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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jfs

over a pitching foil at different stages

Chien-Chou Tseng n, Yu-En Cheng

Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70 Lienhai Rd., Kaohsiung 80424,

Taiwan ROC

a r t i c l e i n f o

abstract

Article history:

Received 23 January 2015

Accepted 4 August 2015

(Re 2.5 106) over a sinusoid-pitching foil by the SST (Shear Stress Transport) k model.

Although discrepancies in the downstroke phase, which are also documented in other

numerical studies, are observed by comparing with experimental results, our current

numerical results are sufcient to predict the mean features and qualitative tendencies of

the dynamic stall phenomenon. These discrepancies are evaluated carefully from the

numerical and experimental viewpoints.

In this study, we have utilized , which is the normalized second invariant of the

velocity gradient tensor, to present the evolution of the Leading Edge Vortex (LEV) and

Trailing Edge Vortex (TEV). The convective, pressure, and diffusion terms during the

dynamic stall process are discussed based on the transport equation of . It is found that

the pressure term dominates the rate of the change of the rotation strength inside the LEV.

This trend can hardly be observed directly by using the vorticity transport equation due to

the zero baroclinic term for the incompressible ow.

The mechanisms to delay the stall are categorized based on the formation of the LEV.

At the rst stage before the formation of the LEV in the upper surface, the pitching foil

provides extra momentum into the uid ows to resist the ow separation, and hence the

stall is delayed. At the second stage, a low-pressure area travels with the evolution of the

LEV such that the lift still can be maintained. Three short periods at the second stage

corresponds to different ow patterns during the dynamic stall, and these short periods

can be distinguished according to the trend of the pressure variation inside the LEV. The

lift stall occurs when a reverse ow from the lower surface is triggered during the

shedding of the LEV. For a reduced frequency kf 0.15, the formation of the TEV happens

right after the lift stall, and the lift can drop dramatically. With a faster reduced frequency

kf 0.25, the shedding of the LEV is postponed into the downstroke, and the interaction

between the LEV and TEV becomes weaker correspondingly. Thus, the lift drops more

gently after the stall. In order to acquire more reliable numerical results within the

downstroke phase, the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), which is capable of better predictions

for the laminar-to-turbulent transition and ow reattachment process, will be considered

as the future work.

& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Dynamic stall

Pitching foil

Turbulence model

Leading Edge Vortex (LEV)

Trailing Edge Vortex (TEV)

Vortex interaction

Corresponding author. Tel.: 886 7 5252000 4238; fax: 886 7 5252000 4299.

E-mail address: tsengch@mail.nsysu.edu.tw (C.-C. Tseng).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juidstructs.2015.08.002

0889-9746/& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

292

C.-C. Tseng, Y.-E. Cheng / Journal of Fluids and Structures 58 (2015) 291318

Nomenclature

Subscript i, j, k, m Einstein notation [1]

C

Chord length [m]

CL

Lift force coefcient [1]

CN

Normal force coefcient [1]

Cp

Pressure coefcient [1]

F1, F2

Function in the turbulent model [1]

k

Turbulent kinetic energy [m2/s2]

kf

Reduced frequency [1]

P

Pressure [Pa]

Pt

Turbulent production term [kg/m/s3]

Q

Second invariant of velocity gradient tensor

[1/s2]

Re

Reynolds number [1]

Ret

Turbulent Reynolds number [1]

S

Strain rate tensor [1/s]

SC, SP, SV Source terms in transport equation of [1/s]

t

u

ui

U

x

1, *, ,

m, mt

, t

Time [s]

x-direction velocity [m/s]

Velocity in i-direction [m/s]

Free stream velocity [m/s]

Position [m]

*, sk, s , s2 Coefcient in turbulent model

[1]

Angle of attack []

Density [kg/m3]

Laminar and turbulent dynamic viscosity [kg/

m s]

Laminar and turbulent kinematic viscosity

[m2/s]

Specic turbulent dissipation rate [1/s]

Angular velocity [1/s]

Azimuthal angle []

Vorticity [1/s]

Reynolds stress [Pa]

1. Introduction

For a uid ow past a foil with rapid motions, such as the pitching, plunging, and apping, the lift force still can be

maintained even when the angle of attack (AoA) exceeds the normal static stall angle (Ekaterinaris and Platzer, 1997; Wang

et al., 2012). This is so-called dynamic stall. The prediction of the dynamic stall is very important in the aerodynamics of

aircraft, helicopter, wind turbine, and turbomachinery.

