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Pakistan stock exchange & New York stock exchange

Submitted To
Fareesa knawal (07)
Fozia Parveen (08)
Rukhsana Kousar (19)

Yasmin Kanwal (24)
Samina Saeed (21)
Tehmina Ameer (23)
Tahira Yaseen (22)

Submitted To
Sir M. Ramzan
National College of Business Administration &
Layyah Campus

We would like to dedicate this project to our beloved parents. They are always supporting us
because they are the driving force in our life and career. Without their love, none of this would
matter. Throughout in our life, they have an actively supporting us in my determination to realize
our potential of our life and execute this contribution to our world.
Thank you for your unconditional support with our studies. We are honored to have you as
parents. Thanks you for giving us the chance to prove & improve ourselves through all of our

venerable & dignified Mr. We are deeply indebted to venerated faculty of NCBA&E Layyah campus.Ramzan.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT “Which favor of your LORD will ye deny?’’ (Al-Quran) It will be regarded ungratefulness if we don’t express our gratitude to the revered. . our overseer who made an enormous support & able us to stand for completing this mega project.M.

Pakistan Stock Exchange .

PSX's origin's where laid with the establishment of the Karachi Stock Exchange in 1947 Lahore Stock Exchange in 1970 and the Islamabad Stock Exchange in 1992 .Introduction Type Location Founded Owner Currency Indices Website Stock exchange Karachi.2016 Government of Pakistan Pakistani Rupee KSE-100Index KSE-30Index KSE -BRIndex30 www. Lahore and Islamabad PSX is part of the MSCI Emerging Markets The Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) is stock exchange of Pakistan with trading offices in Karachi. Pakistan January 11. Islamabad and Lahore PSX was established on 11 January 2016 after the merger of individual stock exchange's of Karachi. Islamabad and

the Pakistani equities delivered 26 percent a year .As of June 15. 2016. was a stock exchange located at the Stock Exchange Building (SEB) on Stock Exchange Road. Karachi Stock Exchange Founded on September 18. However. The Karachi Stock Exchange Limited (KSE).886 foreign institutional investors and 883 domestic institutional investors along with about 0. Khaleej Times reported that since 2009. 7. According to Bloomberg. the Pakistani benchmark stock market index is the third-best performer in the world since 2009 In June 2015. between 2009 and 2015 it delivered a 26% a year History The Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) Limited came into existence in January 2016 when Government of Pakistan decided to merge 3 big exchange markets of the country into one big market. There are also about 400 brokerage houses which are members of the PSX as well as 21 asset management companies PSX is the among the world's best performing stock market's.410 billions ($74 billion) the investors on the exchanges include 1. according to analysis by Bloomberg world. there are 577 companies listed in PSX and the total market capitalization is Rs.22 million retail investors. the position again re-affirmed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan in January 2015. Karachi Stock Exchange Limited (KSE) was registered in Pakistan. It was Pakistan's largest and one of the oldest stock exchanges in South Asia. Sindh Province of Pakistan. Karachi. Karachi Stock Exchange was also listed among 10 best stock markets in the world in 2015 Pakistan ranked third in 2014 amongst the Top Ten Best Performing Markets in the It was declared the "Best Performing Stock Market of the World for the year 2002". Chandigarh Road. 1947.655. in the heart of Karachi's Business District.

The Lahore Stock Exchange (Guarantee) Limited came into existence in October 1970. It was formally inducted into the national Pakistan Stock Exchange on the 11th of January 2016. Merger . Pakistan. 2015.269. As on July 10. Islamabad Stock Exchange Islamabad Stock Exchange or ISE was the youngest of the three stock exchanges of Pakistan and is located in the capital of Islamabad. 7.33 trillion (US$72 billion approximately) Lahore Stock Exchange Lahore Stock Exchange (Guarantee) Limited (LSE) was Pakistan's second largest stock exchange after the Karachi Stock Exchange. It initially had 83 members and was housed in a rented building in the crowded Bank Square area of Lahore.9 m2) it consists of three levels of basements and ground plus 18 floors above. ISE tower is a 22 storey building.629 sq ft (52. under the Securities and Exchange Ordinance of 1969 by the Government of Pakistan in response to the needs of the provincial metropolis of the province of Punjab. The LSE has 152 members of which 81 are corporate. It is located in Lahore. The number of listed companies has increased to 519 since its inception.for US dollar investors. Area covered by the building is 562. Islamabad stock exchange (ISE) was incorporated as a guarantee-limited company on 25 October 1989 in Islamabad. The LSE was the first stock exchange in Pakistan to use the internet and currently 50% of its transactions are via the internet. which makes it the second highest building of Islamabad after the Telecom Tower. and 54 are individual members. total market capitalization reached Rs. making Karachi the best-performing stock exchange in the world.

Mission To provide easy to use. and useful platform for anyone who wants to learn investment and trading. Objectives The provide tools for young traders/investors for learning. Functions 1. It thus. The very sensitive pricing mechanism and the constant quoting of market price allows investors to always be aware of values. community-driven. 2. especially in the stock markets of Pakistan. Providing facilities for working It provides opportunities to Jobbers and other members to perform their activities with all their resources in the stock exchange.Providing a ready market The organization of stock exchange provides a ready market to speculators and investors in industrial enterprises. 2016. PSX was launched. Vision The attract young generation towards the stock markets of Pakistan in order to create awareness and confidence by providing a learning and educational platform that grows with time. and participating in group activities. enables the public to buy and sell securities already in issue. and practicing investment and trading techniques and strategies. aimed to help reduce market fragmentation and create a strong case for attracting strategic partnerships necessary for providing technological expertise and assistance. sharing. research. To provide a system where everyone can learn from each other by communicating. . 3.Launched on January 11. This enables the production of various indexes which indicate trends etc. Providing a quoting market prices It makes possible the determination of supply and demand on price.

These securities are marketable and can be turned into cash at any time. Maintenance of liquidity The bank and insurance companies purchase large number of securities from the stock exchange. 8. Therefore directors have to disclose all material facts to their respective shareholders. Thus stock exchange exercises rigid control over the activities of its members. Thus it creates the habit of thrift and investment among the public. This it facilities the banking system to maintain liquidity by procuring the marketable securities. Refining and advancing the industry Stock exchange advances the trade . This habit leads to investment of funds incorporate or government securities. Thus the flow of capital from unproductive field to productive field helps to refine the large scale enterprises. 11. Promotion of the habit of saving Stock exchange provide a place for saving to general public. Creating the discipline Its members controlled under rigid set of rules designed to protect the general public and its members. Operating a compensation fund It also operate a compensation fund which is always available to investors suffering loss due due the speculating dealings in the stock exchange. Therefore banks prefer to keep securities instead of cash in their reserve . 9. Adjustment of equilibrium The investors in the stock exchange promote the adjustment of equilibrium of demand and supply of a particular stock and thus prevent the tendency of fluctuation in the prices of shares. Thus innocent investors may be safeguard from the clever brokers. . Checking functions New securities checked before being approved and admitted to listing. Safeguarding activities for investors The stock exchange renders safeguarding activities for investors which enables them to make a fair judgment of a securities. 7.4. 5. it provides opportunity to capital to flow into the most productive channels. The funds placed at the disposal of companies are used by them for productive purposes. Thus this tendency creates the discipline among its members in social life also. commerce and industry in the country. 10. 6.

