4 is conducting to provide a path for the load current. leading to no direct connection between PV panels. Only dc MICs will be discussed in this paper. and resonant converters [42]. boost. significant research effort has been made to improve the performance of PV converters [7]–[9]. the power rating of both types of dc MICs is around 200 W–300 W. a new resonant dc/dc converter with dual operation modes is proposed. respectively. buck–boost. as they are suitable for the FREEDM system. current-fed push–pull [40]. For the first three operation conditions listed in Table II. Considering the mismatch loss together with the dc/ac conversion loss contributing to the whole PV system loss. respectively. In this paper. D3 and S3 form a unidirectional switch to enable or disable the HWR. Lr and Lm are the magnetizing inductance of transformers Tx2 and Tx1 . 2(a) shows a type I dc MIC configuration. [41]. For the MIC solution. The topologies suitable for this application can be categorized into two groups: nonisolated topologies and isolated topologies. Two types of dc MIC structure: (a) parallel connection and (b) series connection. For series connected PV panels used with a string/centralized inverter. III. S1 and S2 are two power MOSFETs. need to form a series connection to obtain a voltage high enough for interfacing with the dc bus. the HWR is disabled by turning off switch S3 . it is very possible to reduce the system cost for end users.898 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. and CO 3 is added to the secondary side of transformer Tx2 . the half-bridge LLC resonant converter is a good candidate due to its several unique advantages [44]–[46]. 2. NO. 4 and its key waveforms are depicted in Fig. [43]. However. The equivalent circuit for each stage is shown in Fig. DS 1 . S3 . Once VPV is smaller than Vth and PPV is lower than 50% of the rated power (Prated ). Fig. The typical maximum efficiency of these converters is around 80–97% [10]–[12]. consisting of multiple parallel connected MICs directly interfaced with a dc bus. II. 26. 2) Panel level hot-spot risk is removed [11] and panel lifetime can be improved. CS 2 are the body diodes and parasitic capacitances of S1 and S2 . the MIC solution allows for more flexible PV project planning and multifacet PV panel installation. cuk. Thus. D2 and Co1 . Table I summarizes the comparison results of the two MIC structures: the parallel connection is more flexible due to its stronger an- tipartial cloud capability. Hot spot takes place when a shaded cell within a partially shaded panel becomes reverse biased and dissipates power in the form of heat [22]. participates in the resonant circuit formed by Lm and Cr . a by-pass diode is added to each panel in practice. the converter’s efficiency is improved. OPERATION PRINCIPLE OF THE NEW RESONANT CONVERTER Fig. the converter behaves like a traditional LLC resonant converter with a voltage doubler [46]: an equivalent resonant inductor Lr . 2(b). 2. comprised of Lr and Llkg . MICs remove losses due to the mismatch between panels and support panel level maximum power point tracking (MPPT). For nonisolated topologies. Diode D3 blocks the conductive path of the body diode of S3 . For a string inverter or a centralized inverter. For the description of circuit operation (and for the subsequent dc gain derivation in the next section). the PV panel is working under condition #4 and the converter will operate in Mode II. The two system structures have different features. Isolated topologies mainly include flyback [33]–[39]. Co2 form a voltage doubler at the secondary side of Tx1 . For one switching period. MICs in a parallel configuration have higher fault tolerance and reliability that make them more promising for PV application in a FREEDM system. As a result. D1 . PV moduleintegrated converters (MICs) are gaining increasing amounts of attention due to their distinctive features [10]–[20]. 3 shows a circuit diagram of the proposed resonant converter. the operation of the converter in Mode II can be divided into nine stages. the following assumptions are made. D4 . 3. 3) Its “plug and play” feature simplifies system installation. By changing operation modes adaptively according to VPV and PPV . 1) The MIC is an integrated part of the PV panel. or their derivatives [23]–[32] are commonly used. A half-wave rectifier (HWR) formed by D3 . When the HWR is enabled. VOL. the by-pass diode is not necessary because each panel has its own MIC. Llkg is the sum of the leakage inductance of Tx1 and Tx2 . string/centralized inverters may have lower system efficiency than MICs due to higher mismatch loss although they usually have higher dc/ac conversion efficiency than MICs. CS 1 and DS 2 . Therefore.

