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replaces AN11493A

Advanced Electrical

Design Models

Table of Contents

Diode Equation Forward Voltage Model

2

Derivation of Diode Model

2

Calculation of Diode Model Parameters

2

“Worstcase” Diode Models

3

Advanced Thermal Modeling Equations

4

Maximum Forward Current Vs. Ambient Temperature

4

ThermallyStabilized Luminous Flux

4

1

VF1). VF2). However.602 x e19 coulomb of n. 1. few mA. k = Boltzmann constant. VF. kT/q = that intercepts the forward characteristics of at 0. IF2.3805 x e23 joule/°K and IF3. (IF2. VF3) such as shown in Figure 3. at forward currents above a “Diode Equation” below. the exponential term predominates and the equation can be re written as: 2 . IO. varies by several orders of magnitude over the automotive temperature range so this effect must be included to properly model the forward characteristics of the LED lamp over temperature. Thus. and (IF3. 1 ≤ n ≤ 2 IO = reverse saturation current. For forward voltage. V Where: IF = forward current. greater than a few hundred millivolts.02569 V. IO.1A. the diode equation becomes: Where: VF = forward voltage. 1. ohms n = ideality factor. The equations for n. Then. IO. such that IF1 < IF2 < IF3). and R′S are shown below: The reverse saturation current. the forward current versus forward The diode equation approximately models the voltage characteristics of a pn junction diode low current (> 1 µA) performance of an LED have been expressed mathematically with the emitter. these points: (IF1.Diode Equation Forward Voltage Model Traditionally. A The values for the diode equation model can be T = temperature. the values q = electron charge. the ohmic losses must be included to accurately model the forward voltage. A R′S = internal series resistance. and R´S would generate an equation Note: at room temperature (25 °C). °K calculated by using three test currents ( IF1.

8. VF3 min) ⇒ (n HLL. R′S LHH) (IF1. VF2 max). (IF2. IO HLL. (n LLH. Note Graph Shows Forward Voltage Variations for LED Emitters from a Single Forward Voltage Category. VF2 min). VF1 nom). Figure 3. Worst-Case Diode Equation Forward Voltage Models for LED Emitters. VF1 min). VF1 min). Diode Equation Forward Voltage Model for LED Emitter (Semi-Log Scale). As shown in Figure 3. R′S HLL) 3 . R′S nom) (IF1. VF1 max). R′S LLL) Using the values of the nominal forward voltage (IF1. VF3 min) ⇒ Figure 3. (IF2. (IF3. #3.3A.3A. VF3 min) ⇒ (n LHL. Diode Equation Forward Voltage Model for HPWA-xHOO LED Emitter Shown in Figure 3.1A. IO LLH. these eight combinations of forward voltage can be used with Equations #3.4A. VF3 max) ⇒ at the three test currents in Equations #3. (IF3. IO.5A would generate the typical diode equation forward voltage model. VF3 nom) ⇒ (n nom. (n LLL. IO LHL. (IF2. R′S LLH) #3. and #3. Figure 3. (IF3. VF3 max) ⇒ (n LHH. Tested at IF = 70 mA. there are eight possible worstcase permutations of forward voltage at the three test currents. and #3. and R′S): (IF1.2A. (IF2. (IF3. Since there is little correlation between the forward voltages at each test condition.3A. VF2 min). VF2 nom).3A. VF1 min). Figure 3. VF1 min). (IF2. VF2 max).8 (Semi-Log Scale).Figure 3. IO LHH.5A to generate eight different diode equation forward voltage models (n. (IF1. IO nom. R′S LHL) (IF1. VF2 min). (IF2.4A. (IF3.2A shows how the diode equation model compares to the forward current versus forward voltage curve shown in AB203. (IF3. IO LLL.

9 in function of TA and RθJA for an HPWAxH00 LED AB203 to derive the maximum DC forward emitter with a maximum expected forward current.6A graphed as a AB203 can be combined with Equation #3. (IF2. VF2 min). (IF2. VF3 max) ⇒ forward current as well as forward current as a (n HHH.e. VF2 max).e.67 V at 70 mA). and RS HH = 12 of the SuperFlux LED Data Sheet. the worstcase range of a function of VF can only be solved through an forward current and forward voltage can be iterative process.7A models the expected reduction in luminous flux due to internal selfheating compared to the 4 . #3. R′S HHH) (n HLH. shown in Figure 4 TJ MAX = 125 °C. VF2 max). the positive root solution of IF MAX is equal luminous intensity) of LED emitters due to the to: effects of internal selfheating (i.7 in AB203. RθJAPD) and ambient temperature. IO MIN. VF3 max) ⇒ VF max = VDIODE (IF. “HPWA TJ MAX ≅ TA + R θJA IF MAX VF MAX XX00 Maximum DC Forward Current vs. n MIN. VF1 max).4A.(IF1. RθJA. the reverse estimated with only two permutations of the saturation current. n MAX. VF = 2. n HHH. Equation #3. IF MAX. voltage (i. IO HHH. (IF2. VF3 min) ⇒ For analyzing the operation of an electronic (n HHL.83 V.6 in Figure 3. The difficulty in using the diode equation (with the R´S term) is that IF as In most situations. Values of and thermal resistance. R′S LLL) model the forward characteristics of the LED = VDIODE (IF. Equations #3.4A is the same as Figure 4a. Ambient ≅ TA + R θJA IF MAX (VO HH + RS HHIF MAX ) Temperature” graph. (IF3. n LLL. varies by several orders of diode equation model: magnitude over the automotive temperature range so this effect must be included to properly VF min = VDIODE (IF. and RθJARS HHIF MAX + RθJAVO HHIF MAX + TA – TJ MAX ≅ 0 2 #3. Note that Figure 3. In addition.3 in AB203 or #3. R′S MAX) (IF1. IO HHL. Advanced Thermal Modeling Equations Note that. (IF3. VF1 max). IO LLL. R′S HLH) = VDIODE (IF. IO MAX. Or written as a standard quadratic equation: Equations #3. R′S HHL) circuit. R′S HHH) function of forward voltage. ohms were used for Figure 3. R′S MIN) emitter over temperature. VO HH = 1. in the SuperFlux LED Data Sheet. VF1 max). IO HHH. IO. IO HLH. (IF3.9 in AB203 can be combined together in different ways to model the luminous flux (or Thus.8 in AB203. it is convenient to be able to write the electrical forward characteristics of a component both in terms of forward voltage as a function of (IF1. TA.4A shows Equation #3. versus ambient temperature.

