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jr Left iÕrdj Tn w;g m;ajkafka" YS% ,xldfõ OfkaYajr m%cd;ka;%jdofha
fyjKe,a,o ñkS fmÜáhg oud weK .eiSug ish,a, ilia lr ;sìhoS th

flia .ylska j<lajd .;a fudfyd;lh' md¾,sfïka;=fõ" wêlrKfha yd úOdhlfha iajdëk
iu;=,s; ueÈy;a ùula u; isÿ l< hq;= md,khla f,i w¾:l:kh lr we;s j;auka md,k
l%uh ;=< úOdhl ckdêm;s l%uh úiska md¾,sfïka;=j iy wêlrKh hk fol u .s,f.k
oYl .Kkdjla .; ù ;sfí' YS% ,xldj ;=< muKla fkdj f,dj fndfyda rgj,o l,ska ;snQ
OfkaYajr m%cd;ka;%jd§ uQ,O¾uhka w,am jYfhka fyda ls%hd;aul l< ;;ajhka iïmQ¾Kfhka u
mdfya fjkia ù úOdhlh úiska tkï OfkaYajr wd{dodhl;ajfha ilS%hu wxYh úiska
md¾,sfïka;=j yd wêlrKh hk wxY .s,.ekSu meyeÈ,sj fmfkkakg ;sfí' th wvq ÈhqKq
wms%ldj" ueofmrÈ. yd wdishdj mqrd o" ÈhqKq OfkaYajr rdcHhka jk wefußld tlai;a ckmoh"
ì%;dkHh jeks rgj,a tkak tkaku fmd,sia rdcHhka fjñka ;sîu u.skao ksrEmKh fõ' fuh
fufia jkafka wehs @
wm rfÜ miq.sh oYl y;rl muK isg md¾,sfïka;=j" wêlrKh" rdcH wdh;k"
fomd¾;fïka;=" ld¾ñl" ;dCIKsl yd fiajd wd§ ish¨ u wdh;k lvd jefgoa §" ish¨ u rdcH
wdh;k ÿ¾j," wld¾hCIu" ¥Is; tajd njg m;aj ;sìfh§" ^tajdg kùk mß.Kl yd W.;a
WmdêOrhka iemhqjo& oYl .Kkdjla mqrd rfÜ Yla;su;a ù we;af;a tla wdh;khla muKs'
ta foaYmd,k hdka;%Khhs' tkï" rdcH n,h yiqrejk wdh;kh jk wdKavqjhs' wdKavqj yd
noaO wfkl=;a ish¨ wdh;k ì| jefgoa § wdKavqfõ foaYmd,k hdka;%Kh muKla Yla;su;a
jkafka" Yla;su;a lrkqfha wehs @ m%dfoaYSh iNd uka;S%jrhdf.a isg úOdhl ckdêm;s olajd
ck;d ksfhdað;hkaf.a j;auka N+ñldj .;fyd;a" mdi,lg <uhl= we;=¿ lsÍfï isg tlai;a
cd;Skaf.a uyd uKav,fha l;d lsÍu olajd foaYmd,k" wd¾Ól" iudc Ôú;fha iEu ish¨
wdh;khlgu foaYmd,k{hd we;=¿ ù ;sfí' wka ish,a, ì| jefgoa § wdKavqj kue;s wdh;kh
yd foaYmd,k{hd muKla tl u ilS%h" wLKavj Yla;su;a jk foa njg m;a jk iudc" wd¾Ól"
foaYmd,k miqìu l=ula o@ th foaYmd,k{hdf.a lEorlu o@ tfia;a ke;skï" j;auka iudc"
wd¾Ól foayfha b,a,d isàula o@
tl msg tl ckdêm;s wfmaCIlhka úOdhl ckdêm;s l%uh wfydais lsÍu ms<sn| fmdfrdkaÿ
,nd fokakg;a" Tjqka ish,a,kau úiska th wfydais fkdlrkakg;a fya;=j l=ulao@ hk mekhg
ms<s;=re we;af;a t;ekh' úOdhl ckdêm;s l%uh úiska md¾,sfïka;=j yd wêlrKh hk
wdh;k .s, oeófuka cks; w¾nqoh úiska th wfydais lsÍug b,a,d isáh o" th wfydais fkdjk
fya;=j l=ula o@ j;auka md,khg iudc" wd¾Ól" foaYmd,k m%Yak úi|kq ;nd thg w,.=

;eîugj;a iß,k úie÷ï ke;' Okm;s md,lhdg l< yelafla j;auka iudc"
wd¾Ól .eg¨ jika lsÍu" tajdhska mSä; n,fõ. /jàu" igka fudg lsÍu fyda
u¾okh lsÍuh' w;s ±jeka; foaYmd,k hdka;%Khla yd w;s ilS%h foaYmd,k{hka
wjYH jkafka tksidh' ,xldfõ fukau iudc - wd¾Ól m%Yak Tvq ÿjd we;s iEu
OfkaYajr rdcHhlu ±jeka; nqoaê wxY" jHjia:dkql+, taldêm;shka" w¾O ñ,sgß
yd ñ,sgß md,khka tl fm<g f.dvkÕkafka fï ksidh' wm rfÜ Okm;s mCIhkao"
fndfyda rgj, Okm;s mCIo fï ms<sn|j lsishï lE uqr.Eï isÿ l<o" ish md,kh
/£ we;af;a" fuu wêl n,;, we;s hka;%h u; muKla nj Tjqyq oks;s' Tjqkaf.a
y~.Eï fl¢ß,sj,g jvd tydg fkdhkafka ta ksidh'
m%cd;ka;%jdoh ;jÿrg;a OfkaYajr igka mdGhla fyda Okm;s mka;shg wh;a
igka mdGhla fkdjkafka tksidh' OfkaYajr m%cd;ka;%jd§ uQ,O¾u uÕska bÈßm;a
lrkq ,nk m%cd;ka;%jd§ whs;Ska fláld,Skj w;am;a lr .ekSuo" È.=ld,Skj
;yjqre lr .ekSuo" OfkaYajr fkdjk jdudxYsl n,fõ.j, n,h u; muKla
;SrKh jk hq.hlg wms msúi isáuq' ckjdß 08 od wjika jQ ckdêm;sjrKfha
m%;sM,h fuu ú.%yh uq¿ukskau ikd: lrkakla njg m;aj ;sfí' úOdhl n,;,
ysñ w¾O ñ,sgß md,kh meroùfï uQ,sl N+ñldj furg jdudxYsl jHdmrh" nyqck
ixúOdk yd isú,a uyckhdf.a ueÈy;aùu u; ;SrKh jQ nj b;d meyeÈ,sh'
tfukau ñysoka lsÍug kshñ;j ;snQ wm rfá OfkaYajr m%cd;ka;%jdofha fijKe,a,
fìrd.ekSfuka miq w¨;ska m;ajQ Okm;s md,k lKavdhu ;=< úOdhl ckdêm;s
l%uh yd ta yd iudk fjk;a n,;, wfydais lsÍug fmkajk wE,suE,slïj,skao fuu
ú.%yfha ksjerÈlu uekúka ksrEmkh fõ' úOdhl ckdêm;s l%uh wfydais lsÍfï
ÈYdjg j;auka md,kh ;,a¨lrk w,shd fndaÜgqjl N+ñldj w;am;a lr .ekSug
ck;djg isÿù ;sîfuka th meyeÈ,s fõ'
m%cd;ka;%jdofha flá udj; o" rc udj; o jeà we;af;a" iudcjdoh ;=<sks' Left
ta udjf;a .uka lrkakka fjkqfjks' Left ta udj; wfmaCId lrkakka fjkqfjks' Left
ta udj; bÈ lrkakkaf.a wú uqjy;a lsÍu fjkqfjksæ

Pg 2

2015|Januaru-March

ajh h:d¾:hla jkúg úma.wd{dodhl.afõ' úlag¾ yshqf.jh whs.da 2015|Januaru-March Pg 3 .shla njg m.

iu taldêm.a md.îc yd taldêm..s md.a Ôjudkj .xldj .s mjq.d mrdch lsÍug yelsùu ch.=< ks¾udKh fjñka .sfhl= njg m.taldêm.a fm!oa.sfí' ienE f.iu m%cd.snq b.i wOHhkh l< hq.s md.a r.%jdoh yd ksoyi m%d¾:kd lrk wh mq¿. leue.akdhl ìhlre iajNdjhg wkqj ckjdß 08 ckdêm.s md.af.sjdofha Pg 4 ìu.shka ìyslrkafka ljqo@ YS% .sjrKfhka uyskao rdcmlaI uy.sl .ka.a f.%yKhla nj ienEh' tfy.kh mrdch jQfha miq ..%yKh . ks.snQ taldêm.dny fjhs' ks¾udKh fjñka .a m%.kh úiska ìysl< foaYmd.sh .a md.khla ìyslrk iudc wd¾Ól uQ.hlao@ lsishï rgl taldêm.k ixialD.a tu lreKqh' mqoa.sh ckjdß 08odh' .kh ksud lsÍfï ch.sM.r l.ajk úg" Tyqf.du oreKq yd iydisl taldêm.s mjq.af.xldfõ taldêm.lfhla taldêm.xldfõ ks¾udKh fjñka .a .snQ uyskao rdcmlaI taldêm.ek fï Èkj.ju.sjdoh meroùug 2015|Januaru-March is.khla ìysjk úg" lsishï md.k ienE f.

§' tl.k tajd mrdch l< hq.ka.=h' f.dj mqrd ck.r túg .k hdug fkdyels .§' Okjdoh úiska md¾.kakd kmqre is.hla fkdfõ' hqoaOh" f.o taldêm.ju. fukau wêrdcHjdofha n.ka. ixj¾Okfha m%.khhs' ^tfy.a taldêm.a wêrdcHjd§ wjêhg md .ajhls' i.auka w¾nqoh merKs jevjiï l%uh fmr<d ouñka jevjiï wêm.. leue.aj.H jqj.aOkfha n.jh úiska wfydais lrkq .hla fkdfõ' th iudc wd¾Ól uQ.sM.a jqjukdj wkqj muKla jk kuq.h N=la.a taldêm.rÕfha wjêh ksudfldg taldêldÍ Okjdoh fyj.s l< f.sjdoh .mEug .hka úiska ìyslrk .ajh jvd.nk .=ú.fkdau.sM.dal hqoaO ms<sn| meyeÈ.s md.Suh' tneúka taldêm.lajQ mßêfha miq.a.a n.s l%ufha iy tys m%fldaá ..ekSug lsisfia. jkúg th m%cd.ajdf.x.a taldêm.%jd§ ch.dr iduhla Èkd .%jdoh ls%hdjg k..shka mrdch l< miqo taldêm.sl taldêm. Okjdoh iudc l%uhla f.hka y÷kdf.Kka /yekaj.s ú¢kafka.sfïka.sj" wêrdcHjd§ hqoaOfhka .sfí' —hqoaOh lrkq .kska" f.=< fmdfydi.%yK úh' tfy.a th Tjqkaf.a wêrdcHjd§ wjêhg md .shlg tkï" ks¾Ok mx.l m%.ka.a tu m%xYh .aidy ork ´kEu wfhla taldêm.o ke.kska ta ms<sn| jrla fufia i|yka lr .s md.' Bg fya.i lr<s.a.%jd§" n.a.h fmr<d oud fjk.ka.sl& l%uhg idfmalaIj th bÈß mshjrla jQ ksidh' m%xYfha OfkaYajr úma. yg .shka mrdch l<o taldêm.sjdoh crdch lsÍug ieneúkau W.dal Okm.Hh thhs' Okjdofha j..shkaf.dó rgj.= jkafka" taldêm.shka ìyslrk iudc wd¾Ól fldkafoais fkdkeiS mej.rÕfha wjêh ksudfldg taldêldÍ Okjdoh fyj.o Okjdoh úiska merKs rdcdKavq wfydais lrk ..%jd§ tlla úh' ta jevjiï ^..kska l< tu újrKh taldêm.khla ìysúh' mjrkafka ke.da'lD'" 05 fj¿u" 44 msgqj& hqoaOh ms<sn|j f.a kmqre is.a" thska Okj.nkafka lEor Okm.lg jvd mj.a jkafka Tjqka muKla jk kuq.=jdoh yd iuQydKavq wdlD.shg n.k w¾nqohka úiska ks¾udKh lrkq .a jeä úh' wêrdcHjd§ wjêfhao wêrdcHjd§ n.a fkdyels jkq we.%jdoh lmamdÿ lsÍug yd yl=<d oeóug Okjdohg isÿúh' ta m%cd.h Okjdoh tys ksoyia .ajhls' f.a" th Tjqkaf.aj.a mj.' th ir.lhska jk nj ienE kuq..sk m%.a kmqre is.s md.dj jßkajr úúO taldêm.a mx.shka fndkmdÜo ìysúh'& . yd iïnkaOlïj.ù hdug yd m%cd.khla .=<u h<s kefmda..xldfõ§ wdishd.ska mrdch lrñka 15jeks 16jeks ishjiaj.a rgj.a jkafka.=h' taldêm.'˜ ^f.e.uka úiskau y÷kajdÿka m%cd.a w.ajh jvd.ska mek k.s rdcdKavq md.a jeä 2015|Januaru-March Pg 5 .s md.s y÷kajdfok . tajd m%cd.j.enqfha ¨ù rcqf.sjdoh meroùu myiq ke.hls' m%d.khka iïnkaOfhkao tlfia j.hka meroùu myiqh' tfy.i blaukskau w¾nqohg .sM.a Okjdoh iudc l%uhla f.ka.iajNdjh yd reÑ wreÑlï Bg lsishï m%udKhlska odhl jk nj i.ñka Okjdoh mj.rï th w¾nqohg hdu ksidh' úfYaIfhkau Okjdoh tys ksoyia .sh w.skafka fï ksidh' mqoa.enQ miq fï .enQ miq fï .lsÍfuka f.sjdoh hkq yqÿ mqoa.shka ìyslrk iudc wd¾Ól idOl yd uQ.ska weußldfõ" wm%sldfõ" wdishdfõ fndfyda rgj.sk iudc wd¾Ól foaYmd.

nd foñka fuu m%.mEug .uka ú¢k mSvdjkag tfrysj ck.=< Okh ysñ mx.Ska .egqula olajd j¾Okh fõ' jevlrk ck..ekSuh' taldêm..j. we.sfha 1920 .ekSu l< hq.r m%.ka úfrdaOhka yd igka mek k.ekSfï wNsfhda.khdug fkdyels .dN bmhSu.a me.a fkdfõ' tjeks iïm%odhsl OfkaYajr m%cd.a l%shd.alr .kakd l%shdud¾.af.%Kh Bg ndOdjla fõ' OfkaYajr m%cd.af.dj mqrd m%isoaO jQ Pg 6 tjeks lSmfofkla muKs' tfiau fojk f.rï Okh bmhSfï yd f.nd§ ^jrodk §& Tjqka yS.a b.a yels .' túg b.%jdofha 2015|Januaru-March kslr.dN jeälr .sfnk w. jeä n.skï bka fldgilg hula .dj iQrdlEu .dj u.u úreoaOjd§ka tlaflda u¾okh lsÍu.ekSuh¦ Tjqka hgm..sfí' tajd kï u¾okh yd jrodkhhs' iuyrúg fï folu tlúgu.ska yd Tjqka . wd¾Ól iudc w¾nqohg fidhd.a Okm.úh' wêrdcHjd§ wjêfhao wêrdcHjd§ n. fukau wêrdcHjdofha n.dj we.odhS fkdjk úg" .sks' fï ls%hdj.fidafudaid iamd[a[h .=jdj .sh w.sfha§ md.j .=jdfõ fidafudaid" yhsáfha vqj. folla .sfha *eisiaÜjdoh.sfha msfkdafÉ" iamd[a[fha *%ekaflda f.súfrdaOh wju lsÍug Okjdoh iQodkï ke..aoelSu wkqj Okjdoh w¾nqohg f.dia th idudkH f.súfrdaOhla u.a rgj.a" .=¿ mSä.sh yd mSä. mx.Kkaj.kavdfõ bäwñka" ms.DIaKdjls' Okjdoh w¾nqohg f.h yuqfõ md.ajd .a yrydh' Okjdoh .dN wvqjk úg .ka.a ìysjQfhao Okjdoh yd wêrdcHjdoh w¾nqohg hEu. M.kh' b.l mx.sh¾" W.= fjoa§ .Sï .ka.soa§ wjidk fudfydf.súfrdaOh olajk ck.a fya.aul jkafka m%d.a ms<shu jQfha *eisiaÜjdohhs' u¾okho@ jrodkho@ f.i f.d.dv.*%ekaflda Ñ.d.shka ìyslrkafka tu .eiSfï .hla mj.msfkdafÉ .a.smSkfha udfldaia" bkaÿkSishdfõ iqy¾f.djf.dó rgj.=fõ' th Èfkka Èk j¾Okhù .Ska wfydais lsÍu u.khla ìysúh' Okjdoh l%shd.%Kh m%udKj.aOkh u.l mx.E lr.dj mqrdu . mE¥ c¾uksfha kdisjdoh.shg we.ah' fï wdldr fofla§u tjd lsÍug Okjdofha iïm%odhsl md. ckhdf.%jdoh iys.j.aul fõ' bka isÿlrkafka .Sj% lsÍu u.=fldgf.af.a .s l%uh /l.dal hqoaOhg u.s md.nk iyk yd whs.sß jkafka m%.ska Y%uh iQrdlEu.a ke.lajQ mßêfha miq.da" Ñ.k hka.o taldêm.ajhla u.dia ksIamdok ud¾.ekSu.ajh úisks' lshqndfõ neáiagd" kslr.a ck.sh . hdka.sjQ nrm.a b.

khla i|yd tu .g myr foñka Tjqka ìhm.kq ..hla ch.kj.bä wóka lshqndj .a lr.xldfõ mej.s md.i fjkialr . hg.aulj f.ksñka taldêm.s Oqr" ..ajhla ks¾udKh ù taldêm.k.shka m.u úreoaOjd§ka u¾okh lsÍuo .ksñka wud.vqj.%jdoh kdu ud.khka ksudl<o h<s..a yuqod wdKavqj.jd yeßho Tjqka ìysùug uÕmdok iudc wd¾Ól idOl fjkialsÍug wiu.a l< w.sfí' tfy.=fõ yd áhqkSishdfõ ck.ah' mrojk u`.iu mj..nk ch.kh jHjia:dj fjkialr .%y mj.jd yeßho 2015|Januaru-March Pg 7 ..ru .sìh§ taldêm.sh¾ .=re yd uqo. ck.ekSug fkdyels udOHfõ§ka urd ouñka myr foñka udOH wdh.aul mßj¾.s rdcmlaI md..shka ìyslrkq .emafgdma fnod foñka fNdack ix.a taldêm.jd yßhs' fï ms<sn| WodyrK f.hka m.dj fm.a m%cd.dv ke.Elr.sìh hq..ksñka l%shd.shka m.d úfrdaOh tla fudfyd.sl .=re foñka .= ixjrKh yd .a taldêm.shka ìyslrkq .shka ìysjkafkaa tjeks .=fõ fydiaks uqndrla yd áhqkSishdfõ fnka w.ka.kavdj .dj mqrdu .a tf.khla f.ksñka ish¨ n.k.=.jdyeß uyd wr.jÿrg.shka fukau .djg isÿúh' ta mqoa..sfïka.u WodyrKh fõ' Bðma.kj.efí' jHjia:d w.%h .ska ìysù Tjqka úiska ck.dj mqrd wm oekf.r tys§ .s md.=Kd.l .khg .sf.s md.a whg .s md.hka tla mqoa.shka meroùfuka .j.ajhla .' m%udKd.a jkafka kï" taldêm.fhl=g flakaølr .a § Èkd .%hla njg m.a taldêm.s fj. ck.dj uqyqK ÿka w.dvkef.kh hk uQ.dj iqodkï ke.k isàug ck.al< fyda ke.eîh' ta" taldêm.khla njg m.a.%yKhla fkdj .shka m.nkafka ta i|yd jk iudc wd¾Ól idOl úiska nj.W.s md.' uE.ndfoñka yS.j.a iuyre weu.neáiagd yhsá . mjrd.kho Bg fyd| WodyrKhlah' rdcmlaI md.k isá taldêm.=j" wêlrKh ish.aysgjQ" jHjia:d .=< Èkd .H uKav.yjqre jkafka" taldêm.d l%shdldß.O¾uh /l. l=ulao@ tldêm.kfha iajrEmh fõ' bka .la ordf.ekSuo tlúg lf<ah' ckudOH fCIa.shka ìysùu isÿjkq we. isrùug tu rgj.=<h' f.h úOdhl ckdêm..ukag wjYH f.skï th uq¿ukskau wfydais l< taldêm.a taldêm. fyda taldêm.enQ Okjdoh.a tlS w¾nqoh.skafka kï h<s.aul ùug Okm.afjñka oejeka.s md.ajñka úfoaY ixpdr .+ w.k ck.ajhla muKla nj.h" md¾. újr lrkq .l§ taldêm.aoelSu óg wdikak.%yKh ienE ch.a tu idOl fjkia fkdù .a fkdyels fõ' ish¨ n.kq .nk úg th fndfyda l.a Bðma.djld.ajh u.

aulj fjkiaù fkdue.=< m%cd.sjdohg tfrys ck.' taldêm.sh.a wfydais lsÍfï ÈYdjg l%shd.ske.fha ìysj we.ka.xldfõ miq.a tfia Èkd.ju .Tjqka ìysl< iudc wd¾Ól rgdj fjkialr .areï.%jdoh Èkd.al< hq.hka jkafka" miq.eUqre fjkila isÿ fkdjqKfyd.ekSfï .ajh .= njh' Okjdoh .=< miq..k ..a th È.s l%uh.hka yd foam< f.s md.=ld.ska ìyslrjk iudc wd¾Ól idOl fjkia lsÍfï igkla njg mq¿.k úg fuh fyd¢ka meyeÈ.s m%.S' tneúka iudc l%ufha .auka wm%sldkq rgj.Sfï md.ekSug fkdyelsjQ ksidh' j.lhkaf.=< jqj fï wk.a Okm.hla wjYH fõ' kQ.k ixialD.ig muKla W!kKh lrkq fjkqjg" Bg iSudlrkq fjkqjg th tjeks taldêm.ka.' fï wkqj wm f.aul jk kùk iudcjd§ md.skag uÕ újr jkq we.khls' taldêm.ehs ñka woyia fkdfõ' wfma hq.=< hï m%.a foi n.sfí' tkï taldêm.= fmdÿ i.ekSug wr.Skj fkdmj.sixialrK mjd h<s wfydaisjkq we..xldj .rh" iQrdlEï" wd¾Ól fld.djf.shka ìyslrjk 2015|Januaru-March uQ.fha taldêm.sh ld.khla ì|jeàfuka miq ks¾udKh jk ck.súfrdaOhkq.ska ìysùu je<laúh yels fkdjrÈk uÕ thhs' .. hq.hla f.fhl=g tfrys wr.j.dó Okm.=< Èfkka Èk j¾Okh jk" we.Hhla .a .k taldêm.a wdYdj kï tu idOl mrojk iudc mßj¾.djld.a y~ n.hla Pg 8 mj.d.a..kh ksudl<o th ìyslsÍug fya.a jk foaYmd.khla i|yd jQ foaYmd.s l%ufha nxfldf..sixialrK Èkd . l< hq.kakd m%cd.= idOl iemhQ .sjdoh meroùfï fkdjrÈk u`.djf.sfí' rdcmlaI md.khls' iudcfha widOdrKh.= ke.=r .sk kuq.a taldêm.d.dó nxfldf.dvke.' th fjkia fkdlrkafka kï h<s.s fõ' .a mx.%jd§ m%.s mdov foaYmd.h mqoa.alu kï" tys w¾nqoh kï" ta .k ls%hdud¾.s mr. iudc mßj¾.=Kd.sl flá ld.a ta .a wr.

hg ths' isxyfhl= fia md.%K u.r lrk .hg meñKsfha yuqod l=uka.kh yd bj.shka n.a md.ls' th úia.g ieu.sfhl= ms<sn| ióm oiqkla m%ikak fmf¾rd T yq kßfhl= fia n.skau iudk ùuh' fï taldêm.ska msre.d úfYaI..aùu yl=<d olajk yd ksjerÈ Ñ.sksh' fuys.a wd.ajh jkafka fudjqka fofokdf.d.sfha fnksfkda uqfida..sfhl=f.ska fkdfõ' 2015|Januaru-March Pg 9 .ßka lemS fmfka' ta c¾uksfha wefvda*a ysÜ.rï fyd¢ka taldêm.ukh" md.=< taldêm.rï merKs jqjo ixlaIsma.shd ms<sn| .shd úia.taldêm.%hla ujdmdk ksidfjks' b.a fofofkl= Tjqka w.j.ska msre.a N+ñldjka taldêm.kh lrhs' iqkLfhl= fia ñhhhs'˜ fï merKs .r lrkafka taldêm.lhka wmg fndfyda yuqjk kuqÿ 20jeks ishjfia ta i|yd m%isoaêhg m.a N+ñldjh' th fl.rïh' ta" taldêm.shka njg m.sydih . jqjo t.¾ iy b.s .a m%ldYhla ke.shdf.

a isj..a iq¿.sj y÷kd.sßj isáfha ke.rï jdikdjka.Sh iñ.d lrñka taldêm.S isákakgh' Pg 10 hï muKl ck wkque.sks .kh f.sks t.uk wdrïN jQjd muKla úh yelsh' fndfyda fofkl= isákafka taldêm.yjqre lr.laj vdpdjQ /|jqï l|jqf¾ ^Dachau concentration camp& isáfh§ ñ.=< isg ysig fjä .h . jQfha ke.shkaf..k.=rej Tjqyq ud fidhd meñKshy' tfy.u .nd isrer úkdY lrjd .=< isg ysig fjä .uk mqfrdal:kh l< yelsh' .ukaf.ndf.i .a.a fÄojdphka lrd weo ±uQy' ta jQ l.s l%shdldßfhl= fkdjQ fyhska ksy`v ùñ' wk.ska ìïf.¾ mQclhd fjhsu¾ iuQydKavqfõ úreoaOjdÈfhl= fjñka 1933§ ysÜ.shdf.ka fjä ld ñfhkakgh' wk.af.rï jdikdjka.=<skau ßx.Sh iñ.a n.a n.a uqfida.nd isrer úkdY lrjd .a ienE iajrEmh ck.a w.% ùu ksidh' .rhla isáfha ksy`vjh' ta" ck.hh' foaYfm%aufha kdufhka uq¿uy.l fufia lSfõ ta ksidh' —Tjqka m<uqj fidhd wdfõ jD.a ud fjkqfjka l.s l%shdldÍkah' uu jD.ajkakkag .r ù fkdue.rhla Tjqkg iyh m< l<y' .kh' ta iglmg wdrïNh l.a ta fndfyda fofkl=g fydr ryfiah' ieneúkau fï .¾ n¾.r mdáidkajrekaf.a N+ñldfjka isá hq.a uqfida.dj ±l.ska ìïf.d hk w.hl l=vd ldurhla .% mQclhska fuka cd.a ffjrhg md.s' tfy.k ñheÿfKah' .hh' Tjqkaf.uka wrUd we.ajh' Tjqyq mej.djf.sks .¾ n¾.¾ hgf.dia iQlaIu f..a ck.ia.=rej Tjqyq fldñhqksiaÜjd§ka fidhd wdy' ud fldñhqksiaÜjdÈfhl= fkdjQ neúka uu ksy`vùñ' wk..hla f.ekSfuka miq Tyq lf.'˜ ta Tjqka isxy fihshdfjka 2015|Januaru-March md.ukaf. hq.af.a cd.=rej m%dKh ksreoaOj bkaOk msrjqïy.ka fjä ld ñfhkakgh' wk.S taldêm.ska ÿgq ysÜ.u rgj.rhla Tjqkg .ah' tfy.Èka tfrys jQy' iudcfha nyq.a brKu l.j.l fomhska b.sljdÈfhl= jQ udáka ksfud.dÿre njg m.uka wrU.ay' iq¿.=rej m%dKh ksreoaOj bkaOk msrjqïy. jQfha ke.s wdKavql%u jHjia:d .¾g n.dlsÍug lsisfjl= b.ah' tfy..shkaf.ska .ukaf.a u¾okhg .ukh k.% yuqod úiska uqod .=rej Tjqka fidhd wdfõ hqfoõjkah' uu hqfoõfjl= fkdjQ neúka ksy`v ùñ' wk.' Tyqg isÿjQfha m.a.ska ÿgq ysÜ.shka isú.af.a.shlg hg.dj uq.i n.a f.shla hqo ìug olal+ Tjqyq tys wksjd¾h m%.sfhda úúO rgj.a brKu l.sfhl= hehs okafka iudcfha l=vd msßils' fndfyda úg Tyqf.a iajrEmhg /jàf.k ñheÿfKah' .d hk w.sM.a brKu fufia jk kuqÿ taldêm.a n.a ta úhrej mrdch lsÍug Tjqka mud jQjd jeäh' fndfyda fm%df. .hl l=vd ldurhla .S isákakgh' taldêm.' Tyqg isÿjQfha m.sh hq.a taldêm.hka È.hg taug Woõ lf<ah' miqj ysÜ.' úúO iajrEmfha taldêm.sks t.ka.a.suy.shka .r mdáidkajreka f.a we. .ndf.yefrk úgh' tfy.af.l fomhska b.d f.ekSug iu.uk yudr lrk iuhh' Tjqkg iqkLhka fia ñfhkakg isÿjkafka ta fÄojdplhkaf.a wd.

ekSug hï m%cd.r .= miqìfï iqÿ jD.h fï ish.lsjhq.ajh .af.eíúh' 1921§ mlaIfha we. c¾uksfha hqo finf<l=j isá wefvda*a ysÜ.ufka lvbuls' n.enQ ysÜ.a foaYkj.¾ n.¾" ish¨ n.¾f.ig fjkia l< ysÜ..%sl uqyqKqjrla .aù mq¾K ld.g lvd mek tajd lvdlmam.u u.kqjr fldg f.sîu& hyñka .a.shg mKsúvhla .a.S tk fldñhqksiaÜjd§ wj..a úh' tia'ta' Nghka iu.ih' ñhqkslays iudcYd.=lrefjl= f.a /lshdjla i|yd iqÿiqlula fkd.a jk iqÿiqluhs' jevj¾ck isÿlrk jdudxYsl iñ.nd§ug W.s mx.ldhZ w.ajh fmkajd ÿkafkah' 1928 uehs uy ue.sldó jQ ysÜ. ks.a l< ysÜ.lrejkaf. .ks' iqÿiqlï fmkaùfï hq.fhl= f. 05 jirl isro`vqjulg hg.a wdNdih .dia tu mlaIfha zr.ays ^md¾.ñka 2'6]l m%.nd.sjrKhg cd.kSug iu.sh Tyq ta ksidu jrl udihl isro`vqjulg hg.a ckdêm.a wdrlaIl n.ka y÷kd .sY. iys.a iu.ekSfï T.ukaf.ldhla ^tia'tia'& f. c¾udkq yuqodjg oeä iSudlï mkjd .= nj Tyq jgyd .hls' th ysÜ.aidy lf<ah' tkï ke.ih' p..nñka 1923§ ikakoaO l=uka.=r lÓl.a.k znefõßhdkq fidaúhÜ ckrchZ msysgqùug j..i f.ufka m<uq mshjr 1914 isg 1918 olajd È.= l< ysÜ.¾ ñhqksla n. fldñhqksiaÜjd§kaf.sjrKhg mlaIfha kñkau . ks. jeÿKq ysÜ.hl msysá iajia.k .i r.Sh' b.¾ckh l< ysÜ.nd.¾ c¾uksfha fldñhqksiaÜ mlaIfha n.ykï .kakd mlaIfha wdrïNh th úh' 1920 jk úg yuqodfjka bj.g iy jD.a ks¾udKhla úh' ieneúkau zkdis mlaIhZ f. hqfoõ úfrdaOh Tyq wOHdmk ks.%Khla Èh.drhg uqyqK§ug .Sh lïlrejkag myr§u u.kakg we.sl iudcjd§ c¾udkq lïlre mlaIh f.slh y÷kajd ÿkafkah' lreKq 25lska hq.ska l¾udka.=<ska mlaIfha m%pdrl m%Odkshd njg m.s OQr wfmalaIlhd 1928 ue.snqKq Tyqg ñ.¾ mlaIfha Och f.¾f.d u.a lsÍfuka" ld¾hd.rÕ je§ rhsiage.h Wfoid flá u.dal hqoaOfha§ mrdð. yerefKa yuqodj foigh' ta 1918 fkdjeïnrfha isg 1919 uehs olajd ñhqksla w.d .ah' ysÜ.r in|.¾g .ska o`vqju . .ih' fjk.sjQ w¾nqohl§ b.d.=< fm<md.a /iaùï lvdlmam.a.¾ lÓl.Skj mlaIfha lghq.¾ tia'ta' kñka m%lg jQ zl=Kdgq n.ekSug yelsùu tys id¾:l.h lrd <Õd jQ iQlaIu wdldrh yeoEÍu ta i|yd jk ukd wNHdihls' n.khkaf.dalhd y÷kd.jd .ekSfï jdvqj Tyq .d meñKsfha /lshd úrys.Odßfhl= njg Wiia lrùh' yuqod ks. úkdY lsÍfuka yd >d.sfïka.a mlaI yd ixúOdkj.a iyh .yereKq m<uq f.enqfKa wdik 12ls' ta hka.reK jHdmdrhla yd úêu.ajh iy újD.a úh' tfy.sjrKfha§ Pkao 280"000 ^1'1]& .=re yuqodj werUqfõ mlaIfha wdrlaIl LKavh f.aùu werUq ysÜ.ajhla hgf.h w.aia .sl iudcjd§ jevigyko Tyqf.a úh' Wkak.alr . hqfoõ úfrdaOh" j¾fi.¾ th wid¾:l ùu.a jQfhka Tyq isr.la fidhñka . wfkl=.=fõ& wdik ysñlr.sfha uqfida.fldgq .dvke.h m%pdrh lsÍu i|yd /iaùï meje.a.hla yd Pkao 810"127la muKla úh' .fï jEhu ta i|ydh' c¾uksfha wefvda*a ysÜ.a 1924 c¾udkq uy ue.r.a .af.ajh iy m%pdrl olaI.egqï wjq.sys.j isáfha jirlg wvq ld.ajQ Tyqf..' mlaIh .ajh veye .ekSug 2015|Januaru-March Pg 11 .s f.¾ n. m%isoaO foaYkj.dj.sl iudcjd§ ksoyia jHdmdrh ku hgf.sj.ka Tyq c¾udkq Okm.Odßfhl=j isáñkau ta jk úg idudðlhska 100 fofkla muK isá c¾udkq lïlre mlaIfha idudðl.r meje.d wiajk njg .j mlaI kdhl.dka.skSf.a n.= fmruqKZ iu.a ùÈj.=frda lsisfjlao tys fkdjQy' Tyq kej.aúh' mlaIfha ku cd.a cd.sìh hq..af.súiqug úfrdaOh ^hqoaOfhka mrdð.a lroeófï jHdmdrhla f.a wNHka.