Lr .: HIGH-EFFICIENCY PV MODULE-INTEGRATED DC/DC CONVERTER FOR PV ENERGY HARVEST IN FREEDM SYSTEMS 899 TABLE I COMPARISON OF TWO TYPES OF DC MIC STRUCTURE Fig. 3. Vcr continues to decrease and no current flows through the secondary side of either transformer.LIANG et al. Llkg ] and Cr . The operation processes of Mode II are specified as follows. Lr . 3) The turn ratio NT X 2 (Npri : Nsec ) of transformer TX 2 is the half of NT X 1 . Co2 together with Co3 supply the load current and VC o1 – VC o3 all decrease in this period. capacitor Cs2 (Cs1 ) will be charged (discharged) and the switching node voltage Vsw will increase accordingly. The output capacitors Co1 . stage 1 begins. Stage 1 (t0 –t1 ): When S2 is turned off at t = t0 . The body diodes and parasitic capacitance of S1 and S2 have been taken into account. Vsw reaches Vpv . Define NT X 2 = 1/2 NT X 1 = N . The output capacitors have equal values (Co1 = Co2 = Co3 ). it also includes the wire parasitic inductance. 2) Inductor Llkg includes the leakage inductance of TX 1 and TX 2 . Circuit diagram of the proposed resonant converter. Ds1 is forward biased and starts to conduct a current Ipri . the resonance of [Lm . and Llkg are all in resonance with Cr . Since Ipri is negative. Once Ipri becomes smaller than the magnetizing currents IL r and IL m . Inductors Lm . TABLE II SUMMARY OF OPERATION MODES FOR THE PROPOSED RESONANT CONVERTER 1) All the components are ideal. Stage 2 (t1 –t2 ): At time t = t1 . Ipri starts to decrease.

Transformer Tx1 ’s secondary voltage is lower than the output voltage. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. 4. MARCH 2011 Equivalent circuits for each operation stage (Mode II operation). Thus. Lr and Lm will be out of the resonance following this. since Ipri is still . ZVS turn on of S1 can be achieved at t2 . Stage 3 (t2 –t4 ): This stage begins when S1 is turned on at t = t2 . Similarly. This stage ends when Ipri is equal to IL m . the primary-side current Ipri is negative and flows through the body diode of S1 . the voltage across the primary side of Tx1 and Tx2 is clamped by Vout . 26. 3. is stopped. The magnetizing currents IL r and IL m continue to increase with the same slope as in Mode 2. and Ipri keeps increasing. The output current of the transformer Tx1 reaches zero. Stage 4 (t4 –t5 ): At t = t4 . NO. At this moment. The difference between Ipri and IL m will flow in the secondary side of Tx1 . Ipri and IL m are equal. The leakage inductor Llkg still resonates with Cr .900 Fig. Thus. the secondary side of Tx2 will conduct the current difference between Ipri and IL r . The current Ipri continues to decrease and changes its direction at t = t3 . Meanwhile. VOL. The rectifier diodes D1 and D3 conduct current and power is delivered to the load. The output is separated from transformer Tx1 . IL r and IL m start to decrease linearly.

Like the conventional LLC resonant converter. (2) Vosq (t) = Vout π n n =1. Instead. The current Ipri continues to decrease due to the resonance between [Lr . D3 is turned off with ZCS. no more current will flow in the secondary side of Tx2 . and Cr . the phase angle of Vosq (t) is assumed to be zero in (2). (6) Iout = irect (t)dt = TSW 0 π Iout can be expressed as Iout = Vout . The theoretical analysis of the aforementioned Mode II operation has been verified by the simulation with Simetrix.LIANG et al. The voltage applied to Lr is not clamped and Lr participates in the resonance again with Cr and Llkg . the voltage applied to Lm is clamped and IL m will drop linearly. 3). Pout = 120 W (50% of Prated ). No more current will flow in the secondary side of Tx1 . Stage 7 (t7 –t8 ): At time t = t7 . Lm participates into the resonance again and the resonance between [Llkg . From the aforementioned analysis. This stage ends when current Ipri = IL m . The fundamental harmonic analysis (FHA) method is widely used for dc gain analysis of resonant converters [47]–[50] and it is also valid for the analysis developed in this paper. Vosq (t) is an alternative square wave in phase with the rectifier current. Ipri = IL m . only Llkg resonates with Cr and Ipri decreases steeply. Llkg . DC GAIN ANALYSIS FOR THE PROPOSED CONVERTER OPERATION IN MODE II Fig. Vout = 400 V. the voltage-second Understanding of the dc gain characteristic for a resonant converter has equal importance as knowing its operation principle. Further. The Fourier expression of Vosq (t) is  1 4 sin(n2πfsw t). the energy transferred by Tx1 and Tx2 is different.3. Key waveforms of the proposed converter (Mode II operation). Llkg ] and Cr . the voltage applied to Lm (VL m ) decreases to zero and continues to become more negative. Rout (7) . larger than IL r . During this stage. Fig. The positive and negative parts of the current Ipri are not symmetrical.. IV. the average value of Iout can be calculated as √  TSW 2 2 2 2Irect . Since the dc gain characteristic for Mode I operation is the same as LLC resonant converter. IL r is equal to Ipri . the output current of Tx2 is not zero and power is delivered to the load through Tx2 . Its fundamental component Vo FHA (t) is 4 Vout sin(2πfsw t). S2 is turned on with ZVS. Once VL m is higher than a certain level. Stage 9 (t10 –t11 ): At t = t9 . only Mode II operation requires a new analysis to be developed. Stage 8 (t8 –t10 ): At t = t8 . Thus. However. 