For maneuverable ghters and helicopter rotors, the vibration, high load, fatigue, and structural failure can be caused due

to the unsteadiness of the dynamic stall phenomenon (Carr, 1988; Gompertz et al., 2011; Mulleners et al., 2012a). As for

insect ights, the Reynolds number is very low due to their sizes, and hence the lift must be generated by the pitching,

plunging, and apping behaviors. The study of the dynamic stall of insects inspires the development of micro air vehicles

(MAV) (Shyy et al., 2013; Kang et al., 2011). Empirical methods are often used in the corresponding industry during 1970s

without knowing the details of the ow physics (Gormont, 1973; Harris et al., 1970; Wang et al., 2012). However, recent

progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) makes it possible to predict the dynamic stall process numerically in the

turbomachinery and helicopter industry (Dawes, 2007; Doerffer and Szulc, 2008; Wang et al., 2012).

The formation of the leading edge vortex (LEV) plays an important role for the dynamic stall. During the convection of

the LEV, the low-pressure area of the LEV provides extra lift force to delay the stall. When the shedding of LEV takes place,

the lift force can drop dramatically. The LEV could interact with the surrounding uid ow to induce multiple recirculation

regions, such as the secondary vortex and trailing edge vortex (TEV) (Ekaterinaris and Platzer, 1997; Leishman, 1990;

McAlister et al., 1978; McCroskey et al., 1976; Wang et al., 2010, 2012). The complicated interactions among the LEV, TEV, and

secondary vortex could cause difculties in numerical predictions and experimental measurements. Recently, the forceelement method is applied to decompose the aerodynamic force into several components. The vorticity almost dominates

the contributions of the lift during the entire stroke, which emphasizes the signicance to study the vortex interactions

during the dynamic stall (Niu and Chang, 2013). The dynamic stall characteristics could depend on the reduced frequency,

the freestream ow condition, the Reynolds number, the Mach number, and the foil shape. These effects will be discussed

hereafter in this section.

McAlister et al. (1978) and McCroskey et al. (1976) have experimentally investigated the dynamic stall with different

reduced frequencies (kf 0.05, 0.15 and, 0.25) at Reynolds number 2.5 106 for a NACA0012 foil. As kf 0.05, the shedding of

the LEV and the secondary vortex both occur in the up-stroke, which correspond to two peaks of the lift force during the upstroke. When kf increases to 0.15, the shedding of the secondary vortex can be postponed into the down-stroke. The

dynamic stall due to the shedding of the LEV typically still happens when AoA approaches its maximum amplitude in the

up-stroke. For kf 0.25, even the dynamic stall can be further delayed into the down-stroke. Recent experiments by Lee and

Gerontakos (2004), and Sharma and Poddar (2013) also display the same trends. Similarly, Leishman (1990) has found out

that the increasing reduced frequency could delay the onset of the ow separation and dynamic stall to a higher angle for a

NACA23012 foil at Re1.5 106. Only small values of reduced frequency are required to signicantly delay the dynamic stall

since the ow separation does not have time to develop at this high Reynolds number. Further interactions between the

maximum lift and the reduced frequency will be discussed in Section 8.