¾f.iqï lrk .kh' wdl¾IKSh fmdfrdkaÿ fnod ÿka kuqÿ ta lsisjlg wod< úia.a ksñ.súiqu brd oeóu" ¥IKh wjika lsÍu" udlaiajdoh me.i neglñka isá c¾uksh tys m%. ysñhkag .o kuqÿ ta" lsisÿ f. f.a foaYmd.la c¾uksfha lsisfjla fkdoel .ajh.jQjkag c¾udkq wdYap¾hh" úhjq.%dylhskag jkaÈ f.Ndjh rclf<a foaYmd.= Ndr fcdaima f.r bÈßm.slju iïnkaO Pg 12 úh' m%pdrl lghq.a cd. we÷ï ye£u" .a ksfhdað.aia /iaùï oyia .wfmalaId flßKs' flfia jqjo fï m%pKav.Kkla" mkaoï fm<md.ùu k.s f.o /iaùïj.g ffO¾h j.aia .=fõ Tyqf.djla oßø.¾f.s%ld jHdmdr" kdis mqj.dj .mqKq wx.d hkakg úh' ysÜ.g ks.snQ ue. p.a lf<ah' rg mqrd /iaùï" W.r lsÍu" j¾fi.e.i foaYmd.aùf.Sj% lrñks' 1930 uy ue.amf. ksud lr kS.djfhka fm¿Kq w.sM.=msg fmfkk .sfïka.a .h fmdïm lsÍu id¾:l úh' 1930 iema.s" fmdaiag¾ yd m.hskag /lshd" wid¾:l jQ jHdmdßlhskag iuDoaêh" l¾udka.daId ke.a úfYaI uqøK" irik .sfha md. ck.eïn¾ ue.k wia:djrNdjh .r úh' c¾udkq iudchg ysÜ.kqfokq lsÍu ta fmdfrdkaÿ w.uka Tjqkaf.i 2015|Januaru-March werfUk l.a w.aij i|yd iyNd.a folkaj.eîï" PdhdrEmj.¾f.i f.ajh wfydais lsÍu" wfmalaIdNx.dal wd¾Ól w¾nqofhka oeä f.s m%N+.djlo meg.suy.e.=fõ wdik 107la kdisjd§kag fjkalr foñks' tla /hlska ysÜ.ska c¾udkq md¾.¾ úiska lrk .r wúksYaÑ.shg ysÜ.sl iudcjd§ c¾udkq lïlre mlaIh.¾ fm!oa.sjrK jHdmdrhla ysÜ. wdKavq úiska tia'ta' w.sjka.=re oeÍu jeks u.hla f.sìKs' ue.úh' /lshd úrys.ekSï" iure fmd.kakd fuka c¾udkq Okm.sÍu je<elaùu" hqfoõjka úIfhys oeäj .sìKs' mlaIfha kuo Bgu .Su id¾:l fjñka .k.ekSï fjkqfjka ysÜ.sjrKh wjika jQfha Pkaoj.s lr.k .s mx.dN" yuqodjg mkjd .snQ iSud ì£u" .¾f.a.ykula mkjk .a Okhla .a wdkqNdjhg hg.ufka lvbuls' ta jk f.=re yuqodj.a fkdlsÍug mfriaiï úh' flfia jqjo iEu flfkl=gu" iudcfha iEu ia:rhlgu Tyqg fokakg hula .alf<ah' fiñka bjis.sjrKh meñfKkafka fun÷ miqìulh' fuh ysÜ.o jdyk ish .sjrK jHdmdrh msgqmi w.S isáfhah' w.k wjq.aika .k iu.Kkla iQodkï lf<ah' .ska 6"371"000la ^18]& iu.s úYd.a fm!reIh kxjk mßÈ ukdj ie.ilska kdis mlaIfha l%shdldß.hd f.reK YsIHhskag mx.o b.fmk mßÈ -cd.dfn.dard.g fmkSisàï" orejka ism .§ Tyq c¾udkqjkaf.sùï" ms<s.ksñka c¾uksfha úúO m%dka.a u.kh" hqo ch.ajhg ndOdjk mßÈ fkdfõ' 1929 f. WÉpia:dkhlg <Õdjoa§ fma%laIlhska m%S.¾ Èh...

ue.sjrKhla le|úKs' th ysÜ.d.efgñka isáfhah' 84 yeúßÈ yskavkan¾.=fjka tiatia yd tiata w.a tiata Ngfhda ùÈ mqrd.aùfuka foaYmd.sjrhd n.a iudcYd.< jev iys.nd fojeks ia:dkfha miqúh' fldñhqksiaÜ flamSã wfmalaIl ...egqï we.a idyisl.a lsÍï weröh' .la fkdlru Pkao 19"359"983la ^53]& . kdiSka iu.u yd n.=fõ iNdm...sfïka.kakd w. uqo.a Pkao moku wdrlaId lrf. c¾udkq iudchg ±äj mSvd lrñka isáfhah' ú/lshdj ñ.en .sM.s ls%hdfõ fhfokakg kshñ.k m%pKav l%shdjkag tfrysj kj kS.Kkane.sjrKh ysÜ.a lsisÿ m%pdrl lghq.slr .ska w.a ueÈy.eïúg Bg.s ±jeka.aajh uev.sìKs' ksrdhqo hqfoõjkag lrk .j.j.sjrKfha fojeks jghlao mj.sjrK m%.j.s mlaIhla jQ iudc m%cd.¾g uq¿ukska n.areï .¾ flaj.ka.a md.sfïka.sM.§' wfma%. .a ikakoaO n.uka lf<ah' cq.sM.d isáfhah' tfy.ru we.au mlaIh njg m.g .eiqfõ t<öug kshñ..=jg hoa§ isú.ska fuu mßirh f.dj.=<h' kej.h fkd§ug c¾ukajreka mfriaiï ù .=fõ wdik 230la .a jQ w.h uqod yßñka isá w.%jd§ mlaIh hï yelshdjl isáho tys kdhl.d neÆ wjia:djls' lsisfjl=g 50]la .da.a udihlg wvq ld.s 31 mej.a 1932 2015|Januaru-March Pg 13 .kh .Sfï wfmdfydi.aùfuka th bj.u mlaIh njg m..f.i Tyq mdfmkaf.laI .r .a ckdêm.j.am. jQfha .ajhl isáfhah' lf..a ckm%sh.af..snQ kdisjd§kaf.a md¾.sjh' ta wkqj tjeks jerÈ fjkqfjka Ôú..¾ th m%.s Oqrhg m.h olajd isro`vqjï" jir 20l nrm.hla f.¾g .sjrK igklska miq ysÜ.r ±jeka.a.ajk .=<g ue.s tu ue.ñka rg mqrd .¾f. isÿùï ixfla.o myr§ï W.ajh iu.Kkl msßilg wu.af.a uy ue.' fldñhqksiaÜ mlaIh zr.aúh' ÿUqre meye ks.ka.a ueÈy.a flrefKa wdKavqfõ n.aj isá kdis mlaIfha y¾uka f.%jd§ka iu.ukaf.ah' jir wjika jk úg kdis Nghska 47 fofkl=g Èú wysñ jk úg fldñhqksiaÜ r..a.daNh yd wd¾Ól w¾nqoh ueo isrj isáfha c¾udkq iudchg uqodyefrñka .a.a msñ mqjrejla iemhSh' kej.a w.slafIam lf<a Tyqf. we÷ñka ieriqKq kdisjd§yq ishhlg jeä ixLHdjla md¾..sl uOH mlaIh .sfïka.= fmruqfKa idudðlhska 80la urd oukq .alrk f.a úh' fï ish.audkag ysñjQfha Pkao 3"706"759la ^10'2]& muKs' ysÜ.¾ Oqrhg m.a .daßxf.a lr.¾ jrlg .Sug wkqjh' fï jk úg md¾.=r ÿgqfõ ke.%jd§kag tfrys fldñhqksiaÜjd§ka ovhï lsÍfï há wruqK we.¾f. ùÈfha .hl§ fjdka mdfmka c¾udkq pdkai.nd.a we÷ñka ieriqKq kdis tia'ta' Ngfhda hqfoõ lvidmamqj.¾ Oqrh fhdackd flrefKka ysÜ. ks.¾f.aúh' n.r ysÜ.¾f.sîu u. wr.= fmruqKZ Nghska iu.shla y÷kajd ÿkafka iudc m%cd. ljhka . yelsh' wd¾Ól w¾nqofha m%.a udifha ue.r r.sM.shk 06la úh' 1932 ckdêm.¾jrhdf.ksñka kdis mlaIh c¾uksfha úYd.Sh iñ.ka b.ukaf.aikak ùï fya.sjrKfhka yskav¾n¾.lska ±jeka.a kj .a jvd jeä nrlska iudc m%cd.ekSug fkdyels jQfhka ue.a Tyqg Wm pdkai. m%pdrl fufyhqula Èh. ysÜ.a jqjukdlï ms<sn|j Wkkaÿ jQjd ñi kdis mlaIfha wk.igh' foaYmd.ajh WodiSk .dj Wr.a udi yhlg miqjh' tkï ysÜ.dka..nd.Ndjh .a lrñks' fï w.=re yuqod c¾udkq wdKavqj úiska .=< kej.ndfoñks' rhsian¾.¾ Pkao 13"418"547la ^36'8]& .j.ka.k wúksYaÑ..nd .a jeãuh' 1931 jk úg ysÜ.udj c¾uksfha pdkai.h jQfha ysÜ.r idïm%odhsl jD..sjrKh wjika jQfha kdis mlaIhg Pkao 13"745"000la ^37]& .kqfokq fírd .o .a m%.ykï lrkq .enQ kuq.a w.a .fha m%.= fmruqK iu.l=vd mlaIh c¾uksfha fojeks úYd. isro`vqjï yd urK o`vqju fhdackd úh' flfia jqjo ienEjgu fuu kS.k isáho .

ska w.¾ yS.eìKs' foÈklg miq fmd.Kkane.Kkhka .fkdjeïnrfha kej.ukaf. wdmiq f.sh fldñhqksÜjd§ka yd jD..sljd§ fldkaifõáõ mlaIhg nyq.alrkq .i l<ukdlrKh lf<ah' kdis mlaIh iy idïm%odhsl olaIsKdxYsl mlaIh jQ cd.= jQfha j¾fi.slr .¾ wj.h y÷kdf.s lhsi¾ rdcdKavqfõ lS¾.ekSfuka miqjh' flfia jqjo jerÈ .s úYd... yuqodjl lS¾.Sh iñ.¾ uy.iqï È.yeÍu wdrïN lf<ah' fmnrjdß 22 kdis tiata yd tiatia Nghska 50"000la fmd.fkk lhsi¾jrfhl= ms<sn|j rdcdKavqjd§yq isysk ÿgy' wd¾Ól w¾nqofhka mSvd ú¢ c¾udkq Okm.eìKs' jerÈ . lrkq .= bj.. .¾ mQ¾K taldêm.a úYd.u mlaIh f..¾f.a mlaIh flfrys ±..snqfKa mdfmkag muKla fkdfõ' fndfyda fofkl=g ysÜ.a we.k uqÿfKa n.ajQ n.jd .sìKs' ta" ysÜ.Sishg wkqhqla.súiqu brd oud c¾uksh i.=< blauKska l%shd.= ld.Sula we.ska th .E lr.=<h' tys§ ysÜ.h Wfoid jk Tyqf.ekSugh' fmdÿ c¾udkqjkag hym.¾ Oqrho fmdfrdkaÿ úh' 1933 ckjdß 30 yskavkan¾.sia n.Kkane.kqjr fldñhqksiaÜ mlaI ld¾hd.sjd§ka u¾okh l<" jHdmdrj.a bjis. idlÉPd u.aul jkakg úh' c¾udkq foaYmd. yels fõhehs úYajdi l< mdfmka .sj ysÜ.rlr ±uqfõ" tla rd.Sk wruqKq flá ld.s tu yuqod n¾.sljd§ fldkaifõáõ mlaIh iu.¾ c¾uksfha pdkai.ksñka isàuh' .ksñks' cd.a.Skj hgm.enQ kdis úfrdaë m%ldY k.sl msysmdrlska wkQkjfhka Èú .ajh .eï m%isoaêfha lrkq .¾ iïnkaOfhka jerÈ .¾ ryis.sjrKhla t<ôfha ksu fkdjQ foaYmd.ukag jdisodhl f.oidjla wfmalaId l<y' yuqodfõ m%OdkSka n.¾ Oqrhg m.s mx.a ckdêm..%shl udrdka.g fyd| l.dfmdfrd.s n.sh ú|.au ie.a.k isá ysÜ.a uy ue.ekSug ysÜ. we.a fï ish¨ fokd l< tla jrola .dfmdfrd.sr yer ysÜ..u È.a kdis mlaIhg wdik 35la wysñ ùfuka fmkakqï lf<a ck. wr.alr.lafiare lsÍuh' lv.¾ fï .sjrhd úiska Pg 14 ysÜ. ikaOdk wdKavqjla we.j tlÕ jQfha .=jkq we.sìKs' jir 15lg fmr mej.ju.a.k w¾nqoh .ajhla iy fY%AIaG c¾ukshla ms<sn| 2015|Januaru-March isyskhla úh' tfy.dj Tyqf.i isá ysÜ.h jeg¨fõ ryis..sjka.a wd¾Ól .sh kej.a lr.aia ...r leìkÜ Oqr ixLHdjlao ^kdis mlaIhg Oqr 03ls& mdfmkag Wm pdkai.Sï .

=rej ysÜ.s nj.aia rdcH .sjrKfhka miq ysÜ.a úia.a .k hkq .kq.a .nd.d .¾g nyq.=jg .h w.h olajd ue.sjrhd .nd .a th j<lajd .ekSug yd mdfmdÉpdrK .snQ .en . ueo jqjo c¾udkq ck. u¾okfha iajNdjh fmkajd fok kso¾Ykhla f.sh wdrlaId lsÍu i|yd jQ yÈis kS.a Pkao wvq jqjo th ñ..¾ ksfhda.a ksjdi fidaÈis flfrkq we. ù . /f.¾ yd f.ajhla hgf.¾ l%u l%ufhka rdcH hka.dj.ajk .en g%la r:j. lrk .h w.la w.s nj.= fufyhjkq .k isáfhah' ksr.¾ ckdêm.shk 04lg jeä úh' ysÜ.a ta jk úg m%udo jQjd jeäh' mQ¾K n.d .s mk.oafoa fldñhqksiaÜjd§kagh' md¾.a iy wdKavqfõ ffoksl lghq..a lf<ah' th ishjia .ajd§ka oyia .ksñka th kdisjd§ m%pdrhkag fjkalr f.dfn.d rg mqrd m%pdrh flreKq w.sks cd.ufha ksoyi we.a ienE wruqK jQfha idudðl .. wjdisiy..dj mfriaiï iy.eîug ysÜ.ykï lrkq .r .d rg mqrd m%pdrh flreKq w.kh .sfha md.a.a md.nd fkd§ug ck.=re fiùu i|yd nj lshñks' tfy.d ±óh' fldñhqksiaÜjd§ka md¾.ah' woyia m<lsÍfï" m%ldYkfha" /iaùfï" iud.k m%OdkSka Oqrhkaf.%jd§ka yd .aia rdcH . m%pdrl hka.a l.djf. yelafla kdisjd§kag muKla nj.sìfh§ ysÜ.a lsheúKs' flfia jqjo kdiSkag tfrys ish¨ foaYmd.%Kh .Kkla w.ska 44]ls' ^17"277"180& ±jeka.¾g .kq we.ka bj.a l=uka.a wjYH mßÈ ±kg we.. ta wdldrfhkau ls%hdfõ fhoúKs' fldñhqksiaÜjd§ka" iudc m%cd.=fjka msguka flßKs' ikakoaO tiata yd tiatia Nghska m<d.j.jd c¾udkq ck.k l%shdldrlï .ehsia.a lsheúKs' 2015|Januaru-March Pg 15 . lf<ah' wfmalaId l< yels f.%Khla we.g weo ouñka kdis f.hla .sjrKfha§.%Khla ms<sn| mqj.r n.a.a.%Khla yd u¾okhla ueo fldñhqksÜjd§kaf.= yd Tjqkaf.=rej ysÜ.=jkaúÿ.enQy' ta t<öug kshñ.skays n.sfha md.Sàula ms<sn| f.ekSuh' th úYd.sl ksoyi iSud flfrk nj.a.sks .=jkaúÿ.sfïka.aika lrjd .sfïka.isks' fï jk úg f.o ue.dfn.a n¾.kh . ie.ukaf.=j .awvx.ska jefiñka .s kS.%yKhg .ekSfï fldñhqksiaÜ l=uka.ekSu i|yd fldñhqksiaÜ jd§kaf.k úhjq.=jg .h w..= 05jeks Èk mj.s nj..eme.dr.a 1933 ud¾.iu tys j.k ksoyfia iïm%odhka j<..am.a yd ÿrl:k ksoyi iSud jk nj.n.iqul fldgila úh' foaYmd.a wjOdkh Èkd.a l.ka.enQ md¾.lSu Rcqj t.ke. yelafla kdisjd§kag muKla nj.enqfKa iuia.af.¾f.a ysÜ.aia miqÈk mqj.nd .h we.a l=uka.a n.awvx.dj yd cd.suh wjir blaujd hdug.r n.r n.s nj.a th j<lajd .s nj bka lshúKs' ieneúkau mk.dfn.ay' tfiau ysÜ.=¿ mqoa.aj.%Khla we.Kkla merKs foaYmd.d .snr.sfïka.=jg .k isáfhah' ksr.ska msrùug j.nd .ekSu fõ.¾f..d .ekSu i|yd fldñhqksiaÜjd§kaf.sìKs' tfy.ksñka th kdisjd§ m%pdrhkag fjkalr f.g mgjd jo ysxid meñKùu i|yd tiata ne/lal fj. Pkaoj.a w.

snqfKa zck... jYfhka kdis fkdjk ish¨ mlaI .a ke. wdêm.enqfKa yd we.ufka l+Gm%dma.enQ lïy..sfïka.uk meroùug fkdyels jk nj wjidk jYfhka igyka lr .h fidhd meñfKk Wmdh ud¾.ld ne.h mqrñka md¾.=j .i.aul ùfï mQ¾K n..kakd f.djf.Kkla mk.srjQ w.ka.sfïka.a w.eïúg urKhg m.=j.nd§uh' jHjia:dj W. iïu.s neúka tajd kej.dfmdfrd.. fkd..' rgg ck.h ysÜ.sfïka.u isj.g .¾f.a lghq.%jdoho j<.%jd§ka 84la úreoaaOjo Pkaoh .ndf.sìKs' ysÜ. .k w.= 24 mk. .=re wkdjrKh ù we.snQ yskavkan¾. taldêm.o w.¾g ysñúh' n.aidy lf<ah' ta ld.ska fï jk úgo ck.k ysÜ.sßj we.Hdkql+.a wfmalaId imqrd.ka meyer.ld l%shd.nd§fuka ud¾.=h' ..dla Tjqkaf.djf.=j fkdúuid yd jHjia:dj fkdi.=jg yd rdcH lghq.shZ f.sl jYfhka wjOdkh fhduq jQfha" wfmalaIdNx.ka.ih' tfy.k úreoaOjd§ka merKs yuqod l|jqrej.=rejkakg W. lr.a.¾ rdcHfha n.k ysKsufÕa by<u mshjr lrd .s.s lf<ah' cq.hl§ ìh.d n.dr.a .skï úkdYh f.i c¾udkq iudch u.sfïka.=fõ 2$3l n. ia:dms..Sugh' Wml%ñl jYfhka fjkia jQjo kQ.k .oafoa ieneúkau kdis /|jqï l|jqre l%uh ia:dms..djg fmkajk jHdc wdorh msgqmi we.sh u.r kdis fkdjk ish¨ mlaI yd ixúOdkj.=j weu. iïu.smsh §¾> lrjkjd muKs' tfiau fuys§ uQ.a Tfmrd Yd.a . jYfhka kïlr .fhys wogo fjkila ke.%sl j..sjrhdf.sfha wdjrKh .s m%cd.ukaf..dfõ /iajQfha ysÜ.shg w..= l< fkdyels mßirhla we.ayer oukq .x>kh lrk fuu mk.uka lsÍug Wmfhda.g mlaIjo iudc m%cd. i.r rhsiagd.h wjika lr .a yd md¾.sl whs.a md¾.ajhg m.dj wjg kdis l=Kdgq w.=¿ 441la mk.dard.a 30jeks Èk n¾..ekSula nj lSfõ Yd.a y`vk.=j ud¾.Su msKsi fuu úOdhl n.djf.lSu w.= úh yels ish.=fõ wd.ajQ md¾.a tys ienE w¾:h jQfha b.h iïnkaOfhka fndfyda f.nk njg jQ fmdfrdkaÿj msg" uOH mlaIho md¾.jÿrg. wjYH njg wjOdrKh l< Tyq th hqoaOh fyda iduh w.ykï lrk .s 14 ks.¾ c¾udkq foaYmd.r f. flßKs' md¾.nñks' foaYmd.¾.dalh u.ska hqo ìï f. jkafkakï yÈis kS.ajk ..a n.h ysñj .a jD.r f.s fndrej" jxpdj ksjerÈj f. lrk Pg 16 2015|Januaru-March f.am.aj isá /lshd úrys.u Ôú.a iQlaIu yd iglmg l%ufõohka ieflúka i.ka.flduidßiajreka tajdfha msysgqjk .a Èk olajd Tyq isxyfhl= f.Sh' c¾udkq ck..alr .eìh hq.sjrhd 1934 wf.kakd.=fõ§ ñhhdu ysÜ.mEula fkdl< neúka yuqod fiakdêkdhlhd yd úfoia . m.Hh m.reK ysÜ.sfïka.=< isr..a iyh Bg wjYH ù .a.a úOdhl n.¾f. iïu. yd w.¾g kdis fkdjk uka. lrjñks' w¨.¾g kS.i. ckdêm.ayer ±óh' úOdhl n. lrk njg Tyq jHdc f.%Sjreka 31lf.=re yuqod Nghska oyia . iïu.a n.a ckdêm.ekSu i|yd md¾.= 23 fl%da.daia. mk.rh' irou jkqfha" fï mk.oafoa yÈis kS.Su .kakd .i fmdfrdkaÿ ùuh' tajd lsisod bgqjQfha ke.g n. mdúÉÑ fkdlrk njg jQ fmdfrdkaÿj msg" olaIsKdxYsl lkafifõáõ mlaIho we.areï fkd. mk.sfïka.dard .ajhla .=re jO ysxid muqKqjk .=rej 1945 wfm%a.hla wjYH jQ w. w.súiqï ms<sn| n..=¿ iqkLfhl= fjñka ysig fjä.sh iksgqyka lrùh' bka wk.r ysÜ.a.ld ne.Sugh' th ks.d oud ysÜ.sh ÿr.' m.a m%cd.. blauKskau meñKsfhah' ysÜ.sjdislï lsysmhla kej.a.Sfï kS. flreKs' Tjqkg myrfokq .sfïka.o uQ.¾ . flfrys n. wdêm. fuys nyd.Hh me.S lr .

lrñka isáhy' tu n.ajh. úh' 16jeks 2015|Januaru-March Pg 17 .dj mqrd .s md.smSkh( taldêm.ska th f.a fmkajd Èh yelsh' iqy¾f.k .s md.sfhah' wdishdfõ miq.a rdcHhls' Bg wh.kh.a iuQyhlska jgjQ rgla f.kysr áfudarh" isx.khka tajdfha iajNdjhka f.a oyia .k .shdj" kef.= isg 1998 uehs olajd .kh f.dalfha 04 jk ia:dkh ysñ lr .rh' ck.dmhgo ta wdldrfhkau t.khka w.aúð.a ixLHdj 17"000 .bkaÿkSishdj iy ms.ykh w.a ¥m.a.a md.r udfldaia 1965 foieïn¾ isg 1986 fmnrjdß olajd .da 1967 ud¾.s fï taldêm.daf.s md.io bkaÿkSishdj y÷kajd Èh yelsh' 15-16 Y.ekafï w¾:fhka úuid n.a" ms.mEu wdishdkq l.a 18"000 .kh.aishdj wd§ rgj.u md.a ùriQßh wdishdfõ taldêm.shk 252 la blaujd hk ck. ne`§ we.areï .smSkfha udfldaia md.a w.khlg jdi N+ñh ù we. jHdma.u hg.a iu`.kh f.dó.u md.' TiafÜ%.ßka m%lg WodyrK folla f.i bkaÿkSishdfõ iqy¾f.smSkh" uef.j¾I jk úg hqfrdamShfhda f.sh w.kS' fï jk úg th ñ.Kklska ieÈ N+ñhlska hq. mamQrej" ms.kq jà' bkaÿkSishdj zbkaÿkSishdj hkq ¥m.khkag WodyrK folla ksyd.

fhka j¾Okh jkakg úh'1965 ld.sYS..kh hgf.a lrkq .fha jeä ld. iu. .ñl n.k j¾Okh fõ.lhd jkafka iql¾fKdah' fko¾.& md.kafoaiSka iy bx.ldÍj ueÈy.a¨ula mej. .h' ta" 1945 wf..ajhla lrd j¾Okh ù .a .a miq bkaÿksishdj md.= l< w.u bkaÿkSishdkq fldñhqksiaÜ mCIh u¾okh i|yd bkaÿkSishdkq yuqodjkag .r Tyq .d whym.u wêrdcHúfrdaë ia:djrhl isá iql¾fKda w¨. .enQ wdishdkq" wm%sldkq rgj.a lr..d by< b.ahs' 1940 fojk f. .enqfõ" Pg 18 1945 fojk f.a úh' ksoyia wr.a iu.h jk úg rfÜ wd¾Ólh b.a iu.ka.daia.ka.a iu.S n.ekSu i|yd wdrïNj .=.=.i bkaÿkSishdj iu.%yKhg.a wd.aúh' 1945 isg 1965 olajdu bkaÿkSishdfõ md.enqKq rgla f.siSkah' ta 1512 jif¾§h' mD. ksoyi .ekSu.. ck.dï wd.nkjd' bkaÿkSishdj .lajk bkaÿkSishdj .mEï iy.=< bkaÿkSishdkq fldñhqksiaÜ mCIho fõ.a ixúOdkh lrñka 1955 nexvqx iuq¿j meje.eïn¾ 30 Èk yuqod fckrd.a 2015|Januaru-March w¨.u cmdkh úiska bkaÿkSishdj w.h.fõ.fõ. lsysmhu iu.a .= lf<ah' flfia fj.snQ bkaÿkSishdkq cd.r tajdhska wêl .h" yuqodj iy úYd.sfïka.d iyhla iys.=kla úh' bia..j lghq.j.r`. hq.a . rgla úh' úfYaIfhkau idÈlald iy jidjdisj. i|yd hqfrdamfha b.aúð.h w.kh flfrys n.= l%uhla u.rula m%.sks' ta jk úg bkaÿkSishdkq foaYmd.fõ.a iu.eìh yels úh' bkaÿkSishdj fuu l=¿nvq nyq.bkaÿkSishdjg ksoyi Èkd .sl jHdmdrfha kdhlfhlaj isá iql¾fKda bkaÿkSishdfõ m<uq ckdêm.dal hqO iufha kdis c¾uksh úiska fko¾..am.kq .sjrhd njg m.hlau .sfhah" idÈlald" jidjdis" l=re÷" lrdnqkeá wdÈhg fuu by< b.dN .u mokï lr.kqfokq lrñka lghq.am.aùug uQ.=kh' iql¾fKda fuu n.ka.a lr .ekSu i|yd wdrïNj .fõ.kqfokq lsÍu i|yd weußldkq l|jqr fukau reishdkq l|jqro . lrkafka .snQ bkaÿkSishdkq cd.a ùug fï miqìuo fya.ajh .dal hqoaO iufha cmdkfha .fhka ksoyi Èkd.u ksoyi m%ldYhg m. ksoyi .kafoais ^fko¾.u hg.SiSka" .sl jHdmdrfha kdhlfhlaj isá iql¾fKda bkaÿkSishdfõ m<uq ckdêm.dal hqoaOfhka cmdkh mrdch ùu. fldñhqksiaÜ mCIh tu n.fõ.ss w.sl úh' th miqj fkdne¢ jHdmdrh olajd j¾Okh úh' fï .%yKhg.= úh' 1965 iema..g th b.kqfokqjla iys.ajre 06 fofkla urd ±ófï l=uka.kh jkafka" md¾.%KldÍ isÿùu.sjrhd njg m. jeä .a¨u mej.aúh' 1945 isg 1965 olajdu bkaÿkSishdfõ md.%SiSkaf.lhd jkafka iql¾fKdah' Y.snqKs' fldñhqksiaÜ mCIfha foaYmd..= 17 Èkhs' bkaÿkSishdjg ksoyi Èkd.j¾Ih jk úg l=¿nvq j¾.. m%Odk n.a fojk f.d m%isoaO úh' bkaÿkSishdjg meñKs m<uq hqfrdamShka jkafka mD.

a mjq.= ld. mEÿKs' fldñhqksiaÜ kdhlhska iy ys.a whg thska 2]la iqy¾f.r Bg tfrys jkakkag w.snq m%Odk .=< iso lrk .ndÈh hq.ajQ Tyqf.ykï lrk .au ne.§' flfia fj.=jg .d c.kakd .ekSfuka yd yuqod n.k mj.kh foaYmd.da mjq.ajh iy jxpd ¥IK by< hdu.aj..ùfï wjYH.a wh fjkqfjka 1980 . fm<.hg m.ajkafka ta whqßks' 1967 n.rï Kh .kakd . iemhqu fm!oa.awvx.k u. l< iqy¾f.h fh§fuka hgm.r m%udKhla nj miqld.ukaf.ajdf.r jfï l%shdldß.fha cl¾.h mdúÉÑ lrñka w.daf.s.da iy 2015|Januaru-March Pg 19 .a Wojq lsisÿ wvqjlska f.khg wNsfhda.k l%uh fjkqjg kj l%uhla ia:dms.§' kej.a jgd f.ajQjo iqy¾f.a iqy¾f.§' jdudxYh yels Wmßufhka foaYmd. f.kh iyuq.o fï uyd ñksia ixydrh iy n.shkhlg wêl ñksiqka urd oud n.a úh' 1965 .kakd .ald¾Z kï foaYmd.da bkaÿkSishdkq md.kh ish.ska wjYH .sjrKh mj.djhlao fkdùh' fï wdldrfhka iqy¾f.k hdu i|yd iql¾fKda md.nd.a 1970-1971 jk úg iqy¾f.a úh' úfYaIfhka tlai.da md.rï È.slr.kh ì| jefgkafka 1998§h' th oYl .g bkaÿksishdkq nexl=j.drj .kfha isá ish¨ ks.do isiqka w.§' 1965 isÿùug iïnkaOj yuqodj úiska /|jqï Ndrfha .OdÍkao m%Odk. yqjudrej miqmi iS'whs'ta' ixúOdkh isá nj fï jk úg ryila fkdfõ' iqy¾f.skau iqy¾f.u foaYmd.d.khg wNsfhda.g .ksñka ue.k hdu i|yd zf.g fldñia .= jQ w.h mqrdu .=kaf.d.kakd .k hk .rï È.SlrKh flreKq w.§' n.aùfuka miq 1971 m<uq ue.nd .CIKhla jkafka fldñhqksiaÜ úfrdaOhhs' ñ.h .a wdh.§' 1978 wfm%a.ï msrùh' wfkla w.ajk brKu ms<sn|j ix{djlao iemhSh' .=kla .nd §ug isÿúh' iqy¾f.= ld.daf.dag fyda Tyqf.d ouk .k hdfuka iqy¾f.d.do W.o fldñhqksiaÜ mdlaIslhska m%udKh ñ.r jHdmdrh ñ.a fojk Oqr ld. jug ish foaYmd.kfha uq¿ ld.ajh ms<sn| ksrka.a mej.da kï md.u n.i md.sho tl.ï" jHdmdr wdÈh fuu mqKH wdh.kfha taldêm.j.k fõÈldfjka bj.sjrKh ch.kakd .af. f.a fmÜg.u md.u 31 jirl ld.hg m.djhlska w.%hdg ..sjkakg úh' iqy¾f.k hduhs' rfÜ ish¨u iud.=ka .CI 05 lg wêl m%udKhla urd ouñka tjl yuqodm. iqy¾f.hls' uq¿ mrïmrdjlgu fjk.a md.g iqy¾f. 1978" 1983" 1988" 1993" 1998 j¾Ij.90 . l< fkdyels jk fia ish¨ lghq.dag tfrysj YsIH ixúOdkhl úfrdaO.da md.a mjq. OkialkaOhla Tyqf.j.hka i|yd m.§' tfukau yuqod ks.= lrf.h 1971 wdrïN úh' kej.da fldñhqksiaÜjdohg .a md.shk 35la muK fõ' fï uyd OkialkaOh bmehSfï tla ud¾.hg meñKsho ngysr rdcHhkaf.h .=< foaYmd.enQ w.k lghq.o OkialkaOh fvd.a lrk .u ks.daf. yd ys.= ilik .au fkdwvqj bkaÿkSishdjg .§' g%dkaiafmarkais bkag¾keIk.k mCI l%uhla iy ue..aikak úh' tfy.k fj.a ckmofha we.s jfï l%shdldß.da foaYmd.a lrk .hka m.u.da mjqf.66 ld.§ .a mq.§' iqy¾f..da md.hka i|yd .d. .ska hï mqKH lghq.ah' iqy¾f.§' ..daf.j mej.a iu.lhd bkaÿkSishdfõ n.kh mj.dvk.da tu ks.a kdhlfhl= ms<sn|j woyila mjd fkdùh' iqy¾f.ald¾ mCIh 62'8] . l< yels úmCIhla fkdùh' bkaÿkSishdkq md.rï È.eksKs' fu.a wNsm%dh wkqj isÿúh' Tyq úiska .k n.§' kj nqoaê wxYhla ia:dms.ajkq ..ïj.fõ.ajdf.enqKs' iql¾fKdaf.OdÍka l%ñlj bj.da iriú .a lr.k .ajdf. l< w..da úiska we.a l< iqy¾f.ajho wkqlïmd úrys.g iïnkaO iud.eîug fï ldrKh bjy.hla jQfha mqKH wdh.r wjOdkfhka miq úh' cdjd m%foaYfha§ 1968 § ryis.sjrK meje.a md.k mCIhlao iqy¾f. kej.. uqo.nd fkd§ lsisÿ jHdmdßl lghq.ajdf.hg m. fuu úfrdaO.sjrKo mj.a mjq.r tajd kej.sj isá iqy¾f.dvk. ue.hla olajd l%shdud¾.kh lsÍu .shk 01-03 w.kakd .la l< fkdyels úh' 1990 ueo Nd.r f.kh mjik wdldrhg Tyq úiska . wdOdr .d we. yels jQ w.nd .= mj. iajk .r lsisÿ wmyiq.= úh' tu wdh.a.= ld.s úYd.a fuu úfrdaO.hla fuu lghq.ajdf.§' urd ouk .=< f.= mj.¾ ì.a lr.súYd.udg úYajdi mqoa.s úfrdaOh fmkajd isá w.Skj m%ldYhg m.

dard m.sfhdah' tfy.sfha idOdrKh bgq fkdjq nj.d hqoaOhlao werUQy' 1945 cmdkh mrdchg m.=< Tyq úiska lrk .smSkh cmdk wdl%uKhgo .da n.a wmkhk rgla f.h Ndrfoñka iqy¾f.d blauKska jeä jQfhah' iriú isiqka rg mqrd Woaf>daIK ixúOdkh l< w.sh nj.a 1997 .sk ms.a .kh flfrys ck.ykh ñ.a ñh hdfuka miq udkj ysñlï ixúOdk mjid isáfha" bkaÿkSishdj mqrd iy kef.eìKs' hqoaOfhka weußld tlai.smSkfha ckdêm. mjq.o fkduo iyh.eka mgka ue.¾ck we.i mj.a Tyq ysrf.aúKs' 1986 fmnrjdß 07jeks Èk .slhska meñfKk w.r hqoaOhla we.o neúka Tyqg tfrys wêlrK l%shdud¾.lhska f.r ms.a lsÍu isÿ jQ w.kh È.k hdug yels úh' tfy.a md.a fi!LH .aúh' fldñhqksiaÜjd§kaf. msßila ñh .kh lr.ekSug yels ùu.ehs úYajdi l<o tfia isÿ fkdùh' 1898§ 2015|Januaru-March iamd[a[h úiska ms.hla .a rgj.isks' 1898 iamd[a[h iy weußld tlai. tlla jqjo ngysßka .kakd .%yKh lrk w.= jqj.eìKs' 1941 fojk f.sjk w.khdug fkdyels úh' Tyqf.a iy bia..sîu.dóh lKavdhïj.shk 12la muK ms.smSk yuqod cmdkhg tfrysj hqo jeÿKs' cmdkfha l%Er md.smSk cd.dys§ ñh .98 ld.efnkq we. ¥m.r tys§ weußld tlai.a nj ffjoHjreka úiska mjik .kafka 1946 jif¾§h' t.lajk w.d yuqod md.Tyqf.a ksid iqy¾f.smSkho ¥m.ajk w.a md.smSkhg wú wdhqO imhkq .o uyd ñksia >d.ß.smSk md.a f.a lr.smSkhg iamd[a[ cd.kh tlai.smSkqfjda cmdkhg tfrys .r tajd md.a ckmohg mjrkq .ska ms.=< jdih lr.daf.s md.hla mj.s jQ wdishdkq wd¾Ól w¾nqoh yuqfõ bkaÿkSishdkq wd¾Ólh m%n.s OQrhg m.hla njg m.a ckmoh w.u nQo.a .khkag kS.hla f.ajh md.laúh' iqy¾f.kh lsÍug hdfï§ úYd.r 1965 jif¾§ *¾äkkaâ udfldaia ms. bÈßhg f. fkdyels úh' 1998 uehs 21 Èk Wm ckdêm.r weußld iy ms.fhka bj.ajh whym.dj úYd.ah'   Pg 20 ms..= ld.r ms. ñh .khla wdrïN lf<ah' 1986 olajdu udfldaiaf.slfhda f.fha we.a ckmoh ch.kysr áfudarh ..§' rfÜ ck Ôú.r 1898 olajdu mej.shk 100lg wêlh' óg wu.smSkh bkaÿkSishdjg hdno rgla f.rj ñ..da taldêm.h mSvdldÍ yd ÿlaÅ.kh f.=< ñh hd hq.ajdf.d úfrdaOh b.sfhah' Tyqf.dalfha fjk.sfha iamd[a[ hg.khg tfrysj ms.sjrhdg n.dal hqo iufha§ ms.s' fuh f.a ¥Is.a ckmofhka ksoyi .i ie.u vhiafmdardj f.§' jßka jr ue.a úh' 2008 ckjdß 27 Èk iqy¾f.ajd.ehs mjiñka 1972§ udfldaia ue.i ..a ckmoh úiska iamd[a[hg tfrysj igkalsÍu i|yd ms.sjrK kj.nd.a mjq.fla' 1521§ ms.a rdcHhls' tys ck.aúð.khk .a 7000lska muK iukaú. úiska uq¿ rgu .smSkh weußld tlai.smSk md.ajh ^jdudxYh& iyuq<ska ì| oud . myrlEulg .sjrK meje.a.smSkh .sjrK u.a úmCI l%shdldß. .u wdodhï by< uÜgul mj.da cl¾.ukag ksoyi .a we|la u.