An important element of the globalization trend has been the increase in the KSE activities. The crisis of confidence at the global capital markets dominated hearts and minds of investors at KSE as well. This is the rationale that the industrial bodies. The applications of technology in the payment and settlement systems have made the local capital market comparable with the international capital markets. It is functioning as an organized market for individuals as well as for institutional investors. Benefits for economy Stock exchanges are playing a crucial role in the consolidation of a Pakistan's economy in general and in the development of industrial sector in particular. In last decade or so. the market features a developed regulatory mechanism and a modern market infrastructure with growing market capitalization.090. Now. Funds The govt. The market turnover has touched to 165. KSE 100-share index is at 13. security concerns in Karachi. market liquidity. its publicity regarding various industrial securities makes even disinterested people feel interested in investment. It is said that the recent drop in the index was due to fall in global commodities and Greece debt crises and possible exit from euro zone besides the affect of rumors of increase in taxation and deduction in subsidies for the fertilizer sector in the upcoming budget propelled investors to offload their holdings. Moreover.5 trillion. Increasing Govt. tighter links among financial markets. SECP is quite vigilant and continuously reforming rules and . and greater commercial presence of foreign financial firms in Pakistan. the stock exchanges play a cardinal role in promoting the level of capital formation through effective mobilization of savings and ensuring investment safety. In a developing country like Pakistan. Presently.12. which are investing their savings in the Karachi stock exchange. rising political noise and uncertainty over Pak-US relations on progress over NATO supplies is also playing a catalyst role in the bearish sentiment at KSE. and even the state bank keep a close eye on the activities of the stock market. it has been observed that there has been a paradigm shift in Pakistan's capital market. government advisors.289 million shares and overall market capitalization reached at Rs3. 13. The capital market is playing an essential role in the growth of commerce and industry which in return affects the economy of the country to a large extent.925 points and KSE 30-share index is at 12. It is one of the most dynamic and organized component of capital market. can undertake projects of national importance and social value by raising funds through sale of its securities on stock exchange. and mobilization of resources. However. Financial globalization has also advanced in the last decade with increased cross-border capital flows. There are numerous individuals and companies. the market has also witnessed one of its worst times. Promotion of capital formation It plays an important part in capital formation in the country.

Stock exchange has enabled the federal government to mobilize the funds for public utilities and public undertakings. However. record-breaking numbers. KSE has performed very well in past. Each economy is economically symbolized (indicators) by its most significant stock exchange. Companies from diverse industries like fertilizers. Online trading facility has brought the stock exchange at the doorsteps of the investors through computer network. In most of the cases. Foreign institutional investors (FIIs) have been playing a significant role in the Pakistan's capital market. banks. The development of stock markets is highly important in sustaining a better economic growth. This protection is helping to consolidate the confidence of the investors and small savers. chemicals. it is leading to capital formation and development of national assets. which take up the developmental activities like oil and gas. price continuity. Blue chip companies in Pakistan are raising funds by issuing bonus and right issues. We have witnessed this few years back and also in most recent days that KSE is attracting small savings especially of large number of investors in the capital market. At both national and international level. size of the market. The primary function KSE performs is to collect financial savings and allow their use in meeting the needs of the economy whereas it is also creating liquidity. etc. Political turbulence affects economic performance and economic players do not like uncertainty. KSE has provided liquidity. being a financially strained country. . updates of companies. which in turn. Stock exchange is taken as a barometer of the economy of a country. and constant evaluation of government securities. Pakistan. The increasing importance of financial markets has reinforced the need to bring additional features in the stock market. telecommunication. the funds mobilized through capital market are provided to the industries engaged in the production of various goods and services useful for the society. Pakistan's stock market has all the ingredients of making a financial story with unexpected heights and falls. marketability. it makes it difficult for them to reach informed judgments about the future. International portfolio investments enter a particular country by means of financial markets.regulations. hence the traders regulate the trading transactions with proper rules and regulations. cement etc. Necessary information available from different sources guides the investors in the effective management of their investment portfolios. It is again providing a wider avenue for the investment to the people and organizations with investible surplus. ensure investor's protection. Various stockbrokers have started providing online trading facility to their clients. Better domestic environments increase the attractiveness of assets to investors. has taken many measures to make the investment environment encouraging for foreign institutional investment. Resultantly. are offering various kinds of equity and debt securities to the investors. which mostly covers the summary of current affairs and business news that can affect the market. oil and gas. performance of KSE represents the progress and conditions of Pakistan's economy. Leading stockbrokers of KSE circulate daily briefings to their clients. and other statistical data. and unfettered greed.

FDI as well as the development of human capital also has a strong positive relationship with the economic growth of Pakistan.G khan cement company limited Sitara chemicals industries limited Bank of Punjab ABL Alied bank limited MCB Mcb bank limited HBL Habib bank limited MCB Bank (formerly Muslim Commercial Bank) previously named as a (Manjoo Co-operative Bank) was incorporated by the Adamjee Group on July measured by market capitalization. The bank was nationalized in 1974 during the government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. This was the first bank to be privatized in 1991 and the bank was purchased by a consortium of Pakistani corporate groups led by Nishat Group. 1947. Moreover. . There exists a strong need for implementing the efficient monitory regulations that could contribute to the transparency and effectiveness of stock markets. Listed companies in Pakistan stock exchange Sr . As of June 2008. has a stronger influence on economic growth than the liquidity of stock 1 2 Company symbol Company name AGTL Al-ghazi tractors limited PSMC 3 4 5 EXIDE Pakistan Suzuki motor company limited Exide Pakistan limited PCAL Pakistan cables limited DGKC 6 SITC 7 8 9 10 BOP D. The bank was established to provide banking facilities to the business community of South Asia. Although the stock markets of Pakistan are growing and developing during the last few years. under the Indian Companies Act. this growth in the stock markets should be accompanied with the industrial and manufacturing growth of the country. VII of 1913 as a limited company.

