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THE REAL CRISIS

In Mental Health Today

CONTENTS
Introduction: Psychiatrys
Lack of Science ................................. 2

Chapter One:
The Drugging of Our Children ......... 5

Chapter Two: Harmful


Psychiatric Labeling ......................... 11

Chapter Three: Coercive


Care in Psychiatry.......................... 15

Chapter Four: Psychiatrys


Destructive Treatments ................ 21

Chapter Five:
Better Solutions .............................. 29

Recommendations .......................... 31

Citizens Commission on
Human Rights International ........... 32


INTRODUCTION
Psychiatrys Lack of Science

H
ow concerned should we be Professor Edward Shorter, author of
about reports that mental illness A History of Psychiatry, stated, Rather than
has become an epidemic striking heading off into the brave new world of science,
one out of every four people in DSM-IV-style psychiatry seemed in some ways
the world today? According to the to be heading out into the desert.2
source of these alarming reports the psychiatric We formulated this report and its recommen-
industry mental illness threatens to engulf dations for those with responsibility in deciding
us all and can only be checked by immediate the funding and fate of mental health programs
and massive increases in funding. They warn and insurance coverage, including legislators and
of the disastrous effects of withheld appropria- other decision makers charged with the task of

ROHIT ADI, M.D.: MARY JO PAGEL, M.D.:


Dr. Adi is a diplomate of the Dr. Pagel graduated from the
American Board of Internal University of Texas Medical Branch
Medicine. He has been with honors in cardiology. She is a
practicing emergency medicine specialist in internal medicine and
since 1993 and now serves as the preventative and industrial medicine,
assistant director of a trauma cen- and is medical director of a medi-
ter that handles 72,000 patients cal clinic. She is a member of the
a year. medical advisory board of the Citizens
Commission on Human Rights.

tions. What the psychiatrists never warn of is protecting the health, well-being and safety of
that the very diagnostic system used to derive their citizens.
the alarming statistic their own Diagnostic The results of the widespread reliance by
and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV psychiatrists on the DSM, with its ever-expanding
(DSM-IV) and its equivalent, the mental disor- list of illnesses for each of which a psychiatric
ders section of the International Classification of drug can be legally prescribed, include these
Diseases (ICD-10) are under attack for their staggering statistics:
lack of scientific authority and veracity and z Twenty million schoolchildren worldwide
their almost singular emphasis on psychotropic have now been diagnosed with mental disorders
drug treatment. and prescribed cocaine-like stimulants and
Professor Herb Kutchins from California powerful antidepressants as treatment.
State University, Sacramento, and Professor z Psychiatric drug use and abuse is surging
Stuart A. Kirk from the University of New York, worldwide: More than 100 million prescriptions
authors of several books describing the flaws of for antidepressants alone were written in 2002 at
the DSM, warn, There are indeed many illu- a cost of $19.5 billion (?15.9 billion).3
sions about DSM and very strong needs among z One in seven prescriptions in France
its developers to believe that their dreams includes a psychotropic drug and more than
of scientific excellence and utility have 50% of the unemployed 1.8 million take
come true. 1 psychotropic drugs.4
The bitter medicine is that DSM has Meanwhile, driven by DSM-derived mental
unsuccessfully attempted to medicalize too illness statistics, the international mental health
many human troubles. budget has skyrocketed in the last 10 years.
z In the United States, the mental health same applies to programs such as the screen-
budget soared from $33 billion (?29.7 billion) ing for mental disorders of young children in
in 1994 to more than $80 billion (?72 billion) schools.
today. The claim that only increased funding will
z Switzerlands spending on mental health cure the problems of psychiatry has lost its ring
increased from $73.5 million (?65 million) in of truth. Fields of expertise that are built on
1988 to over $184.8 million (?165 million) over a scientific claims are routinely called upon to
10-year period. deliver empirical proof to support their theories.
z Germany currently spends more than $2.6 When the Centers for Disease Control receives
billion (?2.34 billion) a year on mental health. funds to combat a dangerous disease, the funding

JULIAN WHITAKER, M.D.: ANTHONY P. URBANEK, M.D.


Dr. Whitaker is the founder of Dr. Urbanek has a prior fellowship with
the Whitaker Wellness Center in the National Institutes of Health and
California and a popular speaker is an oral and maxillofacial surgeon.
and lecturer. Dr. Whitaker His medical career includes founding
is the author of eight books, medical centers, such as the Trelawney
including Reversing Heart Disease Outreach Project, in a joint venture
and Reversing Diabetes. He is with the Jamaican government to
the author of the widely read service 50,000 Jamaicans. He currently
newsletter Health and Healing. practices in Nashville.

z In France, mental health costs have soared, results in the discovery of a biological cause and
contributing $400 million (?361 million) to the development of a cure. Biological tests exist to
countrys deficit.5 determine the presence or absence of most bodily
In spite of record spending, countries now diseases. While people can have serious mental
face escalating levels of child abuse, suicide, drug difficulties, psychiatry has no objective, physical
abuse, violence and crime very real problems test to confirm the presence of any mental illness.
for which the psychiatric industry can identify Diagnosis is purely subjective.
neither causes nor solutions. It is safe to conclude, The many critical challenges facing societies
therefore, that a reduction in the funding of today reflect the vital need to strengthen
psychiatric programs will not cause a worsening individuals through workable, viable and
of mental health. Less funding for harmful psy- humanitarian alternatives to harmful psychiatric
chiatric practices will, in fact, improve the state options. We invite you to review for yourself the
of mental health. alternatives we have included. We respectfully
The evidence presented herein has been offer the information in this report for your
drawn from physicians, attorneys, judges, consideration so that you may draw your own
psychiatrists, parents and others active in the conclusions about the state of mental health and
mental health or related fields. The consensus psychiatrys ability, or lack thereof, to contribute
of these experts is that DSM-based, psychiatric to its resolution.
initiatives such as the broadening of involuntary
commitment laws and the expansion of so-called Rohit Adi, M.D. Mary Jo Pagel, M.D.
community mental health plans are detrimental
to society in human and economic terms. The Julian Whitaker, M.D. Anthony P. Urbanek, M.D.
IMPORTANT FACTS

1 More than 6 million U.S. children have


been put on mind-altering
psychiatric drugs for an invented
mental disorder called Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

2
or ADHD.

Another 1.5 million children are


prescribed antidepressants known
to cause suicidal ideation and
violent behavior.

3 Australias stimulant prescriptions


for children increased 34-fold in the
past two decades, while in Britain it
increased 9,200% between 1992 and
2000.6

4 In Spain, the consumption of meth-


ylphenidate (Ritalin) increased 363%
over a 9-year period, while in Mexico,
sales rose 800% between 1993 and
2001.

5 The U.S. Drug Enforcement


Administration (DEA) reported that
neither animals nor humans can
differentiate between cocaine,
amphetamines and methylphenidate:
[T]hey produce effects that are nearly
identical.7
CHAPTER ONE
The Drugging of
Our Children

A
re children being overdrugged? An drug consumption by very young children in the
examination of data and statistics last 15 years.
such as those summarized on the
preceding page reveals the alarm- Community and Government Response
ing rate at which children are being In the United States more and more laws are being
medicated for mental disorders. passed prohibiting schools from coercing parents or
In addition to the more than 6 million children expelling a student if his parents refuse to put him on
in the United States who have been prescribed mind- a psychiatric drug.
altering psychiatric drugs for so-called Attention Deficit A mother in New York fought to preserve this fun-
Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), 2 million have been damental right of parents. After school psychologists
put on antidepressant and and psychiatrists coerced
antipsychotic drugs. Patricia Weathers to drug
These soaring num- her 8-year-old son when
bers of children interna- Legislators and the he was diagnosed with
tionally being drugged ADHD, the child became
parallel the increase in general public should not withdrawn, could not eat
the number of mental or sleep and ran away from
disorders in the fourth home.
edition of the American be hoodwinked. Behaviors Recognizing that these
Psychiatric Associa- problems started with
tions (APA) Diagnostic cannot be diseases. the ADHD medications,
and Statistical Manual Mrs. Weathers gradually
of Mental Disorders IV Jeffrey A. Schaler, withdrew her son from
(DSM-IV) and the men- adjunct professor of psychology, the drugs. Medical tests
tal disorders section of Chestnut Hill College, Philadelphia, 1998 showed that he suffered
its counterpart, the Inter- from allergies and ane-
national Classification of mia, and when treated, his
Diseases (ICD). (See Chapter Two for more information behavior problems disappeared. He is now drug-free
about DSM and ICD.) and doing well.8
In 1952, the first edition of the DSM contained In 1987, ADHD was voted into existence by mem-
only three disorders for infants or children. By 1980, bers of the American Psychiatric Association. Talking
there was a nearly ten-fold increase in the number of in class, being distracted, fidgeting or losing pencils can
child disorders. Today, children barely out of diapers result in a child being labeled ADHD and drugged.
are already diagnosed with mental illness, leading Dr. William Carey, a respected pediatrician at
to a substantial increase in prescribed psychiatric the Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, says: The