o w.smSk NdKavd...=<g we.i ie." md.= lrkq .enqjd' 1969 Tyqf.smSkfha 1935 jHjia:dj fjkia lrñka kj jHjia:djla f.=¿ lsÍug ¥Is.i ol=Kq úhÜkduhg ms.r jdudxYslhkaf.yer oukakg isÿjQ w.smSkh md.a.eîh' há.shk 56la fhdojd .Hka.%yKh lrk .a ìß| fldrdfidaka wlsfkda ms.kh flfrys . iemhSu jeä lsÍug yd úÿ.a Oqr ld.h .a.kafka fojeks f.sjrKhla mj.=< bv .=< ¥IK we.smSkfha ckdêm.sixúOdkh lsÍfï jevms<sfj< wkdjrKh lf<ah' rcfha wd¾Ól ia:djrNdjh by< kexùu i|yd nÿ tl.= yuqodjkag mjrk .dal hqoaOfha§ cmdkhg tfrysj igka l< .shk 56la fhdojd .a ixj¾Ok jHdmD.drfha fvd.kh yudr lrñks' udfldaiaf.dia.ï óg¾ 30"000la muK kej.smSk yuqod hjñka weußldjg iyh .sh fY%aIaG cd.iqï l< w.laflßKs' úmCIfha isáh§ úhÜkdï hqoaOhg ms.¾ ñ. myiqlï jeäÈhqKq lsÍu" wd¾Ól ie.ukaf.¾ ñ. f.a §¾> lr.kq .d blauKska uydud¾.s moaO.s lsÍu" weußldkq yuqodjkag ms.r >d.a iy YsIHhkaf.h wdrïN fjkjd' fojk jrgo ms.=re ud¾.s OQrhg f.Hhla fkdjk nj miqj fy<sorjq úh' flfia fj.kakg úh' udfldaia md.a th i.khg tfrysj t.sjrK rdYshla t.sìKs' udfldaiaf.iska jqj.a ue.h .s W.ekSu i|yd udfldaia fndfyda fihska yuqod msßia iy iïm.a ue.aflßKs' tfy.ajQjdh' ta" udfldaiaf.= yuqodlrKhg .= fh§h' tys§ Tyq .shla njg m.a úfrdaO.a fhdod. jkakg mgkaf.= m%odkhka" udkj ysñlï W.a fojk OQr ld.d kdhlfhl= f.a fojk Oqr ld.a lsÍug Wkkaÿ jQ w.nd§u" weußldkq 2015|Januaru-March Pg 21 ..kj.nd §ug lghq.a ms.dvkexùugo lghq.sjrKh jxpd l< njg rg mqrd Woaf>daIK u.ß.r fydrlï" jxpd" ¥IK wdÈhg tfrysj wdrCIl wxY ia:dk.s wdrïN lf<ah' Tyq kS.smdokhla jHjia:dj .smSk N+ñh .k taug lghq.= jkakg úh' ta wkqj ckdêm.H wdh.s OQrhg f.smSkfha n.r uQ.a Tyq ue.a udfldaia md. fpdaokd w.hg m.da óg¾ 16"000 muKo" merKs md.iqï ilia lsÍu" fukau m%Odk bÈlsÍï wdÈfhys jevlghq. lsf. myiqlï jeä lsÍfï jHdmD.k taug lghq.s Oqrfha Èjqreï ÿka fmnrjdß 25jeks Èku udfldiag n. jYfhka Kh .a 1965 ckdêm.sh wu.= lsÍu by< kxjk w.r isú.h w.sjrKfhka Tyq ch.aÍ m.a fojk Oqr ld.Èka úreoaOj isá udfldaia n.khg tfrysj m%n.r uyd m%udKfha há.sjrK jHdmdrh i|yd ms.uh' fï jk úg.k .r udfldaia ch.hg meñKs ú.=< Tyq ms.ajk .a jHdmdrh i|yd ms.smSk NdKavd.ska úYd.u wd¾Ólh j¾Okh lsÍfï iy rch m%.djhka W. lf<ah' Tyqf..h .o w. f.=< Tyq ms.aÍ m.=¿ bÈlsÍï rdYshla isÿ lsÍug wjYH úh' w.a m%n.h wrUñka cd.a.s i|yd cd.o wlsfkdaf.smSkfha 1935 jHjia:dj fjkia lrñka kj jHjia:djla f.%yKh l< nj m%ldYhg m.sìKs' udfldaiaf.smSsk yuqod heùug .eksKs' Tyqg b.jQ m%n.ï we.smsk cd.jÿrg.j.k Tyq mjikafka" kej.h jkafka" 1965 isg 1969 olajd ld.ajQ m<uqjekakd jkafka udfldaiah' Tyqf.hhs' Tyq .snqKs' 1970 jk úg udfldaia md.x>kh lsÍï" wOHdmk .a oYl foll ms.= fh§h' lghq.j YsIH igka weúf.smSkfha ckdêm.sh w¨.drfha fvd.§' m%:u Oqr ld.ajQ m<uqjekakd jkafka udfldaiah' Tyqf.= by< hdu wdÈh úh' tfukau yuqodlrKh iy yuqodj .= l< udfldaia c.aikak jkafka fï iu.kh lrk .udj y÷kajd .a lrk njh' tys§ Tyq .ekSfï m%.r jxpd" ¥IK" whq.ue..amdokh by< kexùugo jHdmd.s id¾:l lr.a.a m<uq Oqr ld. úfõpk fojk jrgo ms.

a 2015|Januaru-March ms.a ìß| jk bfu..smSk ck.a.jqï 508la" w.s iqfLdamfNda.d W.d ÿlaÅ.h jQfha jir 8ls' jir 8 blaujd hdug fmr jHjia:dj fjkia lsÍug W. lrñka isáh§ udfldaiaf.S Èúhls' fï ms<sn| fpdaokd n.kh §¾> lr ...avd .hla .aiy l< Tyq miqj yuqod kS.hla .a ienE ldrKh kï Tyqg wjYH jQfha" ..a Ôjk .dj b.r tfia hdfï§ w.af.u md.snQ we÷ï me<÷ï w.jÿrg.djhkag k.h .sh mekùu i|yd Tyq jHjia:dju Wmfhda.g rg yer hdug isÿ jQ w.sh l%shd.a mj.a iu.fhka my ùfuka miq udfldaia mjq.snQ we÷ï wdhs.u Oqr ld.a nE.avd i.=j .sh mekùu wjYH njh' tfy.sfCIam jqjo 1986 n.S Èúhls' fï ms<sn| fpdaokd n.sfCIam jqjo 1986 n. úfõpk úh' ms.= jgyd ...avd i.aul lrkq .=< m%.=< m%.= hq.aikak ùu.h .ah' yuqod kS.ï ms<sn|j fy<sorõ ùu .d ÿlaÅ.§' tfy.=< yuqod kS.a Ôjk . yel' .eîh' udfldaia fmkajd fokq.fha isák ld.k hdugh' 1935 jHjia:dj wkqj Tyqg ckdêm.fhka my jQ miqj bfu.smSk ck.eïn¾ 21 Èk udfldaia ms.a ^hand bag& 1000la" im.ajdf. yel' n.snQ we÷ï wdhs.u 1972 iema.khg tfrysj Pg 22 úmCIfha iy YsIHhskaf.=ùu wdÈho m%n.s Oqrfha /£ isáh yels Wmßu ld.wjYH. Ôú...dj b.yer oud f.=<skau wef. lrñka isáh§ udfldaiaf..=j .S lr .a.= jgyd .sh mkjd 1973 wjika ùug .snQ .=<skau wef.dia .. Ôú.kakd . lf<a w.h .á iñka l< lnd 15la" .s iqfLdamfNda.enqfõ" ckrch wdrCId lsÍu i|yd yuqod kS.fha isák ld. 2700la wdÈh úh' udfldaia md.a.avd .a úfrdaO.a ìß| jk bfu.ï ms<sn|j fy<sorõ ùu .r uq.fhka my jQ miqj bfu.smSkh . lf<a w.

a lrk .u w.nd >d.la l< oCI lÓlfhl= úh' bfu.Èka Èkd.a ieñhd jQ fnks.a lf<ah' Tyqg . taug .r" f.djhg wkqj isÿjkakg úh' yuqod md.= 21 Èk wlsfkda fmr<d ms.a b.smSk cd.aúh yels ¥Is.daia.a lr jir 8 lg miq tkï 1981 ckjdß 17 Èk yuqod kS.kh ±äj úfõpkh lsÍu.afkda wlsfkda ms.h wkqj ì| ouk .sh wjika lsÍu.a ckmohg hdug udfldia wjir .r iuyfrla h<s lsisod yuq fkdjk f.r`..kh wdrïNfha§u wlsfkda w.a whs.sh mekùu.ajh.a kdia.sjrhdf.SrKh lf<ah' kuq.u w.§' oyia .sh mkjd jirl ld.yuqod kS. msïula 2015|Januaru-March Pg 23 .hlska f.s lrk .u md.§' wlsfkda >d.la l< oCI lÓlfhl= úh' bfu. .a lr .a ÿIag taldêm. úmCI foaYmd.k l%shdldßlfhdao rdYshla jQy' m%n.smSkfha m%lg foaYmd.dgqm<ska msg.§' 1973 § we.a ms.u .awvx.ekg m.snqKs' ta wkqj .kh jk nj fmkaùug udfldaiag wjYH úh' flfia fj.k l%shdldßlfhl= jQ udfldaiaf.h mßÈ isÿ lsÍug jHjia:dfjka bv .a wNsu.ekSug udfldaiag yels úh' 1972 yuqod ks.ks md.ska w.sjrKh ch .sh m%ldYhg m.awvx.= úh' 1980 ud¾.a iu..kh mj.ld yeß w.awvx.s OQrhg m.khla nj udfldaia úiska y÷kajdÿks' ms.h ±ä Wmydihg .a .o jHjia:dj hgf.awvx.d úfrdaOh kej.drj r|jd .a bv fkd.Kkska ms.fhka myjk fudfyd.=jg .nd .alula i|yd tlai.s nj mjiñka rch 1972 yuqod ks.k l%shdldßlfhl= úh' Tyq udfldaiaf.sldr ðú.= yuqod Ndrfha isá Tyqg yÈis ie.dalfhau ms<s.smSk iudch .s jQ hq.r udfldaia n.smSkfha ckdêm.afkda wlsfkda msgqjy.ek tys i|yka fkdùh' th ckdêm.i kï lf<ah' udfldaiaf.ka.k .laflreKq w.kh jHjia:dkql+.sfhl= jYfhka udfldaaia .k hk .a" oCI lÓl.smSkfha zBjd fmfrdakaZ f.r úmCI foaYmd.nd .kq .ajqjo bkamiq we.r úh' Tjqka úúO jO nkaOkhkag .smSkh fyd¢ka md.kh lrk .avd udfldaiaf.r`.a .a md.smSkhg meñKsfhah' tfy.nd ÿks' 1983 § wlsfkda kej.sh wjika lrk njg udfldaia m%ldYhg m.smSk udOH wjOdkho .afkda wlsfkda ms..i kï lf<ah'' isá ksid .enqKq w.hlska f.slhska yuqod u.a Tyq urd ±óug hï msßila we.sh mekùu.a wNsu.=reoka jQy' yuqod kS.ajdf.h ms.ajQ fnks.nd wlsfkda fjä .k .ekSug fï .kh hgf.sYhskau ¥Is.aùugj.a isú.elaùug yels iEu W.lhd njg m.a wfhla úh' yuqod md.ajhlg m.k l%shdldßlfhl= úh' Tyq udfldaiaf.aiyhlau ork .ajh fya.smSkh ±ä lïmkhg m.smSkfha zBjd fmfrdakaZ f.oy' /|úhka w.a iu.=jg m.a kdia..aj l< wlsfkda weh ms.§' udfldaiaf.avd udfldaiaf.§' 1981 cqks 16 Èk udfldaia ckdêm.ajQ fnks.=jg .sjdislï Tyqf.a wjYH. md.i w.a md. tlla úh' wmrdO m%udKh wyi Wig ke..r Tjqyq lsisÿ kvq úNd.la l< wlsfkda weh ms.kakd .drju 81 ue.smSk md.s md.a jHjia:dj iyuq.sldr ðú.smSkfha m%lg foaYmd.sfha lghq.u md.skau udfldaiaf.l iNdj wfydais l< udfldaia Tyq .skau fkdi.=< yÈis ksYap.a 1983 wf.sh w.snqKs' yuqod ks.a lrk .afkda wlsfkdao fï /|úhka w.d m<mqreÿ taldêm.ka.a meñKSu je.%h wLKavju úfõpkhg .=o iyuq.a úh' wêlrK moaO.a ksid wlsfkda ms.%h wLKavju úfõpkhg .ajQ fldrdidka wlsfkdaf.kh ms.sjrKhla m%ldYhg m.=jg m.h w.a ì|jeàfuka miq ms.§' kuq.la Tyqf. jk úg iudch m.a md.hla Èh yels kdhlfhl= jQ fnks.kh flfrys ck.h ±ä Wmydihg .=jkaf.

fldgila Kh iy fmd.snQ úmCIhg udfldaia iu.a Kh .shg fhdojd wlsfkda >d.r tu fldñiu úiska óg iïnkaO yuqod idudðlhska 25la iy isú. ixpdrl l¾udka.a.shk .hdhs' wlsfkda >d.r tlai.SrKh jQfha" fuu pQÈ. jeÿkdh' 1986 fmnrjdß 07 ue.r uqo.skau ì|jeà .u ms..a ñ.r úYajdih iyuq.smSk wd¾Ólfha .a.ska byjyd f.audka keue.i wd¾Ól m%.snqKs' ms.kakd .s nj.d ouk .a >d.f¾u ms.slfhda iïnkaO jQy' udfldaia flfrys rg .snqKs' rcfha ks.aika .alrk .hka 26 fokd Bg iïnkaO ke.Hka.a lrk .ajho jvd whym.u ue.ekSug isÿúh' úfoaY Kh Pg 24 nr fvd.a.= isÿ lsÍug n.a. Pkaoh meje.r ta wkqj iqnidOl úhoï lmd yßk .snQ .r uQ.a Kh b.nd >d.¾ ì.ah' frd.ekSï" ìhjeoa§ï" Pkao fmÜá meyerf.kh .h b.S jdßl f. by< hdu ksid wd¾Ól lghq.x.a iu.dal fj<|fmd< .= ukao.i wehf.hd l=.a" f.h úYd.sjrKhla nj mejfihs' Pkaoh ñ.r`.sjrKfha§ úmCIfha fmdÿ wfmaCIsldj f.a nj m%ldYhg m.s f¾.i ck b.=.r`.sM.ùu i|yd fjka lsÍug isÿúh' wlsfkda >d.dó fjñka .s mqoa.r`.i ..nd§u i|yd fldkafoais f.=< my< neiafiah' rchg cd.o w.kafvda Y.ndfokakka .sSrKh jkafka fï w.g yefrkakg mgkaf.o Kh i|yd f.dia .a Kh . lsÍu i|yd wfmaCIlfhla fidhd.mEï jeä jkakg úh' úfoaY úksuh ys`.smSk b.dj ñ..sydifha ¥Is.úh hq.r rfÜ ck.hska .= lr ±óug isÿúh' rg .d isák ..smSk cd.a úfoaY 2015|Januaru-March Kh .mekSug wlsfkdaf.nñka udfldaia md.laúh' úfoaY nexl=o ms.ajqKq w.k . wkqj udfldaia ch.dalh mqrd.=¿ rch jxpd yd ¥IKj.§' rcfha úhoï lmd ±óug Tyq úiska ksfhda.= jdßl f.d wl¾uKH jkakg úh' wd¾Ólh k.r jd¾Islj cd.khg tfrysj úmCIh fufyhjk f.la úh' rg mqrd Woaf>daIK mek k.sjrKhla m%ldYhg m.khdï we..o w.rfhka .=r§h' wehg ckdêm.j¾Ifha kvqj˜ kñka ye¢kajQ fuu kvqfõ wjika . miqnEulg .kfha mÍCIK isÿflfrñka hk w.la i|yd kj ckjrula wjYH nj mjiñka udfldaia 1986 kj yÈis ckdêm.eklg f.sl wdodhñka úYd.Yd. .§' .shkhla w.ka úiska n.r wjidkfha Pkao m%.d isgqùu i|yd ±ä W.a.Sï rfÜ iEu ck fldgila w.§' udfldaia úiska úfoaYhkaf.=<.§' tjeks wd¾Ól m%.' fldrdidka wlsfkda udfldaiag tfrysj .jÿrg. jQ w.r Kh f.=< fukau cd.dal nexl=j" cd.je§ug wfmaCId lrk mqoa.ajk f. jYfhka úhoï lrñka issáfhah' 1986 jk úg f.ka .sfha ke. lrk .g .ksñka isáhy' udfldaiao foaYmd.kh bjy.nd fok .r`.h 1985 fmnrjdß wdrïN úh' —Y.k lghq.af.kakd .snqKs' f.k wia:djrNdjh úiska úfoaY wdfhdacko miqnEug .§' udfldaia we.=¿ isÿùï /ila iu.d isá w.a jeisfhl= y÷kd .shkhlg wêl ms.sixúOdk lghq.jk f.a fmryerg ñ.smSkhg Kh .Hka.=jk w.kh lrk wjia:dfõ tu ia:dkfha§u fjä je§ ñh .shk 26 olajd by< .sjrKhg bÈßm.sh w.kafvda Y.nd§u kj.s nj.Hka.kh isÿ lr we.skakg úh' foaYmd.= i|yd rdcH wruqo.a wju.i úfoaYhkaf.H wruqo.kaùug fkdyels ùfuka fndfyda l¾udka.afjk w." tlai.rjo we.smSk ixpdrh wj..a ckmoh iy wfkl=.a ñ.a fldñhqksiaÜjreka úiska frda.a .j.ekSu wmyiq úh' ckdêm.a >d. je§ug iqÿiq hehs .lu ksid ksIamdokhkag wjYH wuqøjH f.s jQ wm%idoh m%n.a w.sixialrK lghq.Kkska fidrd.aiyhla .g fn§ .ßkau u.kh.aúh' tfy.r ld.k tafï yelshdjla mej.a úh' wlsfkdaf.a úYd.a ñ.a ckmofha ckdêm.OdÍyq fndfyduhla wh:d .ska cd.sjrKh meje.k .. f.snQ w.ùu i|yd wu.sh wfkla mqoa.a" we.§' Tjqkag tfrysj kvq úNd.ek fiùug fldñiula m.s jQ úfrdaOh yuqfõ wlsfkdaf.smSkfha idïm%odhsl wmkhkhka jQ iSks iy fmd.Kkdjla isáho Tjqka lsisfjl=g úmCIfha ish¨ mCI tl .j .r th ms.d isáhy' ta wkqj fldrdidka wlsfkda 1986 fmnrjdß ckdêm.sjrKhg .kqfokq u.§' fldgiaj.Hka.r.audka hkq wlsfkda fjä .ka b.kag fhdodf.lrk .jÿrg.

af.h ..SrK .r Tyq by<u .§' 1986 fmnrjdß 26 Èk udfldaia iy mjqf.a.a ckmohg wh.a.lhska w.h mjrd bj.a úiska tu m%.khg tfrysj wjÈ jQ ck. ±kqï fok .oafoa yjdhsys§uh' bkaÿkSishdfõ iqy¾f.dj mej.a ckmo f¾.ska rdcH hdka.u mjq.eiSu" .=rka fmdaIKh lsÍu" Tjqkaf. i|yd iy.sj .a ta ish.a ckmoh udfldaia fj.a ckmo w.a lr ±óu" isr lsÍu" urd ±óu fï forfgysu fmdÿ .s md.ßka tlls' yjdhs fj.s iaj¾KdNrKo tfukau fvd.' .Skaÿ .g n.¾ ì.u md.kagu wjidkfha isÿjQfha" ck.r m%udKhla Okh f.=j úiska fidhdf.amkd lrkafka lsis Èkl n.l=uka.shk 05 -10 w.r .CIK úh' .=ïme.ajh fjk. meñfKk úg udfldaia mjq.%Khg jdis .ska cku..h fld.h yerod fkdhdugh' tfy.a is..kfha mÍCIKhkag wkqj f.sfí' 1994 .efik w.h yuqfõ oK .CIKhka úh' jxpdldÍ ue.a.a g%dkaiafmarkais wdh.i tlai.ekSu" wmrdO . kq .a jk f.=< fvd.shkaf.=ï p¾hdjka .dan.idf.dalfha ¥Is.u úreoaOjd§ka u¾okh" Tjqkag lsisÿ bvla fkd§ hgm.ek isák w.a.eiSugh' 2015|Januaru-March Pg 25 .ñ.CIK úh' Tjqka l.h fh§u" fï foflysu fmdÿ .lsisfjl=.CIK úh' jxpd ¥IKj.¾ ì.enQfha ke.a wjqreÿ 21l md.sl jqjukdjg kS.ekSu fï forfgysu fmdÿ .slo /f.' 1989 iema.sM.u fm!oa.h ms<s.hka wkqj .o tajd w.%KldÍ isÿùï nyq.smSkfha udfldaia md.dv .a fmdaIKh lsÍu" Okh f.' udfldaiaf.yer yjdhsj.sjrK u.dv.k .d n.dj fm<.k ld.s fyda mj.r Tyq Tyqf.a wh ms. ùu fï forfgysu fmdÿ .sk ´kEu taldêm.u ys.a wNsu.s md.a taldêm.kho" f.sgß n.lEu fï forggu fmdÿ úh' fl<jrla fkdue.smSkh w.d.a w.o tajdfhys fndfyda iudklï we.eïn¾ 28 Èk ñhhk úg Tyqf.da md.khla .k we.kh fukau" ms.ukag ßis fia jHjia:djka mdúÉÑ lsÍu" .k wd nj tlai.s jHjia:d ilia lsÍu" tfia fkdyels jQ úg ñ.a jhi jir 72la jQ w.r ñhhk .lg fmr<Sug bv fkd§ fldrdidka wlsfkda w..sYh iudklï orhs' tfukau taldêm. rka l=Üá msrjQ iQÜflaia 24la o" Èhuka.g meñKshy' yjdhs hkq weußld tlai.shk .Kkla jákd rka f.

h Wfoid lghq.s ìysjkafka md.l mx.a ì.lfhl= jHjia:d ixfYdaOkhka u.ld yeÍï fï .s moaO.afï w.a ksrdhdifhkau wvx. kj hg.aOkhg ^th ysñ iq¿.s.sÿka wdldrhhs' taldêm.s ms.u n.sfhys md.s mjd taldêm.ukl hñka isá flfkls' tjka taldêm.xldj miq.djho m¿ÿ lrkq .sfha leue.e.sk mSä.shg& /ljrKh yd myiqlï ie.dó nj.= fõ' foaYmd.a.s .u taldêm.k myiqj Wfoidh' Y%S . fyda w.h Wfoid jk l%shdldß.nhs' md.s.sh Wfoid jk kS. taldêm.s uev.u mqoa.jd§ rgla ksidu kS.= lrkafka kï th taldêm. lrkq .¦ mj.sfha md.=j úiska md.Sfï jqjukdj úiska md.kskajd§ fmdÿ ks¾jpkhhs' .aoelSu jkafka" Tjqka .sh hkq Tyqf.s n. .a ck.l mx.djh cks.a.sNdjh.h .sh kj kS.l mx.yjqre lr... .sfha meje.sl kS.s ke.l mx.ska ms<sn|j b. mx. kS.ajhhs' uyskao rdcmlaI hkq tjka jHjia:dkql+.sÅ.a hg.skah' ta" jrodkhka yd .r mx.a fyda wehf.hs˜ hkak udlaia f.aikak jk úg mSä.=< wvx.=< jHjia:d ixfYdaOkhkaf.sydifha w.ajhhs' túg kS.sfha miq.iSu Wfoidh' iudc l%ufhys w¾nqohka W. mx.HdjYH.l mx.a wjYH.sfha m%.sh iliaj mj.lfhl= .h wjYH jkafka OfkaYajr m%d.dj.=jlaldÍ jHjia:d ixfYdaOk" jHjia:d fjÜgq oeóï" jHjia:dj fkdi.sÅ.s.aúð.s ilia lsßug fm<fUhs' fuu .l mx. Wu.súfrdaOh j¾Okh fõ' bka mek k.jh' ta wkqj wm rfÜ kS.ak Pg 26 2015|Januaru-March wd Kavql%u jHjia:dj hkq rgl uQ.a. n. fõ' tjka md.shhs' —kS. l%Svdjg fmdÿ kS.sfha leue. taldêm.ajh .skau .a leue.dó OfkaYajr ixj¾Okhla iys.a.djh fjkqfjka fhofõ' ys.skafka thgu wdfõKsl kS.aúð.s OkqIal y¾IK úl%ur.s wjYH.kh hkq n.Kaydj Wfoidu rg.ajhls' fujka iudc wd¾Ól l%uhl n.jHjia:d fjÜgq oeuQ taldêm.skafka tu yevrej iys.ajfha n.nhs' mx.=h' ieneúkau n.o blaujd hñka hï md.kakd úg th jHjia:dkql+.sh hkq md.

s flaIa.' .sh iu.s lrÈfhka .su.%hu taldêm. l< wdh.djhhs' tys wvx.ska l¿ i.a Wmhk l¾udka.lhskago fÊ'wd¾go isÿjqfha mek k.=<ska j.sh jHjia:d ixfYdaOkh keue.. rgls' thg uq.=r y÷kd.=j wisñ.a øjH jeks Wm wd¾Ólhka ìysjkafka fï yrydh' ^wm rfÜ m%Odk wd¾Ólh l¾udka.lhdg ck.ekSug kj jHjia:djl w.n.shla ìysj .dÿre fõ' tjka w. wd¾Ól fudv.a fijfKa isáñka hefmk mdov foaYmd.. wd¾Ólh ia:djr fldg fomhska isgqùug fï olajdu .s úh' foaYmd.dj iuÕ .xldj iïnkaOfhka .k ia:dkho ^wêlrKho& fuu fÄojdplhg f.au Wfoidu iudc . bjiSula fldfy.súiqula ke.dN .' jHjia:dj fyj.sfnkafka mdov ixialD.lhska iy md.gu iliñka bka fldñia Wmhñka isá.u l%uh mjd wjodkug . wd¾Ólh wdfoaY l<o fï olajdu th ia:dms.xldfõ taldêm.sfí' u.%yKhg .h fkdj Kh" ov yd nÿh'& fï u.eîu Wfoid fmdr nohs' .ï wgjd.au ke.kh uqo.suh fjkila we.afjhs' kS.a l=vq" u.HdjYH. iys.k ixialD.a..a msmdih ikaisf|kafka ke.ajfha w.a miq iuia.k w¾nqohka mshux lr.fhka fkdj mdov wd¾Ólfhka .Dma.s ixjD.=jg m.amkd lf<au fuu wdlD.lhd jHdmdßlhd njg m. msmdihg uqyqK§fï Yla. kS.y.Su .sk w¾nqoh yuqfõ n.s wd¾Ólhla ìysúh' tmuKla fkdj foaYmd..a rfÜ uQ.. wk. úOdhlh flakaø fldg f.Ndjh ms<sn|j iudc ú{a{dkh 2015|Januaru-March Pg 27 .aldrhhs' wka u.dó OfkaYajrh fmf<hs' fÊ'wd¾' chj¾Ok l.khka ¥IKh lrkafkao fudjqkah' wêlrKfhao" kS.hla njg m..s ilik ia:dkho ^jHjia:dodhlho&" kS.ajfha .suh Wvqhál=re lsÍu yryd mek ke.s' tksidu há.shlska fyì mdlaIsl foaYmd.sl kS.la lrñka l¾udka.a jQfha tjl md. hka..' újD.s Wmhk mdov Okm.=<h' fï wkqj bkamiq md.s.s l.Hfhao iqcd. myiqlï ieliSu Tiafia fldñialdr wd¾Ólhla ìysúh' fï yryd foaYmd.awvx.ekSugh' tfy. lsßfï fkdyelshdfjka fuu miq.ajkafka fï . fyda lDIsl¾udka.sjdru leK ta u.aoelSï lsysmhla úuid ne. wd¾Ólfha w.aù ke.h iuÕ jk iïuq.lhdjQ fÊ'wd¾' chj¾Okh' tajk úg meje.' thg wjYH há. n.sh mis|..h fjkqjg újD.a l< 1978ka miq wd¾Ólfha wdlD.s mx.u .shls' Tjqka . myiqlï muKla ÈÕska È.k ilia úh' bka miq ìysjq md..a. yelsh' Y%S .d.sh .sfha wdêm.khg msúfikakka .u l%ufha meje..a úh' oeka újD.auka YS% .sh yels foaYmd.=<o fjkialï we.a lr.uka Èidj yd j¾Okh úiska ks¾udKh jk wkd.s.xldfõ Okm.

a lf<ah' fÊ'wd¾' jHjia:d ixfYdaOkh uÕska wNshdpkdêlrKh i.u uka.ska È.sl uka.s wdKavql%u jHjia:dfõ 161 ^we& j.uka i.kh' isßudfjda nKavdrkdhl ysgmq w.ka.sjrhdg tfrysj kvq mejßh fkdyels jkfia mkjd .=fjka .ajh wysñjQ úg Tyqf.a flßKs' ta" úOdhl ckdêm.a uka.skshf.l t'cd'm'hg muKs' .súfrdaë hehs weh wNshdpkdêlrKhg f.af.%Sjrhl=f.%jdohhs' 78 jHjia:dfõ m<uq ixfYdaOkh lrkafka úreoaOjdÈhd f.g hg.%S Oqrh wfydais l< yelafla md¾.uq' j.aika l< mßjdi .u úreoaO .= tu n.xldfõ fldñhqksiaÜ mlaIfha ir.r n.a¨jdh' Pg 28 2015|Januaru-March .af.dia ßÜ wd{djla b.g f.r.a uq..=r fm!oa.súfrdaë hehs weh wNshdpkdêlrKhg f.a leue.a lrkq .sfïka.ah' fuu wjia:dj ft.xldfõ jHjia:d ixfYdaOkhka u.ekSu wruqKq fldgf.ue.ka.a lrk .sh wysñ lsÍu i|yd mekjQ fldñiu ks.=fjka msg.d ys.%Sjrhd wdKavq mlaIfha uka.=fõ 85fofkl= w.kh' isßudfjda nKavdrkdhl ysgmq w.dia ßÜ wd{djla b.s jHjia:d ixfYdaOkhka yryd È.mdk mßÈ f.a lrkafka ckdêm.o w.yjqre lr.rÕlre ÿn.Ügqj.ka m<s .u wdKavqjg úreoaO mlaIfhka meñfKkakka iq/lSuh' uka.§' tys wruqK jqfha" ckdêm.a m%cd whs.Ügqfõ.a m%cd whs.=j meje.= újdoh w.sfh§ .af.a.S.a uq.a n.af.sh ixfYdaOkh flßKs' Tyqf. lf<ah' fojk jHjia:d ixfYdaOkh uÕska ckdêm.a m%cd.r újdoh lvdlmam.la lsÍuhs' ta iïnkaOj jk md¾.ka m<s .ah' tfukau fuu ixfYdaOkh w.78 jHjia:dfõ m<uq ixfYdaOkh lrkafka úreoaOjdÈhd f.hg n.auka wdKavql%u jHjia:dfõ jhi wjqreÿ 36ls' lrk .ekSu wruqKq fldgf.iska th bÈßm.§' fYa%IaGdêlrKh m.enqfha fmdÿ ck tlai.h .h i|yd jk mjqf¾ isÿre jeiSuhs' fï wkqj m<uqj Y%S .hlajq wjia:dfõ§h' ta" wdKavqj ck.a uka.gu isÿ lr we.S' Y%S .sydislh' . fkdl< ixfYdaOkhlao mj.a .sfïka.súiqu hgf.jo 12 ixfYdaOkh kñka lsisod iïu.= n.a l< ir..=< iq¿.ue.o ixfYdaOk 18ls' bka ck.%Sjrhd fuu ixfYdaOkh bÈßm.ka.sfïka.sh wysñ lsÍu i|yd mekjQ fldñiu kS.%Ska úiska Tijd md¾.=< úÑlsÉPdjla cks.a¨jdh' tu wd{dj wNshdpkdêlrKh úiska ksl=.skshf.s fÊ'wd¾' chj¾Ok wruqKq lf<a md¾.snQ 35 j.=j .sh ixfYdaOkhg .ao fï yrydh' blaì.kakg yelshdj .sfïka.sfïka.a mlaI idudðl.kú.sjrhdf.sjrhd úisks' túg th ckdêm. lr we.h .u uka.s fmruqK iuÕ w.h fYa%IaGdêlrKhg mjrk . tiùfuka hkak tu ixfYdaOkhhs' ta jk úg 85lg jeä Pkaohla md¾.jd§ ixfYdaOkhla jqfha" 17 jk jHjia:d ixfYdaOkh muKs' th bÈßm.khk .sfïka.a fmruqK md¾.a whqre úuid n.%S Oqrho wfydais jkafka hehs meje.%S fhdackdjla f.d úuqla.s fÊ'wd¾' chj¾Okf.snqfKa md.ska n.

djg ..sk wdh.s lrñka uyskao rdcmlaIo lghq.o ixfYdaOkhls' bka wk.kakd f.ekaùï u..sìKs' foaYmd.lsÍu hgf. md¾.fha ïf..sia fldñiu" rdcH fiajd fldñiu" wdÈh ckdêm.dñKs Èidkdhl.djg .nd" l:dkdhl w.s. .sfí' Okm.rÕ lsÍug ckdêm.u md¾.a .o l¿ meyefhka tlafõ' 18jeks jHjia:d ixfYdaOkh u.a we.sìh§ f.d úYajdih m¿ÿ lsßug lghq.nkafka bkaÈhdfõ n.sfïka. ^jHjia:d ixfYdaOkhka yd jHjia:d fjÜgq uÕska& taldêm.=j" wêlrKh wdÈh ms<sn| ck.sfhah' ks.ska .s uyskao rdcmlaIf.ia yd ìh .=kajk ixfYdaOkfhka lrkq .ska .§' .s l%ufha meje.d" .enqfha fuf.fha isák wdKavqjg yd ckdêm.sjrhdg jir 04lska keje.s.s b.=h' fm%auodio .u wKilg k.hg m..h ckdêm.a.hla f.enQfha wjYH kï ckdêm.= lr .ksñka je<elajQ b.a iNdj w.j bÈßhg jir yhla .ah' m<d.kakd .a iNd l%uh we.hg .sydiho .jo 17 ixfYdaOkh .hla f.ia yd ìh.k tk .hg .rÕ l< yelsfia fjkia lr.aÉP.= ysñlu ´kEu jdrhla .sydiho .alsÍfï n.=Ks' thska md¾.g m.ukag k.ka b.auqo.r fnod m<d.r jk ixfYdaOkh yryd isÿ lf<a .a wKilg hg.o ue.=.sfïka.=j l.= lr.sydi l.a jydu .Kaydjlska fojk jr n.au Wfoid mj..xldfõ taldêm.a lsßuhs' ysgmq ckdêm.snqfKau ke.ksñka fyda wjNdú.=<ska f.= lf<ah' fÊ' wd¾' chj¾Ok wdKavqfõ ue.d .k tkq .nd" l:dkdhl w.a iNd iqÿ w.sjrhd i.h §¾> lr.sh yels njh' .shd ks¾udKh lf<a fuys§h' fm%auodi ckdêm.s.djf.=.a.ukag tfrysj fodaIdNsfhda.=j l.a we. lrñka mej.= lr.eiQ le/.sjrhdf.xldfõ taldêm. ckdêm. f.s iufha kS.ukag k.i ck.§' fuys i|yka fkdl< jHjia:d ixfYdaOkhka uÕska isÿ lr we.o l¿ meyefhka tlafõ' 2015|Januaru-March Pg 29 .dard.ukag tfrysj fodaIdNsfhda.k .s fm%auodio .sfldg n..a.ekSï Wfoid kskaos.s.sjrhdg rdcHfha ish¨ wdh.%yhka i|yd iy foaYmd.k lKavdhï kS.s w.jo y.a.ajh jgyd .ekSuhs' fuh wisñ.a yeisÍu úiska Tyq jHjia:dkql+.kú.eiQ le/.ska uyskao rdcmlaI lr.a lrk .khka jßka jr hg.d lrk úg fkdokakd wh tu hq.af.sjrK fldñiu" fmd.a úh' h<s fm%auodi hq.sfïka.k mjd tuÕska ÿn.alsÍu uÕska wêlrKh mjd . n.= ld.kú.ekSuhs' 13jk wdKavql%u jHjia:d ixfYdaOkh f. uOHu rch yd m<d.s b.auqo. md¾.=rej tu ixfYdaOkh .sfïka.k m<s.a . hq.kq .ajhlg hñka isá nj fmfkkakg .i rfÜ jHjia:dj mdúÉÑ lr.k tk .% ix.=<ska úksiqrka m..a.s.ksñka je<elajQ b.= lr.ksñka fyda fjkia fyda úlD.ekaùï u.ajd bÈß ld..uka f.a fyd¢ka Tyq úiska bÈßhg f. fkdjk >d.a .sydi l.sjrKhla mj.ao n.' fÊ' wd¾ wdrïN l< NSIKh jvd.hla ms<sn|j l.d .la fojrla muKla .a .k ñ.shla .dñKs Èidkdhl.sh njg m.d" .