64%. textile. handling trade transactions of select countries in the Asia-Pacific region. which was comparatively lower than $1. 2011). MCB is Pakistan’s second largest bank by assets having an asset base of US$7 billion as at quarter 1. MCB incorporated an asset management company in 2005 known as MCB Asset Management Company. Habib bank . including local branches.4 billion (approximately $205 million) and generated a return on average equity of 26. 2011 including the Karachi Export Processing Zone Branch).190 branches.  MCB Trade Services Limited. including 22 Islamic banking branches (December 31. The president of the bank is Imran Maqbool.  MCB Asset Management Company Limited.2 billion at year end 2011. and over 650 ATMs in 110 cities. The bank has also formed a private company in Hong Kong (fully owned subsidiary of MCB) in partnership with Standard Chartered Bank. In 2011. UAE.  MNET Services (Private) Limited.18% (2010: 3. and the largest by market capitalization having a market capitalization recorded at $1. mainly on account of lower market value.the Nishat Group owns a majority stake in the bank. Fully owned subsidiaries of MCB are:  Muslim Commercial Financial Services (Private) Limited. Office in Dubai.23% and a return on assets of 3. MCB reported a profit after tax of PKR 19. and business establishments in Sri Lanka and Bahrain. including newly established Rep. Mian Muhammad Mansha is the Chairman of the group (and also MCB). The group has a presence in business sectors of the country such as banking.8 billion the year before. cement and insurance.MCB has 1165 branches (December 31. 2011) within Pakistan and eight branches outside the country (December 31. The bank has a customer base of approximately 4 million and a nationwide distribution network of 1. MCB has also incorporated a leasing company in Azerbaijan in 2009. in a market with a population of over 190 million. To further strengthen its financial services base.13%) The bank’s asset quality is strong. 2012.  MCB leasing (Closed Joint Stock Company). with a gross NPL ratio of 8.

the bank has presence in over 25 countries spanning across four continents. Pakistan's founding father. Kenya. Habib Bank moved its headquarters to Karachi. In the 1950s.  1957 or 1958 HBL opened a branch in Aden. bank in the emerging markets. Founded in 1941. Mohammed Ali Jinnah. The Habib family would own and manage the bank until the Pakistan government nationalized it on 1 January 1974. to include commercial. Nepal and is the only South Asian bank with operations in China. and fixed capital of 25.HBL (Urdu: ‫( )ححيبيب بيننك‬formerly Habib Bank Limited) now referred to as HBL Pakistan is a Karachi based multinational bank. the HBL started its international expansion. which became the tallest building in South Asia at the time. at the urging of Governor-General Jinnah. The bank was nationalized in 1974 and privatized in 2003 when Aga Khan Fund for Economic Development acquired a controlling share. It is the largest bank in Pakistan. The bank played an important role in mobilizing funds from the Muslim community to finance the All-India Muslim League's campaign for the establishment of Pakistan.000 rupees. Habib Bank headquarters in Karachi Habib Bank offers the basic range of banking services to its customers.  1966 HBL opened the first of 8 branches in the UAE. After the formation of Pakistan in 1947. In 1972 the bank moved its headquarters to the Habib Bank Plaza. This gave Karachi its first commercial bank of the newly formed Pakistan. As of 2016. HBL became Pakistan's first commercial bank. In 1951 it opened the first of what would become three branches in Sri Lanka. with HO in Bombay (now Mumbai). Pakistan's first capital.  1964 HBL opened the first of 4 branches in Mauritius and a branch in Beirut. It has operations in Hong Kong.  1961 HBL opened the first of what would become 6 branches in the UK. Sri Lanka. . His initiative resulted in the creation of Habib Bank in 1941. Then in 1956 HBL opened the first of five branches in Kenya. Habib Bank also played an important role in channeling relief funds to Muslims hurt in the communal riots and violence that preceded the departure of the British from India. The next year HBL established Habib Bank (Overseas). realized the importance of financial intermediation while he was campaigning for the creation of a separate homeland for the Muslims of India. including 1500 branches in Pakistan and 55 branches worldwide. He persuaded the Habib family to establish a commercial bank that could serve the Indian Muslim community. in 1951 it opened its first international branch opened in Colombo.

 1987 HBL opened in Australia.  1975 HBL opened a branch in Belgium.  1981 HBL established Nigeria Habib Bank with 40% ownership.  1979 HBL opened a branch in the Netherlands. HBL also opened a representative office in Teheran.  1980 HBL opened a branch in Paris and another in Hong Kong.  1983 HBL opened branch in the Karachi EPZ and a branch in Istanbul. However.  1969 HBL opened the first of 3 branches and an OBU in Bahrain.  1972 HBL opened the first of 11 branches in Oman.  1971 HBL opened an OBU in Singapore and a branch in New York City. HBL also merged with Standard Bank. After the Pakistan nationalized Habib Bank Ltd in 1974.  1976 HBL opened a branch in the Seychelles.  Habib Family. .  1974 The government of Pakistan nationalized HBL and HBL merged with Habib Bank (Overseas). 1967 Hyder Mohamedali Habib founded Habib Bank AG Zurich Zurich. any of its undertakings and/or its affiliates had no stake in HBL after its nationalization. HBL’s branch in Aden was nationalized. a Pakistani bank.  1982 HBL opened a branch in Khartoum. this became the main branch of the family held Habib Bank. the first of two branches in Bangladesh. and a branch in the Maldives. HBL constructed Habib Bank Plaza in Karachi to commemorate the bank’s 25th Anniversary.

Xinjiang.5% shareholding. HBL received license to operate a subsidiary in Urumqi. The bank's owners now comprise the Aga Khan Fund for Economic Development (51%). Government of Pakistan granted AKFED rights to 51% of the shareholding in the bank against an investment of PKR 22. into a new bank.409 billion (USD 389 million) the next year. subsidiaries and/or representative offices of the bank. On 29 December 2003. BCCI. The Board of Directors was reconstituted to have four AKFED nominees.5%. becoming the first Pakistani bank to operate in China. both Allied and Habib Bank closed down all independent operations in the UK. Map depicting worldwide operations of HBL Pakistan. while Allied Bank has 9. HBL opened a branch in the Fiji Islands. On April 18. Then Habib Bank Limited and Allied Bank of Pakistan merged their operations (Habib contributed its 6 branches and Allied its 4).5%).  1995 HBL established a representative office in Cairo. Simultaneously with the transfer of business to the new bank. a subsidiary of the Aga Khan Development Network. 1991 The Habib Group established a separate private bank. Pakistan is highlighted in dark green for reference.  1990s HBL established Habib Finance (Australia). the Bank AL Habib. called Habib-Allied International Bank. the government of Pakistan handed over management control of Habib Bank to AKFED. and took over the branches in Pakistan of failed bank. Government of Pakistan (42. on 26 February. Allied bank . Highlighted countries have branches. In 2003. HBL received permission to open a branch in Afghanistan.5%). On 13 June 2002. including the Chairman and the President/CEO and three Government of Pakistan nominees.  1992 In Nepal HBL acquired 20% of Himalayan Bank. The issue was resolved by converting the operations to a subsidiary. Pakistan's Privatization Commission announced that the Government of Pakistan would grant the Aga Khan Fund for Economic Development (AKFED). and the general public (7. 2016. Hong Kong. after private banking was re-established in Pakistan. and Habib Finance International Limited. During 2002. majority ownership of HBL against an AKFED's investment in the bank. in which Habib Bank has a 90. HBL's UK operation came close to being shut down due to regulatory issues with the Financial Services Authority.