Gharali and Johnson (2013) have investigated the phase difference between the freestream velocity oscillation and

pitching pattern oscillation numerically at Reynolds number 105 for a NACA0012 foil. For in-phase oscillations, the lift

C.-C. Tseng, Y.-E. Cheng / Journal of Fluids and Structures 58 (2015) 291318

293

could become 5 times larger than that under the static freestream, and this value could be amplied if the reduced frequency increases. Based on the experimental study of Leu et al. (2012), the unsteady ow elds above NACA0015 foil

(kf 0.09 as Re4 103) pitching with and without upstream turbulence generator have been investigated. They have

observed that higher turbulence intensity (6.9%) of the freestream velocity could delay the dynamic stall signicantly.

The effects of the Reynolds number and foil shape have also been documented for static and dynamic stall conditions.

Loftin and Hamilton (1945) have experimentally studied the aerodynamic characteristics for 10 NACA 6-series foils from

Reynolds number 7 105 to 9 106 under static conditions. The designated minimum drag coefcient increases as the Reynolds number is lowered, and the magnitude of this increase becomes larger with increasing foil thickness. Althaus and

Wortmann (1981), and Leishman (1990) have experimentally investigated the correlation between the maximum static lift

coefcient and Reynolds number for a NACA23012 foil at high Reynolds numbers as O(106). From Re8 105 to 2 106, the

maximum static lift coefcient increases about 10%. Although the stall angle remains around 15, the lift force drops more

rapidly as the Reynolds number goes up, which has also been documented by Loftin and Smith (1949).

For the foil under prescribed motions, the Reynolds number effects of the NREL S809 and S813 foil have been conducted

experimentally at low reduced frequency as kf0.06. For a light-stall motion, the Reynolds number dependency remains

weak for both foils. Under a deep-stall motion, a larger hysteresis and larger values of the peak lift coefcients can be

observed for a smaller Reynolds number (decreases from 1.25 to 0.76 106). The differences are more noticeable for the S813

foil due to its larger maximum thickness (Ramsay et al., 1995; Ramsay and Gregorek 1999). Similar results have also been

observed by Choudhry et al. (2014). They have showed that the maximum lift and stall angle depend on the Reynolds

number (105) as kf above 0.012 for a NACA0021 foil. On the other hand, Leishman (1990) has conducted experiments for

much higher reduced frequency as kf above 0.1 for a NACA23012 foil under high Reynolds numbers (4106). Leishman (1990)

has shown that the loop of entire stroke is more hysteresis when the mean pitching angle and the amplitude of oscillation

become larger. He has also pointed out that the dynamic stall characteristics are only weakly dependent on the Reynolds

number for a NACA23012 foil, which is also similar as results documented by Kang et al. (2012) and McCroskey et al. (1976)

when the Reynolds number goes up. Therefore, one should note that the Reynolds number effect could also depend on the

variation range of the Reynolds number, the conducted reduced frequency, and even the foil geometry (Choudhry et al.,

2014).

Recently, Visbal (2014) has used the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for a constant pitching rate foil (kf 0.05) at Re5 105.

For a SD7003 foil, the laminar separation bubble (LSB) near the leading edge breaks down as the angle of the attack

increases, and the sudden collapse of the leading edge suction occurs. For a reduced Reynolds number as 2 105, the LSB

becomes larger but breaks down earlier, resulting in a less abrupt leading edge suction collapse. Since the geometry of

SD07003 foil is shaper, the thicker NACA0012 foil exhibits lower suction and a less abrupt collapse.

For a moderate Reynolds number as O(104), Kang et al. (2012) have used SST (Shear Stress Transport) k model to

compare the dynamic stall phenomenon between a SD7003 foil and a at plate as kf 0.25. The leading edge separation of a

SD7003 foil is more susceptible to the Reynolds number due to its more streamlined body. Consequently, the Reynolds

number effect of a SD7003 foil is more important than that of a at plate. However, for a more aggressive prescribed motion,

the ow still could separate near the leading edge for a SD7003 foil, and hence the shape effect becomes less important

under the deep-stall motion. Overall, the effects of the foil shape and Reynolds number decline as the Reynolds number goes

up. As for a low Reynolds number as O(102), the viscosity plays a dominated role such that the ow structures are very

sensitive to the variations in the Reynolds number (Shyy et al. 2007).