CHAPTER ONE
The Drugging of Our Children
5
current ADHD formulation, which makes the diagno- The Risks of Psychotropic Drugs
sis when a certain number of troublesome behaviors Ritalin took me as low or lower than anything
are present and other criteria met, overlooks the fact else I used in the 60s and 70s including heroin,
that these behaviors are probably usually normal.9 cocaine, LSD the whole horror show , said one
Psychologist Bob Jacobs warns that psychiatrists Ritalin addict from New Zealand. The rush was
and pharmaceutical companies have turned behav- euphoric its like poor mans coke. But the side
ioral problems in children into disorders: Nobody effects were devastating. Youd get paranoid even
has ever presented any evidence of a condition faster than with coke. Youd think your friends were
called ADHD except to say all these children are going to turn you in, the cops were about to beat down
hyperactive; all these children are inattentive, and the door, that youd taken an overdose and your heart
therefore they all have a disease.10 would jump out of your chest. But I was so addicted
The U.S. National Institutes of Health concluded to the few seconds of euphoria, Id put up with the
in 1998, our knowledge about the cause or causes hours of insanity, pain and [aggression].
of ADHD remains largely speculative. At the same time that child psychiatric drugs
In 2002, the Netherlands Advertising Commis- are broadly promoted as safe and effective, many
sion ordered the countrys Brain Institute to stop governments classify them as abusive and as addic-
falsely advertising ADHD as a neurobiological or tive as morphine, opium and cocaine. The stimulants
genetic disorder because no scientific evidence exists prescribed for ADHD were already listed as controlled
to prove this true. substances under Schedule II of the 1971 United
The APA concedes that there are no labora- Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances
tory tests that have been established to diagnose because they constitute a substantial risk to public
ADHD.11 health, have little therapeutic usefulness but have a
Israeli physician Louria Shulamit is one of a strong high potential for addiction.12
and growing international coalition of responsible The U.S. FDA and Health Canada have warned
professionals who object to giving children psychi- that one stimulant can cause heart irregularities, stroke
atric drugs for emotional problems: We dont need and sudden death.
drugged students. We should put our efforts into According to a special study by the U.S. Drug
finding [the] reasons. Some of them are health prob- Enforcement Administration, Psychotic episodes, para-
lems like food intolerances or vitamin deficiencies. noid delusions, hallucinations, and bizarre behavioral
Some are learning problems. As doctors, we need to characteristics similar to amphetamine-like stimulant
find the real problems instead of drugging children. toxicity, have been associated with methylphenidate

Many psychotropic drugs


prescribed for children are
classified as abusive and are
as addictive as morphine, opium
and cocaine.

CHAPTER ONE
The Drugging of Our Children
6
CASE REPORTS
Child Deaths
W hile psychiatrists proclaim psychoactive
drugs safe and effective for children, many
parents know from tragic personal experi-
ence that this is false.
drugs like amphetamines and concluded that Matthew
died from long-term use of the prescribed ADHD stimu-
lant. I cannot go back and change things for us at
this point. However, I hope to God my story and
information will reach the hearts and minds of many
Shaina Dunkle families, so they can make an educated decision,
1991 2001 Mr. Smith said.
Vicki Dunkles daugh-
ter Shainas life had been Samuel Grossman
filled with dance classes, 1973 1986
Girl Scouts, piano lessons In 1986, Samuel
and softball games. But in Grossman, 13, died
1999, when Shaina was after being prescribed
in second grade, teach- a stimulant for over-
ers said she was too activity. The autopsy
active and talked out of revealed an enlarged
turn. Without diagnostic tests or physical exams, a heart caused by the
psychiatrist concluded she suffered from ADHD and psychiatric drug. Accor-
prescribed a psychiatric drug. On February 26, 2001, ding to the boys moth-
Shaina suffered a seizure in the doctors office. Her er, Giving this drug to
mother rushed to hold her in her arms, where, a child is like playing Russian roulette. No one
minutes later, she died. Shaina looked into my eyes knows which child will get the brain dam-
as her life ended and I could do nothing to save age and/or those who will die. I played the game
her. Its been two years and I relive those last few and I lost.
minutes every day. Believe me, it is a nightmare no par-
ent should ever have to live with, Mrs. Dunkle said. An
autopsy revealed that Shaina had died from toxic levels Stephanie Hall
of the prescribed amphetamine. 1984 1996
Stephanie Hall was
a shy first grader in Ohio
Matthew Smith who loved books and
1986 2000 school. After her teacher
At age 7, Matthew reported that Stephanie
Smith was diagnosed with had a hard time staying
ADHD. His parents were on task, a doctor diag-
told he needed to take nosed attention deficit
a stimulant to help him disorder and prescribed a
focus and that non-com- stimulant. Over the next five years, Stephanie complained
pliance could bring criminal of stomachaches and nausea and displayed mood
charges for neglecting their swings and bizarre behavior. On January 5, 1996, at age
sons educational and emo- 11, Stephanie died in her sleep from cardiac arrhythmia.
tional needs. My wife and I were scared of the possibility Mrs. Hall remembers the last words exchanged with
of losing our children if we didnt comply, says Matthews her daughter: I said, Its 9 oclock, Steph, get to bed,
father, Lawrence. The parents acceded to the pressure and she replied, OK Mom, I love you. The next morn-
after being told that there was nothing wrong with the ing when her father went to wake her for school, she
medication. But on March 21, 2000, while skateboard- didnt respond. We called paramedics and the police
ing, Matthew suffered a heart attack and died. The coroner Stephanie was so cold. I kept saying to them, She is
determined that Matthews heart showed clear signs of supposed to bury me, not me bury her.
the small blood vessel damage that is caused by stimulant
(Ritalin) abuse. Severe medical consequences, includ- of these for 7- to 12-year-olds in the United States
ing death, have been reported.13 increased 151% and 580% for children under six,
Even when not abused, side effects of Ritalin resulting in some as young as five committing
include blood pressure and pulse changes, angina suicide. In 2003, the British medicine regulatory
(severe pain, often in chest), arrhythmia (heart agency warned doctors not to prescribe Selective
irregularity), weight loss and toxic psychosis. Suicide Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) antidepres-
is a risk during withdrawal.14 Studies also reveal sants for under 18-year-olds because of the risk
that stimulants do not actually improve academic of suicide.
performance.15 Following that warning, an FDA Public Health
Journalist Lou Dobbs reports that while the U.S. Advisory of March 22, 2004 stated, Anxiety, agitation,
federal government spends nearly $1 billion a month panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, impul-
to fight the war on illicit drugs, more than 1 million sivity, akathisia (severe restlessness), hypomania
prescriptions were written for a new drug for ADHD and mania have been reported in adult and pediat-
in its first six months on ric patients being treated
the market.16 with [SSRI] antidepres-
Nearly 3 million U.S. The stimulants prescribed for sants both psychiatric
adolescents ages 12 to 17 and non-psychiatric.20
abuse many highly addic- ADHD have little therapeutic Bizarre dreams and violent
tive prescription drugs usefulness but have a high behavior have also been
such as painkillers, tran- reported.21 The Australian,
quilizers and sedatives. potential for addictiveness. Canadian, Japanese and
In Japan, large num- European agencies also
bers of methylphenidate United Nations Convention on issued warnings. Then in
addicts and advisors, Psychotropic Substances October 2004, after par-
called Ritalers, use the ent testimonies of chil-
Internet to promote how dren killing themselves,
to best use the drug and offer drug swaps.17 the FDA ordered a black box warning of suicide risk
In Australia the sudden death of 7-year-old and be placed prominently on SSRI antidepressants.
5-year-old who had a stroke helped spark a govern- However, such warnings came too late for Matt
ment investigation into stimulants. Miller and Cecily Bostock. Matt hanged himself in
Robert Whitaker, science writer and author of Mad his bedroom closet after one week of taking an SSRI
in America said, What we have after years of soaring antidepressant.22 Cecily stabbed herself in the chest
use of psychotropic drugs is a crisis in mental health, an with a kitchen knife two weeks after she began taking
epidemic of mental illness among children. Instead of an antidepressant.23 To die in this violent, unusual
seeing better mental health with ever more medicating, manner without making a sound [the drug]
we see a worsening of mental health.18 must have put her over the edge, said Cecilys
Its big money, says Peyton Knight, legislative mother, Sara.
director of the American Policy Center, The more Black box warnings will do nothing to stem
diagnoses there are every year, the more Ritalin and the fact that children are dying, killing others or
other mind-altering drugs they are going to be able being turned into addicts because of these and other
to market and sell.19 psychiatric drugs. Their future will only be safe-
guarded when the unscientific mental disorders
Antidepressant Deaths they are diagnosed with are abolished and dangerous
As for antidepressants, over 4 years, the use psychotropic drugs are prohibited.

CHAPTER ONE
The Drugging of Our Children
8
SCHOOL VIOLENCE
A Critical Perspective
S enseless acts of violence are devastating and shock-
ing, even more so when committed by children and
teens. We ask, How could this happen?
The dangers of psychiatric drugs and psychological
programs in schools demand examination.
z Eight out of 13 U.S. school shootings were com-
mitted by teens taking prescribed psychotropic drugs
known to cause violent and suicidal behavior.
z At least five teens responsible for school mas-
sacres had undergone anger management or other
psychological behavior modification programs such as
death education. Anger management aims at curbing
aggressive or violent behavior. No data exists to prove it
has any positive effect.
z For decades, schools around the world have
taught death education, a psychological experiment
in which children are made to discuss suicide and
what they would like placed on their coffins, and write
their own epitaphs to get kids more comfortable
with death.
z Columbine, Colorado high school shooters Eric
Harris and Dylan Klebold are prime examples of the
failure of anger management and death education.
Harris was also taking an antidepressant that can cause
violent mania. He and Klebold had attended court-
ordered psychological counseling, including anger
management. As part of a school death education
program Harris was told to imagine his own death. He
later dreamt that he and Klebold went on a shooting
rampage in a shopping center. After turning the story of
the dream in to his teacher, Harris and Klebold acted it
out by killing 12 students and a teacher, before shooting
themselves.24
z In February 2004, 15-year-old Andreas of Germany
shot and killed his foster father. He had been undergo-
ing psychiatric treatment for years and was taking pre-
scribed psychotropic drugs.25
z On May 17, 2004, 19-year-old Ryan Furlough of
Maryland was convicted of the 2001 first-degree murder
of a school friend. Ryan was taking several prescribed
antidepressants at the time of the killing.
z In Japan, a 14-year-old beheaded his 11-year-old
friend, while another teen stabbed an elderly neighbor
to death because he wanted to experience killing some-
one.26
A dramatic increase in school violence has also been
reported in Canada, Israel and France.27
Psychiatric drugs and psychological practices have been
The combination of psychological value systems
with violence-inducing psychiatric drugs is a powder keg behind the rising violence in U.S. high schools, such as
waiting for a spark. the shootings at Columbine in 1999.
IMPORTANT FACTS

1 Houston psychiatrist Theodore


Pearlman says of the DSM-IV,
There are too many diagnoses
without any objective basis or

2
biological support.

