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**PZT Patches on the Shaft Surface
**

H.-G. HORST

AND

H. P. WO¨LFEL

**Department of Mechanical Engineering, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstr.30, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
**

ABSTRACT: This paper describes the development of a structural model of a high speed

rotor for the examination of active vibration control in rotor dynamics. Suppression of lateral

bending vibrations of the elastic shaft is realized by means of surface-bonded piezoceramic

actuator patches on the shaft surface. Models for actuator implementation are derived.

Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. To validate the simulation, a rotor

test-rig was built. The characteristics of the system model with implemented actuators are

compared to experimental tests. Both results show good agreement.

Key Words: rotor dynamics, shaft vibrations, finite element model, modal state space model,

PZT actuator, optimal control

**the actuator’s mass distribution. This technique only
**

allows the reduction of unbalance-induced synchronous

vibrations; non-synchronous or transient vibrations

cannot be suppressed.

Direct active vibration control approaches use actuators to generate lateral forces or displacements counteracting the rotor vibration. These techniques are of course

very similar to the vibration control of nonrotating

structures except that additional phenomena of rotor

dynamics have to be taken into account. Actuation

forces are mostly applied at the rotor bearings either

directly (noncontacting) or via the bearing housings.

For force generation magnetic, piezoelectric or hydraulic physical effects can be employed (Ulbrich, 1998).

Furthermore active tilting pad journal bearings can be

used to actively tune bearing stiffness and damping

characteristics. Active magnetic bearings are applied in

high-speed rotors to reduce friction and mechanical

wear but can also be used to tune stiffness and damping

and to generate contact free lateral forces for vibration

isolation and unbalance compensation (Schweitzer,

1998; Nordmann et al., 2000). The drawbacks of magnetic bearings are the technical effort and the continuous

power consumption to maintain bearing functionality. If

friction and wear of rolling element bearings are not an

issue it may be more straightforward to use conventional bearings with attached actuators. High stiffness

and fast dynamic response are the main advantages

of piezoelectric stack actuators making them suitable

for vibration control purposes. Palazzolo et al. investigated rotor-bearing systems with piezoelectric pushers

acting on the bearing housing (Barrett et al., 1995; Tang

et al., 1995). They developed simulation models and test

rigs demonstrating the effectiveness of their approach.

INTRODUCTION

TRUCTURAL vibrations in rotating machinery are

a limiting factor concerning the productivity in

many important industrial branches such as the machine

tools, textile paper and printing industries. Particularly

lateral bending vibrations of elastic shafts which are in

most cases very lightly damped are problematic: either

it is not possible to pass through critical speeds or

vibrations during operation affect bearing lifetime and

product quality negatively. The rotor vibrations can be

caused by unbalances, process forces or system instabilities. The excitation forces often cannot be further

reduced (e.g. by balancing) so that vibration reduction

or increased system stability is achieved through

additional damping. Damping forces can be introduced

for example by damped bearing supports or squeezefilm dampers in the bearings (Gasch et al., 2002). To

increase productivity and improve product quality in

many cases, the performance of passive damping devices

alone is no longer sufficient. Therefore new solutions

using active control are sought to effectively reduce

vibration amplitudes. Active vibration control techniques for rotor systems can be categorized into two

major groups: direct active vibration control and active

balancing (Zhou and Shi, 2001).

Active balancing aims to eliminate the system eccentricity by using a mass redistribution actuator mounted

on the rotor which is able to change the center of mass.