Besides, the Mach number effects could also play an important role (Ekaterinaris and Platzer, 1997). McCroskey et al.

(1981) have indicated that the pitching of the airfoil can induce high local Mach number even the freestream Mach number

is very low. For Mach number around 0.2, the sonic conditions already could be observed near the leading edge. Similarly,

Visbal (1990) has utilized CFD and observed that the supersonic ow region starts to grow as the angle of the attack

increases (Re106, Mach number 0.6, kf 0.0225 for a NACA0015 foil). Due to the severe shock-boundary-layer interaction,

the separation near the shock location starts to spread both upstream and downstream. Chandrasekhara and Carr (1990)

have pointed out that the dynamic stall vortex always forms near the leading edge and convects at about 0.3 times the

freestream velocity for all the tested Mach number and reduced frequency. Similar as documented in McCroskey et al.

(1976), the dynamic stall at a given Mach number can be delayed with a higher reduced frequency. On the other hand, it

could occur at a lower angle of attack as the Mach number increases at the same reduced frequency. Recently, Gardner et al.

(2013) have found out that the peak of pitching moment coefcient is changed linearly with reduced frequency and

inversely with the Mach number as Mach number is varied between 0.3 and 0.5.

As for the uncertainty due to the unsteady ow motions, Mulleners et al. (2012b) have investigated the dynamics of the

static stall experimentally. When the AoA exceeds the stall angle, the uctuation of lift could become very signicant

between each realization. This implies the ow is under the transition from the steady to unsteady ow regime. Similarly,

the uctuation of lift can also be very signicant during the dynamic stall process between each pitching cycle (Gardner

et al., 2013; McAlister et al., 1978,1982; McCroskey et al., 1976,1982; Zanotti and Gibertini, 2012). Zanotti et al. (2013) have

also pointed out that the force evaluation for a deep-stall pitching foil is subjected to a large uncertainty. The uctuation and

uncertainty could be related to the severe unsteady and highly nonlinear post-stall ow structures, which will be discussed

later.

The simulation results of this study are mainly based on the two-dimensional ow past a sinusoid-pitching NACA0012

foil at Reynolds number 2.5 106 and kf 0.15 (McAlister et al., 1978; McCroskey et al., 1976). The lift slope rst varies

294

C.-C. Tseng, Y.-E. Cheng / Journal of Fluids and Structures 58 (2015) 291318

linearly at small angle of attacks. The linear regime could somehow exceed the static angle of attack. Then the lift curve

slope starts to decrease and a slight curvature is observed. As the LEV forms, the lift slope suddenly increases due to the

extra lift during the shedding of the LEV. Finally, the LEV reaches the trailing edge slightly before the maximum angle of

attack, and then the dynamic stall occurs (Leishman, 1990; McAlister et al., 1978; McCroskey et al. 1976). The pre- and poststalls regimes can be dened based on this dynamic stall angle (Choudhry et al., 2014; McAlister et al., 1978; Mulleners et al.,

2012b).

In this study, instead of using the pre- and post-stalls denition, the mechanisms to delay the stall will be categorized

into two stages depending on the formation of the LEV. The objective of this study is to utilize SST k model to analyze the

different mechanisms to delay the stall at these two stages. Our numerical results are compared with several different

experimental measurements, and it shows that the current CFD results are sufcient to predict the mean features and

qualitative tendencies of the dynamic stall phenomenon in the upstroke phase and slightly after the stall during the

downstroke process. Therefore, we have conned our analysis within this range of AoA mostly. After the validation, the rst

stage before the formation of the LEV will be compared with the static condition, and the vortex interaction will be

emphasized in the second stage. Furthermore, the ow structures are evaluated carefully at different angles and reduced

frequencies to study their interactions with the lift force.