Harvard University Medical Schools


Dr. Joseph Glenmullen states,
[T]he current DSM are cursory,
superficial menus of symptoms.
Any attempt to help patients under-
stand themselves and to effect real
change is lost in the rush to diag-
nose and medicate them.

3 Despite their lack of scientific


validity, the DSM/ICD are used
heavily as diagnostic tools, not only
for individual treatment but also for
child custody battles, court testi-
mony, education and more.

4 When legislators think about


mental health, they think about
schizophrenia, says Karen Ignagni,
President, American Association of
Health Plans. I dont think they are
aware of terms used which
could increase costs for conditions
that are not supported by the scien-
tific research.
CHAPTER TWO
Harmful Psychiatric
Labeling

P
sychiatrists proclaim a worldwide epi- or trade rested on such a lack of validity, we
demic of mental health problems and might say that the lack of validity was instru-
urge massive funding increases as the mental in a commitment of fraud. The Diagnostic
only solution. But, before we commit and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) published by the
more millions, do we know enough American Psychiatric Association is notorious
about the crisis? To answer this, it is first for low scientific validity.29
necessary to understand more about psychiatry With the DSM under attack from all sides,
and its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental governments must be warned that they cannot
Disorders (DSM). rely on the statistics derived from the DSM or ICD
Dr. Thomas Dorman, internist and member (International Classification of Diseases) for mental
of the Royal College of health funding decisions.
Physicians of the United Funds are appropriated
Kingdom and Canada, for a general mental
wrote in 2002: In short,
the whole business of
The way to sell health crisis that does not
factually exist, but is fab-
creating psychiatric
categories of disease,
drugs is to sell ricated by psychiatry to
perpetuate their bloated
formalizing them with
consensus, and subse-
psychiatric illness. budgets.
Funding is thus
quently ascribing diag- diverted from work-
nostic codes to them, Carl Elliot, bioethicist, able programs that can
which in turn leads to University of Minnesota resolve the social prob-
their use for insurance lems psychiatry has failed
billing, is nothing but an to solve.
extended racket furnishing psychiatry a pseudo-
scientific aura. The perpetrators are, of course, The Unscientific Basis for
feeding at the public trough.28 Mental Disorder Diagnosis
In 1995, psychologist Jeffrey A. Schaler said: While medicines scientific procedures are veri-
The notion of scientific validity, though not fiable, psychiatrys lack of any systematic approach
an act, is related to fraud. Validity refers to the to mental health and, most importantly, its contin-
extent to which something represents or mea- ued lack of measurable results, have contributed
sures what it purports to represent or measure. greatly to its declining reputation, both among sci-
When diagnostic measures do not represent ence-based professions and the population at large.
what they purport to represent, we say that the The development in 1948 of the sixth edition
measures lack validity. If a business transaction of the World Health Organizations ICD, which

CHAPTER TWO
Harmful Psychiatric Labeling
11
incorporated psychiatric disorders (as diseases) were developed by majority vote on the level
for the first time, and the publication of DSM we would use to choose a restaurant. You feel
in the United States in 1952, were psychia- like Italian, I feel like Chinese, so lets go to a
trys early steps towards a system of diagnosis. cafeteria. Then its typed into the computer. It
They represented an attempt to emulate and may reflect on our naivet, but it was our belief
gain acceptance from medicine, which, over the that there would be an attempt to look at things
course of many centuries, had earned a reputa- scientifically.30
tion for being able to resolve physical ailments. Dr. Margaret Hagen, professor of psychol-
Mental disorders are established by a vote ogy at Boston University, summarily dismisses
of APA Committee members. A psychologist the DSM: Given their farcical empirical pro-
attending DSM hearings said, The low level cedures for arriving at new disorders with
of intellectual effort was shocking. Diagnoses their associated symptoms lists, where does
the American Psychiatric Association get off
DSM-IV listed NUMBER OF MENTAL DISORDERS LISTED claiming a scientific, research-based foundation
374 disorders (each IN DSM SINCE ITS FIRST EDITION for its diagnostic manual? This is nothing more
eligible for funding), than science by decree. They say it is science, so
up from 253 in the it is.31
previous edition and DSM IV In the absence of objective, scientific evi-
374
112 in the first dence, psychiatry has decreed the following to be
mental illnesses:
edition in 1952.
z Expressive Language Disorder
z Phonological Disorder
z Caffeine Intoxication/Withdrawal Disorders
z Conduct Disorder
z Mathematics Disorder
z Nicotine Use or Withdrawal Disorder
z Non-Compliance with Treatment Disorder
z Separation Anxiety Disorder
DSM IIIR z Sibling Rivalry Disorder
253 z Phase of Life Problem
z Sexual Abuse of a Child Problem
In his book A Dose of Sanity the late neurologist
DSM III
200 224 and psychiatrist, Sydney Walker III, wrote of the
dangers of the DSM, concluding, Its important to
remember that a number of DSM-oriented psy-
chiatrists have, to a large degree, abandoned the
science of differential diagnosis, and thus consider
DSM II most psychiatric illnesses incurable. This leaves
163 them with only two weapons: psychotherapy and
drugs. Its not surprising that theyre among the
first to leap on each new drug bandwagon; like
DSM I
long-ago doctors who recommended bleeding for
112 every ailment, they have little else to offer.
100

0 1952 1968 1980 1987 1994


PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS
The Chemical Imbalance Lie
We do not yet have z In his 1998 book,
proof either of the cause Blaming the Brain, biop-
or the physiology for any sychologist Elliot S.
psychiatric diagnosis. In Valenstein says the bio-
every instance where such chemical theory is held
an imbalance was thought onto because it is use-
to have been found, it was ful in promoting drug
later proven false. treatment.34
Joseph Glenmullen of z In 2003, Australian
Harvard Medical School,
author of Prozac Backlash, 2001 psychologist Philip Owen
Dr. Fred Baughman Elliot S. Valenstein warned: The claim is con-
tinually made that the

M
uch of the drugs repair chemical
information imbalances in the brain.
about men- This claim is false.35
tal disorders that is pro- z Psychiatrist Steven
vided by psychiatrists or Sharfstein, then American
pharmaceutical-funded Psychiatric Association
psychiatric interest/sup- President, admitted in
port groups, includes 2005, "we have no clear
references such as cut lab tests" to determine
neurobiologically based a chemical imbalance in
condition or treatable the brain.
brain disorder. z Jonathan Leo,
Reputable physicians professor of anatomy
agree that for a disease at Western University
to exist, there must be a of Health Sciences,
tangible, objective physical and Professor David
abnormality that can be Cohen of the School of
determined through tests Social Work at Florida
such as, but not limited BOGUS BRAIN THEORY: Presented in countless International University,
to, blood or urine, X-ray, popular magazines, the public has been assailed with the latest reviewed 33 of the
brain scan or biopsy. No theory of what is wrong with the brain. What is lacking, as most recent brain-
scientific evidence exists with all psychiatric pontificating, is scientific fact. As imaging studies of
that would prove that ADHD-diagnosed sub-
Dr. Valenstein explains, There are no tests available for
ADHD is a brain-based jects. They confirmed
disease or that a chemi- assessing the chemical status of a living persons brain. that every study con-
cal imbalance in the brain cerned medicated chil-
is responsible for any mental disorder. dren, a major variable because stimulant drugs
z Pediatric neurologist Dr. Fred Baughman, Jr. cause very persistent changes in the brain.
states that claiming ADHD is a disease or neuro- They also reviewed a 2001 National Institute of
biological condition makes it so real and terrible that Mental Health (NIMH) study, widely promoted
the parent who dares not to believe in it, or allow its by psychiatrists, which claimed that unmedicated
treatment, is likely to be deemed negligent, and no ADHD children had significantly smaller brains.
longer deserving of custody of their child. This is a However, the comparison group was two years
perversion of science and medicine and is a lie.32 older, so naturally the younger children had
z Ty C. Colbert, a clinical psychologist and author, smaller brains.36
says: Biopsychiatrists have created the myth that Psychiatric assertions of chemical imbalances and
psychiatric wonder drugs correct chemical imbal- treatable brain disorders are always accompanied by
ances. Yet there is no basis for this model because no a strong pretense of scientific rigor, but are in fact no
chemical imbalance has ever been proven to be the more than anecdotal reports.
basis of a mental illness.33
IMPORTANT FACTS

1 Despite more than $6 billion


(4.89 billion) in taxpayer money
spent on psychiatric research,
Rex Cowdry, Director of the
U.S. National Institute of Mental
Health, said, We do not know
the causes [of mental illness].
We dont have the methods of

2
curing these illnesses yet.

The European Commission


found that, despite reforms,
involuntary commitment has
increased and many patients
remain inadequately informed
about their rights.

