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CM Tutorial 4

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4.1 Brief theoretical background

Boolean values: B = {true, f alse}

Boolean operations:

NOT:

OR:

: BB B

AND:

: BB B

IMPLIES:

: B B B

EQUIVALENT:

: B B B

p q

T T

T F

F T

F F

p pq pq pq pq pq

F

T

T

T

T

T

F

T

F

F

F

F

T

T

F

T

F

T

T

F

F

T

T

F

Logical equivalence

Two expressions are equivalent if they have the same truth table.

Example: Use truth tables to show that p q p q

Equivalence between operations defined on boolean variables and set operations

Let A, B be two subsets of universe U and p and q be defined as

p( x ) is true if and only if x A

q( x ) is true if and only if x B

p( x ) is true if and only if x Ac = { A = A = U \ A.

p q( x ) is true if and only if x A B.

p q( x ) is true if and only if x A B.

Definitions:

Sentence: statement that takes a value true or false.

Proposition: sentence with no variables.

Predicate: sentence which contains variables.

Special predicates:

Tautology: always true

Contradiction: always false

Ovidiu Bagdasar

Page 1 of 4

De Morgans Laws

( p q) p q

( p q) p q

Distributive Law

p (q r ) ( p q) ( p r )

p (q r ) ( p q) ( p r )

Associative Law

p (q r ) ( p q) ( p r )

p (q r ) ( p q) ( p r )

Observation: Applying to an expression has the following effect:

p becomes p (and of course, p becomes p)

becomes , becomes

Example: ( p (q r )) p ( p r ).

Quantifiers and their negation

universal quantifier:

(for all)

Example: x N[ x + 3 2]

existential quantifier:

(there exists)

Example: x N[ x + 3 > 4]

By negation becomes (the proposition negates): ( x [ p( x )]) x [ p( x )]

Example: ( x N[ x + 3 2]) x N[ x + 3 < 2]

By negation becomes (the proposition negates): ( x [ p( x )]) x [ p( x )]

Example: ( x N[ x 2 > 4]) x N[ x 2 4]

Ovidiu Bagdasar

Page 2 of 4

E 4.1. Write the negations for each of the following statements

(a) John is six feet tall and he weighs at least 200 pounds.

(b) The bus was late or Toms watch was slow.

E 4.2. Construct a truth table for the expressions: (i) (pq); (ii) (pq)r;

(iii) Construct a truth table for (pq)r and for (pr)(qr) hence show that these two statements are logically equivalent.

(iv) Check whether (pq)r and (pr)(qr) are equivalent.

E 4.3. For x R, suppose that p, q and r are the propositions given below:

p:

q:

x = 4

x = +4

r:

x2 = 16

( a) p r;

( f ) q r;

( g) ( p q) r; (h) r ( p q); (i ) ( p q) r;

E 4.4. Decide which of the sentences below, are universally true, which are universally false,

and which are neither. Then write the predicates below in symbolic form:

(i) ( x + 3)2 > 8, x N;

(ii) 2x = 9, x N.

E 4.5. Check (using truth tables) which statements are logically equivalent

(i) ( a b) b and a b

(ii) ( a b) a and a

(iii) ( a b c) (( a b) c) and b c

(iv) a b and b a.

E 4.6. Below, y is a variable of type Nat, c is of type Ehar and s and t are of type Str. Represent the following conditions formally, using only standard functions of the data types Nat,

Ehar, Str and , , , , .

(i) y is either less than 3, or greater than 6 but less than 10. y is not seven.

(ii) The first character of s is b and the second character of s is a.

(iii) If s starts with c then t starts with c.

(iv) s and t have similar starting characters, but their second characters are distinct.

(v) c is an upper case vowel, and the first two characters of t are the same if and only if the

first two characters of s are the same.

(vi) s is the string fred or y has the value 16, but not both.

E 4.7. Use quantifiers to express formally the following predicates:

(i) There is a natural number whose square is greater than 7

(ii) Whatever real number x, x2 = ( x2 + 1) is false.

Ovidiu Bagdasar

Page 3 of 4

(i) All dogs bark;

(ii) Some birds fly;

(iii) No cat likes to swim;

(iv) No computer science student does not know mathematics.

E 4.9. Find the negation of the following statements and evaluate their truth values:

(i) x R [ x2 6x + 10 0]; (ii) x R [ x2 x];

(iii) x N+ [ x2 + 2x 2 0]; (iv) x Q [ x2 = 3].

S 4.1.

each ofthe following propositions is true or false:

Decide whether

2

27 5; (ii) 3 + 23 < 250; (iii) 34 < 43 .

(i)

S 4.2. Repeat question E 4.4. for x R.

S 4.3. Decide whether each of the following predicates is true or false.

(i) x R[ x2 >R 0]; (ii) t N[t2 =N 7]; (iii) s N[s2 =N 9].

S 4.4. Decide which of the sentences below are universally true in R, which are universally

false and which are neither.

(i) ( x + 3)2 > 6; (ii) x = x + 1; (iii) 2x = 7; (iv) ( x 1)2 = x2 2x + 1.

S 4.5. Let R be the proposition Roses are red and B be the proposition Violets are blue.

Express the following propositions as logical expressions:

(a) If roses are not red, then violets are not blue;

(b) Roses are red or violets are not blue;

(c) Either roses are red or violets are blue (but not both);

Use a truth table to show that (a) and (b) are equivalent.

S 4.6. Interpret the following quantified propositions in English and state which are true

and which are false:

(i) s S [ ( (s = )) (LEN(s) 1 )];

(ii) s S [ c C [ c = FIRST(s)] ];

(iii) s S [ (s = ) ( c C s.t. c = FIRST(s)) ].

Ovidiu Bagdasar

Page 4 of 4

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