The controller estimates the system unbalance from

vibration measurements and calculates a signal to adapt

S

***Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
**

E-mail. horst@fmd.tu-darmstadt.de

JOURNAL

OF INTELLIGENT

MATERIAL SYSTEMS

AND

STRUCTURES, Vol. 15—September/October 2004

**1045-389X/04/9/10 0721–8 $10.00/0
**

DOI: 10.1177/1045389X04041938

ß 2004 Sage Publications

721

Several solution strategies were developed and are now being investigated. AND H. The aim of this project is the active reduction of shaft vibrations for rotational speeds of up to 12. Several model parameters were then updated to fit experimental measurements. based on surfacebonded PZT actuators. a mathematical model of the system under investigation is needed. roty. z. Active vibration control has to be achieved in the frequency range from 0 to 200 Hz. gyroscopic effects can be easily integrated which is not possible with most commercial codes that also contain piezoelectric elements. In this case the model was divided into 33 elements leading to 136 degrees of freedom. 1993) and Figure 1. Rotor model. This approach offers the advantage of transparent and easy-to-use models. The modeled structure is depicted in Figure 1. In order to include shear deformations the work integrals are based on Timoshenko beam theory. Every element A detailed derivation and description of the coefficients mj and kj can be found in (Kra¨mer. Since only lateral vibrations are of interest.000 rpm and by means of functional materials and the development of smart adaptive rotor systems. special rotor dynamic features like e. P.g. One such solution. rotz). The element mass and stiffness matrices are of the form: 2 FINITE ELEMENT SYSTEM MODEL In order to design actuators and model-based controllers for active vibration control. Moreover. will be presented in this article. . It is a simple model of a textile machine and consists of a mass (approximately 14 kg) on a cantilevered rotor shaft (ø 25 mm) supported by elastic bearings. the elements were formed with self-made code and modeling was completely done in MATLABÕ . The two shafts are connected by flexible couplings. WO¨LFEL has two nodes with four lateral degrees of freedom each (y.-G. The element matrices are derived using the principle of virtual displacements and local trial functions. axial and torsional degrees of freedom are not implemented. 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Meli ¼ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 m1 m2 m1 m2 m1 m2 m1 m2 m3 m2 m4 m3 m2 m4 m2 m1 sym: m1 m2 m3 3 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5 m3 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 el Ki ¼ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 k1 k2 k1 k2 k1 k2 k1 k2 k3 k2 k4 k3 k2 k4 k2 k1 sym: k1 k2 k3 3 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7: 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5 ð1Þ k3 System Matrices The structure is divided into pipe elements of different lengths and outer and inner diameters. Additionally an intermittent shaft lying in between the motor drive and the main shaft is modeled. In this work a discrete system model is built using the finite element method. Rather than employing models generated by commercial FE-software. HORST The presented work is part of the integrated project AVR Rotor which is funded by the German government.722 H.

The transformation back to stationary coordinates causes an additional term Dik in the equation of motion which is proportional to the displacements q (Gasch et al. . U of the undamped system: 1 Dex ¼ UT diagð2D1 mg1 !1 . . e. the change of natural frequencies. couplings or viscous layers on the shaft (Gasch et al. the generalized masses mgi and the matrix of eigenvectors. . lateral displacements and rotations will induce gyroscopic moments in a perpendicular direction. the equation of motion has to be transformed into a complex rotating coordinate frame. For anisotropic bearings the frequencies at which the . . internal damping has to be minimized and external damping has to be increased. For a pipe element the gyroscopic moments can be implemented by a skew-symmetric matrix (Kra¨mer. In rotating coordinates the viscous damping is implemented like external damping in a stationary system. . Moreover there now exists a coupling between the motions in the y. 2Dn mgn !n ÞU1 : ð6Þ Internal damping results from material damping of the shaft and much more important from damping caused by assembly components like shrink fits.. . It is more difficult to determine and therefore is assumed to be a fraction of the viscous external damping: Dint ¼ cD Dex ð7Þ The parameter cD is not known a priori but may be tuned to fit experimental observations.g. modal damping ratios are assumed which can be experimentally identified by means of modal testing. 2002). 2Di mgi !i . MY ¼ P ’_ Z MZ ¼ P ’_ Y : ð3Þ In the case of the cantilevered mass the rotation about the y. The effects of external damping can be modeled as in any other stationary structure.and z-directions.and z-axis can become quite large and therefore the gyroscopic effects cannot be neglected especially since the rotational speeds are going to be high. The equation of motion of the whole system in stationary coordinates is formed by transforming the local element coordinates to global degrees of freedom and summing up the resulting matrices: n X ! TTi Meli Ti q€ þ i¼1 n X ! TTi Keli Ti q ¼ M€q þ Kq ¼ f: i¼1 ð2Þ Now the elastic boundary conditions of the bearings and flexible couplings can be integrated by adding their stiffness values at the corresponding degrees of freedom in the stiffness matrix..723 Active Vibration Control in Rotor Dynamics (Marguerre and Wo¨lfel. Since they have quite different results on the system behavior they are separated in external and internal damping forces respectively. The damping ratios Di are then employed to calculate a Damping matrix Dex by using the natural frequencies !i . Since very little discrete damping parameters are known. Additionally the inertia of bearings and housings is added as discrete masses in the mass matrix. 1979). 2002): Mqq þ Dex þ Dint þ GðÞ q_ þ K þ Dik q ¼ f ð8Þ The coefficients of Dik are partly negative resulting in system instability at certain rotational speeds. External and Internal Damping Damping forces can arise both in stationary parts of the system like bearings or supports or in rotating parts like the shaft. . . Hence to avoid stability problems. Gyroscopic Effects When the shaft is rotating with rotational speed . For a rigid mass with polar moment of inertia P the gyroscopic moment is easily obtained by Equation (3). 1993) 2 6 6 6 6 6 el Gi ðÞ ¼ 6 6 6 6 4 0 g1 0 g2 0 skew sym: g1 g2 g4 0 g2 g1 g2 0 g1 0 g3 g2 0 3 g2 7 7 g3 7 7 7 7: 7 g2 7 7 5 g4 0 ð4Þ According to the method used in Equation (2) a gyroscopic matrix G for the whole structure can be obtained leading to the equation of motion: M€q þ GðÞ_q þ Kq ¼ f ð5Þ Obviously the system behavior is now depending on rotational speed leading to certain phenomena. To integrate internal damping in the model.