5. S2 is turned off and a new switching cycle begins. Stage 5 (t5 –t6 ): Switch S1 is turned off at t = t5 . Vsw drops to zero that causes the conduction of the body diode Ds2 . With the drop of Vsw . Thus.. Stage 6 (t6 –t7 ): At time t = t6 . The output is separated from Tx2 . diode D2 on the secondary side of Tx1 will be forward biased. if a full-wave rectifier (FWR) is added instead of the HWR.5. For convenience. 6 shows the simulation results of the proposed converter with following operation conditions: Vpv = 22 V. The voltage applied to Lm is not clamped anymore and Lm participates in the resonance again with Lr . The transformer Tx1 delivers power to the output. The current Ipri is positive and switching node voltage will decrease due to charging (discharging) of Cs1 (Cs2 ). The current Ipri is positive and continues to flow through Ds2 . Therefore. This stage ends when IL r is equal to Ipri . This approach is based on the assumption that the power transfer from the source to the load through the resonant tank is almost completely dependent on the fundamental harmonic of the Fourier expansion of the currents and the voltage involved. Lm is out of resonance with Cr . Vo Vo FHA (t) = The phase angle of Irect is also zero since it is in phase with FHA (t). The voltage at the input of the two rectifiers Vosq (t) can be expressed as Vosq (t) = Vab (t) + Vcd (t) (1) where Vab (t) and Vcd (t) are the secondary-side terminal voltages of transformers TX 2 and TX 1 (see Fig. fs = 83 kHz. Lm ] and Cr begins. (3) π The rms amplitude of Vo FHA (t) is √ 2 2 Vout . At t = t11 . the current in the secondary side is quasi-sinusoidal and the voltage Vosq (t) reverses when the current becomes zero. which creates the ZVS condition for S2 if S2 is turned on at this moment.: HIGH-EFFICIENCY PV MODULE-INTEGRATED DC/DC CONVERTER FOR PV ENERGY HARVEST IN FREEDM SYSTEMS 901 balance of the transformers Tx1 and Tx2 has still been preserved.. (4) Vo FHA = π Define the fundamental part of the rectifier current to be √ (5) irect (t) = 2Irect sin(2πfsw t). Ipri will become symmetrical and the other characteristics of the converter will remain.

7. Vi FHA is the rms value of the fundamental component of the voltage at the switching node SW (VSW ). irect (t) = 2 4Rout 2Rout (9) The equivalent ac output impedance Ro ac can be derived by combining (4) and (8) as follows: Ro ac = Vo FHA 8Rout = ... π (13) can be derived as follows: √ Vi FHA (t) = 2 Vdc . The resulting expression for the dc gain of the converter can be derived through a circuit analysis based on the model in Fig. The voltage VSW is generated by the controlled switches S1 and S2 . The output current Iout is produced from Irect after the rectifier network and filter capacitors. as shown in Fig. π (14) Combining with (4). Vi FHA (11)  1 2 Vdc + Vdc sin(n2πfsw t). In this model. Irect π2 (10) The expression for Ro ac is the same as the one for a conventional LLC resonant converter. (11). 3.902 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. 6. the equivalent FHA resonant circuit model can be obtained. Equation (8) can be derived by combining (6) and (7) as follows: √ 2πVout Irect = .5. (8) 4Rout Insert (8) into (5)  √ √ 2πVout πVout sin(2πfsw t) = sin(2πfsw t).. MARCH 2011 Fig. From a turn ratio perspective. 7.3. Equivalent FHA resonant circuit model for the proposed converter operation in Mode II. and (14). the conversion gain of a transformer with turn ratio 2N followed by a voltage doubler is equal to a transformer with turn ratio N . 26. 7. the input-to-output voltage conversion ratio is Vout 1 |M | . With the known Ro ac . VOL. (12) M= Consider VSW (t) = vi FHA (t) is the fundamental part of VSW (t) vi Vi FHA FHA (t) = 2 Vdc sin(2πfsw t). Define the dc gain N Vo FHA . 2 π n n =1. NO. transformer Tx1 together with voltage doubler can be substituted by an equivalent transformer Txe with turn ratio N . Fig. Therefore. Simulation results of the proposed converter operating in Mode II. = Vdc 2N (15) .