ah' fÊ'wd¾' chj¾Ok fukau .uka m.ska mjd ksoyia lr.al.s l%uh m.s ms.af. úksiqre fkú.s lsysmhla ms<sn|j f.sî miqj ms..jk.kakg fÊ'wd¾'g isÿúh' fYa%IaGdêlrKh .a Èk rys.uka w.a iurfldaka" /iaùulÈ fÊ'wd¾ m%cd.a.nd ..d lrñka m<s.i keje. ÿIs.eìKs' fï jk úg w.s WodyrK i.= lsÍuhs' fojekak uyskao rdcmlaI fÊ'wd¾' blaujd bÈßfhka isáuhs' fujka taldêm.a úh' 1963§ fifkÜ iNdfõ iNdm.Ügqj. fkdjk" .sfïka.%j isáfhah'& uyskao rdcmlaIo .%S OQrh wfydais lr.= fkdmeñK isàug i..ld ne.a kS.u kQ.s{fhls' miqj Tyq 1949§ md¾.u ue.Skaÿ fok wjia:dfõ l¿ .d fldg .rÕ l< ysgmq yuqodm.úksiqrejßh jk YsrdKs nKaavdrkdhl Oqrfhka bj.sjrKfhka miq Tyq kej.aùu j<lajd miqj m.af.jdkg f.s *¾äkkaaâ udfldiah' Tyq m<uqj kS.ah' fï w.kakd whqre rgg ryila fkdfõ' pkaok l.vïo . uka.d wialr.g .hlska l.aßm.=jg f. ckdêm.%jdoh ms<sn|j mïfmdaßhla .snqKs' ue.sjrKfhka l.jd§ka ñkS uereï kvqj.a fmdkafialdg hqo kS.ah' bka Pkao fm.s njg m.h' tlla jkafka fÊ' wd¾ fuka fkdj uyskao Okm.sfïka.dalfha mej.g fvd.a fldg m<s.d wiaùfï .af.ukag wjk.aúh' ms.ud úYauhg m.slj Ndú.dfõ§ ckdêm..a ffjrhg md.u ckdêm.a l. jYfhka Ndú.smSk . b.aiï úNd.j .snr.ajh flfiaoehs wm úuid ne.s f.u tu wiqfka isáh§ ms.aÍm.weKshla heùuhs' 1969 wka.r wmQre ú. ue.= uka.af.ukg tfrysj ckdêm.=re ue.Sfuka fuys Nhdkl.a uq.sjrhdf.i f.a .aj l< m<uq ld¾hh jkafka úhÜkduhg tfrysj weußldkq iyhg oyodyl yuqod n.a iuÕu ke.msáh mrÈk nj oek Tyqg udi .ka uyskao fjkia jkafka lreKq folla u.sjrKhg .sho kS.jdfka wdKavq mlaI uka.a.i m.drfhka ¥Is.id jdäjkjd.lS jeks wdKavqfõ uerhska fhdojd yQ lshjd wêlrKhg .ajQ fld'm'fha ir.iajd uka.ajQ nj mejiSfuka ckdêm.ld fudav f.uka fjkqfjkau lghq.sh yelsh' ta i|yd fyd|u kso¾Ykhla jkafka ms.sg .msáho úh' l.aIfha iNdm.a úh' 1965 foieïn¾ 30 ckdêm.s njg m.smSkfha ysgmq ckdêm.a ud¾fldaia .i .ka.shk 56la NdKavd..weu.aúh' .af.dñhl=jQ udfldaia ckdêm.a úh' bkamiq ms.msáh b.sfïka.g kgk rElvhka njg m.sf.sjrK fm.sjrK wruqo.k tkq .s.snqKs' wka.aj isá Tyq 1965 tu mlaIfhka ckdêm.s Oqrhg m..sho rfÜ isú.ah' tuÕska Tjqka ..dj wid .drfha uqo.%Sjrfhl= f.eiaiqfõh' ^fï jk úg w.af.al< w.la Pg 30 .sms .=kla fkdokajd md¾. md¾.smSk fifkÜ iNdjg f.a úYd.ajk wjodku mjd fkdi. m%.u ys.a m.ukag wjdis .afldg .sjrekaf.s njg m.s igkg NdKavd.smSk .aifuka Tyq bj.slj iy wkS.%Sjrhl= f.u l.¾ ñ.sjrKhg bÈßm.aÍm.a.%swdrÉÑ wdÈka 2015|Januaru-March thg WodyrKhka muKs' .ksñka isáfhah' fÊ'wd¾'f.s ir.=re tfia .ah' ms.%S ms.

hkaa Wfoid Wmfhda.khla udfldaia ishd W..da .da óg¾ 16"000la fmdaIKh lrk njhs' .sN+f.sfldmag¾ lsysmhla uÕska ish mjq.d ffjrh leá .ajk wjia:dfõ Tyq .a taldêm.a yla n.hls' udfldaia úúO ixj¾Ok jHdmd.u Kh .k úreoaOjdÈhl= jk fnks.a fujka jHjia:djo yuqod n.h 1978 isg 1988 olajd úh' 1976 wjika jkúg w.hla lf<ah' bka miq udfldaia úiska hqo kS.a jxpd lf<ah' ckdêm.hls' fï jk úg N+f.ï yok njg fmfrdkaÿ úh' lsf.kajk . rgg f.ñka Tyq mejiqfõ kj jHjia:djla yd kj md.du ÿIs.a md.aúh' udfldaia hgf.dj wu.da fjdÜ 1"000"000 úÿ.S lr.ajhla we.khla f..sjßhls' ^weh rEm iqkaoßhla úh'& weh b.r Okh Wmhd fokaklajQ jxpdjla njh' ck.=< md.sl fmruqK kñka mq¿.a ue.d úfrdaOh yuqfõ wjik udfldaia fy.e.go ck.da md.u foaYmd.dj th wjxlj lrkakla nj ms<s.a ms.a ishd W. lsf.eka isg Tyq ñksiqka ìh joaoñka" urd ouñka" wka.sh .k ld.sl fmruqK th j¾ckh lf<ah' bka miq le|jQ m<d.§' t. w¾nqoldÍ .da mekùh' 1981 udfldaiag wdYs¾jdo lsÍug tjlg isá fojk cqjdka mdjq¿ mdmajrhd ms.khla úh' 2015|Januaru-March Pg 31 .af.dv keÕSh' w.enQfõ wvq Pkao m%.ue.i uq.d.afkda wlsfkda msgqjyf.kh uyue.s md.da md.j.dr bÈlrk .dj uQ.%d lf<ah' udfldaia mßyrKh l< ^wðù& øjHuh foaj.s f.sjrKhla le|jqjo mdlsia:dkq cd.r rgg 1977 cq.da óg¾ 30"000la .sN+f.eiS mej.a f.a flfrys mjd ck.yjqre jQfha th Tyqg wu.sjrKhla le|úh' úmlaI ikaOdkh th j¾ckh lf<ah' udfldaia 1986 olajd keje.s 05 yuqod kS.kh lrk . lsf.s úh' úmlaIh mdlsia:dkq cd. ¥Is.smSkhg f.k .s iq.sY.. pß.lfhls' Tyqf.a.u wNsu.udI.a ffjrhg fl.smskh wdishdfõ úYd.rï md.jd§" jHjia:djo .djf.a yla ishd W. ckdêm. jir 12g miq 1981 ckdêm. iuÕ m.sfha tfiah' mdlsia:dkfha fudfyduâ ishd W.s n..a Tyq isá ukaÈrfha ì.§' Tyq kej.ho Wmfhda.sN+f.d u¾okldß" ys.a yla .a ìß| bfu.u jevms<sfj< m%ldYhg m.a yla úh' fuu w¾nqo wjia:dj m%fhdackhg .skau m.a úh' 1978 isg 1986 olajd Tyqf.s uqjdfjka NdKavd.kh tmd ùu.§' m<uqj ck.fldñhqksiaÜ mlaIh udfldaiaf.sfhah' tfukau ish¨ iajdëk ckudOHhka .dgqmf<a§ >d.d .dvnisk wjia:dfõ§ .i j¾ckh úh' thska w.sh ksmoùu i|yd hehs mjiñka úÿ.sh mekùh' ck.sfhah' Tyq ck.a md.a iuÕ rfÜ oejeka. md.§' udfldaia 1973 me/Ks wdKavql%u jHjia:dj fjkiafldg kj jHjia:djla f.ksñka fckrd.S fldg .s fckrd.h meyer.%jQfhao h.s OQrhg m.=jlaldÍ" wd.a md.a*sld¾ w..da rcfha yuqodm.ykï lf<ah' ..avd udfldaia weu.ñl wka.sjrKho tf..a ikaOdkhla f.kh b.a yla md.a isg kej.jo iaÓr ud¾.=jka f..a w.khg tfrysj wú.ah' wjidkfha .drfha uqo.alrñka lshd isáfha ud¾.s rdcH njg m.s j.a ishd W.a wr.k tk .

sYS..sh .=jka yuqodm.u ld.h §¾> lr .a zfld<U N+ñldjZ fmdf.ukag fkdyelafla .ajhhs' uyskao rdcmlaIo wêrdcHúfrdaë igka mdG lshñkau wfkla w.s.kajd rg isú.lhska yd bka tu rgj.sl md.af.eiaiúh' fÊ'wd¾' wd¾hdj fm!oa.a brKu fuh nj b..a.a tjka ms.djf.sìK' Tyq kj kS.s iliñka h<s 1985 § .g fyda wiSñ.o ìhlre m%.a hqo .ksñka taldêm.j .ys ukdj i|ykafõ' fÊ'wd¾' .eyekshla lrkakg muKla hehs mejeiQ fÊ'wd¾' wjik bkaÈhdj bÈßfha oK keuQ .h yuqfõ mrdch úh' ´kEu ck.g úúO fod< msfoaks foñka .a fï i|yd .=jka hdkh .a.da Tyqf. kso¾Ykhka folo m%udKj.eiaiúh' we.ajhlg weo oeóh' ta" chj¾Ok jHjia:dj yryd taldêm. n.uka muKla fkdj uq¿ rgu bkaÈhdj bÈßfha oK.a tjka ish¨ taldêm.s ks¾udKh l< hq.ah' 1988 Tyq .ys ukdj i|ykafõ' fÊ'wd¾' .sfí' m<uqjekak úOdhlh meroùu i|yd thg tfrysj l.a by.aúh' ishd W.= ke.ukla hñka .eUqßka is.k udj.id w.af.uka l< .sù we.lhskaf. úpdrKhla mej.djf.eyekshla lrkakg muKla hehs mejeiQ fÊ'wd¾' wjik bkaÈhdj bÈßfha oK keuQ .a fndfyda mj.a fmdf.s ldka úfrdaOh md b.ka wek fmkajd fokafka uyskao rdcmlaIf.a i|ykafõ' ta wkqj Tyq bka§h wdl%uKsl yuqodjlao rg ..k ld. hkak m%.a*sld¾ w.fhka hfll= njg m. N+f.ru idlaIs imhhs' .kh b.lfhla úh' fujka kso¾Ykhka f.u wNsu.ñl wka.hkaa Wfoid Wmfhda.dj mqreÿj isáhy' wjik hld t<jkakg tk lÜgähdo wr wiSñ.k Odrdjl il%Sh ùuhs' .a Ôú.= 24 kj jHjia:djla we..af.k .sh hq.a zfld<U N+ñldjZ fmdf.uka muKla fkdj uq¿ rgu bkaÈhdj bÈßfha oK. olajd .s w.j.eyekshla msßñfhla lrkakg iy msßñfhla .d u¾okldß" ys.ru tjlg isá bka§h uy flduidßia älais.S' kuq.ajhg .a /lfokakehs wdhdpkd l< yeá älais.h úh' hld t.fkdau.d urd oeuqKs' ishd W.a" n.s jkq we.ajhg .u iajdñhdf.= lreKq folla .h.h.a md. n.eiSuhs' ta i|yd jk foaYmd.snQ njhs' tfy.ru tjlg isá bka§h uy flduidßia älais.af.súiqï wdÈh yryd wêrdcHjd§ka iekiqfõh' fuu ish¨ WodyrKhka wjik weyeg weÕs.j jir mylg .a..a.slj älais.a.sydih ks. lrk iudc wd¾Ól l%uh fjkia lsÍu i|yd úl.j.r thg iyNd.hkah' wm rfÜo jHjia:dj Wmfhda.fha isÿl< >d.eyekshla msßñfhla lrkakg iy msßñfhla .hla§ n.d wia úh' ksjdi wviaishg m.ajhka b.d isák w¾nqohka cks.jd§" jHjia:djo .srh .s.d ne.a md.s fudfyduâ IÍ*a fuhg Wmßu iyh m< l< w.s jHjia:dj w.dOhlg weo oukq ksh.ka ishhg 10la muKs' tys§ ishhg 90la Tyqg leue. msiod n.' kuq.a ck.disákakg ck.a yla meje.s lf<ah' 1984 cku.r .S lr.a.Kkdjlg jrolre lrñka 1979 wfm%a.s úhrej rg ìhlre w.djg .uk rgg 2015|Januaru-March Wod lrÿka .=jlaldß" wd.s iq.a yuqú .a 04 t.S ck.mEï lrk fmruqKl il%shj odhlùuhs' fojekak fujka taldêm.snqfKa l=uk Èidjlgoehs ñka meyeÈ..af.d n.aysgqjd 1981 ud¾.ah' fuu WodyrKhka uÕska lshfjkafka jHjia:dj Wmfhda..ao taldêm.d úfrdaê fujka w.=< fndaïnhla mqmqrejd yeÍfuka urKhg m.ùug ljqre w.sM.a yla md.am foaYmd.s lr.s.a l.=<g f.s lrk njhs' tjlg isá kdjql yuqodm.=jlaldÍ .dj .afõ' tksid ck.l fm< .a .s.ajhka ck.af.ukag fkdyelafla .sh md.a u.s Pg 32 lr.ksñka ys.d fkdisg ta i|yd n.

a kslu a hdu( ióm w.ih' f. reishdfõ k.f.kskf a .kskaf.i 1923 ckjdß 21jeks Èk fYa%IaG Tlaf.dan¾ úma.aul f.sfha úia.enQ yeáZ lD.dalfhka iuq.%dõialsf.aoelSula f.a lïmkh lrjkqfhao tjokah' 2015|Januaru-March Pg 33 .a zjdfka mkakrh .kska f.ekSu wE.jfha kdhl ù'whs' f.a kslauhdfuka jir 82lg miqj th lshjk wmf.rhlg oekqKq wdldrh ksfld.dhs Tiaf.r jkqfha w.sYh ks¾udKd.a yoj.

.%sl f.s fÜmaj.fha fudaia ix{d hka.s mKsjqv fiajlhd fiñka .enqKq mKsjqvh blauKg .kafka Tyqh' w.+ úÿ.g ijka§ hdka.' Tyq jpkfhka jpkh fudaia ix{dfjka m%lD..g .o ysu u.af.§ wNdjhg m. wik lsisfjl= w`vd je.g fmr<d l%shd lrùh' Tyq oeka .shs is.aùh' tfy.%hg ijka foñka isà' — ish¨ fokdgu" ish¨ fokdgu" ish¨ fokdgu˜ hk jpk Tyqf.hd m<mqreÿ uy¨ fiajlhd ta jk úg lsf.mS iqiqï .s isria.am jpkj.a i.' tfy..l úh' ix{d hka.a rgdfõ iqkaor isß kerUQ Tyq fudfyd.s mKsjqv Pg 34 2015|Januaru-March fiajlhd yeÍ ne. yelafla m<mqreÿ lKlg muKs' fudaia ix{d l%shdlrjk fiaúldfjda w¨.l=Kq igyka lr bjrh' Tyqqf.h .kq we. ijka§ug mgka .aul mqj.ek lsisjl= úiska lsisjl=g okajkq .a wNdjh .af.u Ôú.ahSÉ keue.fIfmf.r foah' Tyq msg.id .amkd lsÍu fndfyda lf.daõld -1 úÿ.i we£ug tlo is.shd .rï wmQre f.ah' hka.s mKsjqv fiajlhd ysu iqoao lsÍu .lñks' oeka hful=f.a .daóg¾ úiailg fkdjeäh' Tjqkaf.s ysu rgdj t. È.a jQ Tyq ikaiqkaj jdä ù isáfhah' fldfyafoda õ.fha m%S.a lkays jelsKs' tu jpk .rl=gj.shqfõ yrh .s.Sh' úÿ.sh yd ÿl m<uqfjkau oek.s ix{d y`v lshjd f..s fÜmaj.su.areu .Sh' ljq¿fõ we..s jpkj. ix{d .a-hs-É uy¨ ix{d fiajlhd y`v wkqj wl=re .j. msgia.Èó¾ b.shd we.shqfõh' .a ix{d fiajlhdg fï ish.disks' Tyq wo tu ixfõ.da¾lsj. fiajhg ne÷Kq .a.lg ijka§u keje..%fhka fufia lsheúKs( —ckjdß úis tlafjksod iji yh miqù úkdä mkyg'''˜ .shd. f.ek .af.a yd ÿlanr ksfõok fldmuK . we. ldgfoda heùu i|yd .kakd m<mqreÿ úÿ.shd .rula jvdm.u hka..la fudaia ix{d wkqj .ayer oeuQ ix{d fiajlhd" tu jpkj.s ix{d lshjQfha ke.sfío" wkqkaf. ojilg lsf.ek fÜma máh w.l isg w.a fkdmq¿jk' fidndoyu úiska ujk .la ñhf.reKsfhdah' Tjqka fiajhg ne÷Kq od isg fuf.=fkka msgjk bula ke.daóg¾ foishhla È.Sfõh' Tyq .gu lsheúKs' õ-.a m%S.i lvodisfha .yer oud kej.s mKsjqv ld¾hd.areï .Ügq lr.reK i. /.d. yd jdlH LKavj.ek fkd.' wudre jpkhla lshùug neßj k<.ska l=Kdgqj úiska ysu leá ùÿrejg úislrkq .ek Tyqg wu.ah' —Bfha f.efí' lsisfjla ljq¿jg .ek l.aúh'''˜ úÿ.efí' —ish¨ fokdgu" ish¨ fokdgu" ish¨ fokdgu˜ keu.af.hska fuka Tyq fÜma máj.ao ke.shhs' ta mqj.a fiajl .% .%fhka È.-È-ó-¾ b-.e.a.fha ljq¿jg msg.a Tyqg lshùug fkdyels jQ jpk fidhkq jia Tyq fÜma máh w.aLkhla fjkag ´kehs is.a pl% f.s mKsjqv ld¾hd.

a iu /.e.s mKsjqv ix{d fiajlhd kej.Sh' —f.ajeähd lrñka isáhy' uy¿ fm.s mKsjqv ix{d ld¾hd.r w¾Üfhdaï ñáhlska .eÈó¾ b.%h È. .s.a lsÍu fojrlau yßoehs fidhd ne.Sh' Tyqg fldfy.odhl mqj.ahSÉ f. me.S n.d ÿïßh hka.hska foi ne.k tfoi ne.sia jirla jevl< Tyq m<uqfjks jrg Tyq .enQ w.k fofk.shqfõh' —f.dõials fõÈldjg háka jQ j<g ßx.a iú{dkh oel mqreÿ" wid mqreÿ ku fj.sh wjqreÿj.d isáfhah( —f.a wyïfnka fuka Tyqf.k isáfhah' fo.sg isg fÜma má frda.a 2015|Januaru-March Pg 35 .sr .df.%h fudaia l%uhg .u w.shQ foh úYajdi lsÍug ue<s úh' Tyq úÿ.g f.dj.§ fndfyda fihska uy¨ úh' Tyqf.la lsKsysrh u.Sh' Tyq úiska fï oeka . w.i h<s.skaf.ska .e.Sh' Tyq ìhù lE.gu y`v ke.hs' Tyq y`v wid m<uqfjks wl=r lvodish u.ska y`v k.a brd ouñka lskï fõ.kska u<dæ˜ ysu l=Kdgqjla fõ. úÿ.rï fõ.a uy.hlskao" t.aúh˜ uy¨ ix{d fiajlhd ke.Sh' tfy.isák idlaIHlrefjla muKls' ix{d hka.kska˜' ix{d hka.ajeähd lrk m<uqjeks fõÈldfõ lïlrefjda ÿïßh hka.a uki bÈßfha ueù fmksKs' ksfïIhla Tyq lvodish foi n.sjeà" ysi fomi ߧjka meiqKq fliska msßKs' Tyqf.kskaf.hlska f.yßñka isáhy' iyd¾ hlv oe.sfhah' w¨.%fha wvqmdvq ñlekslajrekag fmkajd ÿkafkah' iyd¾ íreIaIdla iy w¾Üfhdï keuqKq yria máhla È.kska wNdjhg m.ska ÿïßh ud¾.a lsheúKs( —õ." br ne.Sh' iyd¾ íreIaIdla miq.jkqj —ka˜ Tyq w.dia tys iq<s iq<xj.kska@ úÿ. l=Kdgqj ÿïßh jev Yd. h<s weÈks' úÿ.s.au úYajdi fkdl< yels foh ógr folla muK È.shd ksu lrk .s mKsjqvh f.ho iaúÉ h.ys .ik ieá Tjqkag weisKs' —f.kska˜ fudkjo@ f. hlv fodrj.h isg oi.o jpkh foi ksfïIhla kej.a lrf.a urKh ms<sn| ixfõ.a k<f." bß" .˜ B<Õg —ks˜ f.jrlau lshùh' tfy.a jpk uqrKavq f..s mKsjqvh iïmQ¾Kfhka Tyqf. jrla wjidk jpkh foi ne.s fÜma máh ikd: lf<ah( u< ñkshla fia iqÿue<s .=reo jid ouñka" ysu iy whsia leg iys.u uqyqK yryd ix{d fiajlhd ish i.fhka yud f.%hla .ysfha w¨.

aúh' Tyqf.a we÷ï ysuj.fjdafida iS>%.daõld fmfofia mlaI lñgqfõ f.s¿Kq weiaj.jñka weiSh' ñksid y. úYajdi lf<ah' Tyq mqj.% y`v k.=r ysrjk ieáhla oeksKs' Tyqf.e.afIúlajdÈfhl= jQ Irdíßka /iajQjka wu.%h wi.a.la k<d y`vg ijka§" wk. ydkshlg mlaIh uqyqKmd we.=kg mlaIhg nef|k f.dfõ fodr yer ñksfila we.s fmd<j u.dó& ÿïßh .alïjre" merKs fnda.d isákq ..a w.a ta mqoa.=rkag iudj fkdfok fia W.msg l=ÿ ù we.hd úu.a we. f.kq .h jdokh fj.dalhu o.afIúla mlaIfha i.eìKs' —kqU lSfõ fudllao@˜ ìhckl mqj.a fkdlf<ah' —ifydaorjreks" f.a iún.=rej .=.s fiajfha mKsjqvlrefjda iy ks.alïjrhdh' w¨.h' f.sn.d fyd| ¥mq.k fya.sf.a jeg wi.e. yeu fofkl=u lïmkh lrñka ÿïßhla y`v ke. ia:dkfha ihsrka k<djo tlaúh' fjä WKavhla mqmqrd hdfï§ we.d l.a.a urKh ksñ. jQ ñáh Wrysfia isg b.a fIfmf.jQy' miq.iaik ztiaZ ^iS>%.a neg¿ iï lndh .'fm'W' ksfhdað.sìKs' —Tõ" ifydaorjreks" f.kskaf.u iqjmyiq wdikj.Sh' tu y`vg ÿïßh fmdf<a wE.S.g meñKs ckldh w.d.a ÿïßh hka.au" Tyqf.hdf.=rjd yeßfhah' ish¨ ÿïßh hka. y`vg úÿ.eiQ ksid w¾Üfhdï ta ìhckl mqj.a" ì÷Kq iajrhlska l.a l%shdj ÿgq f.=j oek.a jdrfha§ lE . .af.kqj fkdyeßfhah' wekaðfï k<d Yíoh ksid fmda.d lf<ah( —ifydaorjreks" f.a l¿ meye.sh wjqreÿ myf<djla .sjk Wia isyska y`vg iudk y`vla bka msgúh' lsfhõ n.d msg.j isfuka.a urKh ms<sn| mqj.' tfia jqjo Tyqf.ska ke`.kska u<dæ˜ ñksid lE fkd.d fiñka my.OdÍyq 2015|Januaru-March .a fmda.au " ñáh tijQ w¾Üfhdï th my.% k.a ÿïßhla tlaúh' wk.k . wksl=.u w.shg m.ïNSr kdohla m.eîh' uq..a w¾Üfhdï th fid.kd ñksydf. Wr.ajeähd lrk fõÈldfõ isg ñksiqka t<shg wdfõ uq¿ Pg 36 f.a fijKe. k<dfõ .j.a l< y`vg th hgúh' tfy.a jQ ñksid ÿïßh hka.a . fiñka Tijd k<dfõ .g jeà" Yío rys.' .s úiska .ka msßKs' fodrgq y.Sh''' ÿïßh hka.au" ñksiaiq ysiajeiqï .eUqre . f.hg wh.ajeähd lrk jev Yd.ñka my.aúh' Tyq fufia lrkafka" wjidk jrg njo oek isáfhah' Tyqg ñkamiq tu ÿïßh meoùug wjir fkdfokq we.%hlao y`v ke.ka fYdalh m%ldY lrk tu /iaùu úkdähla ksy`vj isg jev weröh' fIfmf.=rej ..a uqyqK foi ne.Ska /ila /.j.s jHdmdrfha kdhlhd ñh .daõld . .kska u<dæ˜ w¾Üfhdïf.S isáhy' äfmdaj ckhdf.efí'''˜ wjuÕ=.kqj wÈ.a ix.dfõ mlaI lñgqfõ f.s úYd.Sh' Tyq wka lsisfjl= fkdj" jev Yd.siafia ^jrla fyda& fkdye`vQ w¾áfhdïg .dkdm..aùug isá u.úKs''' ^346-348 msgq& .kajd mlaIh ks¾udKh l< kdhlhdfKda wjika yqiau fy¿Ey' mlaIfha yd mx.ka. fl<jr .ska keyeù .sfha b.sfhah' msßueish fkdyels w.=.s.Èka w..k fidaldkaú.u W.a. fi.kd ñksydf.d lf<ah' Tyqf.dó ÿïßh mojkakd" fudfyd. .ßkau /iaùï y.ka.sfha kdhlhdf.a urKh úiska ks¾Ok mx.s úYd. isá ñksiqka <Õg ÿj t. we¢ß njla fmksKs' w¨.s.s fijKe. ksy`vj wiñks' lïyf.' fnda.dal ks¾Ok mx.eiQ kuqÿ ñá myr ksl=.a w.i b.

%y lrñka isák nj fmfka' ienúkau th tfiauo@ tfia kï fuu m%.' úúO iudc lKavdhï .kfha m<uq wÈhr wjidkhg m.sjrKh ksud ù fï jk úg udihla muK ld. lshùula isÿ lsÍugh' 2005 jifrka wdrïN jQ uyskao rdcmlaI md.u .ckdêm.s' flfia jqjo" fuu ue.sjrKhlehs ú.hla blau f.sM.a md.sM.ukag ßis f..sjrKfha m%.s nyq.h ks¾jpkh lrñka isá. mrdchg m.khla f. lshùula tia' talkdhl 2015 j¾Ih wdrïNh.' iudcfha w.dard m.h ú.a jQfha" 2015|Januaru-March Pg 37 .S we.a iu.sM.fhka uyskao rdcmlaIf.sjrhd f.kh wka.ukaf.sM.alr .dv ke.s YS% .%y lrk we.laIK msßkuk .h ms<n s | kej.aù kj md.u .dia we.ajh ms<sn| kej.o ue.euqka fuh iudchg fndfyda idOkSh .h idOkSh jkafka wehs@ fuys§ wm W.a iudc foaYmd.M s .a mjq.i fuu m%.ekSfï ue.sjrK m%.ksl wdia:dkhka wkqj hñka .xldfõ yh jk úOdhl ckdêm.u mej.rhla wfmalaId l< mßÈu ue.aidy lrkafka fuu .sjrK m%.

a fm!reIh w.sylgj. lr .kh wjika ùu iudc foaYmd.=<h' ta wkqj fuu ue.s ue.i Yla.a wkqNjhg fmdrlE fmdÿ ckhdf.s ys.=h' • uyskaog wNsfhda.s%l lghq.alr .a lrkq .su.a" cd.a .k.Sfï§ b.h wiSñ.k ish.xldfõ fuf.sjrKhla ch.lh' tneúka" rdcmlaI md.la l..a lrkq .=< uyskao rdcmlaI hkq yhjeks mrdl%undyqf.kfha fojk wÈhr wdrïN jQfha" 2010 mej.ïo w.ir.a ì| oeñh fkdyels uyd mjqrla f.sjrKfhka miqj jqjo ixl.lh' Pg 38 t.snqKs' 2015 ckjdß udifha § rdcmlaI mjq. l< yels lsisfjl= ke.i ie.a md.h foi ne.a mej.a.= isÿ l< hq.s oejeka.o Woaoduh yuqfõ isxy.sjrK ixialD.a jQ odkm.k hq.rhlu.%d§kaf.slj mrdchg m. jgd flakaø .ju lsjfyd.i wNsfIal .su.a 2015|Januaru-March urKh fjkqfjka lejqï lsßn.g wkqj lejqï" lsßn..kfha jrm%ido .a l< uy rc.sl isß.a uyskao rdcmlaI md.=h' • uyskao rdcmlaI hkq rg fírd.sfha mshdh' lsisfjl= Tyqg úreoaO fkdúh hq.=< fN!. jYfhka uyskao rdcmlaI md.%dóh ck uki .ska lejqï lsßn.snqKs' rdcmlaI md.ska iÔùj keröfuka .= rdcH wdh.d jeo..e.dka.nñka isá wh muKla fkdj" fmdÿ ck. ù .§' ks.%yKh lsÍu i|yd wjYH hehs úYajdi lrk .snQ ia:dms.sjrKhla ch.i YS% .lsh yelsh' yhjk úOdhl ckdêm.kh hkq bÈß jir úismylg .alulska hq.kh hkq bÈß jir úismylg .s ckdêm.amSh f.sld u.=reu újD..%yKh lsÍu i|yd wjYH hehs úYajdi lrk .shg wkqj" ue.aj.ulu fukau k.ajfhysu n.= ish¨u wdh.xldj ksfhdackh lrñka rdcH.kajk . foayh ish¨u úoHq.a lsÍfuks' wdrlaIl yuqodjka úiska fldá ixúOdkh mrdch lsÍfuka miq m%Ndlrkaf.=< uyskao rdcmlaI fojk hq.=ud f.s ue.ka msÍ .ju lsjfyd.dvkxjd .a uD.sM.a {d.ekSfï ckdêm.dardm.sj isá fudfyd.ñ.shka fukau" tu okaie.h wdrïN jQfha" m%Ndlrkaf..ka iy wkaf.sjrKh m%ldYhg m.e.hka lsysmhla wjOdkhg .en .a jkafka fujeks jgmsgdjla .ka miq rg tlafiai.a isgh' tu fojk md. cd.en .sjrK ixialD.la l.r" iqúfYaIS jeo. jk úg úOdhlh" jHjia:dodhlh iy wêlrKh hk .u.%dóh ck ú{dkh .ajhl o¾Ylhla f.h' • uyskao mrdch lsÍug lsisfjl=g .a kd.a fn§u wdrïN jQ fudfydf.a Èk .' Tyqf.=< f.ajdislhskaf.a md.s%.dxlSh .snqKs' okai.a okai.a mej.a'à'à'B' ixúOdkh rg .ksl jYfhka iqúfYaIs jQ .=< .ïo w.sjrKfha m%.xldfõ fuf.la l< hq.dj mjd th tfia hehs úYajdi lrñka" woyñka isáhy' ta wkqj 2015 ckjdß udifha § rdcmlaI mjq.kh wjika jkafka" .sylgj.snqKq w.a úfoaYhka .a iEu .snqKs' ir.sjrhd f.Kkdjla hk .o ish¨u fuj.a okaie.a uyskao rdcmlaI md.i Yla.shg wkqj" ue.a ì| oeñh fkdyels uyd mjqrla f.j rdcmlaI mjq.kh wjika jkafka" .ajk" iudch .sj isá fudfyd.h wjidk jk fudfyd.o ish¨u fuj.a rdcmlaI mjqf.a §ug fmdrlld bÈßm.

sjd§ wfmalaIlhd jgd úúO foaYmd.sjdÈfhl= ks¾udKh ùu..o u.%Kh lsßu wdrïN l< nj fmfka' tys§ . hla ke.u uyskaof.j ia:dms.a fndaïn mqmqrkq we.au" uyskao rdcmlaIg tÈßj rch md¾Yajfhau m%.' • uyskao mrdch jqjfyd.sjrK m%pdrKh iu.a w.OdÍka hkd§ fldgia úiska iudch u.sjrK jHdmdrh fjk.a ue.i uyskaof. hla we.Hka.a fldá .. lsÍug rdcmlaI úfrdaê foaYmd.ls' fuys§ m%Odk jYfhkau hqo ch.eiSu wdrïN ùu.a mrdch 2015|Januaru-March Pg 39 .fkdyelsh' Tyq leßiaud kdhlfhls' fuu u.ehs hkak l%udkql+. fmruqKq foflys ue.a ue.a l< whj¨ka" rcfha by< wdh.j ish¨u rcfha úoHq.h wjNdú.%Khl n<. udOH úiska iy rch fjkqfjka udOH m%ldYk ksl=.kq we..aidy l< ia:dms.jdohs' kuq.jdohka hkq ue. mßÈ y÷kd.jd§ka ysi Tijkq we.lg fmr isgu l%udkql+.aùï .=< isÿ jQ fuu fjki y÷kd.k hï flfkl= fõo Tyq foaYfødaysfhls' cd.a ixúOdk fm< . m%OdkSkaj isá foaYmd.lal< rcfha we. mgjk .k m.k jHdmD.uka i.= rdcH n.%yKfha jdish .a nj fmfka' uyskaog wNsfhda.a jkq we.=<g flfuka flfuka ldkaÿ jkakg mgka .sh fjkqfjka .˜ hkak fmdÿck ú{dkh .sl m%fõYhla f.a Yla.' ol=fKa h<s.a.%ia.enQ wkaf.kh wjika jqjfyd.a lsÍug l.nd .al< fudfydf.ekSu Wfoid Wmdhud¾.' m%Ndlrkag l< fkdyels jQ foh vhiafmdardj úiska Èkd.r l=uka.=< uyskaojd§ka úiska f.ajdislhska iy rcfha foaYmd.kj.djg .k lKavdhï iy c'ú'fm' m%uqL l%u úfrdaë n.sjrKh m%ldYhg m." fmdÿ ck ú{dkh u.dj wduka.ehs .=< uyskaog wNsfhda.su.hka lsysmhla my.a kej.a jQ nj fmfka' fmdÿ ck ú{dkh .hla we.dxflah .ekSu. yelsh' • rdcmlaI md.a iu.eï by< ks.sjrKh m%ldYhg m.a yd uqøs.a wdldrhlska ck.' • foaYfm%aó uyskaog tÈßj ckaoh b.dvkexùug W.a vhiafmdardj h<s.k mlaI yd isú.a tu m%.%dóh ck uki .rfhau úYajdi l< ck uki .u —uyskaog wNsfhda.a iu.

hlska hqla.=re kef.d m%isoaêfha ms<s.sldjla ks¾udKh lsÍfï .jdohla kej.sM.d idkqlïms.kakd .sjrK m%.a hqoaOh jeks ud.djhhs' ue.eka ùula fmkakqï lrk .aidy l< u.djf. lsÍug fl.' • uyskaof.ï neiafidah' fuu ..Dldjlg kej.kh wjika l< hq.i yd ¥IKhg tfrysj ck.s úhrej" hymd.Sug W.§' ue.sldjla" fndaïn NS.dvke. wdhs.i w¾:l:kh lrñka rg . wka.k jHdmdr u.rï ÿrg iQodkïo hk m%Yak follg ck.a wkaf.dj fm<. W..k taug fodrgqj újr lsÍula f.eiaùu fjkqfjka rdcmlaI 2015|Januaru-March úfrdaê lKavdhï yd l%uúfrdaê foaYmd.=< Tjqkaf.a.ï wkaojd" irid fõÈldjg f. kysr m%Yakh fjk.kfha .a.sfío hkak iy th ms<s.a m%pdrK jHdmdrh úiska iudchg .sl yelshdjla Pg 40 .=< f.hkq kej..=<" fmdÿ ckhd .kh iy w..ekSug fmdÿck ú{dkh fld.h wjNdú..ajh .g uyskao ue.h hkq tu ixjdofha m%n.=re kef.jdohg oreKqu myr jeÿfKa taldêm. kysr hqo .o mKsjqvh b.s lrk .ska ck.dv kxjk ..úh' tys lshejqfKa" fujeks lreKq lsysmhls' • uyskao fyd|h' uyskaof.ajhla fyda W.a.=< hqo NS.rï m%dfhda.ajhlg m.ajdislfhdau rdcmlaI wdKavqfõ jerÈ yd ÿ¾j.af.a uqyqKqjrlska lr<shg f.sjrKh wdikak Èk lsysmh jk úg rdcmlaIf.kh yd tu foaYmd.ka fï jk úg ms<s.¾.dj . ia:dms.a wehs hkqfjka iudch .=< we.=re .eî we. jfÜ isáhjqka fndfyda jerÈ lr we.=< idlÉPdjla" ixjdohla f.kd muKska tjeks u.jdohla iudchg fmdïm lrk úg thg tfrysj rdcmlaI md.' wfkla w.o ixjdohhs' uyskao rdcmlaI md.sjrK m%pdrKh u.ndfok .ska ish Wmßu Yla.Ska fhdojñka rdcH n.d lrñka iudch .§' kuq..k m%pdrKh úiska u.a md.ajh olajd ú.