Products Tractors . is one of the largest banks within the country with over 1000 branches. connected to an online network. The Al-Ghazi Tractors Limited (AGTL). commitment to professionalism and adaptation to changing environmental changes. In 1971 East Pakistan was separated and Australasia Bank lost its 50 branches and a lot of capital as well. The bank's history is divided into many phases.Allied Bank is a commercial bank in Pakistan. It was the first Muslim bank established in Pakistan before independence (1942) with the name of Australasia Bank. Punjab. 1942 as Australasia Bank at Lahore with capital of 0. Its corporate Head Office is in Karachi. 1970’s were a difficult decade for all Banks of Pakistan. During 25 years of united Pakistan the bank advanced forward in all areas of its activities.12 million. In 1974 all the Banks were nationalized including Australasia Bank. In 1991. and Sarhad Bank Ltd. Bashir Baksh. It was established on December 3. Nevertheless. with its registered Offices in Karachi and Lahore. Al-Futtaim Group of Dubai took over the management control of Al-Ghazi Tractors by acquiring 50% of its shares. Then it started its operations as Public sector financial institution. Allied Bank. the growth remained steady. was incorporated in 1983. Al-Ghazi Tractors’ plant manufactures New Holland tractors and generators in collaboration with Fiat New Holland. ABL is the first Muslim Bank established on territory that later on became Pakistan. Lahore Commercial Bank Ltd and Pak Bank Ltd were also merged in it. Pakistan. its plant located in Dera Ghazi Khan. On 1 July 1974 the new entity was renamed as ABL of Pakistan Limited. ABL’s story was one of the dedications. The small provincial Banks were merged into Australasia Bank. Pakistan. At that time the chairman was Kh. It was named as Allied Bank of Pakistan from Australasia Bank Limited in 1974.

Currently Pak Suzuki is the largest car assembler in Pakistan. New Holland 480S  It was originally Fiat 480. No vehicle assembled by Pak Suzuki offers airbags to date. But due to slight modification its nowadays 55 hp. New Holland 480S  New Holland 640  New Holland 640S  Ghazi  New Holland NH 55-56  New Holland NH 60-56  New Holland NH 70-56(4WD) Apart from tractors. It was a 48 hp tractor. Other changes include power steering {hydro assisted} and larger rear tire size which is 18. it also manufactures diesel generators and other farming equipment.4-30. . New Holland 640  It was originally Fiat 640. Cultus and Swift are sourced from Suzuki Japan that do not confirm to modern automotive safety or emission standards. side vents for air conditioning and rear window defogger and the same model has been in production since 1988 with very minor cosmetic changes. The company's first assembled models of Suzuki even lacked left side rear view mirror as standard option. Pak Suzuki Motor Company (PSMCL) is a Pakistani affiliate of Japanese automaker Suzuki. Bolan. This has resulted in more traction and hence a better tractor. It is the Pakistani assembler and distributor of cars manufactured by Suzuki and its subsidiaries and foreign divisions. Ravi. Most vehicles are produced and sold by Pak Suzuki including the Mehran. But due to slight modification its nowadays 75HP. It was a 64 hp tractor.

they now own 73. .History The firm was founded in September 1982 as a joint venture between the government of Pakistan and Suzuki Motor Japan. but from the end of 2012 Suzuki Mehrans have been equipped with EFI engines to meet the Euro-II emission standards. It was re-introduced in January 2003 with a value of 5.S. Over 2. The NYSE Composite outperformed the Dow Jones Industrial Average. 25.000 per year was the beginning production. formalizing the arrangement by which Awami Auto Ltd. and has gradually increased their holding. tracking stocks. Pak Suzuki has had a market share of more than 50% since its inception and has complete monopoly in the small car segment. It uses free-float market cap weighting. Suzuki's first locally built product was the 800 cc ST90 Carry van and truck. however foreign companies are very prevalent among the largest companies in the index: of the 100 companies in the index having the largest market capitalization (and thus the largest impact on the index). and is weighted by the number of shares listed for each issue. Pak-Suzuki was a joint venture between the semi governmental Pakistan Automobile Corporation (PACO). NYSE Composite (NYSA) is a stock market index covering all common stock listed on the New York Stock Exchange. 1965. such as airbags. rear windshield defogger and rear seat belts. who had earlier overseen local assembly from kits.It was originally given a value of 50 points.09%. and a second plant was planned for 1985 Cars built by Suzuki Pakistan often lack essential features which are standard in other cars. issues.000 points. Pak Suzuki offered factory-fitted CNG two years after rival Dewan Motors started offering the facility in their locally assembled Hyundai Santros.600 are from United States corporations and over 360 are foreign listings. real estate investment trusts. had produced the Suzuki SS80 from 1982. based on the market closing on December 31.000 stocks are covered in the index. Having assembled both the Carry and Jimny locally since 1976. In 2006. Pak Suzuki is the market leader in Pakistan Automobile Market by having more than 60 %(December. of which over 1. By 2012 the Pakistani-assembled Suzuki Mehran remained possibly the last car in the world which still used a carburetted engine. Apart from giving automobile related services like Suzuki Finance and Suzuki Insurance. including American depositary receipts. and foreign listings. more than half (55) are non-U. This includes corporations in each of the ten industries listed in the Industry Classification Benchmark. Pak Suzuki also deals in Pak Suzuki Certified Used Cars. 2011) of market share. Suzuki originally owned 25% of the stock. Lacking serious competition. By 1984 the 1000 cc Jimny (SJ410) and 800 cc Alto/Fronte (called "FX") had been added to the lineup.