3 Community Mental Health


programs have been an
expensive and colossal failure,
creating homelessness,
drug addiction, crime
and unemployment all

4
over the world.

Mental health courts assert


that criminal behavior is caused
by a psychiatric problem and that
treatment will stop the behavior.
There is no evidence to support
this.
CHAPTER THREE
Coercive Care
in Psychiatry

W
hile proponents of commit- Most commitment laws are based on the
ment and enforced psychi- concept that a person may be a danger to himself
atric treatment argue they or others if not placed in an institution. However,
are protecting the persons an APA task force admitted in a 1979 Amicus
right to treatment, a Curiae Brief to the U.S. Supreme Court, Psychi-
strong opposition points out that because of atric expertise in the prediction of dangerous-
their far-reaching powers, involuntary commit- ness is not established.
ment laws including forcing treatment onto Kimio Moriyama, vice president of the
people in the community are totalitarian. Japanese Psychiatrists Association, expressed
Michael McCubbin, Ph.D., associate researcher, psychiatrys inability to foresee correctly what
and David Cohen, Ph.D., a persons future
professor of social servic- behavior might be:
es, both of the University It is dishonest to pretend A patients mental
of Montreal, say that that caring coercively for the mentally disease and criminal
the right to treatment tendency are essen-
is today more often the ill invariably helps him, and that tially different, and
right to receive forced abstaining from such coercion is it is impossible for
treatment. 37 tantamount to withholding treatment medical science to
George Hoyer, pro- tell whether someone
fessor of community from him. All history teaches us to has a high potential
medicine at the University beware of benefactors who deprive their to repeat an offense,
of Tromsoe in Norway, beneficiaries of liberty. he said.39 Another
wrote, Seriously men- expert stated, When
tally disordered patients Thomas Szasz, professor of psychiatry emeritus it comes to predict-
neither lack insight, nor is ing violence, our
their competency impaired to the degree previously crystal balls are terribly cloudy.40
believed.38 Individuals are sometimes forced to pay
Robert Hayes, formerly of the Australian for a legal defense against treatment that they
Law Reform Commission, stated, The fact [is] do not want and against incarceration that con-
that mental illness is rarely defined, even in sumes their insurance coverage. This occurs in the
psychiatric textbooks, that faith in psychiatry United States, Austria, Belgium, France, Germany,
is not always borne out by results and that Luxemburg and the Netherlands.41 This is
without a real prospect of useful curative comparable to being kidnapped and imprisoned,
treatment, commitment to a hospital may be only to be ordered later by the court to pay the
oppressive. kidnapper for room and board.

CHAPTER THREE
Coercive Care in Psychiatry
15
Community Mental Health
In 1955, a five-year inquiry by the U.S. Joint
Commission on Mental Illness and Health recom-
mended replacing institutions with Community
Mental Health Centers (CMHCs). According to
Henry A. Foley, Ph.D., and Steven S. Sharfstein, M.D.,
authors of Madness in Government, Psychiatrists
gave the impression to elected officials that cures
were the rule, not the exception and inflated
expectations went unchallenged. Cost estimates
recommended doubling the mental health budget
within five years, and tripling it in ten.
Europe followed suit about a decade later, with
Holland, Belgium and England adopting commu-
nity mental health in the hope of greater efficiency
and reduced costs.42 On the contrary, later wrote
Dr. Dorine Baudin of the Netherlands Institute of
Mental Health and Addiction, it appears to be
more expensive.43 Furthermore, it created home-
lessness, drug addiction, crime, disturbance to
public peace and order, unemployment and intol-
erance of deviance.44
In truth, the CMHCs became legalized drug
dealerships that not only supplied drugs to former
mental hospital patients, but also supplied psy-
6,242% chiatric prescriptions to individuals not suffering
from serious mental problems.
As a result, as author Peter Schrag wrote in
Spending on Community Mind Control, by the mid-seventies, enough neu-
roleptic (nerve seizing) drugs and antidepressants
Mental Health Centers were being prescribed outside hospitals to keep
(CMHCs) has increased over 100 some three to four million people medicated full-
times faster than the increase in number time roughly ten times the number who, accord-
of people using CMHC clinics. ing to the [psychiatrists] own arguments, are so
crazy that they would have to be locked up in
Despite eating up taxpayer billions, hospitals if there were no drugs.
the clinics have failed their patients and After a decade of the Community Mental
become little more than legalized drug Health program, consumer advocate Ralph Nader
dealerships for the homeless. called it a highly touted but failing social innova-
tion. It already bears the familiar pattern of past
607%
Increase Increase mental health promises that were initiated amid
in use = in cost = great moral fervor, raised false hopes of imminent
U.S. CMHC and U.S. CMHC and
solutions and wound up only recapitulating the
psychiatric outpatient psychiatric outpatient problems they were to solve.45
clinics increase in usage clinics increase in cost

CHAPTER THREE
Coercive Care in Psychiatry
16
Other countries experienced simi- were actively involved in assertive community
lar outcomes. In Australia in 1993, federal treatment programs continued to have fre-
Human Rights Commissioner Brian Burdekin quent contacts with the criminal justice system
announced that de-institutionalization was a those clients who were the most criminally
fraud and a failure. In 1999, British officials active were receiving the most expensive set
also acknowledged the failure of community of services.48
mental health care.46 Wolff states further: This type of special
As for the funding of CMHCs and status for offenders who have mental illness
psychiatric outpatient clinics, the fact is that holds the illness responsible for the behavior,
psychiatrys budget in the United States not the individual, and as such, opens the
soared from $143 million in 1969 to over $11 opportunity for individuals to use illness to
billion today a more than 6,000% increase excuse behavior.49
in funding, while increasing by only 10 times In a review of 20 mental health courts,
the number of people the Bazelon Center
receiving psychiatric for Mental Health
treatment. Law found that these
Community Mental Health Centers courts may func-
Mental became legalized drug dealerships tion as a coercive
Health Courts agent in many ways
I cannot imag- that not only supplied drugs to former similar to the contro-
ine a more dangerous mental hospital patients, but also versial intervention,
branch than an unre- outpatient commit-
strained judiciary supplied psychiatric prescriptions to ment compelling
full of amateur psy- individuals not suffering from an individual to par-
chiatrists poised to ticipate in treatment
do good rather than serious mental problems. under threat of court
to apply the law, sanctions. However,
said Judge Morris the services available
B. Hoffman of the District Court, Denver, to the individual may be only those offered by
Colorado.47 a system that has already failed to help. Too
Mental health courts are facilities estab- many public mental health systems offer little
lished to deal with arrests for misdemeanors more than medication.
or non-violent felonies. Rather than punishing In summary, there are clear indicators
individuals or allowing them to take respon- that governments endorsement of mental
sibility for their crimes, they are diverted to health courts and community policing (as it
a psychiatric treatment center on the premise is referred to in some European countries) will
that they suffer from mental illness. see more patients forced into a life of mentally
Nancy Wolff, Ph.D., Director of the Center and physically dangerous drug consumption
for Mental Health Services and Criminal Justice and dependence, with no hope of a cure.
Research, reports, There is no evidence to Only an independent and critical assess-
show that mental illness per se is the principal ment of psychiatric programs such as the
or proximate cause of offending behavior. Community Mental Health plan will uncover
Although believing in treatment as a protec- their actual costs to governments and commu-
tive shield is appealing most clients who nities, in dollars and in social blight.

CHAPTER THREE
Coercive Care in Psychiatry
17
CASE REPORTS
Abused in Institutions
W ith billions in government appro- windows in darkness. Her arms and legs were
priations allocated for mental health strapped for months at a time. Others in the
treatment, just how safe and effective facility were forced to sit motionless and silent for
are psychiatric institutions? The following cases 12-hour stretches. I had to eat Thanksgiving and
illustrate the dangers of a system that lacks scien- Christmas dinner in restraints, Ms. Stafford said.
tific understanding Theres not a day
of causes of men- that goes by that
tal health problems, you dont think
with a subsequent about it.51
lack of workable z In 2003,
remedies and the Masami Houki, head
terrible consequenc- of Houki Psychiatric
es that result. Clinic in Japan, was
z A psychiat- charged with man-
ric nurse found a slaughter after he
53-year-old man plugged the mouth
unresponsive 12 of a 31-year-old
hours after he female patient with
had been medi- tissue and adhesive
cated for hostile, tape, injected her
cursing behavior. with a tranquilizer,
The man died within tied her hands and
hours. An autopsy feet, and forced her
revealed that he suf- The time that psychiatrists to lie on the back
fered from multiple seat of a car while
sclerosis (MS). Facility
considered they could cure the being transferred to
staff thought MS mentally ill is gone. In the future, the the clinic. She was
on his admission dead on arrival.
form meant mental mentally ill will have to learn to z In Athens,
status. Greece, the Ntaou
z Carl McCloskey
live with their illness. Pendeli psychiat-
says his son, John, Norman Sartorius, former president ric institution kept
19, was sodomized children in a ward
with a broom-like World Psychiatric Association, 1994 with mentally hand-
handle in a psychiat- icapped adults.
ric hospital, tearing Some of the chil-
his bowel and puncturing his liver. The teenager dren were naked; all were housed in cold,
became violently ill, lapsed into a coma and died barren rooms and often left to lie in their own
14 months later.50 feces and urine. A teenager had been locked
z Seventeen-year-old Kelly Stafford agreed up for years after he misbehaved when his
to enter a psychiatric facility, expecting a brief father left his mother for another woman. He
respite from troubled family relationships. But witnessed horrors such as the rape of other
once the door was closed, she was kept for 309 children by psychiatric nurses.
days, many of them spent behind blackened z An 8-year-old from Massachusetts, who