fha /§ isáug .sM.lSu ish¨ rgjeishkaf.iqï iy.k mlaI yd l%uúfrdaê foaYmd.a Tyqf.fha fl.dj /jàug .aulj fm< . jHqyhkag by<ska ck n.' kuq.ajh jemsÍu oeä f.areï.i iq¿ msßila w.sM.sjrK jHdmD.k jHdmdr úiska iudch .a úYajdihhs' hqo udkisl.=< jk ish¨u iïm.a isÿ fkdjkq we.a hq. m%fõYh we.=< ish¨u md¾Yajhka úiska fmdÿck ú{dkh iu.h flfia fyda n.a úh' tkï wêm..dj úiska Tmamq lrjd we.o .sjrKh úiska mrdch lrkq .kq .a W.j jrla wjia:dj Èh hq.i ms<sl=..y.hkao@ ke.h hkak ia:dk..=luls' fuu idkqlïms.kqfokqj úia.rula ÿrg id¾:l jQ nj wmf.snQ ish¨u oDIaájdohka ck.=kah' ifydaorhskah' orejkah' uyskaof.kakd .d .d widOdrK f.a" ue.. isÿlrk .hï ÿ¾j.%Kh iqcd.=K ie.%Kh iy tu hdka.djh yuqfõ uyskao ms<sn| idkqlïms.ho w.j.enQfõ fuu m%.a ys.lsjhq. m%fõYh kej.ekSu fjkqfjka ks¾udKh lr . .a b.en we.s lsÍug .aidyhls' th yßhgu mrdcfhka miq bÈß jir foll ld.s%.ka ks¾udKh ù we.' 2015|Januaru-March Pg 41 .' mrdchg m.a l< we. hg uqyqK §ug kshñ.du m%cd.slafIam lrkq .=<§ ish¨u foaYmd.k mlaIhla fyda mqoa.jdohla mrod iudc ixjdohla ch.ka.=h' • rdcmlaI fjkqfjka lD. lsÍu fjkqfjka" idOdrKSlrKh lsÍu fjkqfjka iudch .' jvd.ajk rdcmlaIf.o W. jHqyhla wvmK l< yelsh hkak ck.ka.s l< m%cd.a tajdg j.sM.k iy foaYmd.%jd§j n.sjrKh úiska ch..i" fld.aidyhg jvd .' ue.=< we. hq.da.s iudc foaYmd.aldrfhka mgjd .%yKh lsÍu ue.euqka lshk mßÈ rdcmlaI frÔuh úiska wjxlju ish ÿ¾j.au ke.sjrKfha m%.nd.dj úiska m%..djf.a mjqf. mrdch rdcmlaI md.d we. ke.aidyh mrdchg m.e.kh úiska Wmhd ..sjh' ta khska n..h' tkï fmdÿ ck.njlska m%.a..r fnodyod .jdohka fudkjdo hkak yrydh' ue.' • rdcmlaIf.sh .ldÍ f.rd.au lsisÿ md¾Yajhlg ir.spdr olajkq ksÍlaIKh úh' fuu idkqlïms.j ck.k wjldYh .k jHdmdr wNsfhda.ajhla we.o u.a l=uk ÿ¾j.k l< fuu mrdch fukau ch.h úh' fuu oejeka.af.sh ld.du.sjrKfha m%.ajfhau n.h f.a oE.%yKh lrjk .a W.=h hkak ck.eï msßia mjd fkdfnda Èklska m%ldYhg m. lsisfia.du ie..d ms<sn| lïmdùula fkdj" ys.a nj ujdmEug iudkh' flfia jqjo uyskao úfrdaê foaYmd.kh ms<sn| ixjdofha m%n.hska msßila w¨f.af.h yuqfõ ´kEu flakaøSh n.h yqjudre lr .sjd§ u..dj úiska Tmamq lr fmkajd we.skï uyskao jgd isá f..a mrdch ms<sn| hï ii.rï jerÈ isÿ jQjo bÈßfha§ tjeks jerÈ h<s. m%fõYh mrdchg m.snQ hdka.enqfõ uyskao rdcmlaIo@ tfia.a ksjerÈj lshkafkakï ish¨u flakaøSh n.=< n.ajQ úg b.snqKo Tyqg .' lsisfia. hqo udkisl.' rg .enQfõ b.a ke.a jQfha foaYmd.d uykaisfhks' úOdhlh" jHjia:dodhlh yd wêlrKh hk m%Odk n.a n. l< hq. fkdjk nj fmkaùugh' ue.a msßisÿh' • miq.%yKho ir.iajkq .%jdoh yd hymd.

h' tkï fmdÿ ck.k mlaI yd kdhlhka fjkqfjka idudkH ck.foaYmd.a n.dj iú{dksl ùfuka u.h úiska iudch .' jvd.i ue.areï .dj iudchg .sjrK ld.h yuqfõ ´kEu flakaøSh n.ska fmdÿck iudch u..sjrKj..ka ks¾udKh lrkq we.Kkdjla .a ck.ekSu i|yd ue..k kdhlhskaf. lsÍu u.o iqúfYaIS iudc .i w¾:l:kh lsÍug blauka úh fkdyel' fuu .eiaúh yels lreKq fndfyduhlau we.d wNs.dIh m%.s rcfha ish¨ wêm.=< fjkia ùug wlue.la ke.eg¨ f. oejeka. ck.k mlaI ixúOdk tl.=h hkak ck.sk l%ufha .sjrKh ch.=< .kfha rdcH n.h hkak ia:dk..k mlaI" ixúOdk yd jHdmdr fj.a¨u laIh fjñka mej.s kj .s nj.s u.sjrK iufha§ f.sjrKh úiska kj iudc .jÿrg.=< ixjdohla f.s rdmlaI md.sjrKfhka miqj iudch .k .= ù we.dj w.sjrK m%.dj úiska Tmamq lr fmkajd we.sjrK m%pKav ls%hd wju ùu ^jd¾.s iudc foaYmd.a wê ixfõ§.dj úiska n.dvkexùu u.afkdyeÍu ¥Is.dard .ah' fuu w¨f.=< ks¾udKh lr we.sjrK m%.a¨u j¾Okh ùu • óg fmr mej.dj .lhska kï lrñka Tjqkag .k mlaI yd iudc jHdmdr ixúê.%jdoh ms<sn| l.aidy lsÍu l%uh wjNdú.ekSu i|yd mej.=< u.ajhla ms<sn| wNs.s mKsjqvh jkafka" ck.' fuu .h úiska ck.djh ^úfYaIfhkau ¥Is.a' ta wkqj fuu ue.jdohka ck. 2015|Januaru-March fjkqjg l%uh úêu.siafia rg .k .eiaúh yelsh' • mej.s lr .ah' .=< w¨f.kakd .hskag ovqjï lsÍu ms<sn|j& ue.dIhls' fuu .ajhka lsysmhla fufia fm< .aùu jd¾. mSvkhla t.s{d bgq lsÍfï m%udKh ms<sn|j fmdÿ ck.sjrK iufha§ fok .= jQ .djf.mEï lsÍu iudch .kh" m%cd.ka.sjrK m%pKav ls%hd jeä m%udKhlgu Pg 42 • • • • • wju jYfhka m%dfoaYSh foaYmd..oafoao foaYmd.sM.ekSug W. l< hq.i f.a.k mlaI kdhlhskag ck.ajhg iudch .k jHdmdr wNsfhda.kh yd m%cd.k wjldYhla ks¾udKh lr we. lsÍfï ms<sfj..i weoySfï mqreoao ck.%yKh lrk .sjrKj.=<§ ish¨u foaYmd..sM.lr .ayßñka isák nj.ñl kdhlhska f.ajhla f.sldj ue.ajh f.a.=< isÿ jQ fuu fjkialï ishhg ishhlau úIhdkqnoaO lreKq j¾Okh ùu u..ekSu jvd..kh lr ck.sjrKh ksud ùfuka miqjo ck. foaYmd.i foaYmd.dj úiska wfmalaId lrk .ajhls' ch.=< olakg .dj fjkqfjka foaYmd.h wjNdú.s ue.ka ks¾udKh ù we.%jdoh flfrys jQ iudÔh b.d úh'& ue.ShudK ùu fï wd§ f.snQ b.s ckdêm.k kdhlhska wd.i y÷kd .ka.a ksjerÈj lshkafkakï ish¨u flakaøSh n.a ksjerÈ hhs yef`.ksñka foaYmd. f. yels m%Odku lreK jkafka" jir .sjrhd f.s iudc foaYmd.s nj..snQ nj.mßÉfþoh .sk nj..' ukao fmdÿck iudch .Su • hymd.o m%.a bÈß ue.Kkdjla .a ueÈy.djf.ekSu i|yd fm<.=< mej.siafia mej.=jla fkdj" rg .sl m%Yak f.ajhla f.efnk iqúfYaIS .ehs fmdÿ ck.§ fuka foaYmd. iú{dksl ùfï m%jK. jHqyhla wvmK l< yelsh hkak ck.areï .dj úiska w.o .dj úiska Tmamq lrjd we.o hymd.djhla ks¾udKh fjñka mj.§ kdufhdackd fkdfok f..i fjfyi uykaisù weÕ ßojd .k iy foaYmd.laIK yryd y÷kd.a yh jk úOdhl ckdêm.dj .d jQ ue.djf.a lsÍu ms<sn|j ck.ajh y÷kd .nd § we.dj úiska m%Yak lsÍu • hqo udkisl.%yKh l< md¾Yajh ue.ska we. jHqyhkag by<ska ck n.kh lrk foaYmd.k wjldYh .a foaYmd.s .ajh foaYmd.hg uqyqK §ug kshñ.ajhka mqoa.=< yd ue.i fkdj mj.dvk.a ue.fkdj" jir .

nk Ôú.kafkao@ .a..h m<uqfjka lS uqjdf.h.sfhka woyk foúhkag wmydi lf<ah hk is.' tfy.s foú flfklah hkak ÿgqúg foúhka woyk mdGlfhla fõ kï Tyq fyda weh wm iuÕ WrK jkakgo bv .a Ôjk ú.' bmfok Èkh" bmÿk ia:dkh" bmÿk rg wkqj uqjkaf.ejq.rd.' jrola jQjdkï ta Tfí foúhka — yßhgu˜ rd.gh' tfy.jkq .E§ ksod .a.=kla nrhehs woyia jQjdkï muKs' tho ksjerÈ lruq' Tfí foúhkaf.=kla n/.' Wmkaod isg ñhhk f.jkq we.smshg m%úIaG ùug ierfikafka Tfnka m%Yak lsysmhla weiSfuks' m<uq m%Yakh .a wm jrola lr ke.lrk 2015|Januaru-March Pg 43 .a .æ ta uqjka fofokdu o¿ fld< lñka rxpqj.s Tfí foúfhda ffjoH iqis.l= f..a w..dYh fjkia jkafka ke..a uu Tfnka fufiao wiñ' wo bmfok orefjla jir lsysmhlska jeäysáhl= jQ úg Tyqf.a.la o¿ fld< W.a Ôúldj" yeisÍu fln÷ jkq we.a.j uilska bmfok orejl= m<uq lS orejd jeäysáfhl= ù .j uilska bmfok uqj meáfhl= jir .a .dlEu Tjqkaf.a Ôú.a nr —idudkHfhka˜ rd.r .a tlu wdydrh jk w.wo bmÿk uqj meáfhla .ao@ ..a 3la n/.a iuÕ tfy fufya ÿjmek hk Ôúldjla f.yla fld<la hg È.r fjkila .j jir 03l§" tkï W! jeäysá i.kq we.a Èúh fln÷ fõ hehs Tn is.sfí' ta" Nla.=klg miq jeäysá if.i f.l= jQ miq Wf.a.a 3la muK fõ' fuu .sfnkq we.a rKisxy T ng isákafka rd.ao@ ke.

ekSu" m%ckkh wd§ Ôú.sIal Ndyslh" LOBES f.ekSug w.h mj.d m%foaYhl msysá ksjil .a ùug bv Pg 44 yeßfha hehs is.d iu.dj .da.nk Ôú.ao@ Tyqf.=klg fnÞ fjka l< yel' uia.afjk úÈh" Tyq lrk oE m<uqj i|yka l< orejdf.ñksiqka w.sh f.ygh' ñksidg Ôj..sIalh yd iqiqïkd YS¾Ilh f. fõ' uia.s hdk .ksñka mßirhg wkq.a ùug rxpqjla ´kE fõ' i.sks' fï ñysmsg" i.sh f.i .kqfokqjl fkdfh§ Tyqg Ôúldj f.ajhg jeä ÈhqKq fjñks' tAjd w.a ùug bvie.ao@ Tyqg l=ula jkq we.a tys Ôj.djhka" Tyqf.i wkq.=kag rxpqjla ´kEjk úg ñksiqkag iudchla ´kE fõ' wmQre l.sh wd§h fkdue.. fkdù mßirh .r fuu jHqyhka oaú.uq' fuu .sß.=< jq fndfyda wx.i mßirhg wkq.a tl.efka' fud<h yd iqiqïkdj uOH iakdhq moaO.dv kef. tAlrdYs ùuls' rxpqj .kqfha fujka Wiia ne£ï u.sIalh hkq by<skau msysá jvd mq¿.ek wmg glalhgu lsjyels jqj.a jkq we.d fyd¢ka fukau ia:dhsj Ôj.dihg jvd fjkiajkq we.a Tyq fld.a Ôjk ú.i y÷kajhs' ñksia fud<h foig wjOdkh fhduq l<fyd.au fldgihs' th jï yd ol=Kq w¾O f..sIalfha we.iqfKa fuf.aj f.i fidndoyu fjkialsÍfuys.uq' Tyqg Ôj.=< Èfjk iakdhq hk jHqyhkaf.a.snQ foag jvd kjuq jkq we.=<. fkdwvqj .slu jqjukdjka muKla imqrd.ajh hgf.=kag jvd udkj m%cdjg b.dalfhka fjkaj zñksidZ mßKdóh f.sIalh" wkquia.jkq we.dia ñksia jdifhka f.a kj fidhd.i fkdj iudchla f.Skays m%Odk m%foaY 05lg& fnÞ olajkq ..=< NdIdj" l.i ye¢kafjk m%Odk m%foaY 4lg ^iuyr lD.la f.dr yqfol.sIal Ndyslhhs' uia.laIKhls fï' ´kEu i.ajQfha Tyq .i . iakdhq moaO.ñksil= w.ajhl= njg m.s w.djlsæ rxpqj yd iudchæ iudch hkq rxpqjg jvd ÈhqKq jQ Wiia ne£ï iys.ajfhka mek ke.afjhs' tfy.Ôúldjg iudku Ôúldjla f..a lsisÿ ñksia wdY%hla fyda ñksiqka iuÕ lsisÿ wdldrhl ikaksfõokhla fyda l< fkdyels hehso is.u ixj¾Okh isÿjQfha iakdhq moaO.ajd.r ñksia iudcfha ñksil= .¾ iïnkaO.l= bmso ñhhkf.udg Ôj.r .ajk Wiia i.a wmg fkdyelsh' tfukau .jk Ôú.amiskau fjkia Ôjk pß. lr.a yelshdjka" olaI.fï Ôj.j Ôj.sfí' fuu zwdjrKhZ uia.sfha hehs lSfjd.' Tyqf.ßka m%uqL..a jeäysá jhfia f.la fuf.drj ñksidg Ôj.j udihlska bmfok orejl= m<uqj lS orejdf.ksmx.' ñksia wdY%fhka f.dalfhka ñksid fjkiajk m%Odk .sh f..hg jvd yd.ùu W.a th" uia.a th jvd ksjerÈh' fud<h" fud<fha isg fld÷ weg fm< ^lfYarej& .=j iakdhq moaO.hka Wiia .i Wiia i.efkk w.aùug wjYH f. lr ..dj" ixialD. rglg f. fkdù .a jQ fyhsks' fuf.r jk wka.jdyk hkd§ ish.a ùug iudchla wjYH fõ' i.i 2015|Januaru-March tlaj Ôj.ao@ wo bmefok uqjmeáfhl= jeäysá if.sfí hehso tfy.aj f.aj fldÜGdYhla njg mßkduh ùug ñksid iu.=kago Ôj.jkq .a ñksid mßirhg wkq.hl= fndfyda ÿr" wE.rï l.djh f.=<ska Èfjk iqiqïkdj yd fud<fhka fukau iqiqïkdfjka werö YÍrh .s isrer mqrd Èfjk iakdhq m¾hka.HdjYH uQ.h .' i.=r jkq we.a yeisÍu" Tyq Ôj.Tn okakd mqoa.ekSï" ks¾udKhka tf.kakd fukau rxpqjla f.k f.ah' fojk m%Yakh .a wo bmfok orejl= jeäysáhl= jQ miq l=ula lrdúoehs hkak wkqudk lsÍugj. jQ m%Odk jHqyhka lsysmhla /<s jegqk wdjrKhla uÕska jeiS .ao@ —yfmdhsæ msiaiq yefohsææ˜ fndfyda úg Tfí ms<s..i m%Odk fldgia .aúh fkdyel' tkï ñksiqka .udg wjYH f.a ùug wjYH wdydrmdk" we÷ï me<÷ï iqjmyiq we| we.la wdydr fidhd . follska iukaú.hla rÕolajkq we.i i.l= jQ miq f.

02 rEmh

,nhs'
ñksidf.a fud<h;a i;=kaf.a fud<h;a
^úfYaIfhkau jdkrhskaf.a yd fmdÿfõ
laISrmdhskaf.a fud<hg idfmalaIj neÆ úg&
ieleiau w;ska iudk fõ' tfy;a mßKdu
l%shdj,sfhka ñksid ìys ùfï§ ñksia fud<fha
isÿ jQ fjkialï rdYshla ;sfí' tkï"
1' YÍr ialkaOhg idfmalaIj fud<fha nr jeä
ùu
2' uia;sIal Ndyslfha isÿ jQ m%idrKh
uia;sIal ndyslh i;=kag jvd ñksia fud<fha
úYd, fldgila ;khs' úfYaIfhkau k<,
wdikakfha mj;sk m%foaYh Wiia Ñka;kh
i|yd;a fud<fha msgqmi uia;sIal ndyslfha
j¾Okh ;%sudK oDIaá yelshdj ,nd§u i|yd
isÿ jQjls' ^rEmigyk 02&
3' uia;sIal ndyslfha fldgia 4g wh;a úúO
ld¾Hhka i|yd úfYaIKh jQ m%foaY wdY%s;j
isÿ jQ ixj¾Okh
uia;sIal ndyslfha LOBES f,i fn§ mj;sk
m%foaY ;=<o YÍrfha úúO ld¾hhka md,kh
lsÍu i|yd jk úfYaIs; fldgia f,i kej;
fnod oelaúh yel ^rEm igyk 03&' i;=kag
idfmalaIj ñksia fud<fha NdIdj" l:kh"
ixfõokh i|yd jk m%foaY ,sùu" u;lh
wd§ l%shdldÍ;ajhkag wÞ< m%foaY we;sù

03 rEmh
;sfnk w;r i;=kaf.a olakg ,efnk tfy;a
ñksia fud<fha§ úfYaIfhka ixj¾Okh jQ
m%foaYo olakg ,efí'
4' ñksia fud<fha ffi,uh wdlD;sfha isÿ jQ
fjkialï
5' cdkuh l%shdldÍ;ajfha isÿ jQ fjkialï
fï ksid iakdhq l%shdldÍ;ajhg wÞ< jk
ridhksl m%;sl%shdj, isÿjQ fjkialï wdÈh
±laúh yel'
fuf,i mßKdóh l%shdj,sfha m%;sM,hla f,i
úfYaIfhkau fud<fha isÿ jQ uyd bÈß
msïulska Wiia ukilska" Ñka;k yelshdjla
iys; udkj m%cdjla ñysmsg ks¾udKh ù

2015|Januaru-March

Pg 45

1' uia;sIalh
,,dg m%foaYh

ks¾udKd;aul Ñka;kh" .eg¨ úi£u" nqoaêu;aNdjh" úúO ksYaphka" yeisÍu" wjOdkh"
úhqla; Ñka;kh" fm!reIh

Parietal lobe

wjfndaOh " oDIaáhg wÞ, l%shdldÍ;ajhka" NdIdj" lshùu" ixfõokhg wÞ, m%foaYh "
isref¾ ish¨ iafõokdjka " pd,l m%foaYh " ish¨ fmaYs p,khka

Temporal lobe

l:khg yd Y%jKhg wÞ, lghq;= oDIaÀ yd Y%jK u;lh

Occipital lobe

oDIaáh

2' wkquia;sIalh

isref¾ iunr;djh " ldh ú,dYh " p,khkays wka;¾ iïnkaO;djh

3' ,sïìla moaO;sh

yeÕSï " u;lh " bf.k .ekSu " msmdih " nv.skak" YÍr WIaK;ajh

4'iqiqïkd YS¾Ilh

yDo iamkaokh " reêr mSvkh " iu;=,s; lsÍu" Yajik uOHia:dkh

;sfí' ñksia fud<fha nr
idudkHfhka lsf,da 1'5la
fyj;a rd;a;,a ;=kla
muK fõ'
rEmigyk 04
udkj mßKduh;a iuÕ
ñksidf.a fud<fha Odß;djh
fjkia jQ whqre
rEmigyk 05
uia;sIalfha me;af;ka
msysá m%foaYh Parietal
lobe f,i ye¢kafjk w;r
YÍrfha fmaYSka p,kh
iïmQ¾Kfhkau md,kh
jkafka fuu m%foaYfha msysá
Motor cortex kï úfYaIs;
fldgi uÕsks' tfukau
YÍrfha ish¨u iam¾Y
ixfõokhkao md,kh jkafka
fuu m%foaYh ;=<u we;s
Sensory cortex kï úfYaIs;
fldgisks' ñksia isref¾
wf;a" uqyqfka wd§ m%foaYj,
ixfõokhka b;d úYd, f,i
ÈhqKq ù ;sfí'fuu rEmfha
oelafjkafka tu Sensory
cortex kï fldgi ;=<
isref¾ fldgiaj, ixfõok
yelshdj ksrEmkh jk
wdldrhhs'

04 rEmh

05 rEmh
Pg 46

2015|Januaru-March

wd¾Ü

khd we,a,Su
fla' nKavdr

t

,lkordjg kfhla wd
nj uq,skau lk jel=Kq
ojfia" flfia fyda W! w,a,d
wE; le,hg f.k f.dia oeñh
hq;= njg wysxil ;rfha bgd
.;af;ah' wysxilf.a ksji
w¨;ska bÈ lrk ,oaola jk
w;r tys fodr cfka, iú
lr ;snqfKa ke;' wysxil
yd khkd ish taldnoaO

jegqfmka" taldnoaO foafmd<
Kh uqo,la ,nd .;a;o th
ksji iïmQ¾Kfhkau bÈ lsÍug
m%udKj;a jQfha ke;' ;jo"
wysxilf.a fyd|u ys;jf;l=
úiska" fkdñf,a we| ÿka ksjdi
ie,eiafï id,fha jy<" fojk
;Ügqfõ jy< ;rugu Wiska
yd ldur follska iukaú;j
;jÿrg;a újD; je/kavdjla

iys; ùu ksid Wv ;Ügqfõ
ì;a;s ne|" jy,h ieliSfuka
f;drj ksjfia mÈxÑh ÿIalr
lghq;a;la úh' Kh jdßl yd
fmd,sh lemSfuka miqj f.j,a
l=,S f.ùug m%udKj;a uqo,la
fkdjk neúka flfia fyda kj
ksjfia mÈxÑhg hd hq;= úh'
tneúka" ish¨ cfka, i|yd u,a
jegqKq >k bá frÈ iú lr

2015|Januaru-March

Pg 47

kj ksjfia mÈxÑhg meñKSug
wysxil yd khkd ;SrKh
lf<dah'
kj ksjfia mÈxÑfhka
wk;=rej .;jQ udi ;=kl
ld,h ;=< Tjqka fj; meñKs
oy;=ka jk wiqN wdrxÑh fï
khdf.a meñKSuhs' khdf.a
meñKSu iïnkaO wdrxÑh uq,ska
f.k wdfõ f,dl= ÈhKshhs'
ish fi,a,ï f.h wi, l¿
È. if;l= isák njg weh
úiska wysxilf.a mshdg lrk
,o meñKs,a,lg wkqj fidaÈis
lsÍug .sh mshd È.ska wä
yhla muK jk fï khd oel
;snqKs' W! l¿ mdg lSjdg l¿
meyehg yqre w¿ meyehlska
hqla; úh' úYd, fmk f.dnhla
iys; khd lsishï l,amkdldÍ
bßhõjlska ;ud foi n,disá
njg Tyq miqj m%ldY lf<ah'
tfy;a ;udg ysxid lsÍfï lsisÿ
woyila m%o¾Ykh fkdl< W!
ish,a, jegyqkdla fuka wi,
jQ uy weue;s;=udf.a j;a;g
ßx.d .sh nj ;d;a;d wysxilg
meyeÈ,s lf<ah'
wysxilg tljru is;=fKa
W!g ish ore fofokdg ydkshla
lsÍug wjia:djla we;s njhs'
fuksid" yels blauKska flfia
fyda khd f.ka ksoyia ùug
Tyq ;=< woyila me,mÈhï
úh' tod mgka wysxilg khd
ms<sn|j jk l,amkdfjka ñ§ug
fkdyels úh' khd iïnkaOfhka
ne÷Kq is;sú,af,ka ñ§u
wysxilf.a mrudfmalaIdj njg
m;aùug kshñ; nj fkdoek
jqjo" khdf.ka f;dr f,dalhla

Pg 48

fld;rï iqkaoro hkak
iïnkaOfhka isysk oelSug Tyq
fm<UqfKah' ta iqkaor;ajhg
ydks lrñka ;ud wjg ish,a,u
khd iïnkaO ixl,amhkaf.ka
ieÿï,;a nj Tyqg fmkS hkakg
úh' Tyq fï iïnkaOfhka ish
wi,ajeishka msßila jQ" ykaÈfha
;s%frdao r: .df,a ñ;=rka msßila
iu. idlÉPd lf<ah'
—wksjd¾hfhkau Th khd
w,a,d fldfyg yß .syska
odkak ´k'˜ w,a,mq f.or
Wlal=x u,a,S lSfõh' —fï <uhs
fldhs fj,dfj;a lef,a fldf<a
fi,a,ï lrkjd' fldhs fj,dfõ
wk;=rla fjhso okafka kE'˜
—khd lshkafka fldfydugj;a
úYajdi lrkak mq¿jka if;la
fkfjhs'˜ uy;=ka whshd ish
woaoelSï yd mßK;Ndjh
f.kyer mEfõh' —khdg nh
lrkak fmKhla tlal" úI
úÈkak mq¿jka o< foll=;a
;sfhkjd' ta foflka fudk
tlla mdúÉÑ lrkjo lshk
tl ;SrKh lrkafk;a khduhs'
tal ;uhs khdf.a iajdêm;Hh'˜
—kfhla lsh,d lsjqjg" fïld
we;a;gu kfhlao lsh,d
lshkak okafka ljqo@˜ yeu
fohla foiu ielfhka n,k
pQá u,a,S weiqfõh' —iuyrúg
.erçfhla oel,d" kfhla
lsh,d nh fj,d bkakjo ljqo
okafka@ wms bÈß mshjrla .kak
l,ska fïl we;a;gu kfhlao"
.erçfhlao lsh,d ksYaÑ;ju
;yjqre lr .kak ´k'˜
úúO újdo ixjdo u;=jqjo
khdf.ka ñ§fï m%dfhda.sl

2015|Januaru-March

ie,eiaula ilid l%shd;aul
lsÍfï wjia:djla fkd,efnk
nj fmkS .sfhah'
t<fUk i;sfha isl=rdod
M,odhs;d jevigyk hgf;a"
tia my l%uhg ld¾hd,h
ilia lsÍfï uyd fihsß Èkh
meje;ajqKs' tÈk" wms<sfj<g
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i ish ore fofokdf.ka werö kkafodamkkao kï kd.eîuhs' uq.sfhah' wysxilf.ka ieÿKq fmda. fmK f.diaála oe.fhl= lvd my.aùfuka iukh jQ wdldrh olajd wfkalúO kd.sula tys isá w.amh fjk.a ixj¾Ok iñ.r" th ñ.d blaukskau ish¨u o¾Ykj.s jk ish orejkag oka ms<s.fha isá ish¨u kd.ehs wysxil ìhg m.B<Õ i.am. .shla we.fhla mßoafoks' uq.sfha wÕyrejdod wysxil" ish rokl o.ekSug fmdrlk ñksiqkaf.sh .SrKh lf<ah' m<uq jirg we.dj idlÉPdjg Ndckh úh' i.a úh' tksidu" khdf.s.au fYdapkSh brKu jQfha" fï khd iïnkaO ixl.djla mj.. l<dh' mif<diajl fmdahod oyï mdie.a .af.s .a ixj¾Ok iñ.a¨ l¿ f¾kaoh kfhla hehs is.s ldur kfhl=g we.s njg fiiq msßi w.spdr oelajQy' uõmsh /iaùfï§ fuu woyi újD.dh.d i|yd fi.a isiqka i|yd ixúOdkh l< iS.ska Tyq iu.a kd.s fkdùh' wfkla w.skao kï kd. wxl . .nd .§ .hla jYfhka ish¨u mx..sfha fukau m%:ñl wxYfha úÿy.sùug Tyq .§f.k isá uqp. Tyq idlÉPd lrk .sh wjia:dfõ" fiiq foudmshka iu.hd yd nqÿ oyu w.udg lsishï udkisl wd.Ska.la" mx.ï f.s úfYaI odhl iNd /iaùug ..= lsÍugo fhdackdjla iïu.= fmda.sfhiag¾ we| froafoa bß" kfhl= fia fmkSu ksid Tyqg rd.rdchdf.=¿ ùug fkdyels jk mßoafoka úfYaI ma.udg n.s njg wysxil fmkajd ÿka u.a ùfï by< iïNdú.Eug tl.lkordj fmdf<ka khkd ñ.' khkdf.=< reÑhla we.Sk Ndr.rï WKqiqï idlÉPdjla ùo h.Kk blaujd hdug fmr wxlhla .r rdjhla me.a fnok ms`.a oyil uqo.ajhla .auereKq ixjdohlg iyNd..g wdfoaY úh' .hska ieß ieÍu ksid" ´kEu wjia:djl" fkdis." l¿ mdgg yqre w¿ meyefhka hq.sh wjia:dfõ§o mkai.a§ idlÉPdjg Ndckh úh' t<UqKq mqka fmdfyda Èk iajdëk rEmjdysksfhka Wfoa wgg uq¿ talSh rdcHhgu fmfkkakg úldYkh l<" zfmdaod WoEik wNsO¾u idlÉPdZ jev igyfka§ kd.ka ish orejkag isÿ úhyels ydksh ms<sn|jh' m%foaYfha nyq.af.dfka jdáfha jQ l¿ br kfhla fia fmkS hdu ksid Tyqg wdydr wreÑhla yg .sM.=kg úldYkh jQ zksjkg flá 2015|Januaru-March Pg 49 .=<.g lvd jÈk kfhl=f.hla ye§ug mdi.a kd.a" nqoaO ld.kh fj.§' fuh fld.oafoa" yÈisfha mdi.a l< ish mq.l kfhla mx. rdchd yryd pqf.s ldurhg msúiSfï wk.dau hym.a ùu ksid" mdie. jHdmdrh i|yd iyNd.d nh jqKq Tyq" jrla wef|ka nei t<shgu Èj .a jvd.su Tyqg fmkqfKa" .%sfha kskao .la iakdhq msrùug rcfha oka.ska fufia ÈiajqKq ixlS¾K khs oiqka b.ekaùu iïnkaOfhka meje.sfhah' iji .a fooyia mkaiShg tl.r remsh.ekSug Tyqg wjia:djla fkd.ka flfkl=g oIag lsÍug o. . l< nqÿkaf.ah' we|g t<Su i|yd t.=l< remsh..daor-ufydaor kd fonEhka ueKsla mqgqjla fjkqfjka lrkakg kshñ.ju bÈßm.a m%.sh úiska iïu.s ldurj.o ks.d l< msßig bÈß l%shdud¾.a iQodkï lr .s wúfhdakSh iïnkaO. iïnkaOfhka lsisÿ woyia fkdue.=< we.a bß jegqKq fmd.=r we.g" ´kEu wjia:djl wä yhla muK È.a ueÈy.a Y%S YÍrh jgd fj<S" Y%S YS¾Ih jefik fia ish úYd.g .sfha ke.s lsÍug wysxil .+ fudfyd.sfhah' ta jk úg È.jQ hqoaOh nqÿkaf.o ú.dnh úysodf.a Wjÿr iïnkaOfhka jl% ixjdohla we.k iú lsÍu i|yd wu.ekSug meñKs l¿ mdgg yqre w¿ mdáka hq.=udf.a.ao úfYaI wjOdkh ta flfrys fhduq úh' tys m%.sk nj wysxil úiska fmkajd fok .j kd.a wfhl= yd fnod yod . l< w.sÍ hkq we. l.ska msÍ .a i.hg ish.g" .r" Èkhg kshñ.lska wdjrKh lsÍfï fhdackdjla mdie.hska iïnkaO wNsO¾uh tod mkaif.a khsáhg we.r we. idlÉPdj.

k fmd.=udf.djqka jykafia.ajhg m.sYh fldamhg m..ug m%ldY lsÍug ixúOdkh l< uyd ux.=rlska iyNd. euqKq l=udrhd" udhïldÍ kd.ekSfuka m%foaYfha iduldó .jdoh je<elaùfï mk.ug tfrys cd.hd kej.ah' uy weue.=udf.e.a ckdêm. kd.hla ckdêm.sùug t<shg neiai fudfydf.%yhlg hk njg . wi.sùug wjia:dj .r l=uka.s.shla nj m%isoaêfha m%ldYhg m.fhl= jYfhka nj. ixl.§' nqoaO ld.fï fmdÿ iqidkN+ñh wi.a bvfï wkjirfhka mÈxÑ ù" kd: foúhka m%uqL .smdok oKav kS.fha l=ula isÿ jqj. wdYS¾jdo mQcdjg iyNd.sh fjkqfjka kd.a meñKsfhah' uy weue..l§" .d.g l¿ meyehg yqre w¿ 2015|Januaru-March meyefhka hq.=rej .d fjkqfjka foajd.=reKq ioyï mek úi÷ïZ jevigyfka nqÿrcdKka jykafiag nqoaO.=udg kï th ish mlaIfha kdhlhd kej. hgf.s . YslaIdldó fmdä yduqÿrejka jykafia jrla fndai.ka lsisÿ fiajdjla bgq fkdjQ nj.hkag úreoaOùug n.=jg .S kï kd.amfha ysñlre jk iqfmaI.dg mjrd .am.aùug kshñ.af.fï odhl iNdjg kï th" l.a" úÿr cd.reKsh w.af.a ta .ud fjkqjg fjk.a ljr od¾Yksl ixl.sYh myiq úh' talSh rdcHfha ckdêm.s kshufhka fï wdOHd.s.amfhka kd.. weh w.dg fï wdYS¾jdo mQcdj ish yelshdjka m%isoaêhg m.sjrhd kej.. lrk nj fmkajd ÿka weh" .ka isÿjQ fufyjr l=ulaoehs úuik .%yfhka i.=re ÿka zld.s.rla we.. cd.a ksjfia meje.=reKq ioyï mek úi÷ïZ jevigyk ksudjg m.sm. lkHdúhla úiska wld.a lsÍfï újD.a fmkajd fok .af.¾ckh lf<dah' iajdëk rEmjdyskS fiajh u.s.s mQcdjls' .amh úiska Tyq .lfha§ wrekao.a l<y' weh isxy.awvx.mKsjqvhla" .Sish l%shd fkdlrkafka kï" mkaoyil Y%djlhka msßjrdf.shg yd nqoaOd.=udf.fiakd kï w.u fn!oaO Pg 50 ksldfha uydl¿ ysñkula" ta .o nj fmkajd ÿka .awvx.au" wysxilf.reKsh fudav uQi..ùfuka wk.k nKZ ixl.dkq lsÍfï ld¾hh w.hkag mlaI ùug mjik w. rchg w.hkaf.a ksjfia meje.a lr" nqÿ oyu fjkqfjka od.a moú m%dma.ru isxy.H.ekSug fmd.ajQ wOHd.rj jkaokd lrk ksid . fn!oaOhka fuksid WNf.ajhg ydkshla isÿfkdùh' mkai.snqKs' foúhka yd nqÿka iudka.hla bÈ lr" mqo mQcd meje.Sk kQ.j O¾u idlÉPdjg lvd mskQ" ioaO-O¾u n.a ñ÷.a.u uy weue.a" lk.efnk uyd wdñi yd m%.Sish bÈßmsg wLKav i.s f:arjd§ kj.a" wä yhla muK È.hkaf. újrK . lkHdúhf.s ix.a" furg nqÿ iufha ÑriaÓ.Sishg fpdaokd f.eí fjfyr úydr /ila lrjQ ÿgq.a ta fjkqjg furg tla fiai.a lrdúh hk ixl.ekSfï m%.nd .a uy weue.aijhls' tfia lemùula fkdfmkajQfha kï" ckdêm.aùu i|yd kd.a lr.s.awvx.a" wkdrdê.d mQ¾Khg jQ wkQmfïh fiajdj.§' ta i|yd ms<s..añl lmq uy.s flfkla m.reKshl jYfhka ms<smeÈh hq.ska wk.sjrKh m%ldYhg m.Hka.xldfõ woyk ish¨u foú foaj..kajd .s ksid" .a kd.snqKs' rcfha ixj¾Ok ld¾hhla i|yd hehs lshñka" uy weue.dKka ksh.amhlaoehs ksrxyldrj úuid isáhdh' fuu m%Yakfhka w.Sk Ndr.reK Wmdisldjla" isxy.=rej zksjkg flá mKsjqvhla .=lj fmkajd ÿka Wkajykafia" meh úis y.id fkdue.dafldaálhlg uqyqK fok nj fmkajd ÿkakdh' fn!oaO jYfhka kd.af. fõÈldjla úh' fuu wdYS¾jdo mQcdfõ m%Odk wx.=udf.ao fkduo wdYS¾jdofhka" uE.s lrùfï igk .=jg . W.fha urd ouk ..a ududf.a l< od WoEik uy weue.añl lmq uy.%Khl fldgialdßhl nj ifya.s wdYS¾jdo mQcdj nyqúO w¾: .a ksji msysá ksid fmd.a úh' O¾u idlÉPd jevigykl§ m%Yakhla weiSfï jrog lsisfjla w.ka oi mdrñ.%ia.=jg .ska úldYh jQ fuu m%ldYfha ixialrKh fkdl< o¾Ykj.=<.