2. Numerical approaches

Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model, including k model (Bardina et al., 1997; Jones and Launder, 1972;

Launder and Spalding, 1974; Shyy et al., 2005) and k model (Menter, 1992, 1994; Shyy et al., 2005), is used widely due to

its balance between the accuracy and computational cost. In RANS methodology, the ow variables are considered as

summations of its ensemble average value and a uctuation value (Launder and Spalding, 1974; Shyy et al., 2005). For

convenience sake, the overbar which stands for average will be dropped hereafter.

The continuity and momentum equations are listed below:

Continuity:

(ui )

=0

xi

(1)

u

(ui uj )

P

=

+

(ij + 2Sij )

Momentum: i +

xj

xi

xj

t

Sij =

uj

1 ui

, ij = ui uj

+

xi

2 xj

(2)

The ow conditions in this study are all incompressible with given density . In Eq. (1), x is the coordinate, t is time, u is

the velocity, and subscripts i and j stand for Einstein index. In Eq. (2), P is the pressure, is the uid viscosity, Sij is the strain

rate, and ij is the so-called Reynolds stress. This nonlinear term in the current study is modeled by the SST k turbulence

model (ANSYS, 2015; Menter, 1992, 1994; Menter et al., 2003):

(uj k )

k

k +

= min (Pt , 10*k) *k +

( + k t )

t

x

xj

xj

production

dissipation

diffusion

(uj )

= 1 Pt 2 +

( + t )

+ 2 (1 F1) 2

+

xj xj

t

x

x

x

j

j

j

t

dissipation

production

cross diffusion

diffusion

Pt = ij ui , ij = 2t Sij 2 kij

3

xj

1

= k

1 (Sij Sij )1/2 F2

t

max * ,

0.31

(3)

In order to close the turbulence modeling of the Reynolds stress, for SST k model, the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) k

and the specic turbulent dissipation rate are modeled as transport equations with production, dissipation, and diffusion

terms. In Eq. (3), Pt is the production term of k, which comes from interactions between mean and Reynolds stress. By

Boussinesqs hypothesis, the Reynolds stress ij can be expressed by the mean ow strain rate Sij and turbulent eddy

viscosity t. The production term of k equation and the Boussinesqs hypothesis for t are modied to limit eddy viscosity t

in high stress regions. The concept of SST k model is to reduce the excess eddy viscosity such that the large periodic

motion still can be captured.

C.-C. Tseng, Y.-E. Cheng / Journal of Fluids and Structures 58 (2015) 291318

295

The blending function F1 in equation depends on the local turbulent quantities and switches SST k model into k

model at regions far away from the solid wall boundary (F1 0). The purpose is to reduce the sensitivity issue of inlet

turbulent quantities from k model. On the other hand, in order to resolve the ow eld inside the boundary layer, SST k

model preserves the essence of k model in the near wall region (F1 1). The wall function treatment in the current study

is inactivated since the local Reynolds number (y ) of the rst grid away from the wall is smaller than 5 (Menter, 1992,

1994; Wang et al., 2010). The other blending function F2 in Boussinesq's hypothesis for t also has similar characteristic.

Furthermore, s2 is a constant 1.168, and the values of other coefcients in Eq. (3), such as 1, *, , *, sk, and s, depend

on the local turbulence strength. The low Reynolds number modication of the coefcient * limits the excess eddy viscosity

and predicts the laminar-to-turbulent transition based on the turbulent Reynolds number Ret (Menter et al., 2003,2006;

Wang et al., 2010):

0.024 + Ret

k

* =

, Ret =

1 + Ret

(4)

The algorithm to solve this set of governing equations in this study is PISO (Pressure Implicit with Split Operator) (Issa,

1982). When the compressibility becomes important as Mach number is greater than 0.3, the AUSMD (Advection Upwind

Splitting Method based on ux Difference) scheme is suggested to modify the convective nonlinear terms by the local Mach

number (Niu and Liou, 1999). Since the ow conditions of current problems are all incompressible, QUICK (Quadratic

Upstream Interpolation for Convective Kinetics) (Patankar, 1980) is sufcient to discretize convective nonlinear terms, and

while the central difference is used for diffusion terms.