61 on October 31. the index finally set fresh nominal records at the end of 2013. 2008.406. 2008. and the S&P 500 in 2004.After a gradual and volatile recovery since 2009.311.the Nasdaq Composite.000 level for the first time on June 1.000 to a multiyear bear market low near 4. 2007 but failed to pass the intra-day high of 10. and 2006 and closed above the 10. the index plummeted below 5. 2007.387. continuing troubles in the financial sector culminated in a loss of more than 8%.77 on December 31. closing at an all-time high of 10. New York Stock Exchange .77 points. Its lifetime low (as currently calculated) stands at 347. On September 29. reached in October 1974. The NYSE Composite set a closing high of 10. On November 20.17 it reached in trading on October 11. 2007.650. 2005.

Lower Manhattan. It is the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its listed companies at US$19. The NYSE trading floor is located at 11 Wall Street and .224 years ago Intercontinental exchange Thomas W. is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street.Introduction Type Location Founded Owner Key people Currency Indices Stock exchange New York city.3 trillion The New York Stock Exchange (abbreviated as NYSE and nicknamed "The Big Board".3 trillion as of June 2016 The average daily trading value was approximately US$169 billion in 2013. United states May 2400 Dow Jones Industrial Average S&P 500 NYSE Composite US$19. New York.Farley(CEO) United states doller Website No of listing Market cap NYSE. New York City.1792.

1792 twenty four brokers signed the Buttonwood Agreement which set a floor commission rate charged to clients and bound the signers to give preference to the other signers in securities sales. and has been sporadically increased since. which was formed by the NYSE's 2007 merger with the fully electronic stock exchange Euro next. with arguably the most dramatic changes . located at 30 Broad Street.The NYSE has been the subject of several lawsuits regarding fraud or breach of duty and in 2004 was sued by its former CEO for breach of contract and defamation. Securities trade in the latter nineteenth and early twentieth century’s was prone to panics and crashes. By 1869 membership had to be capped. restrictions on manipulative trading were adopted as well as formal organs of governance. an American holding company it also lists (NYSE: ICE). History The earliest recorded organization of securities trading in New York among brokers directly dealing with each other can be traced to the Buttonwood Agreement. After sending a delegation to Philadelphia to observe the organization of their board of brokers. Previously securities exchange had been intermediated by the auctioneers who also conducted more mundane auctions of commodities such as wheat and tobacco. NYSE and Euro next now operate as divisions of Intercontinental Exchange. The earliest securities traded were mostly governmental securities such as War Bonds from the Revolutionary War and First Bank of the United States stock although Bank of New York stock was a non-governmental security traded in the early days. The NYSE is owned by Intercontinental Exchange. The latter half of the nineteenth century saw rapid growth in securities trading. On May 17. Previously. The invention of the electrical telegraph consolidated markets. In 1817 the stockbrokers of New York operating under the Buttonwood Agreement instituted new reforms and reorganized. which previously had been taking place at the Tontine Coffee House. A fifth trading room. it was part of NYSE Euro next (NYX). was closed in February 2007. After re-forming as the New York Stock and Exchange Board the broker organization began renting out space exclusively for securities trading. The Civil War greatly stimulated speculative securities trading in New York. The main building and the 11 Wall Street building were designated National Historic Landmarks in 1978. Several locations were used between 1817 and 1865. and New York's market rose to dominance over Philadelphia after weathering some market panics better than other alternatives. Government regulation of securities trading was eventually seen as necessary. when the present location was composed of 21 rooms used for the facilitation of trading.

in a deal intended to reorganize the NYSE as a publicly traded company. financial markets. and completely reopened for stock trading in mid-December. 1938. the European combined stock market. The Black Thursday crash of the Exchange on October 24. but it partially re-opened on November 28 of that year in order to help the war effort by trading bonds. are often blamed for precipitating the Great Depression. A little over one year later. the exchange was registered as a national securities exchange with the U.The main building. with a president and a . The perpetrators were never found. 1914). located at 18 Broad Street. 1929. NYSE's governing board voted to merge with rival Archipelago on December 6. and become a for-profit. still have marks on their façades caused by the bombing. commercial banking. "It comprises a matrix of wholesale financial sectors. thus forming the NYSE Euro next. asset management. Marsh Carter was the Chairman of the NYSE and the CEO was Duncan Niederauer. The principal sectors are securities industry. the NYSE Group completed its merger with Euro next. In an effort to try to restore investor confidence. and the sell-off panic which started on Black Tuesday. the Exchange unveiled a fifteen-point program aimed to upgrade protection for the investing public on October 31. 1934.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 2007. The Stock Exchange Luncheon Club was situated on the seventh floor from 1898 until its closure in 2006. killing 33 people and injuring more than 400. and financial industry firms" (Robert. The NYSE building and some buildings nearby. was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978as was the 11 Wall Street building The floor of the New York Stock Exchange in 1908 The NYSE announced its plans to merge with Archipelago on April 21. and insurance. a bomb exploded on Wall Street outside the NYSE building. on April 4. On October 1. It began trading under the name NYSE Group on March 8. 2005. October 29. Prior to the acquisition of NYSE Euro next by the ICE in 2013. 2006. 2002). 1920. financial institutions.occurring in the 1930s after a major stock market crash precipitated an economic depression.Wall Street is the leading US money center for international financial activities and the foremost US location for the conduct of wholesale financial services. public company. the first transatlantic stock exchange. between the corners of Wall Street and Exchange Place. such as the JP Morgan building. The exchange was closed shortly after the beginning of World War I (July 31. 2005. On September 16.

Similarly. at that time we really had no notion of anything called a media event". Three months later the stock exchange enclosed the gallery with bulletproof glass.thirty-three-member board. When the UAL deal fell through. there was another major drop for the Dow on October 13. Black Monday was followed by Terrible Tuesday. On January 26. and some laughed and waved. The crash was apparently caused by a reaction to a news story of a $6. in what later became known as the 1997 Mini-Crash but from which the DJIA recovered quickly.18% drop in value (554. 1971. the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) dropped 508 points. The provocateurs hurled fistfuls of dollars toward the trading floor below. Hoffman wrote a decade later. On February 18. which broke down. the Asian Financial Crisis. "We didn't call the press. when he led members of the Yippee movement to the Exchange's gallery. September 17. the non-profit corporation was formed. Like the fall of many foreign markets. NYSE's stock exchange trader’s floor before the introduction of electronic readouts and computer screens. caused the doors of the exchange to be closed and the band Rage Against the Machine to be escorted from the site by security after band members attempted to gain entry into the exchange.6% loss in a single day. it helped trigger the collapse of the junk bond market causing the Dow to fall 190. one of the rare times the NYSE was closed for . Some traders booed.91 percent. an altercation during filming of the music video for "Sleep Now in the Fire". a day in which the Exchange's systems did not perform well and some people had difficulty completing their trades. the parent company of United Airlines. the NYSE was closed for 4 trading sessions. On October 19.In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks.58 points. a 22. which was directed by Michael Moore. there was a panic in the financial world during the year of 1997. the second-biggest one-day drop the exchange had experienced. the Dow suffered a 7. One of Abby Hoffman's well-known publicity stunts took place in 1967. This was the first time that the "circuit breaker" rule had operated. resuming on Monday.26 points) on October 27. and the number of board members was reduced to twenty-five. 2000. 1987. 1997. or 6.Subsequently.75 billion leveraged buyout deal for UAL Corporation. 1989—the MiniCrash of 1989.