0.e. m ≈ 1. Finally. at 25°C. SuperFlux LED Data Sheet. Equation #3. Equation #3.4A. at initial turn flux over temperature compared to the thermally on) when the LED emitter is driven at a constant stabilized luminous flux at test conditions of IF TEST. VF TEST. and #3. Equation #3. forward current at a constant ambient VF TEST. that for forward thermally stabilized luminous flux at any forward currents over 30 mA.9A models the thermally stabilized luminous flux at any forward current compared to the thermally stabilized luminous flux at test conditions of IF TEST.8A models the #3.8A.10A.instantaneous luminous flux (i. current compared to the instantaneous luminous flux prior to heating at a specified forward current and a constant ambient temperature. Maximum DC Forward Current versus Ambient Temperature for HPWA-xxOO LED Emitter with Different System Thermal Resistances. Note for Equations temperature. and RθJA TEST at a constant ambient temperature.9A is the normalized luminous flux versus forward current graph shown in Figure 3 of the Figure 3. A good example of an application for Equation #3. and RθJA TEST. #3.9A.10A models the thermally stabilized luminous 5 .

m = 1.25 V at 70 mA).e.9A. 6 .4 ohms were used for Figure 3. optical. VF = Flux versus Forward Current) on the SuperFlux 2.8 in AB203.5A.10A models Figure 3 (Normalized Luminous emitter with a nominal forward voltage (i. show different combinations of equations #3..0106. #3. Equation #3.7A.5A shows Equation #3. and thermal performance of LED signal lights. Note that Figure 3. “HPWA/HPWTxx00 Relative Luminous Flux vs. Thermally Stabilized Luminous Flux versus DC Forward Current for HPWx-xHOO LED Emitter with Different System Thermal Resistances. Forward Current” graph.5A is the same as Figure 3.10A Figure 3.This section discussed the key concepts of modeling the electrical. and #3. #3.8A. k = –0. Note that this equation models Figure 4 (Maximum DC Forward Current versus Ambient Temperature) on the SuperFlux LED Data Sheet. and RS NOM = 6.802 V. Equations #3. and #3.7 in AB203. Note that Equation a function of IF and RθJA for an HPWAxH00 LED #3.9A graphed as light output of the emitter. Values of RθJA TEST = 200 LED Data Sheet.6A is a combination of Equations #3.5A.9 in AB203 in order to model various thermal effects on the Figure 3. #3. VO NOM = 1. °C/W.8 in AB203 that can be used to calculate the maximum forward current as a function of ambient temperature and thermal resistance.3 in AB203 and #3. in the SuperFlux LED Data Sheet.0.

Lumileds Lighting is a joint venture between Agilent Technologies and Philips Lighting.luxeon. Blue) and White. Lumileds is pioneering the highflux LED technology and bridging the gap between solid state LED technology and the lighting world. Lumileds is absolutely dedicated to bringing the best and brightest LED technology to enable new applications and markets in the Lighting world. All rights reserved. Green. California and Best.com For technical assistance or the location of your nearest Lumileds sales office. Lumileds is a fully integrated supplier. Product specifications are subject to change without notice. Luxeon is a trademark of Lumileds Lighting. LUMILEDS www. call: 2002 Lumileds Lighting. CA 95131 .com www. LLC 370 West Trimble Road San Jose.Company Information Lumileds is a worldclass supplier of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) producing billions of LEDs annually. California and Malaysia. The Netherlands. Publication No. Production capabilities in San Jose.lumileds. producing core LED material in all three base colors (Red. AB203A (Nov 2002) 7 Worldwide: +1 408-435-6044 North America: +1 408 435 6044 Europe: +31 499 339 439 Asia: +65 6248 4759 Fax: 408 435 6855 Email us at info@lumileds.com Lumileds Lighting. LLC. Lumileds has R&D development centers in San Jose.

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