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Communication






















A very significant dimension in behavior dynamics is communication
It is a basic component in one’s relationship with others
It is at the center of all human existence
It links us to others physically, emotionally, and intellectually
Warped, twisted or overdosed communication is one of the causes of conflict
between and among persons, groups and organizations
Communication is the lifeblood of any organization
Communicating ideas and information makes action and coordination possible
The impairment of communication due to certain barriers only causes confusion
and misunderstanding
To perform well, organizations must foster effective communication.
Definition and Process
Communication is a process which aims to transfer and implement the meaning
of symbols from one person, group or organization to another.
Its ultimate goal is the sharing of meaning
The sender is the communicator who can be any person, group or organization
*The qualities and characteristics of the sender are usually reflected in the
message that is sent.
The receiver, likewise, can be an individual, group or organization
The recipient of the message is, likewise, characterized by his role, authority,
educational level and personal, social, educational qualities as reflected partly as
the reason for his being sent the message in the first place
The more congruent the qualities and characteristics of both sender and receiver,
the more likely the communication is taken and understood at the same level and
depth.
The message is communicated through symbols that are sent through a medium.
The symbols can take various forms such as verbal and non-verbal, oral and
written, textual and visual.
The elements to consider in non-verbal communication include general
appearance, kinesics, proxemics and para language.
The message goes through pathways which are channels along which its
passage may either be facilitated or impeded.
The reaction by the recipient which may be expressed either in silence or actual
response directed to the sender is the feedback.
In short, “communication is conveying thoughts and feelings to others and
receiving them from others…” as expressed by Dean and Bryson.
In the business world, communication is needed to establish and disseminate
goals for an organization.
Ways of communication by channels

for instance. aids. Goal Clarity  The ultimate goal of communication is to share meanings. Sender His qualities. the objectives are jointly set by both supervisor and subordinate. would most likely be misunderstood by an autonomous academic staff. runners • • • • For Middle Management Memoranda Reports Meetings (staff) Conferences • • • Informal meetings Liaisons Cliques • • For Rank and File Meetings (associations) Letters • • Small talk Grapevine   Factors that Affect the Quality of communication 1. MBO serves to ensure that the objectives are clear to both the organization and the individual. role affects communication flow. characteristics.Formal Channels Informal Channels • • • • • For Top Management Memoranda Policy issuance/statements Meetings (board) Conferences Briefings • • Hosted meals Use of key informants like secretaries.  The sender must clarify the goals. 2. status. Example 1: A highly autocratic university president. .  In organizations which use the “Management By Objectives” (MBO) approach.

Receiver His qualities. A clean.                  Example 2: A lax foreman may cause confusion among factory workers who have been used to being given detailed specific procedures. Example: A pretty but dumb secretary can be a pain in the neck of a highly energized. Psychologically caused communication problems are more difficult to resolve than those that are physically based. prejudices. Verbal communication should be formulated with much care. The greater the area of shared experience. Pathways The passages through which the message travels can either be clear or clogged up with physical or psychological disturbances. insecurity. 6. resources. a painting. 3. Symbol Communication is largely symbolic. clear passage devoid of noise and breakdowns make for fast communication and thus more and better transactions. status. a demonstration. the greater the likelihood that communication would succeed. a televised program. jealousy. skills. Communication is greatly improved if a mix of different media is used. 5. immaturity may prod them to hide information or deter its flow. The medium used depends on the content. scope of the message. The more effective sharing of meaning between the engineers derives mostly from their similar education and professional experience. ringing of a bell and many more. without this ability. It is achieved through the use of symbols both verbal and non verbal. 4. Medium The message can take various forms: a typed letter. Shared Experience Experience common to participants helps enhance communication process. a telephone call. emotional state is a factor in the success or failure of communication. Example: Traffic enforcer using hand signal in managing the traffic. a song. a radio broadcast. role. 7. a drawing. the sender’s choice. the size of the group to which the message is to be sent and the time available to formulate the message. A person with ability to listen. a bulletin board notice. Example: An engineer is better able to communicate technical matters to another engineer than to a non engineer. a lecture. Psychological/emotional problems caused by envy. a slide. communication breaks down immediately. . aggressive and intelligent boss. objectives. Example: The speaker would suddenly laugh in the midst of a truly sad story. characteristics. Non Verbal communication occurs very frequently and can be very expressive.

8. Jr. by and large. the main criterion that determines its success or failure. Wallace and Szilagzi. 9. not to be bogged down by excessive details furnished to them by their staff but to concentrate on long-run strategic planning based on concise. Information Overload Due to fast technological processes of accumulating and transmitting information thru the radio. Feedback How do we know if communication has been successful? When do we say that our communication is good? The reaction by the recipient to the communication is. information. data.. etc. relevant and meaningful summaries.        Inattention due to poor motivation is more difficult to handle than a broken typewriter. television. Chung and Megginson put in this way: “Effective interpersonal communication is achieved only when the sender obtains the intended response from the receiver. Many of our “managers are drowning in a flood of numbers. and their failure to cope effectively with such information overload will have serious and even disastrous consequences not only for their organizations but for our entire economy” Thus. caution managers. newspapers. .

COMMUNICATION .