with a 998-point loss later being called the2010 Flash Crash (as the drop occurred in minutes before rebounding). technical issues affected the stock exchange. crash. Berkshire Hathaway's A Class shares. In a Leap year starting on Sunday (2012/2040) or a Common year starting on Sunday (2006/2017/2023) the day after New Year's Day is given as a full holiday.The last time the stock exchange was closed due to weather for a full two days was on March 12 and 13 in 1888.On July 8.000 a share for the first time. including New Year's Day. and the Department of Homeland Security confirmed that there was "no sign of malicious activity”. 2015. Trading eventually resumed at 3:10 pm ET the same day. 1987. and Christmas. 2014. Also. hit $200. the day before Independence Day is given as a full holiday since the stock exchange is always closed on Saturday. Christmas Eve and New Year's Eve are also given as full holidays. Official holidays and special circumstances The New York Stock Exchange is closed on all federal holidays except Veterans Day. the stock exchange was shut down for 2 days due to Hurricane Sandy.5 million by the Securities and Exchange Commission to settle charges it violated market rules. the Dow Jones Industrial Average posted its largest intraday percentage drop since the October 19.On May 1. The NYSE reassured stock traders that the outage was "not a result of a cyber breach". the highest priced shares on the NYSE. certain types of years require the stock exchange to be closed on days that are not federal holidays in observance of the related aforementioned three holidays. 2014. although it did not come to a conclusion as to the cause. The regulators found no evidence that the fall was caused by erroneous ("fat finger") orders.more than one session and only the third time since March 1933. in the just aforementioned year types. Independence Day. The SEC and CFTC published a report on the event.On October 29.On May 6. . 2010. In a Leap year starting on Thursday (2004/2032) or a Common year starting on Friday (2010/2021/2027) the day after Independence Day is given as a full holiday since the stock exchange is always closed on Sunday. In a Leap year starting on Wednesday (1992/2020) or a Common year starting on Thursday (2009/2015/2026). halting trading at 11:32 am ET. However. the stock exchange was fined $4. In a Leap year starting on Friday (2016/2044) or a Common year starting on Saturday (2005/2011/2022) the day before Christmas Eve and the day after Christmas are given as full holidays. 2012.On August 14.

Until 2005. The system enabled traders to receive and execute orders electronically via wireless transmission. In 1868.NYSE works with US regulators like the SEC and CFTC to coordinate risk management measures in the electronic trading environment through the implementation of mechanisms like circuit breakers and liquidity replenishment points. On September 25. The term comes from the fact that up until the 1870s NYSE members sat in chairs to trade. and this number was increased several times over the years. NYSE member Michael Einersen. with the exception of holidays declared by the Exchange in advance. the number of seats was fixed at 533. 2007. As of January 24. Customers can now send orders for immediate electronic execution or route orders to the floor for trade in the auction market. They will gather around the appropriate post where a specialist broker.366. who designed and developed this system. the number of seats was set at 1. the right to directly trade shares on the exchange was conferred upon owners of the 1366 "seats". acts as an auctioneer in an open outcry auction market environment to bring buyers and sellers together and to manage the actual auction.The NYSE trading floor in August 2008 The New York Stock Exchange (sometimes referred to as "the Big Board") provides a means for buyers and sellers to trade shares of stock in companies registered for public trading. In the first three months of 2007. In 1953. These seats were a sought-after commodity as they . 1995. They do on occasion (approximately 10% of the time) facilitate the trades by committing their own capital and as a matter of course disseminate information to the crowd that helps to bring buyers and sellers together. in excess of 82% of all order volume was delivered to the floor electronically. The auction process moved toward automation in 1995 through the use of wireless hand held computers (HHC). The NYSE is open for trading Monday through Friday from 9:30 am – 4:00 pm ET. executed 1000 shares of IBM through this HHC ending a 203-year process of paper transactions and ushering in an era of automated trading. The NYSE trades in a continuous auction format. where traders can execute stock transactions on behalf of investors. who is employed by a NYSE member firm (that is. all NYSE stocks can be traded via its electronic hybrid market (except for a small group of very high-priced stocks). he/she is not an employee of the New York Stock Exchange).

The Barnes family is the only known lineage to have five generations of NYSE members: Winthrop H.000 in cash per seat and 77. Following the 2011 rule change.4%).000 shares of the newly formed corporation. Barnes (admitted 2003).)            1792. DJIA exceeds 100 on January 12. the constitution of the New York Stock and Exchange Board is adopted.Following the Black Monday market crash in 1987. In 1915. today. would be over six million dollars. Derek J. In 1907. the NYSE sets three circuit breaker levels at levels of 7% (Level 1). In 1914. October 29 signal the end of the Roaring Twenties bull market. when no trading halts apply.0% drop on October 15. In 2005. it had also been established by the New York brokers as a formal organization. Barnes (admitted 1926). 2008. Black Thursday.000 and a license for bond trading is available for as little as $1. October 24 and Black Tuesday. reopening December 12 brings the largest one-day percentage drop in the DJIA (24. Richard S.conferred the ability to directly trade stock on the NYSE.25 million as the exchange entered into an agreement to merge with Archipelago and become a for-profit. generally falling during recessions and rising during economic expansions. In 1903. central quote system established. The most expensive inflation-adjusted seat was sold in 1929 for $625.P. Barnes (admitted 1972). and seat holders were commonly referred to as members of the NYSE.Neither are resell-able. The NYSE now sells one-year licenses to trade directly on the exchange. . Robert H. Panic of 1907. Barnes (admitted 1894).000 as of 2010. which. NYSE acquires its first traded securitie In 1817. and 20% (Level 3) of the average closing price of the S&P 500 for the preceding trading day. NYSE imposed trading curbs to reduce market volatility and massive panic sell-offs. 1867. Barnes (admitted 1951). market price is given in dollars. two weeks. In In 1896. Licenses for floor trading are available for $40. NYSE moves into new quarters at 18 Broad Street. the first stock ticker. seats have sold for as high as $4 million in the late 1990s and as low as $1 million in 2001. In 1906. but may be transferable during a change of ownership of a corporation holding a trading license. Seat prices varied widely over the years. Richard W. In 1920. publicly traded company. World War I causes the longest exchange shutdown: four months. 13% (Level 2).000. In recent times. a bomb exploded on Wall Street outside the NYSE building In 1929. seat prices shot up to $3. DJIA first published in The Wall Street Journal. Seat owners received $500. A Level 3 decline results in trading being suspended for the remainder of the day (The biggest one-day decline in the S&P 500 since 1987 was the 9. at the start of each trading day. Level 1 and Level 2 declines result in a 15-minute trading halt unless they occur after 3:25 pm.