jd .d .s ù isák fï fudfyd.dNSkag fuu wdYS¾jdo mQcdj i|yd iyNd.d wE.hd wE. jkhg uqod yeÍug .la fkdue.snqKq ksid" wLKavj iuDoaêh .= lr pl%f.a" wjodkula .k" jdÑlj Woõ Wmldr l<d ñi" khd fmd...Sug fld. ùu wysxil .Kq fmdg f.aLhla ksl=.j isáoa§ wysxil .=Uiska t<shg .k f.aul jdudxYslfhl= jQ úu.a ó<Õ wruqK jQfha ljrfha oeuQ kd.k isáfhah' wfkla w.sl hula fkdlf<ah' flfia fyda khd ljrh ..af.ï tkak 2015|Januaru-March Pg 51 .ah' kHdhd.ßka weúo .=<g oud .amkd úh' ys|je.sj kd.a.s jQ ydr oyil isú.aijhlgu iyNd.la f.s%frdao r:hla le|jdf.=kajk md¾Yajfha iydhla .fï yeu fmdÿ W.u ksji úu.. miq l< kd.af.sfhah' mkai. mSvkhla .a tla lÈu wjia:djls' wdh.hd tys jQ úYd.lg f. kd.hd ms<sn|j úuis. rdchdg ys.a" iuDoaê iykdOdrh lmd yßk njg" iuDoaê ixj¾Ok ks.sl ksjdvq wj.s njo wysxil mila lrf.S msßig wkqn.=Ui ì| khd t<shg .= ld.sydi.k ish fufyhqu i|yd iQodkï úh' khkdf.SrKh lr isá wysxil" .a wysxil .dia oeñh hq.ka isák f.o mia u.a oelSug wfmalaId l< kd.a ÿkafkah' ish.snqKq ksid wysxilg kï fuu wdYS¾jdo mQcdj" rdcldß ksjdvq msg iqÿ we÷ñka ieriS wdYS¾jdo mQcdjg iyNd.S lSfõh' —wo ug wdYS¾jdo mQcdjg hkak .dv ke.a bvu lrd . woaoelSï mokïlrf.ekSug m%dfhda.= ld. fok l.k tys lg ne| oeuqfõh' wk.a wysxil my.k m%Odkshd rdcldß yd fm!oa.dau wdYS¾jdo mQcdj .hla uq¿.s.j.k f.suh jYfhka ckdêm.lr mßirhla ks¾udKh ùug wkqn.aul jdudxYslfhl= jQ úu.amsáh wi. lf<ah' fï kd.=< cks.=<g ßx.S jqjo wdYS¾jdo mQcd jeks ks¾udlaiajd§ ld¾hhkag odhl fkdùh' tksidu" jdikdjg fuka úu..isß" jydu Woe.a.hd olsk m<uq Èkfhau W! w.af.isßg mejiQ wysxil" .ka rchg mjrd.aul u`.siela ljrh we..Odßhd .a.OdÍkag fukau .jkd iómhg le|jd.a.nd .a /õ ÿka wiykfhka ñ£ug we. fkdyels kHdhd.reK m%cdjg fuh .ekSfï iqÿiqlï iïmQ¾K lsÍuls' je.rï leue.=udf.hd uy weue.a lr .=< È.sfhah' Woe.ekSug .a j.nd .j.ekSug ys.a wrx tkak fmdfrdkaÿ Wkd' ke.g khdg tfrysj .=rej" iqúYd.hd yÈisfha m%d¥¾N+. fmkaùï yd Wmdh Wml%u iïnkaO mrudo¾Yhka iïnkaO b.= nj ms<s.dj Tyqg meyeÈ.sfhah' —fïlhs wysxil whshd˜ Wlal=x u.a.s fkdjqjfyd.=Uila .ud È..hla njg m.af.x.a.sfhkjd fka' ux talg .Sug fyd|u fj.a.=udg mlaImd.hla uq¿.=< WNf.sjk .a.¾ckh lr oekaùï w.sm.+ ish¨ u.=< oeyeka.isßf..a úu." khd we.isß" kHdhd.a.lkordfõ iuDoaê.Sula wysxil .lg f.a.ska Ègu W! ¨yq nekafoah' lk.i úu.a ududf.df.a wdrlaIl fiajfha ks.a mshd úia.sh kd.ud .K m÷re w.t.g yerefKah' wysxil È.s jqj.dmamh wi.r l< mßÈu khd iduldó tflls' W! fiñka fiñka .siela Wrhla" hlv nghla yd . .dia wE.kú.a. yod .a.k isáfhah' tksid" .udf.aùu ksid" khd we.dj hehs wysxil .sfhah' wysxil fiñka fiñka W! miqmi .s fyd|u wjia:dj th njg mila lrf.amsáh me.kaghska Èkhg fmr .isß m%.af.ekSu wiSre nj wysxilg l.s lf<ah' flfia fyda khd w.ska ys|je.uu wdYS¾jdo mQcdjg iyNd.dia oeóuhs' ljrh iys.isß ish ksjfia isáfhah' Tyqg w.Kq lene.ud úiska f.a.k f.a yçka" ish wjYH.%yfha§ khdg fyda khdg mlaImd.af.a ksjfia .jdohka" wjidk ú.Sug . úh' wysxilf.ka uqod ljrhlg oud lg ne| oeuqjdla jeks ye`.a tla rdcldßhla úh' rdcldßhla i|yd kslau hEug u.SrKh lf<ah' Tyq fmd.hd ..udg wjia:djla ke.la f.sldjla yd kd.g nysoa§u .k taug ykaÈhg .s.ah' khd we.=<g oud .dafldaálhla cks.

ek .a.= njhs' ljrh t<sfhka t.dia.a.g .a th fkdkj.a .ßka wvq l=f.dk .au .a W! fmfka mqmamf.=h' oE.a ta yßhgu kfhlao lshkak okafka kE lsh.h oE.dia fkdfmkS .g wyq fjkjd' .sfj.s%frdao r:h msg.=re §ug kï ÿrl:kh w.kakjd.la khd /f.dfmdfrd.skau t.d .ßka >k jkdka.kak ´k ìiakia tlla' ta jf.k" .a iu.h" Tyq bÈßfha mjqrla fuka Èia úh' .a f..erçhd'˜ yeu fohla iïnkaOfhkau ixYHd¾:fhka ú. yomq 2015|Januaru-March foajdf.sfhah' ta jk úg cx.%y bÈßm.a .dk le.%Sfrdao r:h .a i.=ka whshd lSfõh' —ux f.u ÿrl:khg ms<s.dl= .shdh' wysxil uy mdr ueou ìu jdä úh' fmd..dj.sl fjkak mq¿jka W! kd.a.shßh wod.k hkak l.dNhla .hs'˜ Tyqf. hq.dl= m%d.hduhs lsh.djg.erçfhla jqfKd.=<g fkd.k lshdf.h f.u ÿrl:kh kdo úh' tfy.skau khd nodf.a tmdæ˜ khkd ryiska jqj.a tfla odf.=ka whshhs lsh.dia" .efnkak ´k'˜ Tyq ish whlsÍu idOdrKSlrKh lrñka lSfõh' —fufy fkfjhs" weußldfj ìiakiaj.g.a tfla khs wrka hkafka kE˜ uy.=jg jvd fo.fhka weiqjdh' —ux W! lef.a ux ls.s iy.fhla fkfjhs" .d¨æ fïl wdrxÑ fj.lkordj yryd bÈ l< wêfõ.u Wv idlal=fõ .fhka tmsgg f.snQ cx.sh lfvd.kak kï" f.S" khd m%jdykhg fldkafoais folla hgf.ag úis l<d'˜ wysxil lSfõh' —okakjo" Thd Th w.nd§ug tlÕ úh' m<uqjekak ógrfha jefgk .a iu.org wdjdæ Thd khd ke.%Sù.dæ .k khd lSoaÿfõh' u| mels.uqfi.k isá wysxilg cx.k hkjo keoao lshk tl .rhg we§ .sl lr.syd¾hla mdkak n.k f.=Khla f.d úis lr.snqKs' khd fkdfmkS . nE.a md¾la tfla Wlal=x u.d Thd kfhla .sínd'˜ —uf.ska yefudau n.dl= wjodkula .ks' Tyq ÿrl:kh .df.k .=ï khkdf.dæ wr pQá u.a..s fkdù ksÍlaIK uÜgñka isá iajdëk .s%frdao r:h .d .d f.djla kdo ù .a lrk pQá u.a.shs" uy.u ÿrl:kh úis foj.a.uka lf<ah' Tyq" msg.isß lsh.Sula fmkakqï l< khd" t<shg meñK lfvd.sr yçka lshdf.sfhkak ´k'˜ —ug .a fjkjd.a ish .%Sù.sfhkafka wr wdOHd.%Sù.k ysáfha lsh.a kd: fohshkag lem lrmq khd¨' lmq uy.%Sù.k neÆfõh' weue.=j kï wdmyq f.a ta .k wdhdifhka .sjrfKka Èkkak wdKavqfõ wfmalaIlhg ta wdYS¾jdo mQcdj .d lsh.a.hd wo wdYS¾jdo mQcdfjÈ Th khdf.a.re lrk flfkla' uf.sfhkjd W! kfhlauhs' w¿ mdgg yqre l¿ mdg tflla" fmdar Wf¾ wiafi.a tfla kfhla odk tl kï m%Yakhla kE' ta jqKd whsfIa" ldgo iy.kak j.df.uhs .s..a.dl= wjodkula . ßgla f.k bkakjd Thd tklxæ oeka úfYaI fmd.shla .=ud hld kegqj¨æ miafia wr úu.a.d .a tfla khs wrf.n.=re §ug fkdyels úh' flfia fj. hq.k hdug wysxil tlÕ úh' .a" .or tkak ys.ia w.u" úis .S%ù.Kqj .a th kej.dæ b.hd fydhoaÈ khd ke.kak ug whs.siela ljrfhka t<shg meñKs khd ßx.=kajk j.d@ neß fj.S ud¾.ùuhs' —kfhla wrka hkjd lshkafka f.d Thd khd we.a úh' wysxil khd iys.ukdka.s%frdao r: ßhÿfrla jk fmdä u.a¨jd lsh.d l<d kï .Hhg .dvla iajdêm.a W! kd.a kdo úh' —Thd khdg fudkjo lf<a@˜ weh l.ka f.ajdu kdo jkakg úh' Tyq t.a fojeks fldkafoaish jQfha" khd iys.añl lmq Wkakefya w¨.df.SrKhla .h Pg 52 lsisfia.d okakjo" i¾mhka w.d uy weu..= jqkdÆæ biairyg tk ckdêm.syd" È.a.uhs" ta.sia tallhla fï oeka wfma f.sh jydu Tyq ÿrl:kh f.a" ms<s.shkaku ´k¨æ ta mQcdjg Th khd bkaku ´k¨æ miafia lmq uy. nE..S lSfõh' wjidkfha fï ixjdohg iyNd.

añh iu.sks wdpd¾h bkaÈrd f.hla .dafmaia fu h Y%S .xldfõ udOHhla iu.khhs' yjdkd úYajúoHd.sks wdpd¾h bkaÈrd f. mßj¾.sksh f.sh Tlaf.i fiajh l<dh' fuh miq . f.dafmaia uy. lrk .dkdm.xldfõ ysgmq lshqndkq .u wúh iudcjdohhs ysgmq lshqndkq .dkdm.wka.*aÜ iÕrdj lrk .dan¾ ui .o wjika woyia ±laùuh' 2015|Januaru-March Pg 53 .k úoHdj ms<sn| wdpd¾h Wmdêhla ysñ weh jir 03l ld.o idlÉPdjl isxy.xldfõ lshqndkq .dkdm.jdohg uqyK q Èh yels m%n.xldfjka neyerùug fmr weh úiska .fha foaYmd.

ska . .ld wd.d' wka.jdoh .sfha jQ wdldrhhs' bka miqj flfkl=g uQ.a Tjqkaf.sh Yla.ñl kdhlhskao iudchkays kdhlhskaf.uka Ôjk rgdj .djhla m%odkh ld. me.su.da. megùug w.kh wOHdmk .=< wmg fïjdhska mSvd ú¢ ck.hka meje.jdohg yelshdj kdhlhska wd.u yd foaYmd.ukag n.sk jegqKd' th Tjqka úiska Tjqkaju nj f.sl n.a msßilf.a n.a.=j f.u fldgia fj.=< wms .u fï wd.areï . .jdoh úiska úYd.u yd mßirhhs' wd.k wka.da.shd' miq fndfyda msßila kej.ksl N+ñldj wd. lf.=<.areï .=< wka.ek OfkaYajr úma.=Kd' jqKd' fuu iudc ixialD.dj ^Fundamentalism& wo tlu Pg 54 2015|Januaru-March Left ( wka.ug yd mrdch lr .fõ.ihs' wdishdkqjka øjHuh moku ilialf<a fuu wE÷Kd' uq.uka fj.O¾ujdoh foaYmd. fjkia jqKd' iqúfYaIS ixúOdkhla jqKd' ld.jdofha uq..a úh yels úiskqhs' wd.ñl fldgia foaYmd.ekSug wka.u úkdYldÍ n.sh ì| jefgkq wms iy jevjiïjdoh ..k bvÿkafka keye' ta ksid tu .yjqre lr l<d' fï hq.ukaf. ck.khgo iudc l%uh f.enqKd' od¾Yksl jYfhka m%foaYj.ald.ajqKd' hula lsjqfjd.jdoh úúO wjia:djkays .g wdl¾IKh l.s iudcjdoh ì| jeàfuka okakjd' tu iudchkays wd.aj ke.jdoh iu.ekSula' f.s l=.jdoh wo fiajh lrkafka wêrdcHjdohghs' tau.ñl kdhlhska foaYmd.au.j.uka lf<a keye' th kdñl iudkd.§ wd.sl n.a iu.u .ug.dój wd.dalh l< yels nj f.i ixúOdkhka ìysjQ nj wms weußldjgo f.a kdhlhskao jqKd' lafIa.fha§ foaYmd.=< mej.=<.uka ljqo@ .r wdêm.s mx.kh Rcqju tlg .j.u yd wdl%uKslhskaf.i mj.a .auka f.jdofha muKla fkdj foaYmd.djhg weo jegqKd' .kh w.a wd.g lreKq .a.dj .%fha§ fkdfjkiaj n.mEug wêldß.a th meje.a.ukauÕ .au wfmalaIdjka wd.au n.d' wd.snqKd' tu wfmalaIdjka tlaj ..u ixialD.aúð.sh .dj isgo@ .=< wka.a isÿjqKd' mj.=< iykhla fiõjd' wd§ jYfhka Tjqkag oek.sfnkjd' flfia jqjo wo wd.r urKhg m.=Kd' hgù .a iudcjdohg ngysr ixialD.ah.a wd.eî .ajhg mej.sfnkjd' tys .h.ksñka isá oßø.sl jQ m%Yak úi£fï l%ufõohla udlaiajdohg wkqj fm!oa.=y.jd§ka fï fldgiaj.r lf.S iudcjdofha fidaúhÜ wka.sl lr .a mßÈ foam< ìysùfï§ úúO jQ iudc wdishdjg" wms%ldjg yd .hhs' fjka fjkaj mej.sk f.khg .au wka.a iu.sfnkq olakg mq¿jka' úfYaIfhka hqfrdamfha Okm.Hh .a ÿgqjd' iudcjd§ rgj.ñl iïNjhka iudcjdoh ks¾udKh lf<a yuqfjkjd' úfYaIfhka yd úYajdihka fkdi.dj ^Extremism& yd uQ.fuka fjkajQ od¾Ykslhska cd.sìh hq.ekgo@ yeisÍï ksid OfkaYajr l%shdj.fõ.ug udlaia th ye¢kajQfha wdishd.sl wd. ù .=< jk wfmalaIdjo oe..sydih .uka hkafka fld.eg¨" whqla.ñl yd foaYmd.Su.a .ñl foaYmd.= nj ÿgqjd' iQrdlEfuka ñ§u i|yd ck.a lrñka .mEu wka.dj" wjia:djka wysñùu" ne¨jfyd.a olakg ta w.a wd.a wd.khg we.jh .sl rgdj hg.go jHdma.uka u.jdoh .=<..sh wd.areï .a ñksiqka .dalfha fiiq mej.dalhla ùu ksihs' .=Kd jf.ju.u yd foaYmd.Left ( j. .dfmdfrd.ug moku jQfha iu.mEula isÿlrñka fn§ula .sl wd..ukaf.snqKd' ñksiqka f.ajQKd' ta iu.sreKd' fï yd wiudk.ukaf.a' olskafka fuh l+gm%dma.a lvd j¾Okhg ndOdjla f.mEï mqrd fldaá ixLHd. Tjqka wd.ekSug yd fuu ixialD.u foig yereKd' ta iQrdlEu .shg m.uka wdfõ fldys wdishdlrfha§ wdrlaIKjd§ udkj b.

j.= nj lshkjd' m.udkS fjki thhs' uQ.kh mokï lr.jdoh kï ixl.au Tjqka ne£ .shdks wd.O¾u uQ..s lKavdhuhs' zkrl 2015|Januaru-March Pg 55 ..a follg fnokjd' Tjqkag .d wdishd. ióm ùu f.amh fhdod .a whs.s lf<d.jd§ka oelsh yelshs' Tjqka lshkafka" WodiSk" úfrdaO.g wkqnoaOj jfï jHdmdrhZ yd zkrl jfï isákakg Tjqkag wjYH jqKd' ta l%shd.a w.kqhs' uQ.O¾ujd§ka wd.a.sl yd ls%ia.a.u fj.jd§ka j¾.kakjd' Tjqka zfyd| Bg jvd fjkia f.ïj.da.O¾ujdoh tys m%pdrl jevigyka ksidu ñksiqkaj isáhd' Tjqka wd.=ka ta b.a wka.aúð.r jkjd' uQ.fï iy woyia wkqj ks¾udKh lr.ug iïnkaOùu.ukaf.fyd.kakjd' .fï wd.ñl fokjd' wdishdfõ muKla fkdj msßia" wdkq.%Kh y÷kd.i fmkS ixúOdkj.%Kh jfï jHdmdrh fy<d oelSu i|yd wka.ka f.dñlhska" ys.a mej. Èh hq.areï.su.=< Okj.ekaùï mokï lr.=kag úYajdi lsÍula muKla fkdj wd.O¾ujdoh wd. lsysmhlao ngysr m%pdrl hdka.=< mjd w.lsh hq..aulùulao tys ..a wkqj zfyd| jfï jHdmdrhZ mokï lr .jdofhka uQ.r fjki meyeÈ. mokï lr.O¾ujdoh wka.jdoh iy uQ.fuys lf.ekSu fjkqfjka fmkS isáhd' uQ.aulhs' .d' uQ.khg iïnkaOùu.shd' wdishd.a ckm%sh jQfha uq.kakjd' ngysr ixialD.jdoh foaYmd.u iudcfha uQ.w¾:hlska Ndú.jdoh iEuúgu l%shdud¾. yelshs' Yla. r|d mj.a hg. jYfhka uQ.k ÿmam.sfnkjd' yelshs' fuh jvd.sl ck.dï wd.sl iudch yd jeäfhka Okjdoh rlskjd' Tjqka iq¿ fkdue.au kdhlhska ksy.jh .a fldgila' úma.djg . uQ.f.lrKfhka ñfoka wêrdcHjd§ m%pdrl hdka.=f.a fï w.Ska yd jHdmdrhZ jYfhka fldgia i|yd Tjqka bia.Od¾ñl lreKq foaYmd.sl úiska jvd jeä fldg fmkajd foaYmd.k tfy.. fjkjd' OfkaYajrhs' ta jf.a.sfnkafka ta ksihs' flfiajqjo th tfiau hehs wjia:djd§kao jkjd' tfiau ie.ï hlg iïnkaOhs' yqÿ weoySula" idrh yrh fldg .sfha l%shd.aúð.Od¾ñl lreKq wdrlaId lr foaYmd.¾Üwka...skjd' th wd.sl fjkihs' ngysr hg.jdoh fkfuhs' Bgo od¾Yksl mokula uQ.k fufyùula iys.O¾ujdoh oelsh yelshs' u.sh .O¾ujdoh wka.O¾ujd§ka mej.= keye' fuh mjd wka.k tkafka ñ§ug wjYH jqKd' brdk Tjqkaf.O¾ujdoh wd.sfnkjd' uQ.u tfy.a ngysr *%ekakfg" ldhska tka .a' wka.r fjkialï .

khka Tjqka ne£ isákafka mx...af.h uevmeje.jdoh mqrd jHdma.Sï b.lSulao jkjd' wêrdcHjd§ me.O¾ujdoh fhdod ieneúkau Tjqkag wm w.jdoS fhdokjd' Tjqka lsishï wd.a iyh yelshs' wo Tjqka hqfoõjka iuQ.%ia.s *eisÜjdoh mj.s . ryia T.% lrd wo jk úg hqfrdamfha muKla Left ( wka.O¾ujd§ thhs' ukh lrkakd jQ f.k f.d olajk foaYmd.k" wms ÿgq m%isoaO wka. f.ulg úfrdaO.a.jd§ fpdaokdj t.jd§ lKavdhï wêrdcHjd§ rgj.a lafIa.snQ mx.s jk *eisiajdoh b..a wm%sldfõ we.%Khla' úma.jd§ wr.a.iqï iy.djla j.sr .. hq.s fkfuhs' thg myr§u i|yd jk wr.%ia.eï .hka ÿgqjd' wdishdfõ" ls%hdldÍka ljqrekao hkak *eisiaÜ lKavdhï b.k l=uka.= fjkjd' c¾uksfha.h hgm.sfha wr.s nj wms olskjd''' iS'whs'ta' ixúOdkh mx.ska kss¾udKh lsÍug wjYH fn§u udj.d.shg fyda ienE Pg 56 2015|Januaru-March we.a.jfï jHdmdrhZ lshkafka ùÈhg Left ( *eisiaÜjdoh ^Fascism& wo *eisiaÜjd§ka hk ku nysk" b. lKavdhï ìys wr.jd§ hdka. l< hq.alrk .dal hqoaOfhka miqj fojk fkdj ol=Kq weußldjo we.a iudcjd§ka wkaofï yeisÍï .k m%jdyhla' fï .%ia.= fiajd iu. fuu wka.ajfha iudk..a.ùug tfrysjhs' ju olaIsKdxYslhskaf.an.khka .shd' ls%hdj.SrKh ysñjqKd' miqj c¾uksfha..a.a ie.¾ Èh. .jd§ jHdmdr fmruqKhs' tu fldgi wka.enQjla' Tjqka y÷kajkq l%shdj.ajQjd' Ndú.j. weußldfõ§ Tjqka uQ.shla fj.r olaIsKdxYslhska yqÿ ffjrfha hdka.r z*eisiaÜjdohZ f.a ta *eisiaÜ kdufhka .a weußldfõ uE.a Tjqkaf.h uq.=hs' f.ekSu wfma miqj th .i fuh bÈßm. wkqj *eisiaÜjdÈka y÷kd. b.a jdudxYslhska .a jkakg mq¿jka' tfy.jh Wml%u ù .skqmqgd oeóuhs' mdúÉÑ l< Wml%u Tjqkaf.skjd' ysÜ..ajqjd' wêrdcHjd§kaf.%ia.r f.lsÍu" u¾okh lrñka mx.jd§ka' fï fudfydf.=< wms fï lKavdhï ljqrekao foaYmd.jd§ka .dj mqrd ixúOdkhla m%j¾Okh l<d' ´kEu yuqodjlg" lKavdhulg th m.shkaf.a.a wruqK jQfha" m<uq tfrysj wms igka l< hq.dal hqoaOh w.%ia.dalh f.ao lf<a wêrdcHjd§kqhs' Tjqka fï 1917 iudcjd§ úma.alr wú.a m%.ekl fï f.ihs' fuu .jd§ f.u úYajdi lrk yd wkq.ùug Tjqkaf..=¿ f.sfnkjd' ienE jdudxYsl jHdmdrhg ìhjeoa§fuka" urd ouñka" tfy.a l=ulaoehs .sydifha lrñka isákjd' ieneúkau .kh lrñka fkdisákjd lsÍu Tjqkag mjrd Èh hq.a keye' ienE ls%hdldÍ jug fuu u.ek Tfí woyi' fyda ixialD..a wm uqyqK fok wms wo .%Khla ks¾jpkhg wkqj fndfydaúg njg *eisiaÜjdoh m..sfha wka.fjñka .ihs' yd l%shdldß.aolsñka tu fpdaokdfjka uqod .dj mqrd úúO iajrEmfhka bkakjd' fï .sfnkjd' ol=Kq ud.kakjd' ksoiqkla f.h we.d. Okm.%ia. fuh *eisÜjdofha foaYmd.shlg ne£ keye' ls%hdldßlhskqhs' Tjqkag wkqj olaIsKdxYsl foaYmd.jd§ Tjqkag b.enqfõ *dIshkajreka f.h jkafka jfï .spdrhla yuqod md.ajh jHdmdrh u.ghs' wruqfKa u.jdoh me.a.%Khg jfï lsÍu i|yd wka.d. ióm in|.= hqfrdamfha uOH m%foaYj.a >d.h we.=fjka wêrdcHjd§kaf.sfha.ekqKd' fï urdoeófï yd jHdmdr fn§u yd úkdY jk w.sr .i .areïlr .sh tlhs' wka.jdoh w.Dld folu tlúg mdúÉÑ fya.i ye|kafjkjd' lKavdhï kdulrKh lf<a yd uQ.shd' u.a lsÍu i|ydjQ Wm.jdoh igkaldóka f.d y~ k.an.

af..jd§ka úh hq.djh ms<sn| mKsúvhla .dalhg wka.=r ke.a fkdyelshs@ iudc cd. Tjqka fmdÿ iudch fjkqfjka ndOdjla' tfiau Tjqka jev lrhso@ Tjqka iduh .slafIam njg.sfnkjdo@ Ôú.sfnkjd' ta ixúOdk fyda mqoa.jd§ lKavdhula y÷kd .ndfohso@ Tjqka Tjqkag wêrdchjd§kaf..areï . ne£ .S.djh m%.snqfKa keye' hq.O¾ujd§ka Ôú.a ta fjkqfjka ksy~j lrkjd' Tjqka ñksiqkag n.=hs' nj lSjd' Tfí brKu th nj Tjqka iduQysl.d isáh hq.S.ekSu neyer l<d' hkakkï ta uQ.sldÍ tla fohhs' tkï Tjqkaf.hska hï uqo. f.ka iudc ls%hdldrlï ks¾udKh uqo.S.a iudc iïnkaO.shs' Tjqkaf.a i|yd wm oek.jfhka fjkalr wêrdcHjd§kaf.reK lrhso@ keye' ta wkqj Tjqka mrmqr úma.i i.a ks¾udKhla' lshqndfõ§.=hs'˜ iyfhda..jd§ka úh hq.a iS'whs'ta'" m%cd.eïúg fujeks Okh iu.nd .s wh nj meyeÈ.djh ms<sn| biau.=r ke.a mKsúvh l=ulao hkakhs' Tjqka lshkafka l=ulao@ Tjqka wm ish¨ fokdg iudk whs.sjdislï .= fyda wka.uklg úYd..kslj hula .ùh .= nj.h ksy~j ord.O¾ujd§ fyda wka.s.sfnkjdo@ ms<s.djhla .djg ksjdi" jHdmdrj.fhka m<dhdu m%j¾Okh iduh ms<sn| mKsúvhla l<d' foaYmd.ekSu yelshs' tfy.—uQ.a Tjqkaf.jdoh uQ.Hka.la hkf.%jdoh l.a ienE i|yd tackaish" fjki iajrEmfhka y÷kd. hq.a ks¾udKhla oeóughs' yd fufyhùula we.O¾ujdoh ksid orkakg 2015|Januaru-March Pg 57 .a wkd.sjdislï .ka.sìh hq.ska .ska weußldfõu jfï fohso@ Tjqka ck. hq...sfnkjdo@ iduh ms<sn| mKsúvhla .a yeisÍu ljrdldro@ úma.= l<d' Tjqka ñksiqkag mKsúvhla .djka fudkjdo@ lKavdhï ÿgqjd' Tjqka Tjqkaf.ajfhka lSjd' Tfí hym.a Left ( we.jd§ wdh.sfnkjdo@ ms<s.sìh in|. hkakkï ta uQ.O¾ujd§ka fyda wka.efnkjd úh lKavdhula y÷kd .a wruqK ryis.a wm fujeks Tjqkaf.a . hq.a tlla' mKsúvh l=ulao hkakhs' Tjqka lshkafka l=ulao@ Tjqka wm ish¨ fokdg Left ( f..d tkjd' ta" ." /já.h neyerùu m%j¾Okh lrkjd' bÈßfha§ meñfKkq we.a ..a uq.a Tjqka wiudk f.s iyfhda.a tla fohhs' tkï Tjqkaf.af.rh jeks uQ.= nj lshkjdo@ Tjqkg Tjqka olaIsKdxYsl jákdlï iyfhda.= nj lshkjdo@ Tjqkg iyfhda.kj.djg lsisÿ iudk whs.g oeä ndOdjla' mdi.O¾ujd§ fyda wka.lkjd' Tjqka lsjqjd' fuh iïmQ¾Kfhkau m%j¾Okh lrkafka ffjrhhs' wêrdcHjd§kaf.ekSug i|yd tackaish" isú.ekSu i|yd wm oek.la Tjqkaf.

a.au >d.jd§kag tfrysj ta wdKavqj.hdgu tfrysjhs' nj yd ngysßka ksoyi b.d ix..ukaj /jàug .a .jdohg tfrysj uQ.ig jk mKsúvhhs' wfkla ìyslf<a.¾ckh iuia.jhg .= .a . tfrysjhs' Tjqka úiska yuqod ks¾udKh lr .aul Wml%uhla' Bg iudcjd§ u.isÿjk ñ.a wjika m%.sìhdkq wdKavqj.O¾ujd§ka w.g ngysrg tfrys ta.andka ixúOdkh ìyslf<a Tjqkaf.spdrj.ska Tjqka f.a Tjqka uOH wdishdkq l.ajh úkdY lr .a Lhsvd ixúOdkh iajdëk.ksñka isák wêrdcHjd§kqhs' ta" fidaúhÜ udkj j¾.su.O¾ujdoh jHdma. Pg 58 2015|Januaru-March .a.ukaf.ksñka wêrdcHjd§ka .g wêrdcHjd§kag wjYH ta lrf. ljrdldro@ miqj Tjqka .sfnkjd' ta ufkdaúoHd.f.ksñka .a ta ñ.a wêrdcHjd§kauhs' ta i|yd wo uQ.andkqjka fhdod.h ne¨jfyd.fyd.a.g fuh wêrdcHjd§kaf.ksia.a m%.O¾ujd§ka wo zksoyiZ b.a fldmuKoehs olsñka isákjd' fmruqKq yeÿjd' tfy.uhg tfrysjhs' fï wka.i .g tfrysj nj fmkajd§uhs' Tjqkaf.dkfha úma.dmfha fhdod.ska fmfkkafka Tjqka ksoiqkla f.la wdishdkq fidaúhÜ rgj.sM.d' uOH wd¾Ól n.d tfrys f.dalhgu tys úma.snqKd' lrkafka" Tjqkag leue.a wm oekgu.ekaùug W.sfnkjd' ls%hd u.areï .dal u.a .a.hla .a we*a.aidy .ukaf.Sughs' f.jd§ka isßhdkq" brdl" isàug ..uka Yla.s nj f.h mdúÉÑhg uQ. we.la lrkq .k isàug bvfok tfrysj w.kh lsÍu i|yd ksoyihs' ydïmq.rï .=kag tfrysju ikakoaO ngysrg tfrys Tjqkaf.a. l<d' isákjd' Tjqkag wjYH wo .%ia.f.

s" f.akd ..djg lshd isàuhs' f.snqK.hs' fmkajd§ Tjqka fy<d oelSug .a i|yd ujdmEï lsÍug Tjqkg jevlrk ck.a ckmo yeisÍu .a Tjqkaf.sfha ueo idlaIr.sfnkjd' m%j¾Okh" ffjrh jemsrùu ^War on terror& udkj j¾.sh f.%ia.aje.ekSug whs.dalhg u. thhs' tlÕ.djh" .=rka fõ hehs is..skak" wêrdcHjd§ka úiska f.ßka . jkafka yd tys foaYmd.= úkdYh w. Lksc f.s uy.dr rchg tfrys wd¾Ól iïndOl iyfhda.=hs' ck.a foìähs' Tjqka w.a wdêm. jk .%ia.dla wka.am.enqjd' tajd kej.ekSuhs' Bg tfrys lrkq .k fmruqK ish¨ wka.en fkdyels jQ ksihs' Tjqkaf.jdofha.la mdúÉÑ l< yelshs' Okjdoh .re lrkq .jd§ lsÍuo@ f.dïìhdfõ idu ck.kakjd' fjiauqyqKq .egqulg . wdêm.dùka w.djf.aidy lrkjd' wmg iïndOl mkjd .a ienE uq.su.a l=ulaoehs iy Tjqkag .jdohg lshqndkq úrejka miafokd tlai.a' bmerKs wmhs' tfia .Sh udkj ixy. ls%hd wka.=r wm w.jd§ka tlai.jdoh fukau .srùu i|yd .ukaf.HdOdr fokafka ljqrekaoehs ieneúkau fldf.jdoh ch.=ld.=jg Tjqkaf.wjYH.jdohg Woõ fojeks mshjr jkafka Tjqkaf. .jdoh fhdod.jdohg tfrysj jákd NdKav .la' ukao wêrdcHjd§ka ieneúkau Tjqka fh§ isáfha" ms<s.a mKsúvh iudch fjkia we.djf.shg myiqlï i.sìhdj Bg fyd|u iu.%ia.r tlai.%ia.dj iudcjd§ odhdo lrkafka hqoaOh" nv.dalhg iduh" iskyj" fpdaokd t.jdohg bv fkd.jdoh Left ( wka.%ia.jdofha.dj w.nk Wml%uhla' .jkakg isÿ jQ ñ. hkakkï Tjqka Tjqkag tfrys jkakkag lshqndjg tfrys .Ska n.jdoh z.s bv wjuhs' ck. iudc iqNidOk rdcHh f.dj f.a.shg olskakg wjYHhs' iñ.a.%ia.%ia.a mjd fndaïn oud úkdY idOdrKSlrKh lr .sfnkjd' .djhlg meñKSug Yla.r m<uq lghq.jdohg yelafla flfiao@ we.Hh wka.i kï lrñka W.hd ck.=hs' mj.s w¾nqoh yd Kh nrhs' ia:dms.af.a fuh w.djg jvd ck.a..awvx.a mKsúvh úYaf.sh fkdyelshs' 2015|Januaru-March Pg 59 .en we.= nj" hqla.g úi÷ï u.ekSu ne|.a lhsvdj oekqu f.a ckmoh l< hq. iudcjdofha woyia jHdma.khduhs' ksoiqkla' wo th tlu hqo fmrÈ.jdoh wka.efíkï wka.rg wia:dhSlrKh.a jkafka kï wka.i.akï" wfkla w.dN wd¾Ól lvdjeàu" oßø.=r ke.a ìula jQ brdlhg isÿ l< ls%hdj.efnk msáhla' udkj iudchg iïnkaOfhka Tjqka iu.a wfma ùuhs' wka.s.djkag .s.ajhla w.aNdjh Tjqka wdishdkq YsIagdpdrfha tlai. Tjqkaf.ekaùug W.ikafka mshjr Tjqkag tfrysj tluq.alr .Hh me.a whs.oafoa .a ießirkjd' lshqndj .k hkq iqN idOk rdcHfha m%.jd§ka' ienE uqyqKqjr wka.a.a.=< ksoe.djla Tjqkg ckmoh úiska w.jeks uq.a .a wkkH.Yla. lrñkqhs' tfy..ùu yd Tjqkaf.sYh ixlS¾K .khduhs' wOHdmkh" Wml%uhla' .snQ fl!.a uQ.a wka.a lsÍuhs' ck.a Bkshd fyd| Ôjk .e.a hqojd§ yeisÍug wdjrKhla f.dj fnod fjkalrkq .aYkh lsÍuhs' fhduqùfï wjYH.dj" jD.djfhka w.%ia.= fok rgla f.s jkafka keye' .jd§ lKavdhïj.a tluq.a m%Yakj.drïNhka" tfy.g wêrdcHjdÈka .nkafkakï" ck.dalhg ta.efnkafka keye' wd¾Ólhka m%j¾Okh lsÍuhs' Tjqka w. lrkq .a wk.ndÈh hq.djh f.sìfh§.ktauo@ lghq.shla .jdoh je<elaùfï fufyhqïj.jdohg tfrys hqoaOhZ .ska wêrdcHjd§ka f.%ia.kakd .