Fig. 1(a) shows the representative two-dimensional computational domains. As for the boundary conditions, the velocity

is given while pressure is extrapolated at the inlet. The turbulent quantities are also specied at inlet based on the eddy-tolaminar viscosity ratio. For the outlet, pressure is given, and other ow variables are extrapolated. On the walls, pressure is

extrapolated, k is zero due to no-slip boundary condition, and is specied based on near wall region treatments (Menter,

1992, 1994; Shyy et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2010,2012).

The computational domain is separated by an interface between a sub-domain near the foil and a dynamic mesh domain

away from the foil. When the pitching foil oscillates as the prescribed sine motion, the mesh will be reconstructed at each

numerical time step. The structured meshes inside the sub-domain move with the foil like rigid body motion without

deformation while the unstructured dynamic mesh away from the foil could deform.

In this study, an incompressible (Mach number 0.1) two-dimensional ow with Reynolds number 2.5 106 over an

oscillatory NACA0012 foil is simulated based on experiment setups (McAlister et al., 1978; McCroskey et al., 1976). The

Fig. 1. The schematic shows (a) the representative two-dimensional computational domains, boundary conditions, and the grid layout inside the sub-grid

region, and (b) the grid sensitivity test based on the experimental studies by McAlister et al. (1978) and McCroskey et al. (1976) (NACA0012 foil, Re2 106,

and kf 0.15).

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C.-C. Tseng, Y.-E. Cheng / Journal of Fluids and Structures 58 (2015) 291318

Reynolds number is dened as UC/ where and are the density and viscosity of air, respectively, C is the chord length of

the foil (0.31 m), and U is the free stream velocity. The prescribed pitching motion is given as a time-varying sine curve

15 10sin(f t) where is the AoA, and f is the angular velocity. In this study, the angular velocity is obtained

according to the reduced frequency kf, which is dened as (fC)/2U. Two reduced frequencies are setup as 0.15 and 0.25

respectively. All the ow conditions and geometries are identical to those described in the experiment (McAlister et al.,

1978; McCroskey et al., 1976). The representative structured mesh near the pitching foil is highlighted in Fig. 1(a). The

numerical time step is given according to the period of a pitching cycle divided by 200. Fig. 1(b) highlights the grid sensitivity test by the lift curves over the entire stroke as kf 0.15 (NACA0012 foil, Re 2.5 106). The number of grid points of

G1, G2, G3, and G4 corresponds to 105, 1.2 105, 1.6 105, and 1.8 105. Basically, the increase of the number of grid points

concentrates inside the sub-domain near the foil. From Fig. 1(b), the results between G3 and G4 are very consistent with

only about 0.10.2 phase difference in the downstroke. As a result, the grid layout of G3 will be utilized in this study

hereafter. More detail validations between numerical and experimental results will be discussed in next section.

4. Validations and analysis of the discrepancies between CFD and experimental results

Before further analysis according to experimental setups of McAlister et al. (1978) and McCroskey et al. (1976), we

provide two more cases for further validations between our current numerical framework and the experimental results.

The rst case is the experimental study of Leu et al. (2012). The prescribed pitching motion of a NACA0015 foil is

30tan 1 (sin (f t ) / cos (f t + )), f 0.82 rad/s, kf 0.09, the tip speed ratio 2, and the Reynolds number is 4.5 103.

The number of grid points is 67 000. Fig. 2(a) shows validations between the current simulation results (solid lines) and

experimental measurements (dash lines) based on the x-velocity (u/U) at cross-section locations as x/C 25%, 50%, 75%, and

100%. The qualitative trends can be captured by our numerical predictions while the reverse ow sometimes seems to be

over-predicted by our current simulation results, especially at x/C 100%. Fig. 2(b) shows the comparisons of vorticity. The

LEV is divided into two parts by the TEV at 23.3, and this phenomenon can also be detected in the experimental results

Fig. 2. The schematic shows validations between the current simulation results and experimental measurements (NACA0012 foil, Re 4.5 103, and

kf 0.09). (a) Validations of the x-velocity u/U (current simulation results: solid lines; experimental measurements: dash lines) (b) Validations of the

vorticity n.