Furthermore. the converter has unity gain at Vpv = Vnom and the converter enters Mode II operation only when Vpv ≤ Vnom . (19) is accurate enough for engineering design of the proposed converter. 2 ·N 2 32π 2 ·Cr ·Lm r ·Rout ·fSW 2 ·N 2 − 8·R 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 5 2 (32π 2 ·Cr ·Lm r ·Rout ·fSW out ·N + 32·π ·Cr ·Llkg ·Rout ·fSW ·N ) + (−2·π ·Lm r ·fSW + 8·π ·Cr ·Lm r ·Llkg ·fSW ) . the amplitude of M (S) is. Through the comparison between the dc gain from simulation (Msimulation ) and the theoretical analysis result (Mcalculation ). Vpv /2 (25) From Table III. Series of example of dc gain curves of a new resonant converter with different Q value (Mode II). M= Fig. Equation (19) is used to calculate the dc gain result at a given fs for the same operation condition. at the bottom of this page. Furthermore. In practical designs. Fig. On the contrary. the dc characteristic of Mode II operation can be divided into ZVS and ZCS regions. DC GAIN VERIFICATION AND COMPARISON To verify the dc gain expression derived in section IV. (19) 2 2 (1 + λ − (λ/fn )) + Q2 (fn − (1/fn ))2 The parameters in (19) are defined as follows: fr = Q= 1  2π Llkg · Cr N2 Z0 · Ro fn = f SW . and the converter should be prevented from entering the ZCS region. Therefore. Mode I operation can only be active in region I (see Fig. as shown (18).: HIGH-EFFICIENCY PV MODULE-INTEGRATED DC/DC CONVERTER FOR PV ENERGY HARVEST IN FREEDM SYSTEMS 903 From the FHA model. V. a series of simulations have been performed for different Vpv for a given load condition. 9. Similar to an LLC converter. It is interesting that Mode II operation has similar dc gain expression to Mode I but with different parameters for the resonant tank. 9) because the required dc gain should be lower than 1 in Mode I (Vpv > Vnom ). The dc gain M can be derived as follows: Zout . For convenience. Series of example of dc gain curves for a new resonant converter with different Q value (Mode I). it is impossible for the proposed resonant converter to work in region I after entering Mode II operation. 8. Mode II operation can only be active in region II.LIANG et al. A series of example of dc gain curves of Mode II operation under different load conditions (with different Q values) are plotted in Fig. (18) can be rewritten as 1 M (fn ) =  . (17) M (S) = (1/S · Cr ) + S · Llkg + Zout By substituting S = j2πfSW . the accuracy of (19) can be evaluated. the gain has a large peak. With proper choice of the resonant tank. Therefore. a comparison of the dc gain between Mode I and II operations is conducted in order to reveal the general dc gain features of the proposed converter. Mcalculation matches with Msimulation very well. the discussion about Mode II operation in the last section is dedicated for region II. Zout is the impedance seen from the primary side of the two transformers Zout = N 2 Ro ac · Lm r · S N 2 Ro ac + Lm r · S (16) where Lm r = Lm + Lr . (18) . 8. The ZVS region can be further divided into regions I and II due to slightly operation differences. For very light load conditions (small Q). the gain becomes flat under heavy load conditions (large Q). Mode II operation can stay in the ZVS region for Vpv and Ppv variations. fr (20) (21) ac Llkg Lm + Lr  Llkg Z0 = Cr λ= (22) (23) (24) Equations (19)–(24) reveal the dc gain characteristics for Mode II operation. On the contrary. The converter’s switching frequency fs is recorded. Table III shows the comparison results for a 50% load condition where Msimulation is defined by Msimulation = Vout · N .