1994).. The actuators of one pair are positioned opposite to each other and are driven out of phase. tP ð10Þ d31 and tP being the piezoelectric strain constant and the thickness of piezoelectric layer respectively.-G. The modal representation enables to reduce the model order by modal reduction neglecting the higher modes. The mass and stiffness matrices of those actuator elements are added to the main matrices at the degrees of freedom where the piezo elements are positioned. the model order still becomes too large. Moreover the placement on the rotating shaft leads to reduced power consumptions when suppressing synchronous vibrations. which is the actuation strain caused by an electric voltage applied to the actuator surfaces. Pipe element with attached actuator pair. The factor k can be obtained by using the force equilibrium and the geometric constraints in the shaft and the actuators (Lin and Chu. 1993). with ð11Þ . 2001). The contribution of this work is to transfer the method to a rotor dynamic system by applying PZT plate actuators on the surface of an elastic shaft. Because of gyroscopic effects and internal damping the system is no longer proportionally damped. The resulting eigenvalues and eigenvectors are complex but can be transformed to real values using a similarity transformation (Nordmann. 1990. For real time computations and controller implementation. so that one is extending while the other is contracting. Finally a control moment can be derived which is proportional to the applied voltage: 4 EP d31 bðr0 þ tP Þ3 r30 c sin VP 3ð1 þ ÞtP ¼ ES IS =EP IP : MP ¼ Figure 2. The resulting error in the interesting lower frequency range can be compensated by a static correction term (Horst and Kronig. The actuation forces can thus be directly applied on the shaft where controllability of vibration modes is optimal. Principle of Operation and Modeling The bending vibrations of the rotor occur both in the yx-plane and in the zx-plane. The effects of the actuators’ mass and stiffness are taken into account by building additional pipe elements.724 H. Consequently a bending moment around the y.or the z-axis is induced in the structure (see Figure 2(a) for the zx-plane actuators). Due to the fact that synchronous "S ¼ kd31 VP . Hence very little additional space is required on the shaft and at the bearings. Therefore for modal decomposition a bimodal approach using left and right eigenvectors is necessary (Kra¨mer. WO¨LFEL excitation is a static load with respect to rotating parts the reactive power consumption is close to zero. The actuation strain induced in the shaft at point A (Figure 2(b)) by a pair of actuators is a fraction of the unconstrained piezoelectric strain due to a voltage VP: SURFACE-BONDED PZT ACTUATORS In the field of active vibration control the approach of controlling structural vibrations of beams by means of surface-bonded PZT actuators is well-known (Hagood et al. a modal state space representation of the system is very useful. P. HORST lim i H. 2001). 2001). Horst and Kronig. Therefore two orthogonal pairs of PZT actuators are used to generate actuator forces. The effects of surface-bonded actuators can thus be separated in passive mechanical effects caused by the actuators’ mass and stiffness and the active electromechanic effect. system is becoming unstable can be obtained by: sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 2ﬃ Dex L i 1 þ int ¼ !i þ int Di Di AND ð9Þ Modal State Space Representation and Model Reduction Especially for the design of model-based controllers.