DJIA exceeds 10. In 1980. . In 1949.6%) in history. In 2007. October 19. Black Monday.000 on March 29. first NYSE global index is launched under the ticker NYIID. The starting point of the index is 50. replaced by decimals (increments of $0. Securities Investor Protection Corporation established. In 1954. NYSE and ArcaEx merge. leading to the installation of bullet-proof glass. for-profit NYSE Group.000.000 for the first time on November 14. DJIA closes above 500 for the first time on March 12.722. NYSE begins a composite index of all listed common stocks. protesters led by Abbie Hoffman throw mostly fake dollar bills at traders from gallery. In 1967. In 2001. trading in fractions (n⁄16) ends. September 11. It is later renamed the NYSE Composite Index. see Decimalization). the longest (eight-year) bull market begins. DJIA exceeds 3.000 on July 19 and closes at a peak of 14. In 1999. Bush shows up unannounced to the Floor about an hour and a half before a Federal Open Market Committee interest-rate decision on January 31 NYSE announces its merger with the American Stock Exchange. In 1996. In 1956.000 on October 19.000 on June 1.53 on October 9. This is referred to as the "Common Stock Index" and is transmitted daily. sees the second-largest one-day DJIA percentage drop (22.01. Inc.98 on January 14. Muriel Siebert becomes the first female member of the New York Stock Exchange. In 1995. In 1987. NYSE recognized as Not-for-Profit organization. In 1977. DJIA exceeds 14. In 1991. creating NYSE Arca and forming the publicly owned. US President George W. DJIA peaks at 11. in turn. DJIA closes above 1. NYSE Group merges with Euronext.164. DJIA surpasses its 1929 peak in inflation-adjusted dollars. In 1970. In 1967. NYSE Composite closes above 10. trading floor is opened to women. foreign brokers are admitted to NYSE.                      In 1943. New York Futures Exchange established.000. creating the first trans-Atlantic stock exchange group. In 1971. NYSE Composite Index relaunched and value set equal to 5. DJIA tops 12. 2001 attacks occur causing NYSE to close for four sessions In 2003. In 1966.000 points In 2006. In 2000. In 1972. DJIA exceeds 5. real-time ticker introduced..

000. Jeffrey Sprecher. DJIA closes above 16.33 soon after open on August 24.12 in cash. NYSE Euronext and Deutsche Börse agreed to scrap the merger In April 2011. in spite of this.86 on October 14. NYSE Euronext shareholders would receive either $33. culminating at 5½-year market lows. the European Commission blocked the merger of NYSE with Deutsche Börse.795. a deal in which NASDAQ would have taken control of the stock exchanges. before bouncing back and closing at 15. DJIA dropped over 1. Instead. will retain those positions. and serve as a forum for discussion of relevant national and international policy issues.000.015. On February 2. On February 1. but four members of the NYSE board of directors will be added to the ICE board Mission To add value to the capital-raising and asset. 2012.  In 2015. after commissioner Joaquin Almunia stated that the merger "would have led to a near-monopoly in European financial derivatives worldwide".000 on December 23. In 2008.05 on March 9 reaching a 12-year low. DJIA achieved an all-time high of process by providing the highestquality and most cost-effective self-regulated marketplace for the trading of financial instruments. ICE had proposed to buy NYSE Euronext in a stock swap with a valuation of $8 billion. Intercontinental Exchange (ICE).500 to end the year.36 on 19 May. as yet unnamed.000 points to 15. 2015.72. record volatility continues for the next two months.  In 2009.  In 2014. but it was finally terminated after the United States Department of Justice indicated their intention to block the deal due to antitrust concerns In December 2012.000 on July 3 and above 18. and NASDAQ OMX Group had together made an unsolicited proposal to buy NYSE Euronext for approximately US$11. and NYSE Euro next shareholders will have 40%. resulting in a permanent prohibition of naked short selling and a three-week temporary ban on all short selling of financial stocks. DJIA closes above 17.NYSE Euronext rejected this offer twice. an American futures exchange. acquisition. promote confidence in and understanding of that process. Merger. DJIA returns to 10. DJIA closes at 6. The chairman and CEO of ICE. wherein Deutsche Börse shareholders will have 60% ownership of the new entity. 2011 NYSE and Deutsche Börse announced their merger to form a new company.  In 2013. a drop of over 669 points. Deutsche Börse and NYSE will have to sell either their Eurex derivatives or LIFFE shares in order to not create a monopoly. or $11. 2012.000. DJIA closes above 2007 highs on March 5.  In 2015. and control On February 15. DJIA loses more than 500 points on September 15 amid fears of bank failures. .27 in cash and approximately a sixth of a share of ICE.351.

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the NYSE bond market structure offers corporate bonds including convertibles. as well as municipal bonds including general obligation and revenue bonds. NYSE. and NYSE Amex Options are responsible for enforcing both their own and their members' compliance with exchange rules and applicable federal securities requirements. NYSE Arca Equities. foreign issuer bonds. Flex & Leaps EXCHANGE-TRADED PRODUCTS Exchange-traded products. currency denominated bonds and zero coupon bonds.S. are one of the fastest growing investment products in the world. NYSE MKT. non-U. combining the simplicity of stocks with the diversified risk of mutual funds. corporate bonds. NYSE Arca’s listed ETPs had over $2 trillion in assets under management (AUM).S. Regulations As self-regulatory organizations. NYSE Regulation oversees these self-regulatory . NYSE Arca Options. representing over 92% of all U. As of June 2016. exchange-traded notes (ETNs) and exchange-traded vehicles (ETVs). foreign debt instruments. EXCHANGE-TRADED PRODUCTS OFFERED:  Exchange Traded Funds  Exchange Traded Vehicles  Exchange Traded Notes BONDS Designed to provide investors easy access to transparent pricing and trading information in today’s debt market. as well as monitoring and enforcing compliance by listed companies with applicable listing standards. listed exchange-traded products (ETPs). which include exchange-traded funds (ETFs).