Pg 60 2015|Januaru-March .

h úiska ì%.a —uu ys.=< hqoaOhlg hk kuq.k.=rej.sh —fkdje<elaúh ú.a ckmoh . iDcqj fya.=hs' úfYaIfhkau fpdaokd lrñka tu úiska ueofmrÈ.u ks¾udmlhka m%ldYhg m.rhs' brdlhg jYfhka ie.dóh rdcHhla ke.flk" wu.shd nj.eïn¾ 11 m%ydrfha 13jeks fkdje<elaúh yels iïndOl úiska brdl yd ms<s.a ixúOdkfha w.uka úiskau uqia.airh fjkqfjka ms<s.sh yelsfõo@ ^2014 Tlaf.hla .dkH bia..s%l ckmoh ISIS jekakla .OdÍka fofokdu we.a nj.s l< tlla nj lsj ixydrl iïndOl˜hhs jqj.a ckmo- ckmofha m%Odk ISIS ixúOdkfha Wm.¾ úiska .ßka tlla jkafka" .sï ixúOdkj.ekSula we.Su b.Skaf.ska wiajqKd' brdlhg isÿl< b.g Wmdhud¾.rï l%Er yd jk .sYS.siafia we.kjd Tyq tfukau tlai. brdlh b.=r fkdkeiS mej.akï fuh hq.a ieneúkau brdlh ta jkúg.dan¾ 01jeksod fÊ'iS' fmd.ñka weußldj yels˜ hk jpkh mekjQ iïndOl ysgmq CIA ks.a ISISys fmkqu wudkqIsl oehs lsjfyd.s Tndud cd.hlao@ iudc foayh hka.S iudc úoHd{fhl= jk uydpd¾h fkdï fpdïials iuÕ l< iïuqL idlÉPdfõ mßj¾.äfhka ls%hdj.kjd ISISys úkdYldÍ ueÈy.< b.o ls%hd.khla Left mdGl Tn fjkqfjka fuys m<lruq'& m%Yakh( iema.a ckmoh tfia.a m%ldY l<d' .a leã ì£ l< rdcH.sfl%dkshq úiska f.slsÍfï wêrdcHjd§ weußld tlai.aul l< nrm.a uE.=Kd ms<sn| úfYaf.aùï 2015|Januaru-March Pg 61 .d wêrdcHhla˜ ld.a ke.l§ fufia .s wjika lr ke.al< ISIS ksÍCIKh l<fyd.s m%.snqKd' lrkqfha .%ia.du idOdrKj fjkqfjka tlai. úiska Odrdfõ ckudOHj. jpkhla' fld.eiau yeÿfõ ke.%eyeï *q.a fujr tfia yd fmdÿfõ wka.slrk .a . lghq.da m%lg m%.du by< oekqula uu ys.g yd —wia:djrNdjfha oYlhlg jvd jeä .Odßfhl= kej.sM.ï ueofmrÈ.u fhdaO l=¿f.snQ brdl iudchg ks. ckmoh yd ì%.a m%Odk.jd§ weußld tlai.= ixj.a cd.= jqKd˜' we.aIlhd ckdêm.so@ we.a tlai.slsÍug wdrïNl 2003 werUQ wdl%uKh l< m%ydrhka úiska tu iïndOl —ck ie.du m%n.sh wëCIKh ckmoh nj' tlai.dkH yjq.dka.Okjdoh hgf.a udkj YsIagdpdrhg mej.=< tlai.jd§kag tfrysj th fjdIskagkh úiska isg tu iïndOl weußld tlai.

ï fõ.ñl . ùu jeä .ñl fyda cd.ka.O¾ujd§ rfÜ ck.= lrñka isákjd' idudkHfhka kshuhla tfukau w.jdoh njg wd.a folu cd. fjñka we.ñl j¾.dr fmdÿ cd.aÉP hk wdêm.jdofhka'˜ .a ckmohg fndfyduhla uqia.ñl ck.sl jHdmdr" fmkqu w.O¾ujd§ rdcHhhs' tlai.= lrkjd' f.ndÿkakd' j¾.a ckmofha jevfldgila bgqlrkq ßmí. m%Odk iDcqju tlai.a me.a*a iudch by.sl jHdmdr úkdY l< úg we.Hhg yd iajNdjhlao iu.%jdoh Okj.sfnkafka th úiska fmr ì%.dr fmdÿ cd.sfnkjd' weußld uQ.=ka yd iud.sjk ßla.a wehs@ ckmo-ì%..ska l.rhla Ôj Salafi& u.dkHh.drjQ wrdì yd ouñka .dkH ms<s.fhka Ldokh fjkqfjka fmkS isák fjñka ÿ¾j.sfrñka ixúOdkj.g.dmh jHdma.ska isÿjQjla nj iy wfkla ud¾.sl .j.aj. jkúg mCIhla ksid Tjqkg wd.= iqúYd.sï w.sfnkjd' w.sm.efnk Okh nj úYajdi lrk" .aù m%.a jHdmdr úkdYlsÍu Nhdkl úkdYhka i|yd j¾.=< isák weußld fjkjd' ngysr rgj.wd.a uqia.ñl j¾.sl lr.jdoh jHdma.s úkdYldßhs' th ixúOdkj.O¾ujdoh m.=r( wdl%uKhkays b.sl yd wd.sfnkjd' f.ska úg we.k foñka wksla wd.ñka .dmh .jdofhka f.Kklg f.drj m%Yakh( ISIS kj f.ñl j¾.du.dóh m%udKhla' kuq.ekSug thg yelsù wka.shdj jeks ÿr jHdmdr úkdY l< wE. wjqreÿ oyia .a ia:dmkh lsÍug folu úYajdi l<d' lghq. kdhlhka úiska WodyrKhla' rfÜ md.ska md.kh lrk wd..ajdf.sl TiafÜ%.ska ujk .ykfhka jydì$i.dj jHdma.sYh nyq.ñl fï i|yd m%n.g weußld tlai.jdofhka f.O¾ujdoh Tjqkf.sl yd jvd hqfrdamfha wd.¾ckhla th bia.sï mqrjkq .s wxl tfla uqia.d' fmfkkjd' Tfí j. cd.af.aikak lsÍuhs' th rgj.a ienE m%.slka mCIh .ykfhka wvlau rdcHhla' tfukau th jf.súmdlhla ckmoh.a ckmo uqo.aug oYl .sï .o tlai.reKhka wdl¾IKh wd.sM.ehs tu rgj.a f.ksjerÈhs lsh.d*s ^Wahabi/ id.sjk ßla.uka lrf.a ckmoh tfukau th wd.sl úiska brdl iudch wd.s w.siafia fuu l.k wudkqIsl yd ïf.sfnkjd' ueofmrÈ.a.a iemhSfï§ .am.nkjd' b.a Bg ù .nkafka . mßKduh foúhkaf.a iïm.h /äl.uka i.a lsÍug mdie.d weußld tlai. m%foaYj.a ckmofha meyeÈ.sl wka.=< .jd§ yd f.s .dalh óg .O¾ujdoh fõ.s úiska mj.i iydh .d Rcqju by< tfiau m%cd.a uQ. wdldrfha rdcHhka iuÕ tlaj iudchla' tfuka fi!È wrdìh m%uqL tlai.sl tfukau th b.jdofhka .g úYd.dfjys we.Sre .jdofhka' tfukau we.a Nhdkl m%.k .ñl uQ.af.dj mqrd tlai.jd§ ixúOdkj..sju wd.ñl m%Odk iylre jk uQ.auka .ukaf.a cd.a' wo wka.hla' tlai.Srej.dóh rdcHhla jkq we.s nj neÆ ne.khg .snQ ðydâ jHdmdrhl wrdì cd.a lghq.fhka fi!È wrdìh" f.a.ñl fyda cd.dvkef.g brd f.a tu l.dï m%foaYj. .ska úYajdi lrk rgj.jdofhka uOHfhka tfukau f.nkafka wd.egqï hk wêrdcHjd§ W.a we.a-lhsvdjg úÈhgu cd.ñl brdl wdl%uKfha uQ.a" m.ajh oelaug wkqj f.a ckmo" u.o fohla .h mqrjkq .a iq¿ tfukau bia.ïjd§ bia.Kkdjla Pg 62 2015|Januaru-March —idudkHfhka kshuhla úÈhgu cd.

ekSug by.dkH lsÍula njg isßhdkq uKav.a.x>kh cd.ska miq .OdÍkq.=j. lKavdhï iodï yqfiaka hq.efnkjd' mdvu l=ulao@ msysgd we.shg .hq.%úfrdaë wdKavqj.g md. we.aidy idfmaCIj j.a Pkaoh ck lKavdhïj.súmdl we.drj yd md.a fï Èkj.kh b.j lghq. wju jYfhka widoa trg ck.drj wkq.ck.a ckmoh brdlh kï YsIag iïmkak isßhdkq md.g" isßhdfõ fuu lrefKa§ widoa uQ.snQ thg j.djg tfrysj wkql+.= lsÍu wka.h u..a Èkd..u Pkao moku m%pKav ls%hd" b.dó ia:djrNdjh ..skau m%ldY tu ksid ßmí.la . .aufkys fÄojdÖ" úkdYldÍ fuu m%ydrj.s wêl mqÿu úh hq.k ckmoh úiska isßhdfõ wjia:djla .sù ùu yryd isßhdfõ wdldrfha w.a kS.ajh lghq.a fudialõ yd ck.s iys.slka tfrysj isÿlrk ls%hdj..sjQ úg wms weußldkq m%ydr lKavdhïj.Skaf.ñl úiska m%cd.ka.ukh lrkjd' tfia jqj.lshkafka .a ck.kakjd' tu.a isÿlrk m%pKav ls%hd lsÍuhs' weußld tlai.kh iuÕ ms<sfj.a wka.=r( l|jqrej.r kS.djg bÈßm.hg keye' tuksid tjeks ùula fõúo@ tfukau u.Hka.= foaYmd. fgfyrdka n.=r( ms<s.ska mCIh .sl md.k .=jka m%ydr t.=o keye' Rcqju isßhdkq rdcHh foaYmd.a.a m%.ska fuu m%Yakh( weußld yd yuqod b.g fmdÿ rjg.¾ cd.aú¢ È.k wd¾Ól le<ô.sYh l<d' fuu m%ydrj.dó" miq.a Tjqka widoa ckdêm.su.ekSug fkdyelshs' wh.a isÿlsÍug wdrïN lsÍula isÿfõo@ 2015|Januaru-March Pg 63 .s rgj.a wdrCIl úfYaIfhkau <uhskag ckmoh yd ì%.kh úiska tlai.a lr yd úúO cd.g jeä u.sfnkjd' kuq.ajh Yla.sl wd.==< hqo wmrdO isÿl<d' mss<s.a.djkag isÿlrk m%pKav m%ydrhg l.Skag tlÕ. yd cd.ska wm f.djf.du.ska w.khka we..mEula lsÍugo .a nrm.ska tjeks brdlh yd wdikak m%.areï n.a woyia iys.sh W.sm.djhlska f.< fÄockl ISIS l|jqre úkdY /l.du ksy~ tlai.lal lr m%Yakh( tlai. /£ug W.sù we. Nhdklhs' brdlh m%.u foaYmd.s ISIS ms<s.slu mdvu wjirhlska f.sf.súmdl we.

k wka.súiquo tjekakla' .ska .=r( ixydrhkag jvd jrdhla bÈlsÍu yd lsÍula' ^tfukau Tn ksõfhda¾la ghsïia l%Erhs' tys n.=jka f.dlr we.sl kS.did .did yd isßhdfõ msysá ISIS l|jqrej.didys kj wjYH wjOdkfhka mqj..drj isÿlsÍu" ngysr f.r NdKav wmkhkh yer lghq.slr. lsÍu hk lreKq mÍCId l<fyd.df.djf.súiqfuka ck.dóh .sfhaúo@ .sh fkdyelso@ fmr mej.rj" wrdì §uo fkdlvjd fhdod .a isg Pg 64 2015|Januaru-March .dß cd.= yuqod md.súiqï fkdi.ska isÿjkafka l=ulao@ flreKd' fuh wuq wuqfõ kS.dgqfmd< úkdY i|ykaj we.uk iq¿ fyda m%.skao brdlfha isÿflfrkjd' f.O¾ujd§ we.= ndOdjlska oelajQ fudfydf.dóh uu —idudkH ngysr bjqr m%foaYh yd lsÍula' kQ.Í.x>kh wu. idudkH lghq.h úiska fuu olajkafkaoehs .spdrhla .ju ISISj.a bgqúh hq. —N+ñfha W.=j.s úYd.a .slr.a ìhùula f.i ye¢kaúh isÿjQ ixydrh óg i|yd bv §u cd.sfha moku ^ISIS& md.Srfha Ôú.=jkaf.ska i|yka l< 2005 fkdjeïnrfha§ flf<iSula'& widoaf.khlg tlÕ keye' fujr r: m%jdyk lghq.uk lghq.a jQjd' B<Õg .lhka Bðma.audjhs' yeisfrk wdldrh' bia.ajhg m.did w.a.kakd ia:dkhla lsÍïj.súiqfï f.ekSu l=uk m%.=< lr keye' fuu m%ydr ^WodyrK f.x>kh wdldrhl bia.O¾ujd§kag .ajh˜ lshk fhÿug .khla .h yd .r .sl fi!È wrdìh& .g iDcqju wka.h w.u w.g yuqoduh iy BY%dh.rd .s ndOd wvq lsÍu" kS.=r( we. lsÍug tlÕjQ kS. jk nj rgj.sfnkjd th fldmuK bjqr m%foaYh .hs' fujr újD.a.a m%{ma.O¾ujd§ md.dóh uQ..ld uQ.súiqï iEu okakjd" fï lrefKa§ ixúOdkj.s mßÈo nhhs' kuq.hla .a. yudia kuq.=¿ yd BY%dh.súiqïo ñkSure md.khlg .a ckmo .khla jk m%ydrj.ska ta i|yd hï iydh .Sula fyda uQ.dgqfmd< ³ .i b.a tu.kho újD.a uq. wdKavqj.ukd .g úreoaOj rgj.ukd.g m%Yakh( .ska kej.r lrk wdldrhl bia.dóh uQ.a .sfnkafka fi!È isÿlsÍfï tla.sh W.i ld.r yd wdkhk isÿlsÍu" u.am.sh˜hkqfjka ksYaÑ.k isákjd' isÿlrk tlai.a .a m%ydr tllu f.audj 2005 f.did .s mßÈu tu fÄojdplh .kh keye' ISIS we.ska Tjqka okakjd' fuu ISIS we.snqKd' tlai.r wLKavj n.Srh w.r nia yd f.m%ydr k.x>kh ms<s.= lrñka Okj..O¾ujdoh ßoauhla .u m%Odk m%.a wdOdrlrejka yd ñksiqka rgj.O¾ujd§ md.a BY%dh.súiqu .sh wm uq. ksjerÈj w.sfnkjd' 2005 <Õ§u w.Skaf.a ckmo fuu iydh §u jeälsÍug m%n.g yjq.¾lh wfydais jkafka m.sfnkjd' fuh tla miq kej. uqÿka miq fuu BY%dh..=<hs' tu ksid fkdjeïn¾ .súiqï W.a .mEu .ukhg .Sk wêldßh we.ia.i fhdod.spdrhla m%Yakh( fuys§ ³ rd*d ^Rafah&" ³ BY%dh.=¿ Bðma.a" .slr.did 2005ka miq BY%dh.j.aika l< weußldkq m%ydrj.Srh .h yudia NdKav wmkhkh yudia ixúOdkh m%ydrj.a fndaïn jHjia:dfõ i|yka —we..a jd¾.r fuu wrdì md.ukd.dalfha wka rgj.sjdÈhd fi!Èh yd . .a.s ish¨ iyuq.a*a wkqj" iEu wjia:djl§u jQ ISIS ÿ¾j.¾ uQ.=j yd ..auereKq˜ tlla' úfrdaë md.¾cd.a.skau W.aj.ndfoñka we.j.h w.= ieliQ tlai.=j .a ms<s.súiqfuka jqj.r tlsfklg fjkia ielhla ke.sju bia.a fol yudia ixúOdkh fuu fuu ngysr rgj.g yryd lrk wdOdr w.a .aù f.

a tajdfha BY%dh.iSudjka nj m%ldY l<d' tfia j<lajkjd hkakhs' wjirhla we. yuqoduh" wd¾Óluh" ie.a mßudKfhka tli.sfíkï tajd w.h m.sh ms<sn| idlÉPd .%fhka .am.ekSug.h .Skqjka wdl%uKslhd f.eiau hkq m.a lrkjd Tjqkg iSud l< l=vd . Wmldrfhka' m%Odku iylrefjla m.=jghs' wm idu bjqre m%foaYfha iEu fohlau BY%dh.ukau th Wml%ñlj l%shdj.u wdl%uKh tlai.Sk m%Yakh idu l%shdj.ia.r hkak Èk kshuhla lr .sh kj.dmfha isÿjk udOHhg m%ldY l<d' tl.ajk wêldßfha lghq.djld.jd 2005 § w.ïudkj. BY%dh.a ckmoh iy 2005 .lska u.ia.súiqfuka iSud yd fcrei.jd§uh iydh .a ckmo ish.alrejd wm m.dka.§˜ ^fuh rdcH.s Iefrdkaf.eiafï ks¾ud.fï wdrïN lrkjd' úiska BY%dh.a mQ¾K 2015|Januaru-March Pg 65 .r lrkjd hkakhs' mßÉfþoj.hka ms<sn| i|yd tlai.o .a hkakhs' tfukau yd m%ydr újD.a.a fuu . n.aika lrk hkq m.sj bj.ia.Skfha ls%hdj.h úiska ngysr fuu l.r lrkjd ckdêm.%y —2005 .aysgjkjd hkakhs' fuh wm .g m.D yd k.sh k.hlska yd —ikaiqka˜ ld.kakjd' fï lf<a BY%dfh.sjhs' fï fhdod.ajkjd isák m.= kS.Sk isÿlrkafka iïmQ¾K yeÍug..a lr§uo isÿ lrkjd' bj.nd jQ ^Dov Weissglass& hkqfjka y÷kajkafka" muKla ikaiqka ùuls'& fokjd muKla fkdj fvdõ úia.súiqfuka bj.d wkqj ú.sf.j yd m%n.a Tyq fufia lSjd" .aùfï ie.a.a ckmofha w.sh w.BY%dh.s%l yd m%Odk ueÈy.ukag jákd hhs hula wjY.i isák lsÍuhs' fuu idu fkdue.súiqfuka hkq wfma kHdhm.sl —ikaiqka ld.ia.dia úiska fuu ish¨ foaj. isÿlrkafka" fjkqfjka' tu jqjukdj idlÉPd k.a.Skfha foaY mq¿.ia.ue.aùu ms<sn| whs.hg bj.ia.Hdkql+.Sk m%Yakh iEuúgu tl me.a jqjukdj irKd.

.a NBC kï m%Odk m.dkh yd uOHu n.kh Wiq.sj f.dmamh ì| tlai.hla ù fuh 1990§ tlai.=fõ fifkÜ fkafgdaj iuÕ hqfrdamfha iuyr jir 100 tlai. ol=Kq Ök uqyqo yd md.sfnkjd' reishdfõ fuu j. j.a fuys tla fldgila' we.a uKav.=.a jHdma.sfha m%Odk ffki¾.j.dfmdfrd.aùï njhs' we.sl whs.eî we.ekSug yelsùu ñksia ckmoh .spdrh tlai.a ckmofha k.mEfuka ksoyiaj úYajdi lrkafka meyeÈ.a" Ökh m%.la f.sj i|ykaj l%udkql+.dvke.khkago wjidk md¾.sß .hdg fï jkf.sjqKd' tlla .sm.ju.Sh n¾.ajh msßkeóu meyeÈ.a fya.sfnkjd' Tnf.auka ixúOdkh bkaÈhdj" W.sfïka.snqKd'& tukau .h hqlafl%akh nj i|yka lf<a" —brdlh" n.auka ckmohgo weh hg.smshl ñksia f.a ckmoh Affairs iÕrdfõ we.a fldx.ams.sfío@ n.snqKd' ta wkqj Tn M.af.a.fmkjd' mlsia.hkag b.shla" foñka isák nj uQ.a ckmo nrm.sîu.a ckmofha miq we.snQ n.%ia ikaOdk.=< .sl úg wm f.l§ weußldj wêrdcHjd§ .=.ls.sh ie.a uKav.a ckmofha iïnkaO ù f.kjd' foaYh ì|jeàfuka iÕrdjla jk Foreign fjkia lrkak.fika lvd Odrdfõ kd.a ckmo m%Yakh( hqlafl%akh khsÔßhdj" hqlafl%akh" iamd[a[ yd mD.§ .a .=r( yud hk kj j¾.sîu' ^ñka jir 400la ..a hqlafl%ak w¾nqofha uQ.a kHIaál idudðl.a wkque.ehs i|ykalr jk B<Õ bÿKq fn%fikaials uE.a ùug .< fjkialï m<jQ .a. yelshs' kuq.a" 1945ka tlai.u ms<sn|j úoHd¾Ófhl= f.ska ù we. udre. .hla njg Ökh hqoaOhla j<lajd m%Yakh( hqlafl%akh ms<sn| tlai.da.fha.= jevigykl§ Isìlaksõ 500lska miq .du meyeÈ.mEu 1945§ fndaïn m%ydrh n.= l<d' fkafgda úiska rÑ.a ckmo jdÑl fmdfrdkaÿj m%Yakh( MS wuq wuqfõ leãula' m%Yakh( cmdkfha iaÓr jYfhkau tlai.md miq tlai..shs' isßhdj" .a uE.sl ù f.sfnkjd' ˜ reishdjg ffki¾.ju.a ms<s.d' tfukau uk#l.a ms<sn|j reishdjg .da.wjirh .d m%Yakh ..mEu jeälsÍug jk fcdaka fufIhsu¾ tys Wmßuhg meñKs t.a.a i|yka l< . uE.r tod isg fuh 69la jqj.a ckmoh f.jÿrg..Sh n.a ÿIag ls%hdjka isÿlsÍug fuu m%.sfío@ m%n.d meyeÈ.dfmdfrd.sjQ YS.hdf.a wruqKq .a m%ldYh j.dvke.rj.ao j.ndÿka ueÈy.j wvqùug wú yrKh .a ia:dkh oeófuka yd fidaúhÜ m%Odk Odrdfõ .su.idls n.sl in|.aikak lr wfkl=.jd§ ixúOdk Pg 66 2015|Januaru-March .j.d.ajh ÿ¾j. .smsfha w.dalfha m%Odku hdka.g mrudKq jQ m%foaYh .a.eî .ñka kHIaál n.ù oekg jir lghq.af.d¾nfpd*ag .ska ..Sh fycfudksl .=r( yels .hl wms%ldj& lKavdhfï b.=Kq b.sldfõ lreK jkafka" jir j¾.ajh Èyd neÆ ù .l ckmoh úiska ñydhs.a n.df.hlaj bkaÈhdj" Ökh" ol=Kq ms<s.mEfuka ksoyia wka. wjqreÿj.shla .aùu' wfkla .sj w¾nqohlg uqyqK keÕ tau.dmfha ms<s.sjd fukau tlai.ajhla' weußld lrkakg.%ia.ekSug n. lsÍu Tyqf.fõ.d tlai.lal fudkjdo@ úfYaIfhkau fkafgdaj fmakjd'˜ hkakhs' Iexyhs iyfhda.¾ cd.auka mgka .fha.s.e.a jdikdjla .h" reishdj" whs.= úh .=j tlai.ùu ms<sn|j m%foaYj.a.a flfiao@ läkñkau fidaúhÜ wdikaku l..auka w¾nqohka wdishdkq rgj. hqo n..dj mqrdu BRICS ^n%iS.ajh yd .S bv yeÍu yer Tjqkg b..uhs j¾.ajh .sìhdj" .da.=r( ysfrdaIsud yd kd.

mss<shï ckmo wd¾Ólh miq.jd§ka' ta w.ska kej.sju úYajdi tfukau oekg mj..sYh taldêldÍ jQ m%Yakhla muKla njo@ we.jd§ka˜ w.a .aùula .aù ÿmam.a weußld tlai.du ckmo Okjdofha .sh úis jir j¾.%ia.sk hk jpkh fndfyda Okjdoh˜ isg — oeka l< yels fohkï uyd Okjd§ l%uh úiska .˜ hehs iïu.=<§ weußld tlai.a .. m.g m.a ksidu jeo.a meje.=r( ksid wdodhu yd Okjdoh ˜ yd u.a .= rdYshla .k tkï rch wd¾Ólhg iud.d meyeÈ.a' njhs' tu.ùu.ekSu.a fol .jd§ ixúOdk w.g m.ekSu jeo.%ia.am y÷kajd §" fj<|fmd< oekgu. rgj.ek uf..%ia.jd§ fõ.g fuu kHIaál wú kej.aùug yels ck.rï iajrEmh .u hñka . w.lfha w.s njhs' fï fya.ajhg uqyqK fÄojdplhla foig fhdod..j.fhka by< hdu.eksSug f..ekSu jk — wd¾Ólfha taldêldÍ b.a ckmoh b.shs —oeka mj.laùu.u u.s úYd.aùu ld.jd§ka˜ úkdYhkao" wêl yels jpkhla' th hfula .d ixj¾ê. mdßißl lsÍug fhdod.ßka ke.u fokjd' ñksia j¾..Sh ms<sn| meyeÈ.aùug yels njhs'˜ w.yk j¾Okhkao fndfyda úg tlai.a nrm.ajhka jeo.a.=< ñksia w¨.dNdxY úYd.g m.g wdKavqj ms<s.da.s lsÍug .ldÍ ms<s.%ia.=j leu.s ÿr fuys§ wú —is.ajhka ksfhdackh mj.d isÿfjñka .ï 200 .r .dia we.hlska ieneúkau fuu mj.a m%ldY lrkak' fuys§ lsÍu.h ms<sn| Okjdohg˜ t<ö m<uqfjkau ud w.sk Okjdoh˜ olajd mßudK ck ixydrl w.%ia.au ks¾udKd.hdf. jYfhka 2015|Januaru-March Pg 67 .=r( úYd.au l< fkdyels f.sfnkjd' ta rdcH .%ia.ska úfYaI rCIKhka kHIaál wdhqO foam< úIu.nd.d frdlÜ —Okjdoh˜ hk ixl.sfnkjd' iqúYd. ueÈy.r .sk nexl=j.sju oelsh Okjd§ rduqj .hd weof.sju úYajdi l< yels fohkï uyd mßudK ck ixydrl wú —is.a by< m%Yakh( 1970ka miq ks.ßka m%uqLhd tlai.Su iSud ixúOdk w. —fld.a . r|dmej.—kHIaál wdhqO oekgu.sk lrkakla' tfukau tys jeälr .a ckmohhs' b.sh yelso@ ì|jeàug neß .kakd tlla' ckmofha úYd.aù .a ckmo yels lreKlakï YsIagdpdrhg j| fkdù fidhd.a mej..aul iuÕu tlai.au ckmohhs' b.ska ñksia iu.sfnkjd' ta" rdcH ú/lshdj wyi Wig tlai.< .CIKhla' m%uqLhd tlai.a.a fya.a meyeÈ.g m.a.Su.jd§ka' ta w.alu jHdma.a Ôjk .sfnkjd' WodyrKhhs' Okjdoh ye¢kajQ —ksoyia fj<| meyeÈ.a lvd jeàug .a woyi u.

=< Tn úiska .r ñ.dia .k hd tajd jdKsc fj<|fmd< yd . tl.skau wkqNj lrñka isáhs' tfukau NdKav ñ.r ta fjkjd' uE.udj ìys mdßfNda.u tlai.ï — ksoyia fj<|fmd< fï ish.§ .hla fyda ufkda wkqj jirlg ì.a l%uhla wdfoaY lsÍug n.a ckmofha úYd.jÿrg. lrk njlao fmkS tlai.¾ ì.eg .a . jYfhkau hgm.ru mdfya isÿlrk f..E.k we. yelafla l.i ÿ¾j.§ .¾cd.akd fCIa.snQ mß.d ne.snqKd' —úYd.skao . m%cd.g wdKavqj u.ilska .s w.efikafka keye' tf. yelsfõo@ tjeks mej.a .ek ..dCIKsl úma.jk ld.ekSug.a .k .ams.ka.=jla u.o ta wkqj oeka mj.shs' ke.Kkdjlau wdKavq i.areula fldgila i|yka lrkak leu.=j ks¾udKh lrkq .=re .ï w.a th fjkia lsÍfï fyda ta fjkqjg ckmo nexl= lsisÿ f.ska wju kQ.rÕh" f.a ks¾udKhla jk w.sk f.ek we.=j yelafla l..shk 80la muK úldrhla muKla jk w.a yd jHdmdr lghq.=< m%cd.a is.H fCIa.ka..dlr ñksidf.%jdoh .a iajdñhdZ hk lD.jÿrg.ek .ajdf.=hs' uQ.a.jfha Okjdoh lsisÿ idOdrK fya.s w.a is.%jdofha fjkila oel.smshl ks.a..sl Okjdoh YsIag.akd Okjdoh YsIag.ka.=lr zudkj ñi wfklla fkdfõ'˜ j¾.sfnkjd' fuh meyeÈ.%jdoh .ksñka isákjd' f.shqKq f.a ñksidguh' Wmhdf.enQfha kQ.rÕh hgm. ms<sn| udOHj.a wx.iska mj.ka.aul lsÍu nexl=j.r th m%cd. u.sh 2015|Januaru-March .shk .ju ksjerÈj l< ul=¿jdf.r th m%cd.s jkafka l%uh˜ ks.slr.a.a .slr.kfhka f.dN yels njg úYajdihla fkdue.ajh iuÕo lsisÿ iïnkaOhla mj.Hka.dr. m%cd.ajdf.a by.aul lsÍu .%h oejeka.Kkl uqo.sk Okjdoh lsisÿ idOdrK fya. weia.kakd th ksjerÈj lsjfyd.sfnkjd' lrk ish¨ wd¾Ól jHikhka oYl .djdg fuh iudkh'˜ fuu iud.=< m%cd.a uqo.Klh" wka.r .SlrKh yd —md.=hs' Pg 68 fï lreK ms<sn| . yelsfõo@ tjeks mej.ska lrk .s NdKav úúOdx.dN fjk.sh hq.%jdofha fjkila .shk ck.d ne.i .r ta .. m%Yakfhka wjOdrKh lroud .af.k hd yels njg úYajdihla fkdue.l§ cd.fïka. hkjd' Okjdoh ls%hd.dr uQ.h fkd.ams.sk Okjdoh wOHhkhl th fufia jd¾.%jdoh iuÕ .= fkdyels fohla .ka.sh hq.ska meyeÈ. ^tkï m¾fhaIK" u.i ÿ¾j.hla fyda ufkda úldrhla muKla jk w. lrk njlao fmkS hkjd' Okjdoh ls%hd.ekSï iy fjk.sh fkdyels fohla .h .eg iykdOdr" ñ.%& fï jk úg mqoa.slhd ksYaÑ.a lghq.aLl udÜka fjd.H wruqo.%jdoh iuÕ .ru Tjqka iïnkaOhla mj.h yd Okjdoh njhs' h:d¾:fha mj.efikafka keye' tf.=jla wfkl=.a idCIshla fj<|fmd< .ska .a ckmo nÿ f.ka.sZ f.a idrh Wrd fndk y÷kdf.=<.j.ndfok rCIK wdjrKh wd¾Ól oel.sju h:d¾:fha mj. fj<| oekaùï u.a Tnf.sh úoHd{hkaf.s fvd.djf..k fj<|fmd< wd¾Ólh tys lr .f.iska mj.r .s bmhSu i|yd ßis fia fhdojd w.shqKq .a iïmQ¾Kfhkau m%Yakh( 1963 isg 2013 olajd mdfya tlai.a*af.a z.hdf.a lsÍula' jYfhka London Financial Timesys tfukau iud.o ish.ek we.= lrkjd' we. u.ajh iuÕo lsisÿ wxYhg mjrd § we.nhs' Tjqka úiska oekg we.k NdKav ksmoùu u. .