CHAPTER THREE
Coercive Care in Psychiatry
18
suffered from epilepsy, was rushed by his parents an understandable history of mental instability,
to the hospital for a medication adjustment after to an institution. The psychiatrist relied solely
he experienced hallucinations. Instead of adjust- on reports by family members. To carry out the
ing his medication, staff committed him to a psy- involuntary commitment, police broke down the
chiatric facility. It took the frantic parents an entire door to her house, handcuffed her and shoved
day to secure his transfer to a medical hospital for her down the stairs. She suffered a heart attack
appropriate care. and died.
z Dana Davis was slammed face down on his z Psychiatrists in Germany involuntarily com-
living room floor and handcuffed by police before mitted a 79-year-old woman because neighbors
his horrified wife and 6-year-old son. This occurred reported she had acted strangely. Despite her
after he walked out of the office of a psychiatrist long-term diabetes and liver, kidney and heart
he didnt like. As he was leaving, she asked, Can conditions, she was prescribed between five and
you promise you will not commit suicide between 20 times the normal dosage of powerful tranquil-
now and our next meeting? Jokingly he quipped, izers. Six days later the woman had to be rushed
Im no soothsayer! Thirty minutes later, the three to a hospital emergency room, where she died.
police officers were taking him to the hospital Doctors reported she had needed urgent medical
where he was found not suicidal and released. attention at least a day earlier and the autopsy
z A psychiatrist committed Ruchla Rose showed that she died of breathing difficulties
Zinger, a 64-year-old Holocaust survivor with a complication of tranquilizers.

CHAPTER THREE
Coercive Care in Psychiatry
19
IMPORTANT FACTS

1 Studies show that electroconvulsive


therapy (ECT) creates irreversible brain
damage, permanent memory loss
and may result in death. Up to 300
patients die each year from ECT in
the U.S.

2 The U.S. Medicare health insurance


program stopped coverage of mul-
tiple seizure electroshock treatment,
after an investigation revealed the
practice is unworkable and places
patients at severe risk.

3 Many medical studies reveal that


psychiatric drugs create violence.
The newer neuroleptic (antipsychotic)
drugs cause severe debilitating and
potentially deadly effects.

4 These drugs, once touted as


wonder pills, cause blindness,
fatal blood clots, heart arrhythmia
(irregularity), swollen and leaking
breasts, impotence and sexual
dysfunction, blood disorders,
seizures, birth defects, extreme
inner-anxiety and diabetes.
CHAPTER FOUR
Psychiatrys Destructive
Treatments

W
hen governments and courts lyzed, whereupon it could be easily killed. Cerletti
are lobbied to strengthen decided to develop this technique for use on humans
involuntary commitment and to control their behavior.
community treatment laws, Documented studies show that ECT creates irre-
and to establish mental health versible brain damage, often causes permanent loss of
courts to promote treatment rather than punish- memory and may result in death.
ment, they are never told of the lack of scientific basis z A 1994 British paper stated, contrary to the
for psychiatric methods, of the consequences of those claims of ECT experts and the ECT industry, a
treatments for the patient or of the lack of account- majority, not a small minority, of ECT recipients
ability for those treatment outcomes. sustain permanent memory dysfunction each year as
a result of ECT.53
Electroshock z A 2001 Columbia
and Psychosurgery University study found
Despite the general Nobody understands ECT so ineffective at
belief that electroshock precisely how ECT does anything. ridding patients of their
treatment stopped when But theres really no possibility depression that nearly
the character played by all who receive it relapse
Jack Nicholson died of disputing that ECT causes within six months.54
in One Flew Over the damage to the brain. Its just a Because of the
Cuckoos Nest, it is still question of how subtle or how brain damage associ-
widely used. More than ated with ECT, today a
100,000 Americans are coarse or gross is it and how new approach, repeti-
given ECT each year; long does it last. tive transcranial (pass-
two-thirds of these are ing through the skull)
women.52 Dr. Colin Ross, psychiatrist magnetic stimulation,
Electroshock also is being pushed as the
known as electroconvul- latest solution. A psy-
sive therapy, shock treatment and ECT was pio- chiatrist uses a hand-held wire coil to produce a
neered by psychiatrist Ugo Cerletti in the mid-1930s. controlled, rapidly fluctuating magnetic field. Around
In a Rome slaughterhouse, Cerletti witnessed butch- 1,000 magnetic waves pulse through the brain over a
ers incapacitate pigs with electricity before slitting 10- to 15- minute period, supposedly stimulating the
their throats. The attendants would walk through the brain. While the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
pig pens with a large pair of electrically wired pincers has not approved the new procedure, it is nonetheless
with electrodes on each pincer arm. Once electro- being inflicted on patients experimentally and costs up
shocked, the animal would fall to the ground para- to $3,000 (?2,444) for a course of 20 treatments.

CHAPTER FOUR
Psychiatrys Destructive Treatments
21
Today, the administration of electroshock brings 300 operations are still performed every year in the
in an estimated $5 billion annually to the psychiatric United States, including the prefrontal lobotomy.
industry in the U.S. alone. In Russia, over the course of 2 years, 100 psycho-
In psychosurgerys heyday in the 1940s and 50s, surgery operations were conducted on teenage drug
the psychiatric community successfully convinced state addicts in St. Petersburg. They drilled my head with-
governments that psychosurgery could reduce their out any anesthetic, Alexander Lusikian said. They
mental health budgets. It was a lie. kept drilling and cauterizing [burning] exposed areas
Unlike medical brain surgery that alleviates actual of my brain blood was everywhere. During the
physical conditions, psychosurgery attempts to brutal- three or four days after the operation the pain in my
ly alter behavior by destroying perfectly healthy brain head was so terrible, it was as if it had been beaten
tissue. By the late 1940s, the crippling and lethal effects by a baseball bat. And when the pain passed a little, I
of psychosurgery were well known to psychiatrists again felt the desire to take drugs. Within two months,
and included meningitis Alexander reverted to
(serious infectious disease drugs.55
in the brain), a death and Today the administration One new procedure,
suicide rate of up to 10% deep brain stimulation,
and epileptic seizures in of electroshock brings in an where wires are thread-
50% of recipients. ed through the skull to
Although psycho-
estimated $5 billion annually a battery pack implanted
surgery has largely fallen to the psychiatric industry in the chest, producing a
into disuse today, up to high-frequency current
in the U.S. alone.

CHAPTER FOUR
Psychiatrys Destructive Treatments
22
in the brain costs around $50,000 per operation.
Governments should be aware that psycho-
surgery and ECT are unscientific, abusive practices
that bear no resemblance to therapy, and they pro-
vide no individual or community gain. They should
be abolished in the interest of protecting the patients,
their families and the larger community.

Abuse Cases
Psychiatrists persist in inflicting psychosur-
gery and electroshock on patients even though no
valid medical or scientific justification exists for these
practices. After more than 60 years, psychiatrists can
neither explain how they are supposed to work nor
justify their extensive damage.
z When Jennifer Martins 70-year-old mother expe-
rienced headaches and nausea and stopped eating and
talking, a psychiatrist claimed she was in shock from
recent deaths in her family and gave her ECT. Less than
24 hours later she was dead. An autopsy revealed that
the problem was not depression, but a brain stem com-
plication. Shock treatment killed her, Ms. Martin said.
z A grieving husband says a psychiatrist recom-
mended electroshock for his wife, Dorothy, because it
would release a chemical in the brain that would make
her feel better. Although aware of her earlier heart
attacks, the psychiatrist administered 38 electroshocks.
The last one killed her.
z In 2001, the New Zealand government was
forced to formally apologize and pay $6.5 million
(?5.3 million) to 95 former patients of the Lake Alice
Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit for torture and
abuse they suffered at the direction of psychiatrist
Selwyn Leeks in the 1970s. ECT had been applied to
victims legs, arms and genitals without anesthetic.
z At 28, Gwen Whitty was a wife and mother of two
with another child on the way. When she developed diffi-
culty breathing, psychiatrist Harry Bailey recommended
deep sleep therapy for a rest which turned out to
involve heavy doses of barbiturates and sedatives while
shackled to a bed, kept unconscious for two to three
weeks, and given repeated electroshock. Ten years later,
a doctor discovered two jagged steel plates in her head,
attached to the bone by Bailey to cover holes in her skull.