It is also the specialist's job to ensure that there is a market for their specified stocks at all times. meaning they will invest their own firm's capital at times to keep the market active and maintain the shares' liquidity. Each specialist stands in one location on the floor and deals in one or several specific stocks. encourage free and open markets. the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is the leading stock exchange in the world.Specialists and brokers interact to create an effective system that provides investors with competitive prices based on supply and demand. depending on their trading volume. The specialist's job is to accept 'buy and sell' orders from brokers and manage the actual auction. high-quality securities. others are allocated to FINRA or are otherwise performed by FINRA or other self-regulatory organizations pursuant to a regulatory services agreement and national market system plans. Sr. the major players on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange are specialists and brokers.46 billion shares each day. as the NYSE strives to maintain its reputation of trading strong. and protect investors and the public interest. Many of these regulatory functions are performed directly by NYSE Company name 1 ExxoMobil 2 PetroChina Market cap Corp(XOM) (PTR) $329B $237B .800 companies. Listed companies in New York stock exchange Companies Trading approximately 1.Operating as a continuous auction floor trading stock exchange.Brokers are employed by investment firms and trade either on behalf of their firm's clients or the firm itself. Each listed company has to meet strict requirements. bringing 'buy and sell' orders to the specialists. The exchange trades stocks for some 2. ranging from blue chips to new high-growth companies. The broker moves around the floor.organization responsibilities and functions in support of our exchanges’ mission to promote just and equitable principles of trade.

A) (BBL) (BP) $191B $190B $187B $186B .3 BHP 4 Petrobras 5 HSBC 6 Wal-Mart Stores(WMT) 7 China 8 Royal 9 BHP 10 BP Exxon Mobil Corp Billiton(BHP) (PBR) Holdings (CHL) Shell Billiton Plc $210B $206B $203B Mobile Dutch (HBC) $222B plc plc(RDS.

It is the largest direct descendant of John D. 1999 by the merger of Exxon (formerly Standard Oil Company of New Jersey) and Mobil (formerly the Standard Oil Company of New York). a title that was also associated with Standard Oil since its incorporation in 1870. and was formed on November 30. ExxonMobil has a history of lobbying for climate change denial and against the idea that global warming is caused by the burning of fossil fuels. With 37 oil refineries in 21 countries constituting a combined daily refining capacity of 6.000. and subsequently entered trading on the Shanghai index. The company was ranked No.(ExxonMobil) is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving. When ranked by oil and gas reserves. ExxonMobil is the largest refiner in the world. Uyghur: ‫ )چوڭگو نېفتى‬is a Chinese oil and gas company and is the listed arm of stateowned China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC).2 billion BOE (barrels of oil equivalent) at the end of 2013 and the 2007 rates of production were expected to last more than 14 years. headquartered in Dongcheng District. Texas. widely considered to be one of the world's worst oil spills in terms of damage to the environment. ExxonMobil is also the fifth largest publicly traded company by market capitalization. traditional Chinese: 中國石油天然氣股份 有限公司.000 m3). the mainland enterprise announced its plans to issue stock in Shanghai in November 2007. In 2008. It is China's biggest oil producer. influence on American foreign policy. it is 14th in the world—with less than 1 percent of the total.ExxonMobil is the largest of the world's supermajors with daily production of 3. this was approximately 3 percent of world production. 6 globally in Forbes Global 2000 list in 2014. which is less than several of the largest state-owned petroleum companies. The company has also been the target of accusations of improperly dealing with human rights issues.3 million barrels (1. History . ExxonMobil was the second most profitable company in the Fortune 500 in 2014. The world's 8th largest company by revenue. Traded in Hong Kong and New York. ExxonMobil's reserves were 25. Beijing.921 million BOE. ExxonMobil has been criticized for its slow response to cleanup efforts after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska. Petro china Petro-ChinaCompany-Limited (simplifiedChinese: 中国石油天然气股份有限公司. and its impact on the future of nations. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company.

Fidelity Investments. PetroChina has also come under scrutiny from international organizations for its part in trading with the Sudanese government who continues the ongoingwar in Darfur. considered the largest contract ever signed between China and Australia. to divest from Sinopec. in 2005. PetroChina's subsidiary in Canada is named Phoenix Energy Holdings and has an .PetroChina's Dushanzi District refinery became fully operational on September 24. 1999. 2007.the headquarters of PetroChina in Beijing.The landmark of Dongzhimen -.4 billion for a 49% stake in Canada's Duvernay shale assets owned by Encana.PetroChina was established as a joint stock company with limited liabilities under the Company Law of the People's Republic of China (the PRC) on November 5. several institutional investors such as Harvard and Yale decided. as part of the restructuring of CNPC. 2009. following the Rio Tinto espionage case and the granting of visas to Rebiya Kadeer to visit Australia. but can also be attributed to the near duopoly on the wholesale and retail business of oil products it shares with Sinopec in China. 2009. At the beginning of May 2007. chemicals and natural gasbusinesses. It is the China's biggest investment inshale gas to date. despite relations between Australia and China being at their lowest point in years. The refinery is China's largest refinery with annual capacity of 10 million tons of oil and 1 million tons of ethylene. and also forms as China's largest supply of relatively "clean energy". which ensures China a steady supply of LNG fuel for 20 years. the company announced it had made China's largest oil find in a decade off the country's northeast coast. 2007. Sudan divestment efforts have continued to be concentrated on PetroChina since then. This deal has been formally secured. On November 7. In the restructuring. In May 2008 these expectations were lowered. this success may be the result of corporate management.On August 19. The refinery is an integral part of China's ambitions to import oil from Kazakhstan. refining and marketing. February 2011: PetroChina agreed to pay $5. also announced in a filing in the US that it had sold 91 per cent of its American Depositary Receipts in PetroChina in the first quarter of 2007. PetroChina signed an A$50 billion deal with ExxonMobil to purchase liquefied natural gas from the Gorgon field in Western Australia. Because of Sinopec's link to Sudan through parent company China Petrochemical Corporation. in an oilfield named Jidong Nanpu in Bohai Bay. Although PetroChina is the most profitable company in Asia. Hang Seng Index Services Company announced that PetroChina would be a Hang Seng Index Constituent Stock. effective December 10. after pressure from activist groups. CNPC injected into PetroChina most of the assets and liabilities of CNPC relating to its exploration and production.

It operates under the direction of Li Zhiming as Brion Energy. .office in the Sun Life Tower at 140-4th Ave SW in Calgary.