.shla .i y÷kd ..miq ..g Ndckh jQ w.= lr.s fjkiajQ w.= lreK krlu foa isÿùug we.ska úh yelafla .dalh ksrka.=< we..=r( uf.dfmdfrd.r ud jgyd .k n.Sfï ls%hdj.siafia tl.=r( wms ta .hdf.a" hym.a tys hym.a wm okakd foh kï f.ek ksYaÑ.ajfha fÄojdphl iu.sh iema.nd.af.hla .d ne.a u..d isÿùï f.kakd .a wkd..a ms<s.dr.a isÿfjñkao mj.dalhla ks¾udKh lr.o m%.o f.af.ajh yd t<solajd .ju okafka .= isÿjQ fjkialï Tn wjfndaO .fhl=f.dalfha mj.aul foa tl.a..=r jQfha" —uu wfmaCIdNx.SrKd.a.sk .a fyda yqol.dfmdfrd.a u.d' hg.r fjkiaùïj.ek ks¾jpkh njhs'˜ ñksiqka w.a.ao iy tfia wjfndaO fldmuK W.eïnrfha§ thg Tnf.a jQ m%Odk isÿùï fudkjdo fkdfõo@ hkakhs' ms<s. hq.o zwdo¾Yu.snqKd' fï ld.a wm Ôj.=< f.ekSug Ôjh imhkq we.a jk OfkaYajr f.ekSï lsysmhlao fkdue.l .sM..dalhg .ska f.afkdyeßhfyd.a woyfia yeáhg wjidk jYfhka mejish hq. is.dalh fndfyda fihska tfy.r lrk .a foaYmd.a m%Yakh jkafka ud ksrka.dalhla ks¾udKh lr lr.ld ne.af.a uQ.= lrñkao mj.=jla fkdue.h ms<sn| ud .=re iy tajd .Sula' flfia fj.a fohg wkqj w.aùu u.aidy l<.la ksis wdldrhg wjfndaO lr fkd.s njhs' keye' tfy.r uf.r i|yka yelshdjg Woõ lsÍula jk jkafka tfia f.sh iy ys.sk jHikhkaf.i n.hla' th ud fuf.ks mqoa.S.ekSug f..dalfha ksrka.h Tnf.amkh fjkia lsÍug mj.s l<d' 2015|Januaru-March Pg 69 .k kHIaáfha mj.=jlaldÍ f.a th jvd lr. fkdyels w. OQrdj.=<ska .skjd' tajd .sk isÿùï u.sk n.s' mßl..h wjfndaO lr. îch foaYmd.enQ kej.a f.fha isÿjQ iy oekgu.a f.ek kej..ek wLKavj isÿlrkq .r ld..a ñksidZ njhs' wm n.dard ms<s.a kï Tnf.l§ wm idlÉPd l< mßÈ ñksia j¾.slu . i.s wY=Njdoh uu meyeÈ.h mdúÉÑ lsÍuhs' m%Yakh( uE.a foa .

dia fuu ckjdßhg jir 372la imsf¾' Tyq ñh .e.a.dêldßfha isrl=áh f.sl O¾udêlrKh ÿka kvq .S.a kvq .shqKq.sfhda .S.u .e.sfhdag tfrysj lf.Skaÿjl isrlrejl= f.e.S.da.u yd WÉp.sl O¾udêlrKh mekjQ kvq .a" i.Skaÿj wr.e .Skaÿj yd tu kvq lghq.ska tlls' kùk úoHdjg Wm. ñksidg lshd ÿka .Hh w.a lsÍu fjkqfjka fufia m< lruq' Pg 70 2015|Januaru-March .Skaÿj ..S.da.dj úoHdj yd wd..sfhdag tfrysj lf.ñl úYajdihka w.sl O¾udêlrKh .nd ÿka mshd fjñka" úoHdfõ m%.da.egqïj.a i..ajfha yd uq.s ñh f.i ksjdi wviaisfha § h' . .hg wú .kk Left mdGlhkag wú uqjy.e.u f.Hh yd wi.S.dard .ukh fjkqfjka taldêm.sfha 1642 ckjdß 08jeksod lf..aO n.Hh fjkqfjka igka lrkafka flfia ± hs wkd.a isÿ flreKq .nd ÿka kvq .r.s.r.sfhdaf.

aLk uqøKh lsÍu.a.u f.kh lsÍfï.H wruqKq yd i.sms f.sl mÍCIK iNdfõ Y=oaO jQ mdmajykafia yd w.sfhdag tfrysj oKavk wd×j cqks 22" 1633 —*af.a woyia wkq.a lrk neúks' ² mDÓúh úYajfha flakaøh fkdjk nj iy p.ayeÍug.o .s u.a" tuÕska o fldm¾ksliaf.d meje.sÅ.a" tu .Í.ud jgd lrlefjk njg.r" ks.ud 1615§ fuu Y=oaO jQ wdh.a. w¾:h .h ls%hd.ho by.hla mjrd fok .a" th iDcqj u Y=oaO jQ nhsn.ykï ksfhda. jYfhka u ñ.S.a" hï whl= úiska W.SrKh lrk .HdoDIaál fõ' ukao h.m˜ hk f.uqka úiska .ao iyNd.a.sl iNdfõ § Tn fj.=ï w.aul lsÍu w.aLkj.sîu.j Wkajykafia úiska .H úYajdihka f.a u. l< w.= foag úreoaOj jßkajr m%.smshl uqjdfjka ..{hka iuÕ in|. úkafikafida .sîu.s úkdYldÍ u.hk ùu ms<sn| iel iys.=re m%id§ka jykafiaf.a j¾Okh lsÍu.kh fkdjk njg m< lr we.o ielh ms<sn|j.jdoh w.du .a" wju jYfhka ta .kh fkdjk th p.h /lSug tlÕ ù th lv lrkafka kï" Tn isr.a.j ls%hdfõ fhoùug ta fudfydf.a n.a fn.aùu.dvkxjk .a" c¾uksfha isák fuu u.r jQ fuu lf.a ksid fuu Y=oaO jQ O¾udêlrKhg" Y=oaO jQ úYajdihka ms<sn|j È.a fldg ±óu.a wod< úOdkhka W.hg úreoaO u.o" od¾Yksl jYfhka fyda foajO¾uhg wkqj ie.=udf.a" mDÓúh p.HdoDIaál úYajdihka i.r lsÍug.%rdc.e.hu ork .e.uqka úiska by. .a .gu f.s f.o ksfhda.=uka bÈßfha lf.a úOdkh mßÈ ysre p.s.a" tu u.sFjh iys.uqka úiska fmdfrdkaÿ ùu yd by.= h' —tfia jqjo" fuu ksfhda.j.aLkj.da.e.uqkag tfrys .i ms<s.i ksfhda..d uDÿ wjjdo lsÍulska miq yd fkd.udf.a" bÈßfha § o th ±Íug fyda wdrCId lsÍug fyda b.h yd iudkju úldriy.=ud úiska Tng fuu idjoH u.ekaùu k.kh fkdjk iy úYajfha flakaøh nj.j fyda ls%hd fkdlrk njg .jdoh lsisÿ whqrlska wdrCId fkdlsÍug. yd od¾Yksl jYfhka idjoH jk w.r" Tn úiska tu ksfhda.a m< lr we. ñ.a" tu ñ.d¾áka msh.HdoDIaál úYajdih jQ ysre p.ajhka md.h .sms f.ayer ±ñKs' —fuu w.ayeÍug.% ldÈk.=ï w.s u.jdoh iïmQ¾Kfhka u w.S..ska u uq.sfhda jk .audj hgf. fok .fha i.shd we.ek idlÉPd fyda fkdlsÍug.HdoDIaál woyiu .u YsIHhkg b.ekSu.a" fï ish¨ foau Y=oaO jQ nhsn.a" th wka whg b.s ia:dkfhka tmsgg p.= lsÍug tlÕ ùu ksid .S. l< hq.ykï ksfhda.a" Y=oaO jQ f.a § .=udf.a.uqka fj.dfõ§ Wkajykafiaf.s W..a fn..a ld¾hd.sîu yd mDÓúh p.Ks.s W.a ud.=j ñ.a mq.aul lsÍfï§ B <Õ Èkfha § w.Skaÿj ls%hd.d jQo" ie.hla mejÍfï n.h fufia olajuq' ² ysre úYajfha flakaøh nj yd th msysgd we.enQ ñ.x>kh lsÍfï yd je/È l.E úhe.kajkq .a" tu u.l=j o wd.dßkaàkays úiQ wNdjm%dma.hla bÈßm.h meyer yeß úfgl Y=oaO jQ mdma.sf. wvx.dáka msh.% ldÈk. ñ.ukh lr .ayßk f.ykï ksfhda.fha flduidßiajrhdg Tng tfrysj . idjoH u.hl=g hjk .aLk uÕska o by.a.kh fkdù ia:djrj .§' tneúka" tu wjia:dfõ § w.aLkh uÕska o by.a wjfndaOhg wkqj hñka hgm.h mejßKs' Tn fuu .HdoDIaàka ms<sn| mÍCId lrk úYaùh W.khka fy<d ±l . fhdackd ms<sn| foajO¾udpdÍ úfYaI{hkaf.h Tng wkqlïmdiy.ekaùu.a wruqKska hq.a" Y=oaO jQ f.s .skqmqgd 2015|Januaru-March Pg 71 . u.da.yjqre fldg .ñl úYajdihkag wkqj fyda jerÈo fõ' —tfia jqj o" 1616 fmnrjdß ui 25 jeksod Y=oaO jQ mdma.ska È.a fldg we.§' tu .Skaÿjg lSlrej lghq.a" th úYajfha flakaøh fkdjk nj ms<s.sW.da. lrk .jdoh iyuq.s .a" th Èkm.h úldriy.a" fuu Widúhg bÈßm.a" —iQ¾hh .dßiajrhl= yd idCIslrejka bÈßfha .ekSu.h iïmQ¾Kfhka u w.ekaùug fyda jdÑlj fyda .als%hdj ms<sn| .o b.kh jk nj.kh jk njg..H wêIaGdkhg tfrys ùu.sîu.h uÕska tu idjoH u.HdoDIaáhu .r ne£u.

els.jdoh ±Íug" wdrCId lsÍug fyda b.jdohka idjoH yd Y=oaO jQ yd ÈjHuh nhsn.ud ms<s.ùu k.sl iNdjg ±k.nd .audfjka hq.a l¾.%ka: kdudj.uqka úiska fmr § fuu u.r" wm bÈßfha Èjqreï .a tu.k . lD.h iDcqj u fkdork njg yeÕSula mdGlhd .' by.sfha fhdodf.a mßÈu fuu lD.s jk wdldrhg .a ia:djr msysàu ms<sn| u.udg fuu u.jdoh wdrCId lr we.sfhda .shd .a ms<sf.uqka úiska ksoyig lreKq .hla ksl=.=< n.shka .shkq fjkqjg tu .o .m.aidy l<.a lD.a" uqøKh l< nj.uqka l< m%ldYh uÕska . idjoH u.m.D.sh b.a" tu lD. fohla fkdjkafkah' —fï fya.d uyck.fha b.dj w.jdoh m%.h Èkm.a.sh uÕska .hla bÈßm.shQ nj.ekSug wjir b.sfí' .eìK' by.efí' —tfia jqj o" uE.hla we.a ksfhda.uqka úiska fuys § isÿ 2015|Januaru-March lrk .sh .sj u W.uqkag wo Èkfha wm Y=oaO jQ wêlrKfha fmkS isàug ksfhda.. mkjk .s nj.a" fuu lD.a lr we.=<g ßx.a u m%×jka.< ielhka we.ykï ksfhda.darkaiays§ uqøKh l< .g .uqkaf.dvkÕd we.ekaùïj.e.¾l lshjkakd .hg iDcqj u úreoaO u.a lr thg ziuyr úgZ fyda zl=ula jqjoZ fyda hk fhÿï fh§u lsisfia.§' ta wkqj by.la jQ miq.h ms<sn|j i|yka fkdl< nj o" fuu n.s nj ±kqï fkdÿka njo .=<§ .a yd th Wmdhhkaf.l § idlÉPdjg .a lrkq .udg mekúfuka miqj njo" .kshs' —.ud fuu idjoH u.sfCIam lrk wdldrfhka .¾l f.Sfï § .yjqre fjñka .sfnk nj.s jpk jk ziuyr úgZ" zl=ula jqjoZ" ztfia jqjoZ jeks fhÿï nrm.ka ck.=< we.sh uÕska úúO Wmdh yd Wml%u fhdodf.la l< w.ekaùug .s jqj.da.S.g iïmQ¾Kfhka u mgyeKs njg.uqka úiska ish mdfmdÉpdrKfha § ms<s.hka jk mDÓúfha p.%h .ska ±kqï fok .sh .e.+ka ksid .uqka fuu lD.< jrola fõ' Y=oaO jQ nhsn.r" tuÕska Tn fj.d mÍCIdfjka ie.s njla fmkS hhs' . wdldrfha .r fkdl<fyd.yjqre lrk tu .a . lD.sfha wjia:d .sh jif¾ § *af.a ixjdoZ kï f. i|yka idjoH oDIaáh .nd ÿka flkdg .sh ms<sn| Y=oaO jQ lf.uqka úiska Pg 72 by.¾l mdGlhd myiqfjka m%.sl iNdj uÕska fuu u. l< w.Kkdjl§u mdGlhd uq<d lrjkiq¿ wdldrfha .ajfhka jQ zúYajfha ieleiau ms<sn| m%Odk wdldrhka folla ms<sn| .da.x>kh lr we.a" lf.sl i.s lsÍug W.djf.sh uqøKh i|yd n.hla mkjd we.sf.uqka fuu lD.jdoh wvx.hla .ud tu ksfhda.uqka úiska fuu lD.nd .= .o mdfmdÉpdrKh .kakg .k we.sùu wdrïN lf<a jir 10 lg 12 lg fmr nj o" tkï" by.Hh ms<sn| nrm.S.a.sh úiska idjoH u.sfCIam lr th m%ldYhg m.kh ùu yd ysref.ykï ksfhda.s ùu je<elaúh fkdyels neúka" Y=oaO jQ lf.ykï lsÍu.k we.a is.a" fuu u.a" .h meyeÈ.da.±óu fkdl<fyd.a.r .%h .uqka úiska fuu lD.' .ykï lrñka ksfhda.

a kdudj.o by.shQ iy.uqkag mkjk .a" tajd fhdodf.kh jk nj yd ysre ia:djrj tl .a m%Odk fpdaokd jQ tkï" .jdoh Y=oaO jQ .sh .uqkag o~qjï muqKqjk .snQ i|yko .j i.o mßÈ .fha by.a l< yd Y=oaO jQ lf.=udf.eiS we.slfha . mqoa.slhl= f.r" .=<ska fmkakqï flfrkqfha hula jika lsÍug idudkHfhka ñksiqka fhdod .ykï ksfhda.fha i|yka lreKq .la l< hq.§' tfuka u .g .yjqre lrñka .i kï fkdl< njg.a ksoyi i|yd lreKq ilia lr . i|yka u.s nj.slfha mjd by.aLkfha .ukj.h ms<sn|j .kakd f.hg tlfy<d u úreoaO nj.slh bÈßm.h ±Íug fyda wdrCId lsÍug fkdyels nj.sk nj m%ldY lrk u.af.a lmá" m%fhda.rï ld.o mdfmdÉpdrKh.16 l muK ld.uqkaf.jdoh .uqkag okajk .i wms olsuq' tfuka u .j .=udf.% ldÈk.d fyd| lf.SrKh jkafka Tyqf.ek mj.d¾áka msh.¾l .k we.hla .uqkag wruqKla fkd.a wl=ßka .' tu iy.a wruqK ms<sn|j iïmQ¾K i.s W.Sfukao" .' tajd kï" fuu je/È u.af.a lD. fha m%Odk wruqKq ms<sn|j mßK.o ixjdohka .ih' .a okajk .enQ njg.ykï ksfhda.§' tfia jqj o" iajdNdúl kshduhla jkafka iEu ñksil=u is.a je/Èj..uqkaf.i ms<s.a" .ksñka& .a" tu ksid tu u.udf.a hq.sh uqøKhg wjirh .drj.slfhao i|ykaj .uqka úiska iaÓrj m%ldY lrk .g jvd b.ld ne..k we.da.a.uqkag fuu kvq lghq.uqka úiska lsisjla fkdlSu .uqkaf.hl= f.s nj.ska f.l ùu ksid njh' .ykï ksfhda.uqkaf.sh uqøKh i|yd wjir b.o w. jk nhsn.slfhka mjd isÿ ù we.¾l fm< . jQ jir 14 .=re iemhqj o" .a i|yka lr .=rla f.slfha ksYaÑ.yjqre lsÍu Wfoid h' —.iSudj .ud fkd±kSu tu ÈYdjg .g iudj .uqka m%.a § .a.snQ Y=oaO jQ nhsn.s nj.= hehs .a .uqkaf.=ï w.fha fuu lreKq iïmQ¾Kfhka u wu.a wdrCIdjg bÈßm.o nj. mqoa.ekSfukao" ish¨ fohu idOdrKj fmfkk f.ls.ajfhka f.o iy.uqka úiskau w.hg m%.a i|yka jqj o" Y=oaO jQ mdma.±laùfï § fuu jerÈ u.uqkag fkdfmkS hduhs' —fuys.uqka úiska fï ms<sn|j wm fj.aLkfhau mDÓúh p.Hh m%ldY lr ke.a.a" .ekSfukao wms 2015|Januaru-March Pg 73 .a tu ls%hdj ÿIag tlla fkdfõ kï" mqridrï foãula f.a lr we.súfrdaë nj.h zlsisÿ whqrlskaZ fyda zb.af.udg fuu .o f.fha i|yka foag mgyeKs foa uqøKh fkdl< hq.uqka úiska bÈßm. i|yka lrñka" wmg úYajdi lrùug W.a lrk .Sfï§ tu .=<§ .sheú.= njhs' tu ksid .uqka úiska .uqkag b.a" .uqkag wu.sj fmfkk lreKla jkafka .ek .ldÍ l%u Tn fhdodf.Hh fia fmfkk .a W¨mamd .a iy.a" .=lï meyer yßk iajNdjh .kakd Wml%uj.nd ÿka iy.d wm yg meyeÈ.d oCI" m%fhda.uqkaf.ekSug iqÿiq .Hh jqj o" i..a .=Z njg jQ úOdkhka ms<sn|j h' .d¾áka msh.a lr we.a.a" ta .sùug .els.a" fn.g ms<s.nd ÿka w.a lrk .% ldÈk.uqka Y=oaO jQ O¾udêlrKh úiska óg fmr m%.sfCIams.jdoh Y=oaO jQ nhsn.uqkaf.=ud úiska m%ldYhg m.slhla wm fj.a m%×jg yd úpCIKNdjgh idfmaCIj hkakhs' ta wkqj Tn úiska fuu lD.uqka úiska fuu kj lD.a ls%hdud¾.a.uqkaf.a" tfuka u tu f.uqkaf.ud  iudj b.ykï ksfhda.a ie.g . bÈßm.uqkag 1616 § mkjk .uqka úiska lrk . lreKq fol ms<sn|j i|yka fkdflf<a .a.a" .' .a.els.uqka fkdokakd whqßkau .d ±ä mÍCIKhlg ^mQ¾j ks.a" .o Widú ksfhda.a w.sfí' .uqkag o~qjï fkdl< njg.i ie.a idjoH woyia" úYsIag.fha i|yka lreKq folla ms<sn| lsisÿ i|ykla ke.uqkag wefik fia lshjk .ldÍ nj fyd¢ka u Tmamq jkafka .l jQ nj ms<s.a l< nj.dr yd wi.uqka b.uqkaf.j.uqkaf.o .k nj.i fuu iy.sfCIams.a mdfmdÉpdrKh iy .a lrk .ykug . i|yka l< lreKq ie.k wdldrh .nd §ug lreKla fkdjkjd muKla fkdj .sl iNdj úiska uqøKh lr fnodyßk .da.la l< fmd.a úreoaOjd§kaf.snQ nj.hl= njg m.a lrk fpdaokdj.shk .a fn.sfha .a.uqka úiska ksoyig bÈßm.aidy lf<a" .yjqre lsÍula muKs' tu iy.ekaùu fkdl< hq.g .

o lreKq .a ielhla" tkï" ksYaÑ.i .sìh §h' tfyhska" .dmS ùu ms<sn| kshuhka bÈß ld. foñka m%ldY lrkq .sfhda .af.a..a fYa%IaG.aika fkdl<y' ldÈk.a yd Tyqf.a úksiqrejreka .d idCIs le|jd by.sfokl= fuhg w.ekaùïj.a.s úYsIag ld¾f. fuu Y=oaO jQ lf.g yd o~qjïj.ksuq' —fuu .HdoDIaál woyia yd wfkla ish¨ u je/È iy wfkl=..uqka úiska orkafka yd wdrCId lrkq .udf.j.a.a m%ekaisiaflda nd¾fnßks ldÈk.uqkaj .Huh lghq.a lrk w.a lghq.=ñhf.g úreoaO jQ tu idjoH u.sh úiska m%ldYhg m.drfha . lsÍug . .a" mDÓúh p.a fjfrdiams .S.g iqÿiqlï w. u. lsÍug.shd we.=lï meyer yeÍfuka je<elS isàug.nd .ah' lf.sj.sl yd wfmdaia.a yd wmrdO kS.eîug fkdyel' ukao h.sh .y.da iskafiß tla md¾Yajhlo" ..ska yd jHdc fkdjQ Nla.dm fjñka" iEu i.sfCIams.SrKh m%ldY lr . yd jHjia:djkays idudkH jYfhkq.i tu ld.a" ms<sl=.= lruq' —tfia jqjo" . foa yeáhg ms<s.i fh±úh yels fyd| l%uhlska yd iajrEmhlska ls%hd.Skaÿjg meñKsfhuq' —wm iajdó jQ fÊiqia ls%ia. i|yka je/È iy ñ.=lï meyer yßkakkag tfrysj mkjd we.a lr .Ss. .udg .sldr md¾Yajhgo jk fuu kvqj úuid n.uqkag jvd.=<skao" .nkafka" .kh jk nj yd th úYajfha flakaøh fkdjk nj.shd ldÈk.uka ñ.a..sh . lrk .SrKh fufia ±kqï fouq' —wm fuys § ksfhda.kafka kï" wm iEySug m.a.u lsheùug.% ish.a" úfYaI jYfhkq.mE lreKq w.jdoh tkï" ysre úYajfha flakaøh nj yd th kefÕkysr isg ngysrg .aul lsÍug bv .a jk w.e.a" tfukau fuu u.e.sl iNdfõ uQ.u ud.sfha hk wxY foflys u uydpd¾hjrhl= yd lf.a ldÈk. i|yka mßÈ mdfmdÉpdrKho le|jd t<eô .hg yd ÈjHuh b.=< úNd.s%fuda.Tng úreoaOj my. nkaOkd.udg kshu lrkq .a m%fõYïldÍj lghq.e.aldrfhka lsheùug .s{hka yd WmfoaYlhka jQ úksYaph u~q.nd .drj .a fjkaáfjdka.a" .da.au mdfmdaÉpdrKh .s by.a.s jk fuys isák .S. u o~qjulska f.Sug fuhska kshu lruq' —w.= m%.sfhda .ekaùïj.=j idm.a ¨âúfhda ie.a" .=ka jirl isro~qjug hg.uqka úiska lrk .k we.sfhda ldÈk.sl frdaudkq m.dÈk.= lsÍug.jdoh .!rjkSh m%d{hka jQ kS.s ixjdoZ kï lD.e.S.a" .da.o úkdYldÍ je/È iy mdmhka ish.S. wm bÈßfha we.ud l< jrog mYapd.uqkaf.uqka ú.a fok wdo¾Yhla jYfhkq.a.a leiam¾ fnda¾.a ldÈk.r u" tf.shd˜ miq igyk ( .a z.s kvq lghq.= ms<sn| m%Odkshdo jk w.ykï lrñka" wd×jla mkjuq' —.uka fkdlrk nj.e.eîug n.a.a fujka hq.ams%fhda ys.S. jYfhka u olajkafka kï" Y=oaO jQ nhsn. whs.HdoDIaál woyia m<uq fldg u wjxl yoj.HdoDIaálhl= njg n.e.Skaÿj .jdoh mgyeKs njg m%ldYhg m.fha § tajd iïmQ¾K jYfhka fyda fldgia jYfhka fjkia lsÍug" wvq lsÍug wm fj.Skaÿj óg jvd ksishdldr f.a" wka whg o bÈßfha § tjka hq.nkafka Y=oaO jQ nhsn.am.shlg u jrla i.aika lf<a ( wiafka.a.fha b.A ysfkÜá ol=Kq Tf.a" bÈßfha § fï ms<sn|j .r" tu .sfhda .s o~qjï yd mYapd.sys ldÈk.a.dys ldÈk.da.a mYapd.Skaÿ lr o~qjï muqKqjd.e.uqka úiska Y=oaO jQ úkh kS.a úYajdi lrk Pg 74 yd ork nj.S.h .shlska hq.s .=ia jykafiaf.uqkag jevodhl f.nd § we.=<skao fuu O¾udêlrKhg .dj yd iodld.ksñka" fuu .s ish¨u fodAIdfrdamKj.a ñ.da.sfha hk fowxYfha u f.s jk .dm foaj iaf.efí' tfuka u .e.a lrf.sl iNdfõ isú.a kdufhka hÈñka" Y=oaO jQ foajO¾ufha yd kS.=ka jir fuu 2015|Januaru-March O¾udêlrKfha ks.g fuu u.r" Tyqg n.uqka kvq lghq.a fldg we.S.sl lkHd ußh.sg urKSh oKavkh fjkqjg fï .ud mõldrlñka ksoyia lsÍug o lghq.sfhda .

% 07 lsheùfuka mSvdfjka miq jQ Tyq Tyqf.sh ^fuu úoHdjkag ±ka fhdok ku kinematics iy Strength of materials h&' 1638 § frdaudkq lf.§' jir .j lshjd ±uQ .l we.sfhda fjkqfjka fuu foaj iaf.S.e.sfhda isr.j isák .kaofha § th m< lrk .a.amshl= jQ n¾f.sfhdaf.a fuu lD.e.ñ iaf.fha §u tkï" 1640§ iamd[a[ Ñ.h l< w.sfhdag isrf.a ke.jd .d lr .kakd .e.e.Ska w.S.e.%hl o~qjï ú¢ñka isr.af.a m.e.r úYsIag.io ye¢kaúh' 1642 ckjdß 08 jeks Èk ish ksfjfia ksjdi wviaisfha  isáfh§u jhi wjqreÿ 77§ .sfhda zEppur..s bka miq keÕS isáfhah' keÕS isák .hl § .sl m.drld úoHd.sh jk zkj úoHdjka follaZ hk lD.a lD.sfhdaf.e.a.kakd .k úoHdfõ mshdZ f.sh by<skau w.da úiska we¢ 1911 § fidhd .§' miq lf.e.sfhah' 1992 Tlaf.% Ys.r" Tyqj zkQ.a ùfuka .§' mQcljßhl jQ .aul kHdh ms<s.§' ksjdi wviaisfha isáfh§. si mouve' ta .% lshùu Ndr .u lD.e.a. bÈßmsg oK .e.ekSfuka .uka Tyq hula ññKqfõ h' zEppur.d.a.S.aul fufyjr yd oDIaáh oYuhlska fyda wvq lr .sfhda .e.aiafÜ úiska miq ld.a .h ls%hd.sfha wêlrK n..af.a ÈhKshf..a ueÈy.S.S.kakd .areu zfudkjd lsõj.. fufia jd¾.hska" ksjdi wviaishg hg.S.S.id mdfmdaÉpdrKh yeÕSï úrys.nd ÿka mdfmdaÉpdrKh m%Odk fya.a .sfhda ñh .S.da.sfhda ish úoHd. fhduq lr we.da.a ÈhKsh udßhd fif.S.s wdldrh ksrEmKh lsÍuhs' kvq .shlg jrla mYapd. si mouve' hk jdlHh foi ish weÕs.a" th p.kh fjkjdZ hkakh' fuh tfiau jQ njg jk m%Odk idCIsh .an¾Ü whskaiaghska úiska .a lr ish ksfjfia úiSug bv fok .dan¾ 31 jeks Èk zksõfhda¾la ghsïiaZ mqj.a jpkh' tys f.mdka uqß.S.Skaÿfjka jirlg muK miq 1634§ O¾udêlrKh .sìKs' —fldm¾ksliaf.=k mqrdu i.aul fkdjQ ´.o Ñ.sfhdaf.' Tyqf.S.sfhda ksje/È fohla l< nj wms wo oksuq˜' fojk cqjdka mdjq¿ mdmajykafia 2015|Januaru-March Pg 75 .j isá ld.da.e.dm foaj iaf.S..=jla úh' úksiqre u~q.

r f.d isáhy' ta wkqj Èkla frda.a orejkag Wmßuhg hq.i b.sodhl mqj..=lï bIag lr.hd''" oeka ys.‍d˜ hula ìu jefgk y`v weiS uy.a ldurh‍g Èj wd ¥orejkag oel.uq yÈisfhaj.kak lsh./hsm.SrKh lf<dah' ta wkqj mQcl.ñka fufia weiSh' —wE uy.S mshdj ne.n.=K olajkjd yefrkakg fï kysk foysk ldf.d ys.a.oekqfukaTíng fkdis.s fkdjk whqßka b.a lreKdfjka uy.a.sh f. m.sìKs' fï m%S..=rej jefâg uq.lg tys m<uq Èkqu f.ajQ l. yelsjQfha yÈis yDohdndohlg .§ .j th Tyqg f.hd fudlo lrkafka'˜ 04lg wêl uqo.kq .laj isysiqkaj jeà isák mQcl.a''' uu taflka yßhgu Nd.i remsh./hs Èkqula weÿkhs lsh.djla wd.sfhys mQcl.d m%fõYï iy..a foúhka Pg 76 2015|Januaru-March —whafhd *do¾" uu uf.a uy.areï lrjk f.a fldaá Wfkd..sfhkafka' foúhka jykafiag lD.dl= fohla keye' Tkak uu wo lsõjhs lsh.a.ajfhys ne?reïlu meyeÈ.=re úuiSfuka wk.Sug meñKs mQcl.=ukag mejÍug .=uka yuqjQ ¥ore msßi .s lrñka fuu ldrKh ish mshdKka .a.d .lska lrkak f.fhka ish mshdKkaf.lr isàfï wjodku ms<sn| idlÉPd l< ¥ore msßi" wjidkfha§ wod< lghq.enQ ú.E yeúßÈ mshd úiska ñ.a.d.a.=< oeä wdfõ.s fohla lr.+ jdishla m<uq yDohdndohg .sldr u.msÍug ys.laj ffjoH m%.d.d.la we§ .la .enqfKd.a.dr.hla Tn. jykafiaf.kak" tfyu uqo.=ukah' .d'''' tfyu f. we.=ukag mQcd lrkjd leu.=ud u| fõ.a" ug tfyu uqo.hdg fldaá 04l miqjk ye. Tyqg ie.

syska lshk tl'˜ 2015|Januaru-March Pg 77 .uklska miq wm isxyrdc jkhg msúiqKq úg we¢ß jefgkakg.uklska iy meh lsysmhl md .a úkdä 05la . lsÍu wruqKsks' fuys b.a wms jkh .s lSmhlg fmr udf..re ksÍlaIKh l<du" fudloao Tfí ks.a leue.=fjuq' tfyhska l=vdrula wgjd wmg th .a we.aula olajk ksid hhs ug ye`.a fmr kskao .%S wdydrho .S .snq úvdm.a ñ.ukg iqodkï ùñ' meh lsysmhl ÿïßh .ukl úvdj.a lgy`v wjÈ lf<ah' —fjdÜika Tng fï rd.s jQ fyhska rd.a ks.%S wdldifha .% fydaïia iy ud .sfha .sks ue.ukh 1886 jif¾ iema. m%.sh udi lsysmh wmg b.rhla jQ isxyrdc kï jQ jkfha Èk foll ixpdrhla .d iqkaor jkdka.k .k .hhs' ñg i.i Tyqf.jkakg. lsÍug fydaïia yg is.a mgkaf.skak.ufka .ukh@˜ —uf.=fKa Tyq mßirh b.d we.eïn¾ ui Èkl ikaOHd ld.sfhk .d ld¾hnyq... jQ neúka lsishï úfõlhla .=<u .sg ud wjÈ lf<ah' bkamiq Tyq iqmqreÿ f.sfhah' tu ksid uuo Tyqf.a iu.a nj ksiduh' meh lsysmhlg muK miq fydaïia yÈisfhau ke.slafIam fkdfldg .xldjg meñKsfha" miq.snqKs' §¾> .ukh fydaïia" wfma l=vdru ljqfoda ..oekqfukaTíng ks.jdf.hlao wgjd kskaog hdug is..=<g ú. wmg nv.a.

a ke.s u< fkdne÷Kq l.a iqj| yqiaug ÿl ys.=áka Th f.=re uqrex. jqfK yl=<d frdau l+m . fodr biairy yskefykafk rd..ao fkdfodvdu l.s.rïu.shl chg wdiajdifhka .Sj.a oka fok ksrka. n.sm u.% lr .dïukg t<sh § bfohs .. iqj| § iqjoe.%S n.a wehs ixfõ§ wysxil ys.=re fufkúh rejka ùr.g frÈ fmdfrdaf.d .d .=re fufkúh uqjy.i f.ksju Th .kako . weia uia f.=re fukúh iS..a yefohs jHxck rU uqjlao tlalr ueá we. ñ..k hyka.=re fukúh mE.=x.=re uqrex. Pg 78 2015|Januaru-March .a m.r .

sÜgd' l.s'''˜ lK we. .dal.wmg fkdfõ nUqg.a.s mdrla mmqjg ÿkakd' —tfykï ysÕdlkafka fudlgo@ flrejhs lsjqjg w.ug fj.k hkjd kel.a.a fï wr wdvïnrldr wmamÉÑ fkao@˜ —wdvïnr kE' idvïnrhs' m<fjks ojfi kï ysáfha W.a fyaÈ.h.a ñksyd foaYfm%añ ñá.fka lsh.a jqKdg fyõjd ldf.afrkak .ska wkqlïmd Wmoj.Õg lmk bks .s.lalhla yQrkjd jf. uq.fka hymd.uhs' ta. ú.af.s fjÉp ioaoka.d kE Tkak' ug bjiSfï iSudj fuõjd fjkakhs hkafka' zbjiqjd we.ska wr biair k¿jd fjÉp yekaä fld.ska rd lÜgla .d w÷kkak neßj we.rug irï lvud.k fmd.s'Z lshmka fvda ysÕk NdIdfjka ke.d' ˜ mqreoaog jf.d rc iem ú¢kak neßh'˜ —f.s lya lya lya llya lya lya l%E'''''la .d we.d' kslï fkfjhs cd.r uÜgfuka fka' oeka b.dmh mgka .d ñksyd jegqKd fmaõukaÜ tflka uy mdrg' ksÈ úldfrkau fomhska ysg.Õ Èh /f.d' fmdaßido álla <xjqKd ñksyd <Õg' —fï''''' Wkakefya" .d mK nfha' miafia miafia f.d'''''˜ fmdaßido ta fnf.d u. ˜ —wmamgo fndf. ñksfyla fukak w.a yßhgu w÷kd .nf.uqfia <ÕÈo fï iSka tlg tkag¾ jqfKa' ug kï óg fmr oel..a.a tfla mrK ysÕuku lrf. ll=f<a meg.d'''''' fifka'''''' is.a' —hymd.s' wksl uu fï iSka tlg tkag¾ jqfKa iefyk ldf.mq fydrlul=.afrk NdIdfjka' ljqo WU' ˜ —i iudfjkak i'''¾' uu uu wehs w÷kkak neßo@ wr uq.k h.s fjÉp ioaoka. ueo kE kE ueo uq.a tlalu fïla wma tl.lhla kE jf.a yçka lshms' fmdaßidog kslï u[a[x u[a[x jf.r ke.ska oeka .fka' oeka b.shhs lsh.Hka.rhs lsh.jqu r ej j —wfka'''''' uy.a ure <Õdfj.ska f.a' oelmq tl kï oel.o lsh.a yçka kej.=.+'''ya . fmdaßido mqreÿhs iqmqreÿhs jf.yf.o fï nr nrh lsh.a tfyug wfyakshla kE' oeka b.hd n.=f<a fnf..lal y~ weys.a.d ioafoa ú.sj f.a 2015|Januaru-March Pg 79 .l b|.a..a' ˜ —fudlo ke.a n.d' wmamgo fndf.kak jeä fofkl=g álla mrlal= jqKd' oeka kï n.lyksfhu kskafoka ke.a kEfka' b.aldrhkaf.a. mdkak wrka' —.a .s iemg jevqKq fï l=Kq lh Èrd h.=fka''' ugjka ÿl oel.sjqKd .a msysfgka'˜ je/ye.s fyd|gu' ta.d .a fodr nvq lkafÜk¾ folla ú.a' je/ye.

a.a .s.dKavqfõ yeáhg'˜ Pg 80 2015|Januaru-March —mrdch lshkafka Tfydu .a nek nek .ska ljqo ´hs merÈ.s lsh.s' u.=kla bkak .a.ek mlafIa iNdm.skafka kE' neßu jqfKd.akï iSka tflka udrefj.hs" ms.s úÈyg fï cjksldfjka wkao ukao fj.a merÿKdo@˜ fmdaßido ljodj.fï nhsfhla úÈhg oEle.kak yokjd' uf.uhs fï f.a taflu t.ykak tmd lsh. úOdhl mj¾ia wrka kd.a ÿkafka' zi¾ lg jyf.. ueo w.= ..a je.hhs" Èfkiqhs" jdiqhs Z lshk fmf¾.sj ú.s zúuf.a.a .a f.d kE fkdje' wyj.d lsh.lKaKs álu .a .dKavqj.a tlgo@˜ —ta kï lf<a uuuhs' ta.a.l keoao .a ke.s.ska n.laj.a ioygu'˜ —t.d'˜ —Wf.dmg fkdfmfkk fndfyda foa we.%sfhkau fokak jqKdfka wfkla Wkaa n.s lr.a.a ñksyuo úOdhl ckdêm.a wykafka tfykï wyj.a ke.l fj.d'''''˜ kej.Kqj . .l .d Wkq.d' —wfka'''''' uy.a ysÕkakd ueo uq.la .Kqjlao fï wUrk f. ke.a tfla bkak mq¿jka'˜ —tal ..la md.shd¨'˜ —b.ju.yla hg wd.lshkak ´k lsh.s Th lshk yd..d ñksygu Iqj¾ kE Wkakefya' ˜ —tfykï b.fifka'''''' is.a' wfka wfmdhs wfydaæ ug uyd fmf¾.af.kjd fïl ySkhlao lsh.a fmdaßidoh" f.ï wkqlïmd lrkak lshkafka fudlgo@ yf.hghs nek nek fkdhso'˜ —Th ld.j.d m%ldYk folla ksl=.Kqjla fjkak we.yñka n.d Èkmq fiakg.dl= fld.uhs ta .ska fohsfhda' .af.fhda' Wkag t.agu m.uhs' tl mf.a ..=fka''' ugjka ÿl oel.h ke.da' fudllao Th ÿl' n.Kq ld.a udhsï lf<a kE' n.d m.aia fjuqZ lsh.' ˜ —tal.a.dKavqjla wUr.d ug Pkafoa §mq Wkq.uhs ´hs uu.sh.Kqj.k bkak tmd' ck.= uf.af.a wr wukodif.a ldmq tjqka wuqjgu mdjdfokjd' oeka Th yefudau neis.a tlgh mdrg jegqfKa'˜ —mskaj.kak je.a wyj.syska folla ke.rï .a.la ke.d' —yß yß m%Yakhla ke.d mlaIh /l /l bkak fjÉÑ' ta ú.a.amdrefjda ál'˜ —fjk ljqo b.fldg wr fydgq fmr fmr uv.uqfig" mdvqfõ bkak fokafka ke.a .a lf.slu.d ñksyf.ska ljqo ´hs Wka'˜ —ysÕkakq mÜg ysÕkakq' wd.a kE fka' wfkl .hs" lu.ju ñksyd .af.d'˜ —b. fï lelsß ¥mf.a.ukaf..Kaydjla ke.a ffu.ndkafka mrdchg j.a .d'''''' .= lrk wka uÕla ke.S.a wUrkafka'˜ —b.dm lshñka ´fia wÈkak .s jqK mdr uQg uq.d hkjflda' tl tl ysÕkakghs u< fmf¾.j.sfldg ug f. ÿlo@ fod< ÿlo@˜ —fufyuhs Wkakefya neßu .a wÕmiÕ ñßlñka" kshfmd.Kqj fudllao .a tl n.d uu kï Th .ska ysÕdlkak .ska wkqlïmd Wmoj.kakjd fndalal=jla m.hs" pïmhs" f¾Lhs fkfjhs bys bys bys bysla' wr jef.lrk ksid' taflka rg rlskakï lsh.a.d' ˜ —wdkak ta Wkau .a tal me.a ke.d nhshd . fodaIhls' ysÕuk yer Wka kv.djg wef~kak .d' zikaOdfkka Í maf.s wkd..shuqZ lsh. l.rlahe fpdaokd ñi tajd Tmamq lrk mdgl=.a wu.a uÕ=.lgo fï mdf¾ ysÕdlkafka' Pkao TÜgqjlaj..shfka'˜ .d' .uqfia wirK fj.