3) The gain curve of Mode II becomes much flatter at high frequency. The gain curves for the two operation modes can be plotted in the same figure. as shown (29) and (30). it is reasonable to keep the converter operating in Mode I when Vm pp is higher than a certain value. 1) Mode II operation needs a higher switching frequency than Mode I operation. From Fig. where fr M o deII M o deII = (26) 1  . It shows the switching frequency almost doubles if the converter operates in Mode II with 32-V input. this implies that the PV panel voltage may be out of regulation in Mode II when Vm pp is too high. 10. (28) Both the dc gain expressions for Modes I and II can be written as functions of fn M o deII . Fig. fn needs to be unified using the same base. MM o deI (fn MM o deII (fn M o deII ) M o deII ) = = (1 + λM o deI − (λM o deI /(α · fn DC gain comparison between Modes I and II at 50% rated power. 10. NO. MM o deI becomes lower than MM o deII in region fn > f0 . 3. VOL. the following conclusion can be drawn. M odeII )2 ))2 1 + Q2M o deI (α · fn M o deII − (1/α · fn 1 (1 + λM o deII − (λM o deII /fn2 M odeII ))2 + Q2M o deII (fn M odeII − (1/fn . Therefore.904 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. M o deI where fr fn M o deII = fSW fr M o deI = 1  2π (Llkg + Lr ) · Cr . 26. at the bottom of this page. In the region fn M < fn < f0 . 10. . 2π Llkg · Cr (27) For further analysis. the equations for calculating several key parameters are also listed in Table IV. For comparison. MM o deI is always higher than MM o deII . For a desired dc gain in the latter region. operation in the region where fn < fn M is forbidden. as shown in Fig. the two curves reach their peaks at the same frequency fn M defined by fn M = fM fn M o deII = 1  2π (Lr + Llkg + Lm ) · Cr · fn Fig. ))2 M odeII M odeII ))2 (29) (30) . for fn M o deI : fn M o deI = fSW fr M o deII = fn M o deII · fr M o deII fr M o deI · fr M o deII = α · fn fr M o deI M o deII . The gain is almost constant and stops decreasing. Table IV gives the resonant tank parameters for example design. MARCH 2011 TABLE III DC GAIN COMPARISON BETWEEN SIMULATION AND CALCULATION TABLE IV LIST OF PARAMETERS OF THE PROPOSED CONVERTER FOR GAIN ANALYSIS The normalized frequency fn has a different base for Mode I and II operations since they have different fr : fn M o deI = fSW fr . On the contrary. 10 takes Vpv = 22 V and Vpv = 32 V as examples. M o deII (31) Similar to the LLC resonant converter. 2) The frequency difference becomes larger with higher input voltage. Considering that higher Vm pp requires smaller dc gain.

and Tx1 with a conventional design procedure for an LLC converter. Thus. a lower switching frequency fs (<200 kHz) can be adopted to benefit the converter efficiency. The devices D3 . One can design Cr . the efficiency of a traditional LLC resonant converter with the same circuit parameters is also analyzed. Picture of a 240-W MIC prototype. Fig. Table V gives component parameters for the MIC prototype. VI. a secondary winding is added to Lr such that it forms the transformer Tx2 . 11.: HIGH-EFFICIENCY PV MODULE-INTEGRATED DC/DC CONVERTER FOR PV ENERGY HARVEST IN FREEDM SYSTEMS TABLE V CIRCUIT PARAMETERS FOR EXPERIMENT 905 TABLE VI LOSS BREAKDOWN OF THE PROPOSED CONVERTER IN MODE II WITH 10% OF P ra te d (V pv ≤ 32 V) TABLE VII LOSS BREAKDOWN OF THE LLC CONVERTER WITH 10% OF P ra te d (V pv ≤ 32 V) Fig. In order to minimize the conduction loss. Lm . 12. a 75-V MOSFET with low Rdson is preferred and multistrand Litz wire should be used to reduce the ac resistance of the primary winding of the transformer. The threshold voltage Vth for operation mode decision is chosen to be equal to Vnom .LIANG et al. For comparison. There is no strict limitation on volume and size for MICs. Their efficiency difference is plotted in Fig. Lr . D4 . Considering that a practical transformer has a certain leakage inductance. The transformer primary side is the low-voltage side and it has high resonant current circulating. A comprehensive loss analysis has been conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the designed converter. DESIGN EXAMPLE AND EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS The MIC will be operated with PV panels that normally have Vm pp of around 22–40 V. Vnom for this design is 32 V and Prated is equal to 240 W. the value of Llkg can be chosen to be 5–15% of (Lr + Lm ). The efficiency Fig. 11 for 5–50% of Prated . Then. 13. Efficiency improvement of the proposed converter in Mode II operation. and S3 in HWR have the same current rating as D1 and D2 in voltage doubler. . System diagram for the experiment with a work flow chart for the dc/dc controller.