VICTIMS BATTLE FOR JUSTICE:


More than 1,000 people were subjected to Deep Sleep Therapy (DST) in
Sydney, Australia. The deadly combination of a drug-induced coma and electroshock
ultimately killed 48 people before it was banned in 1983. One of the surviving victims,
Gwen Whitty (highlighted), was shackled to a bed, kept unconscious for two
to three weeks and given repeated electroshock, then psychosurgery.
themselves including the newest neuroleptics or
antipsychotics that can create the very violence or
mental incompetence they are prescribed to treat.
z An investigation into a commonly prescribed
tranquilizer, reported in the American Journal of
Psychiatry, found that 58% of the treated patients expe-
rienced serious dyscontrol, i.e., violence and loss
of control compared with only 8% who were given a
placebo. Episodes included deep neck cuts, tried to
break own arm, threw chair at child, arm and head
banging, and jumped in front of car. The findings
revealed the patient who threw a chair at her child had
no history of physical violence toward the child. The
patient who cut her neck
had no previous episodes
of self-mutilation.57
These drugs attack from z One study deter-
so deep inside you, you cannot mined that 50% of all
fights in a psychiatric
Dangerous Drugs
locate the source of the pain. ward could be linked to
As Jack Henry You are overwhelmed because neuroleptic drugs, which
Abbott observed in his induced a side effect called
book, In the Belly of the
you cannot get relief. akathisia (severe restless-
Beast, These drugs Jack Henry Abbott, ness). Patients described
attack from so deep In the Belly of the Beast that they experienced
inside you, you cannot violent urges to assault
locate the source of the anyone near.58
pain. The muscles of your jawbone go berserk, z A New Zealand report stated that withdrawal
so that you bite the inside of your mouth and your from psychoactive drugs can cause new symptoms.
jaw locks and the pain throbs. For hours every day Antidepressants, according to the report, can cre-
this will occur. Your spinal column stiffens so that ate agitation, severe depression, hallucinations,
you can hardly move your head or your neck and aggressiveness, hypomania [abnormal excitement]
sometimes your back bends like a bow and you can- and akathisia.59
not stand up. You ache with restlessness, so you Dr. Joseph Glenmullen warns, Mistaking with-
feel you have to walk, to pace in such wretched drawal for a return of their original symptoms, many
anxiety you are overwhelmed, because you cannot patients restart the medication, needlessly prolonging
get relief.56 their exposure to the drug.60
Whenever a mental patient commits an act Robert Whitakers research established that
of senseless violence, psychiatrists invariably blame when patients abruptly stop taking neuroleptics they
the tragedy on the persons failure to continue would likely suffer intense withdrawal symptoms,
his medication. Such incidents are used to justify and they would be at much higher risk of relapsing
mandated community treatment and involuntary than if they had never been exposed to the drugs.
commitment laws. The use of neuroleptics diminished the possibility
Statistics and facts show it is psychiatric drugs that a person, distraught in mind and soul when

CHAPTER FOUR
Psychiatrys Destructive Treatments
24
first treated, could ever return to a healthy, non-
medicated life.61
While heralded by psychiatrists as new wonder
drugs with fewer side effects than their predeces-
sors, the latest neuroleptics actually have even more
severe side effects: blindness, fatal blood clots, heart
arrhythmia, heat stroke, swollen and leaking breasts,
impotence and sexual dysfunction, blood disorders,
painful skin rashes, seizures, birth defects and
extreme inner-anxiety and restlessness.
z The Wall Street Journal reported that over an
8-year period , 288 patients taking the new antipsy-
chotics developed diabetes; 75 became severely ill
and 23 died.
z The New York Times reported, the states,
which pay enormous sums for the atypicals [new
drugs] in caring for the severely mentally ill, are
questioning whether the benefits of the new drugs
are worth their costs.62
The state can treat 8 to 10 people with an
older neuroleptic for the same price of treating one
patient with a months supply of one of the
atypicals. In 2002, Ohio, one of Americas larger
states, spent $174 million (?142 million) on antipsy-
chotic drugs, close to $145 million (?119 million) of
that on atypicals.63
z In May 2003, researchers presented a study
on the cost effectiveness of one atypical neuroleptic
in treating patients at 17 Veterans Affairs medical
centers. The study, led by Dr. Robert Rosenheck, a
professor of psychiatry and public health at Yale,
found that the drug cost from $3,000 (?2,444) to
$9,000 (?7,334) more than earlier drugs per patient,
with no benefit to symptoms, Parkinsons-like side
effects or overall quality of life.64
International anti-psychotic drug sales are more
than $16 billion (? 12.6 billion) annually.
As reported by Whitaker, the new neuro-
leptics are a story of science marred by greed,
deaths, and the deliberate deception of the
public. Switzerlands Dr. Marc Rufer says that
prescribing massive dosages of drugs only makes people
dependent upon psychiatrists and the drugs admin-
istered to them.65

The states, which pay enormous sums for the atypicals [new drugs] in caring for
the severely mentally ill, are questioning whether the benefits of the new drugs
are worth their costs. New York Times, 2003
DISASTROUS EFFECTS
Restraint Deaths and Abuse
B eing denied human rights is not the only Steps taken to curb the death toll have had
loss that a patient risks in psychiatrys coer- little effect. Despite the passage of restrictive
cive system. The patients life can be at risk federal regulations in the United States in 1999,
from chemical and physical restraints. Today, another nine children had died of suffocation or
there are several methods used all violent, all cardiac arrest from violent restraint procedures
potentially lethal in which hospital staff physi- by 2002.
cally and brutally restrict a patients movement, A sampling of horrific restraint deaths
usually just before drugging him or her into follows:
unconsciousness. z In 1998, 16-year-old Tristan Sovern was
Mechanical restraints include straitjackets, held face down by at least two mental health
leather belts or straps that cuff around each ankle assistants with his arms crossed under his body.
and wrist. Debilitating drugs are administered When he screamed, Youre choking me I
as a means of chemical control and frequently cant breathe, staff at the U.S. psychiatric facility
induce violent responses. shoved a large towel over his mouth and tied a
A lawsuit in Den- bed sheet around his
mark revealed that head. Tristan died of
hospitals received asphyxiation.
additional funding for
Roshelle was slammed face z The night before
treating violent patients. down on the floor, her arms 15-year-old Edith
Harvard psychiatrist yanked across her chest, her Campos was sent
Kenneth Clark reported to Desert Hills psy-
that in America patients wrists gripped from behind by chiatric facility in
are often provoked to a mental health aide. I cant Tucson, Arizona, she
justify placing them in made colorful com-
restraints, also resulting breathe, she gasped. Her last puter drawings for her
in higher insurance words as she died were ignored. family. If her mother
reimbursements at missed her, all she
least $1,000 a day. needed to do was look
The more violent a patient becomes or is at the picture and think of her daughter and that
made the more money the psychiatrist or facility she would soon be home. Two weeks later, Edith
makes. came home in a coffin. During the time she was
In 1999, it was revealed by the Hartford hospitalized, her parents were not allowed to
Courant that up to 150 restraint deaths occur speak to her. Edith apparently died of asphyxi-
without accountability every year in the United ation, her chest compressed when she was held
States alone. At least 13 of the deaths over a two- to the ground for at least 10 minutes after report-
year period were children, some as young as six edly raising her fist during a confrontation with
years old. staff members.66

CHAPTER FOUR
Psychiatrys Destructive Treatments
26
z On August 18, 1997, 16-year-old Roshelle and began CPR, it was too late. Roshelle never
Clayborne died during restraint at a psychi- revived.
atric facility in San Antonio, Texas. Roshelle z In 1998, psychiatric staff forced 13-year-old
was slammed face down on the floor, her arms Canadian Stephanie Jobin to lie face down on the
yanked across her chest, her wrists gripped floor while they placed a beanbag chair on top
from behind by a mental health aide. I cant of her. A female staff member sat on a chair to
breathe, she gasped. Her last words were pin her down while another staff member held
ignored. A syringe delivered 50 milligrams of her feet. She had already been dosed with five
Thorazine into her body and with eight staffers different psychiatric drugs. After 20 minutes of
watching, Roshelle became suddenly still. Blood struggling, Stephanie stopped breathing and later
trickled from the corner of her mouth as she lost died. Her death was ruled an accident.
control of her bodily functions. Her limp body was z In Denmark in 2002, a patient who was pun-
rolled into a blanket and ished by being put into
dumped in an 8-by-10- restraints was compen-
foot room. There she I had to eat Thanksgiving and sated in a damages suit
lay in her own waste Christmas dinner in restraints. against the treating psy-
and vomit for five chiatrist. This was the
minutes before any- Theres not a day that goes by first time ever that com-
one noticed she hadnt that you dont think about it. pensation was awarded
moved. By the time a to a patient harmed by
registered nurse arrived K. Stafford, 17 years old, the restraint procedure.
psychiatric victim
IMPORTANT FACTS

1 Proper medical screening by


non-psychiatric diagnostic specialists
could eliminate more than 40% of

2
psychiatric admissions.

The Parliamentary Assembly of the


Council of Europe has recommended
more research into the impact of
proper tutoring and educational solu-
tions for children exhibiting ADHD
symptoms, into behavioral effects of
such medical problems as allergies or
toxic reactions, and into alternative
forms of treatment such as diet.

3 In 2002, the U.S. Presidents


Commission on Excellence in
Special Education found that 40%
of American children [2.8 million] in
Special Education programs labeled
with learning disorders had simply
never been taught to read.

4 The DSM is the key to escalating


mental illness statistics and
psychotropic drug usage worldwide.
Untold harm and colossal waste of
mental health funds occur because of
it. The DSM diagnostic system must
be abandoned before real mental
health reform can occur.
CHAPTER
Better
FIVE
Solutions

A
ccording to psychiatric thinking, exist, the wrong place to look for them is in
the solution for everything from psychiatry.
the most minor to most severe per- z Medical studies have shown time and
sonal problem is strictly limited to: again that for many patients, what appear to be
1. Diagnosing symptoms using mental problems are actually caused by an undi-
the scientifically discredited Diagnostic and agnosed physical illness or condition. This does
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. not mean a chemical imbalance or a brain-
2. Assigning a mental illness label. based disease. It does not mean that mental
3. Designating a restrictive, generally coer- illness is physical. It does mean that ordinary
cive and costly range of treatments. medical problems can affect behavior and out-
As decades of psy- look.
chiatric monopoly over z According to a
the worlds mental health California study, up to
reflects, this unilateral Medical studies have shown time and 40% of psychiatric facil-
approach leads only ity admissions would be
to upwardly spiraling again that for many patients, what unnecessary if patients
mental illness statistics, appear to be mental problems were first properly
continuously escalating medically examined.
funding demands and
are actually caused by an This represents enor-
away from cures. undiagnosed physical mous potential savings
Fortunately, many illness or condition. in terms of dollars and
non-psychiatric, humane suffering.
and workable practices z Former psychia-
exist in the quest for trist William H. Philpott,
the achievement and recovery of mental health, now a specialist in nutritional brain allergies,
even for the most severely disturbed individuals. reports, Symptoms resulting from B12 deficien-
While psychiatry strenuously denies it, much cies range from poor concentration to stuporous
knowledgeable and skillful help is administered depression, severe agitation and hallucinations.
by non-psychiatric professionals. Evidence showed that certain nutrients could stop
The following perspectives are present- neurotic and psychotic reactions and that the results
ed in support of these courageous and caring could be immediate.67
pioneers who dare to stand against the tide of z Anorexia nervosa, a condition marked by
psychiatric opinion. From their good work, the loss of appetite and self-starvation to the point
reality is slowly emerging that, while answers of death, can be diminished with doses of zinc or
to our mental health problems may already amino acids.