SIMULATION RESULTS The material data used for all the simulations is listed in Table 1. Since unbalances are the most common excitation mechanism in rotor dynamics. The controller scheme relies on full state feedback but since only four states are measured. especially natural frequencies and mode shapes were simulated. Besides the frequencies also the eigenvectors will change with increasing speeds. The observer being used is a Luenberger observer containing a modally reduced system model. the generalized control moment g MP. therefore controller adaptation is needed.18% 0. Therefore the actuator model was compared to results from a three-dimensional FEmodel of the pipe-actuator system in ABAQUSÕ . the actuator’s length is chosen to be 140 m (two 70-mm patches).000 rpm. Therefore an iterative optimization procedure was chosen by first implementing actuators on a certain position then calculating the mode shapes and the generalized control moment. First free vibrations of the rotor system. Material properties. the other states have to be estimated by an observer. The next two frequencies change only by about 2% since the rotor mass is concentrated near a node of the second mode shape.725 Active Vibration Control in Rotor Dynamics In Equation (11) only a linear one-dimensional stress distribution is assumed. and J ¼ KLQ pT ðtÞQpðtÞ þ uT ðtÞRuðtÞ dt: ð13Þ 0 In Equation (13) the modal states p rather than the physical states are used in the integral. Hence future work will concentrate on the development of robust adaptive control for real time implementation. an optimal feedback controller is designed. According to Figure 2(a) the control moments act on the right and left edges of the PZT elements. the actuators are positioned near the optimal place for the second mode. The optimal LQ-regulator can be calculated by minimizing the following cost functional: Z1 min J.max Modal damping ratio D1 Modal damping ratio D2 210 GPa 62 GPa 500 V 0. Actuator material Strain constant d31 PZT thickness Angle of enclosure 2 Actuator length PIC 255 180 1012 C/N 1 mm 90 140 mm Young’s modulus of the shaft ES Young’s modulus of PZT EP Max. CONTROLLER DESIGN For the active vibration control of the rotor system. The LQ-regulator is only a first step towards robust control and is used for feasibility studies and simulations. Equation (12) is proportional to the integral of the ith physical mode shape’s mean curvature in the actuator region. This enables to weigh each vibration mode separately and to shape the control behavior in the frequency domain by using the weighing matrix Q. unbalance excitation Table 1. The control outputs p are weighed by R to limit the resulting voltages to levels that can be used with the actuators ( 500 V). Since the optimal position for the first and the second mode is different.4 Hz. Additionally arbitrary changes in the system may arise from different operation conditions in a real world application. i ’l. By repeating the procedure for varying positions the optimal placement for each mode can be found. actuator voltages VP.7 Hz) belonging to the first mode in y. differing by about 8%.and z-direction change by about 14% from 0 to 12. The first two frequencies (15. Hence the piezo actuators have to be properly sized and positioned. For the selected parameters of PZT thickness and angle of enclosure both results showed good agreement. 15. The resulting controller KLQ thus is a modal controller. i MP ð12Þ must be maximized.27% . From Equation (8) it is clear that the system behavior is dependent on rotational speed. The actuators themselves will change the mode shapes because of their mass and stiffness. one major drawback being the assumption of a time invariant system. the controllability of each mode to be influenced has to be optimized. Actuator Placement and Sizing For modal structural control. i ¼ ’r. Figure 3 shows the dependence of natural frequencies on the rotational speed. Since the moment is acting on rotational degrees of freedom. In this case the first two mode shapes of the rotor need to be controlled. The unbalance excitation being highest in the second mode. This is much shorter than the optimal length for the first two modes though still providing sufficient actuation force. Because of the material effort and the limits of the supplier. a compromise has to be found. Thus. to maximize controllability of the ith mode.

Its maximum value is about 400 V in the second resonance leading .4 mm). Two unbalance forces due to an eccentricity of 2 mm are assumed.5 (according to DIN ISO 1940) being common for turbo machinery. WO¨LFEL Figure 3. the other in the middle between the bearings. The vibration suppression shown in Figure 4 is 96% in the first and 98% in the second resonance. Figure 4. The control effort can be judged by the amplitude of the actuator voltage output by the controller. q2: z-displacement in the middle between the bearings. This unbalance is equivalent to a rotor balanced with a quality of G 2. The sharp resonance peaks do not show in the controlled system anymore since the controller was designed to reduce vibration in these modes.726 H. one at the rotor mass. P. HORST AND H. Amplitude response for unbalance excitation: with and without control – q1: z-displacement at the rotor mass. Campbell diagram: change of natural frequencies with respect to rotational speed. The resulting displacement amplitudes for the uncontrolled system depicted in Figure 4 are rather large especially in the second resonance (peak value 1.-G. is used in the simulation as a reference for actuator design and assessment of controllers.