20% of P ra te d (verify lower side switch ZVS). 3. Tables VI and VII give the analysis results. there is no benefit to keep converter running in Mode II when Ppv > 50% of Prated and mode change is required. When Ppv approaches 50% of Prated . the data in Table VI show a significant decrease in the total switching loss. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS An experimental prototype has been built to verify the performance of the proposed converter. NO. the switching loss of MOSFET may increase due to the increase in the number of switching events. the efficiency improvement is reduced to almost zero. Fig. ch2: 200 V/div. Moreover. Therefore. ch4: 10 A/div). 14 shows the operation waveforms of MIC prototype in Modes I and II. The dc/dc controller will check Vpv and Ppv every few minutes and its operation follows the work flow chart in Fig.906 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. 12 depicts the system diagram for experiment and Fig. ch2: 20 V/div. As discussed in the previous section. t = 4 μs) and (b) Mode II (ch1: 50 V/div. To get a better understanding of the efficiency improvement in Mode II operation. ch3: 1 A/div. VII. MARCH 2011 Fig. 13 shows a picture of the prototype. An MPPT controller implemented in a microcontroller will provide a reference voltage Vpv ref that will be used by the dc/dc controller to determine the converter’s operation mode based on the criteria described in Table II. a loss breakdown is conducted for both Mode II operation and normal LLC operation with Vpv < 32 V and Ppv = 10% of Prated . (a) V in = 22 V. Waveforms of an MIC prototype: (a) Mode I (ch1: 10 V/div. ch4: 10 A/div). improvement drops when Ppv increases. Waveforms to verify the ZVS operation in Mode II (ch1: 10 V/div. 26. Due to the same reason. ch4: 10 A/div. only the positive part of current . the MOSFET conduction loss and transformer copper loss are also greatly reduced. This is because higher frequency operation leads to a much lower resonant current through the MOSFET during its turn-off event. Fig. In Mode II. Fig. VOL. 15. 20% of P ra te d (verify upper side switch ZVS) and (b) V in = 22 V. 14. However. Mode II operation will increase the switching frequency. Thus. As a result. the total loss is dramatically reduced by Mode II operation. 12. the higher frequency operation reduces the transformer core loss by causing smaller variation of the magnetic field strength in a switching period.

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he was a Professor with the Center for Power Electronics Systems. degree in power electronics from Zhejiang University. China. and holds 14 U. Blacksburg. and power semiconductor devices. the M. and the Ph. He is currently a Senior R&D Engineer in ABB U. He is also the Progress Energy Distinguished Professor and the Director of the new National Science Foundation’s Engineering Research Center for Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems. Huang (S’91–M’94–SM’96–F’05) received the B. in 2006. Chengdu. and the Director of NCSU’s Semiconductor Power Electronics Center. Hangzhou. degree in automation from Tianjin University..Sc. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. he has been a Professor of Electrical Engineering with North Carolina State University (NCSU). Tianjin.S. From 1994 to 2004. His research areas are power management.: HIGH-EFFICIENCY PV MODULE-INTEGRATED DC/DC CONVERTER FOR PV ENERGY HARVEST IN FREEDM SYSTEMS Jun Li (S’07) was born in Liaoning. Cambridge. the M. Raleigh. North Carolina State University. He received the B. China. in 2004. Corporate Research Center. in 1992. in 1986. 909 Alex Q.Sc.S. and the Ph. patents.S. China. degree in power electronics from North Carolina State University. emerging applications of power electronics. in 2010. .K. degree from Cambridge University.S. He has published more than 200 papers in journals and conference proceedings. in 1983. degree in electrical engineering from the Chengdu Institute of Radio Engineering. U. Prof. Since 2004. Raleigh. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Hangzhou. Huang is the recipient of the NSF CAREER Award and the prestigious R&D 100 Award. degree in electrical engineering from Zhejiang University. China. Raleigh.D. NC.LIANG et al. in 1981. China. His research interests include topology and control of high-power multilevel converters for MV drives and renewable energy generation.D. Raleigh.