CHAPTER FIVE
Better Solutions
29
z Medical doctors have established that envi- z If a child is labeled with hyperactivity
ronmental toxins, mercury poisoning and aller- or a learning disorder, he or she should first
gies can affect behavior and academic perfor- be tested for allergies, toxins or other medical
mance and can create symptoms that are falsely problems. Tutoring and educational solutions that
diagnosed as ADHD. Laura J. Stevens, author of consider the academic ability of the child should
the book Twelve Effective Ways to Help Your ADD/ also be considered of primary importance.
ADHD Child, says, Gases, cleaning fluids, form- z Funding should be directed to those men-
aldehyde, scents and other chemicals can make tal health facilities that have a full complement
a child irritable, inattentive, spacey, aggressive, of diagnostic equipment and competent medical
depressed or hyperactive.68 (non-psychiatric) doctors.
z Dr. L.M.J. Pelsser z It should be estab-
of the Research Center lished that before health
for Hyperactivity and insurance coverage for
ADHD in the Nether- While life is full of problems, mental health problems
lands found that 62% of is provided, searching
children diagnosed with
and sometimes those problems can be and competent physi-
ADHD showed sig- overwhelming, it is important for you to cal examinations must
nificant improvements know that psychiatry, its diagnoses be undertaken to con-
in behavior as a result firm that no underly-
of a change in diet
and its drugs, are the wrong direction ing, physical condition
over a period of three to go. The drugs can only chemically is causing the persons
weeks.69 mask problems and symptoms; they mental condition. This
z Dr. Sydney Wal- alone would save
ker III, author of A Dose
cannot and never will be countless people from
of Sanity, said that thou- able to solve problems. being unnecessarily and
sands of children put falsely labeled and then
on psychiatric drugs treated as mentally ill
are simply smart. Theyre hyper, not because through the use of the DSM/ICD.
their brains dont work right, but because The same waste of lives and funding occurs
they spend most of the day waiting for slower wherever the DSM is used to evaluate an
students to catch up with them. These students individuals mental health or actions. Although
are bored to tears, and people who are bored a mammoth task, it is nevertheless vital that the
fidget, wiggle, scratch, stretch, and (especially if DSM diagnostic system be universally rejected
they are boys) start looking for ways to get into so as to make it possible for meaningful mental
trouble.70 health reform and advancement to occur.

CHAPTER FIVE
Better Solutions
30
RECOMMENDATIONS
Recommendations
1 Mental health hospitals must be established to replace coercive psychiatric
institutions. These must have medical diagnostic equipment, which non-psychiatric
medical doctors can use to thoroughly examine and test for all underlying physical
problems that may be manifesting as disturbed behavior. Government and private
funds should be channeled into this rather than into abusive psychiatric institutions
and programs that have proven not to work.

2 Establish rights for patients and their insurance companies to receive refunds for
mental health treatment which did not achieve the promised result or improve-
ment, or which resulted in proven harm to the individual, thereby ensuring that
responsibility lies with the individual practitioner and psychiatric facility rather
than the government or its agencies.

3 Clinical and financial audits must be done of all government-run and private
psychiatric facilities that receive government subsidies or insurance payments to
ensure accountability and the compilation of statistics on admissions, treatment
and deaths, without breaching patient confidentiality.

4 Establish or increase the number of psychiatric fraud investigation units to recover


funds that are embezzled in the mental health system.

5 All mental disorders in the DSM should be validated by scientific, physical


evidence. Government, criminal, educational, judicial and other social agencies
should not rely on the DSM/ICD-10 mental disorders section and no legislation
should use this as a basis for determining the mental state, competency, educational
standard or rights of any individual.

6 Abolish mental health courts and mandated community mental health treatment.

7 The pernicious influence of psychiatry has wreaked havoc throughout society,


especially in hospitals, educational systems and prisons. Citizens groups and
responsible government officials should work together to expose and abolish
psychiatrys hidden manipulation of society.

THE REAL CRISIS


Recommendations
31
Citizens Commission on
Human Rights International

T
he Citizens Commission on Human CCHRs work aligns with the UN Universal
Rights (CCHR) was established in Declaration of Human Rights, in particular the following
1969 by the Church of Scientology precepts, which psychiatrists violate on a daily basis:
to investigate and expose psychiatric Article 3: Everyone has the right to life, liberty
violations of human rights, and to and security of person.
clean up the field of mental healing.
Today, it has more than 250 chapters Article 5: No one shall be subjected to torture
in over 34 countries. Its board of advisors, called or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or
Commissioners, includes doctors, lawyers, educa- punishment.
tors, artists, business professionals, and civil and Article 7: All are equal before the law and
human rights representatives. are entitled without any discrimination to equal
protection of the law.
While it doesnt provide medical or legal
advice, it works closely with and supports medical Through psychiatrists false diagnoses, stig-
doctors and medical practice. A key CCHR focus is matizing labels, easy-seizure commitment laws,
psychiatrys fraudulent use of subjective diagnoses brutal, depersonalizing treatments, thousands of
that lack any scientific or medical merit, but which individuals are harmed and denied their inherent
are used to reap financial benefits in the billions, human rights.
mostly from the taxpayers or insurance carriers. CCHR has inspired and caused many hun-
Based on these false diagnoses, psychiatrists justify dreds of reforms by testifying before legislative
and prescribe life-damaging treatments, including hearings and conducting public hearings into psy-
mind-altering drugs, which mask a persons underly- chiatric abuse, as well as working with media, law
ing difficulties and prevent his or her recovery. enforcement and public officials the world over.

CITIZENS COMMISSION
on Human Rights
32
MISSION STATEMENT
THE CITIZENS COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS
investigates and exposes psychiatric violations of human rights. It works
shoulder-to-shoulder with like-minded groups and individuals who share a
common purpose to clean up the field of mental health. We shall continue to
do so until psychiatrys abusive and coercive practices cease
and human rights and dignity are returned to all.

Dr. Ben Ngubane The Hon. LeAnna Washington


Minister for Arts, Culture, Science Commonwealth of Pennsylvania:
and Technology, South Africa: Whereas, [CCHR] works to preserve
I congratulate CCHR for having identi- the rights of individuals as defined by the
fied the inhumanity inflicted on the mentally ill Universal Declaration of Human Rights and
and their untiring campaign to bring this to the to protect individuals from cruel, inhuman
worlds notice. As a country and government, or degrading treatment the House of
we will work with organizations such as CCHR Representatives of Pennsylvania congratulates
seeking to protect all citizens from the type [CCHR International] its noble humanitar-
of terror and oppression experienced by the ian endeavors will long be remembered and
majority of the citizens of South Africa during deeply appreciated.
apartheid.
Bob Simonds Th.D.
The Hon. Raymond N. Haynes President, U.S. National Association
California State Assembly: of Christian Educators:
CCHR is renowned for its long-standing We are deeply grateful to CCHR
work aimed at preventing the inappropriate for not only leading the fight to stop
labeling and drugging of children. The the criminal psychiatric abuse of
contributions that the Citizens Commission on our public school children, but for
Human Rights International has made to the serving as a catalyst to all religious,
local, national and international areas on behalf parent and medical groups to fight
of mental health issues are invaluable and reflect this abuse. Without CCHRs compelling
an organization devoted to the highest ideals of research and credibility, these groups
mental health services. could not be as effective.

For further information:


CCHR International
6616 Sunset Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA, USA 90028
5FMFQIPOF 
 