Again the level of the displacement amplitude is well predicted. (a) response for harmonic PZT excitation with 30 Hz and varying voltages and (b) frequency response for PZT noise-excitation at two shaft locations S1 (near rotor mass) and S2 (between the bearings).Active Vibration Control in Rotor Dynamics to the conclusion that the actuators are sized properly to compensate the assumed excitation. Additionally the vibrations at the bearings are measured using piezoelectric accelerometers. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS For experimental investigations a rotor test-rig was built. CONCLUSIONS A structural FE-model of a rotor system with attached piezo actuators on the shaft surface was Figure 5. Figure 6. Simulation and measurement agree quite well considering the different shape of the 727 actuator patches in the test-rig. The stiffness of the bearings and couplings in the model were tuned to match the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the test-rig. . The quality of the structural model can be seen in the agreement of resonance and anti-resonance positions. The additional peaks in the measurements around 120 and 155 Hz are due to unconsidered dynamics of the rotor foundation. Further experiments concentrated on the system response to PZT actuator excitation in order to validate the actuator model. Figure 6(a) shows the response for harmonic excitation at 30 Hz. Metal bellow couplings are used to connect the shafts and the motor. The displacement amplitude is roughly linear dependent on the applied voltage as expected from the model (Equation 11). The piezo elements are attached to the shaft using a two-component epoxy. The measured frequency response in Figure 6(b) shows also good agreement with simulation results. common PZT plate elements are used instead. Comparison of simulated and measured actuator response for ¼ 0.and two in z-direction). Therefore the shaft surface had to be milled to get an octagonal shape. Experimental setup. The transmission of actuator voltages to the rotating shaft is done by a high speed slip-ring with gold brushes. Since curved piezo ceramics are very difficult to manufacture. To measure the shaft vibrations four eddy current sensors are used (two in y. From modal testing the modal damping ratios (see Table 1) were identified.

and von Flotow. July 2000. September 7–10. VDI Verlag GmbH. and Li. J. Nordmann.’’ Journal of Vibration and Acoustics. excitation mechanisms and closed-loop performance. 1990. Darmstadt. 1994. ‘‘Active Vibration Control of Rotating Machinery Using Piezoelectric Actuators Incorporating Flexible Casing Effects. G. A. Marguerre. September 7–10.. Berlin. R.. E. Further experimental tests and simulations need to be done especially concerning the rotating system. Alphen aan den Rijn. In the next steps robust adaptive controllers will be developed and implemented in the experimental setup. Y. M. ‘‘Active Vibration Control of Rotors. and Pfu¨tzner. Knopf. Lin. ‘‘Combined Piezoelectric-Hydraulic Actuator Based Active Vibration Control for Rotordynamic Systems. Kra¨mer. Palazzolo. and Straßburger. W.S. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work and the underlying project AVR Rotor (Reference No. Springer Verlag.’’ Journal of Sound and Vibration. 175(1):135–137. WO¨LFEL Hagood. 2. Zhou.. An optimal feedback controller was designed to simulate the closedloop response and demonstrate the potential of active vibration control.. and Shi. T. P. The authors are responsible for the contents of this publication. 1998. and Chu. ‘‘Active Magnetic Bearings – A Step towards Smart Rotating Machinery. A. Springer Verlag.’’ The Shock and Vibration Digest. Horst. R. 2002. Tang.728 H.. ‘‘Magnetic Bearings as a Component of Smart Rotating Machinery’’. G. Berlin Heidelberg.-L. Sijthoff & Noordhoff.-G. H. AND H. 117(1):176–187. Gasch. Darmstadt. 2001. Montagne. ‘‘Modelling of Piezoelectric Actuator Dynamics for Active Structural Control. . Dynamics of Rotors and Foundations. UK. H.’’ in: VDI-Berichte 1606: Schwingungen in Anlagen und Maschinen. A. Du¨sseldorf. Kascak. Mechatronische Systeme im Maschinenbau. 1998. ‘‘Comments on Active Modal Control of Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Flexible Cylinder.’’ Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power.’’ Transactions of the 7th International Conference on Vibrations in Rotating Machinery IMechE. Rotordynamik.-G.. 2000. R.’’ In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Rotor Dynamics IFToMM. K. 1998. 117(1):285–293. 1998. Chung. Shaker Verlag. Nottingham. Aachen. and Kascak. C. Germany.-H. The actuator response and the system behavior are well predicted by the model although the dynamics of the foundation are not modeled yet. Schweitzer.P. 1:327–354. and Kronig.H. A. REFERENCES Barrett. E. R. S.. 2001. H. ‘‘Aktive Schwingungsminderung mit piezokeramischen Aktuatoren an einer elastischen Balkenstruktur. 1995. Aenis. and Wo¨lfel. N. W. 33(5):361–371. 1995. Auflage. S. Mechanics of Vibration. 1(1):143–162. 1979. Nordmann. H. Palazzolo. Nordmann. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Rotor Dynamics IFToMM. Germany. Heidelberg. 2001. K. P.. ‘‘Active Balancing and Vibration Control of Rotating Machinery: A Survey. Ulbrich.W. HORST developed and validated by means of experimental testing.’’ Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures. 1993.: 02PP2282) was sponsored by the German federal department for education and research (BMBF). A.

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