'BY 

XXXDDISPSHFNBJMIVNBOSJHIUT!DDISPSH
CCHR INTERNATIONAL
Board of Commissioners
CCHRs Commissioners act David Egner, Ph.D. Steven Hayes, Esq. Harriet Schock
in an official capacity to Seth Farber, Ph.D. Gregory Hession, J.D. Dennis Smith
assist CCHR in its work to Mark Filidei, D.O. Sen. Karen Johnson Michelle Stafford
reform the field of mental Nicolas Franceshetti, M.D. Erik Langeland, Esq. Cass Warner
health and to secure rights Marta Garbos, Psy. D. Leonid Lemberick, Esq. Miles Watkins
for the mentally ill.
Howard Glasser, M.A. Vladimir Leonov, M.P. Kelly Yaegermann
International President Patti Guliano, D.C. Lev Levinson
Jan Eastgate Edward C. Hamlyn, M.D. Doug Linde, Esq. EDUCATION
Citizens Commission Brett Hartman, Psy.D. Jonathan W. Lubell, LL.B. Dr. Samuel Blumenfeld
on Human Rights Lawrence Hooper, M.D. Jeff Lustman Cassandra Casey
International, Los Angeles Dr. Joseph Isaac Kendrick Moxon Gleb Dubov, Ph.D.
National President Georgia Janisch, R.D. Rep. Curtis Oda Beverly Eakman
Bruce Wiseman Dr. Derek Johnson Col. Stanislav Pylov Professor Antony Flew,
Citizens Commission on Jonathan Kalman, N.D. Rep. Guadalupe Rodriguez Ph.D.
Human Rights United Dr. Peter Kervorkian, D.C. Sandro Garcia Rojas Dr. Wendy Ghiora, Ph.D.
States Professor Oleg Khilkevich Timothy Rosen, Esq. Professor Hector Herrera
Citizens Commission on Kenichi Kozu, Ph.D. Steven Russell, Esq. Wendy McCants-Thomas
Human Rights Board Eric Lambert, R. Ph. Rep. Aaron Tilton, (UT) Sonya Muhammad, M.S.
Member Anna C. Law, M.D. Rep. Mark Thompson James Paicopolos
Isadore M. Chait Richard Lippin, M.D. Rep. Michael Thompson Nickolai Pavlovsky
Otani Logi Rep. Matt Throckmorton Anatoli Prokopenko
Founding Gayle Ruzicka
Lloyd McPhee
Commissioner
Dr. Bari Maddock ARTS, Joel Turtel
Dr. Thomas Szasz,
Joan Mathews-Larson, Ph.D. ENTERTAINMENT Shelley Ucinski
Professor of Psychiatry
Conrad Maulfair, D.O. & MEDIA Micheal Walker
Emeritus at the State
Colleen Maulfair Kirstie Alley Charles Whittman, III
University of New York
Clinton Ray Miller Anne Archer
Health Science Center
Dr. Robert Morgan Ph.D. Jennifer Aspen BUSINESS
Craig Newnes Catherine Bell Lawrence Anthony
SCIENCE, MEDICINE &
Gwen Olsen David Campbell Michael Baybak
HEALTH
Mary Jo Pagel, M.D. Raven Kane Campbell Phillip Brown
Rohit Adi, M.D.
Ivan Alfonso, M.D. Vladimir Pshizov, M.D. Nancy Cartwright Luis Colon
Professor Garland Allen Lawrence Retief, M.D. Kate Ceberano Bob Duggan
Giorgio Antonucci, M.D. Franklin H. Ross, M.D. Chick Corea Joyce Gaines
Ann Auburn, D.O. Megan Shields, M.D. Bodhi Elfman James A. Mackie
Mark Barber, D.D.S. Allan Sosin, M.D. Jenna Elfman Cecilio Ramirez
Lisa Bazler, B.A., M.A. David Tanton, Ph.D. Cerise Fukuji Sebastien Sainsbury
Ryan Bazler, B.S., MBA William Tutman, Ph.D. Isaac Hayes Roberto Santos
Margarethe von Beck, DLitt Tony Urbanek, M.D., D.D.S. Donna Isham
et Phil Margaret von Beck, Ph.D. Mark Isham RELIGION
Shelley Beckmann, Ph.D. Wanda von Kleist, Ph.D. Jason Lee Rev. Doctor Jim Nicholls
Lisa Benest, M.D. Julian Whitaker, M.D. Geoff Levin Pastor Michael Davis
Peter Bennet Spice Williams-Crosby, BSc, Gordon Lewis Bishop Samuel V.J. Rowland
Mary Ann Block, D.O. MFS, CFT Juliette Lewis
John Breeding, Ph.D. Michael Wisner John Mappin ACTIVISTS/HUMAN
Lisa Cain Sergej Zapuskalov, M.D. Jaime Maussan RIGHTS
Anthony Castiglia, M.D. Norman Zucker, M.D. Jim Meskimen Paul Bruhne
Roberto Cestari, M.D. Tamra Meskimen Janice Hill
James Chappell, D.C. N.D., POLITICS & LAW Marisol Nichols Nedra Jones. Ph. D.
Ph.D. Rep. Russell Albert John Novello Elvira Manthey
Beth Clay Lewis Bass, M.S., J.D. David Pomeranz Sheila Matthews
Bishop David Cooper Timothy Bowles, Esq. Kelly Preston Lynette Riley-Mundine
Jesus Corona Robert Butcher, LLB Tariz Nasim Ghulam Abbas Sajan
Ann Y. Coxon, M.B., B.S. Robert E. Byron, LLC Kelly Patricia OMeara William Tower
Moira Dolan, M.D. Lars Engstrand Leah Remini Ishrat Nasim
Mary Ann Durham, B.S. Guillermo Guzmn de la Lee Rogers Patricia Weathers
Dan L. Edmunds, ED.D., Garza Carrina Ricco Allan Wohrnitz, B.Sc.
M.A., B.C.S.A. Sandra Gorcia Rojas Raul Rubio Lloyd Wyles
CCHR National Offices
CCHR Australia CCHR Finland CCHR Italy CCHR Russia
Citizens Commission on Citizens Commission on Citizens Commission Citizens Commission on
Human Rights Australia Human Rights Finland on Human Rights Italy Human Rights Russia
P.O. Box 6402 Post Box 145 (Comitato dei Cittadini per i Borisa Galushkina #19A
North Sydney 00511 Helsinki, Finland Diritti Umani ONLUS CCDU) 129301, Moscow
New South Wales 2059 Phone: 358-9-8594-869 Viale Monza 1 Russia CIS
Australia 20125 Milano, Italy Phone: (495) 540-1599
Phone: 612-9964-9844 CCHR France &NBJMJOGP!DDEVPSH &NBJMDDIS!HUFMFDPNSV
&NBJMDDISBO[P!UQHDPNBV Citizens Commission on
Human Rights France CCHR Japan CCHR South Africa
CCHR Austria (Commission des Citoyens pour Citizens Commission on Citizens Commission on
Citizens Commission on les Droits de lHommeCCDH) Human Rights Japan Human Rights South Africa
Human Rights Austria BP 10076 2-11-7-7F Kitaotsuka P.O. Box 710
(Brgerkommission fr 75561 Paris Cedex 12 , France Toshima-ku Tokyo Johannesburg 2000
Menschenrechte sterreich) Phone: 33 1 40 01 09 70 170-0004, Japan Republic of South Africa
Postfach 130 Fax: 33 1 40 01 05 20 Phone/Fax: 81 3 3576 1741 Phone: 011 27 11 624 3538
A-1072 Wien, Austria &NBJMDDEI!XBOBEPPGS E-mail: &NBJMTV[FUUF!DDISDP[B
Phone: 43-1-877-02-23 DDISKBQBO!CQPTUQMBMBPSKQ
&NBJMJOGP!DDISBU CCHR Germany CCHR Spain
Citizens Commission on CCHR Latvia Citizens Commission on
CCHR Belgium Human Rights Germany Citizens Commission on Human Rights Spain
Citizens Commission on (Kommission fr Verste Human Rights Latvia (Comisin de Ciudadanos por los
Human Rights Belgium der Psychiatrie gegen Dzelzavas 80-48 Derechos HumanosCCDH)
(Belgisch comite voor de rechten Menschenrechte e.V.KVPM) Riga, Latvia 1082 c/Maestro Arbos No 5 4
van de mens) Amalienstrae 49a Phone: 371-758-3940 Oficina 29
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2800 Mechelen 3, Belgium Phone: 49 89 273 0354 Phone: 34-91-527-35-08
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Human Rights Canada Citizens Commission on los Derechos HumanosCCDH) Citizens Commission on
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40. Bruce A. Arrigo, Ph.D., Christopher R. Williams,
16. Lou Dobbs, We Need a War Vs. Legal Drugs, 63. Ibid.
Chaos Theory and the Social Control Thesis: a Post-
Daily News, New York, 28 Sep. 2003. 64. Ibid.
Foucauldian Analysis of Mental Illness and Involuntary
17. Net Trafficking a Boon for Drug Addicts, Mainichi Civil Confinement; Human Rights, Gender Politics & 65. Barbara Lukesch and Eva-Maria Zullig, Die
Daily News, 2 Feb. 2003; Prescription Junkies Aided by Postmodern Discourses, Social Justice, 22 Mar. 1999. Pharma-Hexe, Tages Anzeiger Magazine, No. 12,
Money-Grabbing Shrinks, Mainichi Daily News,
41. Hans Joachim Salize, Harald Dreing, Monika Peitz, 27 Mar. 1999.
5 Feb. 2003.
Compulsory Admission and Involuntary Treatment 66. Inger Sandal, Let Me Get Well So I Can Be With
18. Kelly Patricia OMeara, GAO Study Plays
of Mentally Ill Patients-Legislation and Practice in You, Arizona Daily Star, 19 Feb. 1998.
Guessing Games, Insight Magazine, 16 May 2003.
EU-Member States, Central Institute of Mental Health
19. Op. cit. Patrick Goodenough, 18 Apr. 2003. 67. Eric Braverman and Carl Pfeiffer, The Healing
Research Project Final Report, Mannheim, Germany,
20. Worsening Depression and Suicidality in Patients Nutrients Within: Facts, Findings and New Research in
15 May 2002.
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42. Dr. Dorine Baudin, Ethical Aspects of Deinsti-
U.S. Food and Drug Administration Public Health 68. Becky Gillette, Breaking The Diet ADD Link,
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Advisory, 22 Mar. 2004. E Magazine, 5 Mar. 2003.
21. Adverse SSRI Reactions, International Coalition for 43. Ibid.
Drug Awareness Website, Internet address: http://www. 44. Ibid. 69. Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
drugawareness.org; Medication Profiles: Serotonin 45. Franklin Chu and Sharland Trotter, The Madness Recommendation.
Reuptake Blocking Agents (SSRIs), Anxieties.com web- Establishment (Grossman Publishers, New York, 1974), 70. Sydney Walker, III, M.D., The Hyperactivity Hoax
site, Internet address: http://www.anxieties.com; pp. xi, xiii, 203-04. (St. Martins Press, New York, 1998), p. 165.