C.-C. Tseng, Y.-E. Cheng / Journal of Fluids and Structures 58 (2015) 291318

297

Fig. 3. The schematic shows validations between the current simulation results (solid lines) and experimental measurements (McCroskey, 1981) based on

Cp along the entire foil surface (NACA0012 foil and Re 4 106).

as 22in Fig. 2(b). Although approximate 1 phase difference can be observed in Fig. 2(b), the evolutions of the LEV and

TEV are mostly consistent (Tseng and Hu, 2015).

The second case is the experimental report of McCroskey (1981). A NACA0012 foil is prescribed a sinusoidal-pitching

motion as 12 2sin(0.2t) at Re 4 106, and Cp along entire foil surface is compared in Fig. 3 (the number of grid points

is about 105). The pressure coefcient Cp is dened as the difference between local and freestream pressure normalized by

the freestream dynamic pressure. One can see that the numerical prediction can almost match the experimental data during

the upstroke process. However, certain discrepancy occurs during the downstroke process. The suction peak near the

leading edge is overestimated by our numerical predictions. Nevertheless, our results are qualitatively consistent with the

experimental measurements of Leu et al. (2012) and McCroskey (1981) in terms of the velocity, evolution of vortex, and

surface pressure.

Fig. 4(a) and (b) compares the normal force coefcient CN between our current numerical results and experimental

measurements (McAlister et al., 1978; McCroskey et al., 1976), which is the case of interest of this study. Similar as the lift

coefcient CL normalizes the force perpendicular to the streamwise direction by the freestream dynamic pressure, the

normal force coefcient CN normalizes the force perpendicular to the chord of the foil. The red arrows and intervals

highlight the stall and evolution of the secondary vortex predicted by our current simulation. The wording evolution

includes the formation, convection, and shedding. In Fig. 4(a) for the static condition, our numerical results can match the

experimental results exactly at 5, 10, 15, and 17. As for the dynamic condition with kf 0.15 and kf 0.25 illustrated in

Fig. 4(a) and (b) respectively, the numerical result and experimental measurement are comparable with consistent trends.

The maximum lift and its corresponding dynamic stall angle are well captured by our numerical prediction as listed in

Table 1. As reported in the experiment, the stall is delayed into the down-stroke as kf 0.25, which is also presented in our

simulation. The instantaneous lift is predicted well by the current numerical results in the up-stroke. However, for kf 0.15

in Fig. 4(a), the numerical result of the down-stroke from 24 to 15 deviates from the experimental measurement signicantly. Similar trends also occur for kf 0.25 in Fig. 4(b) from 22 to 10. As depicted in Fig. 4, the discrepancy is highly

correlated to the evolution of the secondary vortex. Because the secondary vortex of kf 0.25 is further delayed than that of

298

C.-C. Tseng, Y.-E. Cheng / Journal of Fluids and Structures 58 (2015) 291318

Fig. 4. Validations between numerical and experimental results. The experimental curves in (a) and (b) are based on the experimental studies by

McCroskey et al. (1976) and McAlister et al. (1978). (c) It shows signicant error bar during the down-stroke, which is adapted from Zanotti and Gibertini

(2012). (For interpretation of the references to color in this gure, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.) (a) Static and dynamic condition

as kf =0.15 (NACA0012 foil, Re =2.5106) (b) Dynamic condition as kf =0.25 (NACA0012 foil, Re =2.5106) (c) Dynamic condition as kf =0.1 from Ref. of Zanotti

and Gibertini (2012).

Table 1

Comparisons between numerical prediction and experimental data with respect to the maximum CN and stall angle.

kf 0.15

kf 0.25

Maximum CN (CFD/exp.)

2.91/3.05

2.83/2.92

24.7/24.9

24.5/23.8

kf 0.15, it can be seen that the discrepancies in the down-stroke of kf 0.25 in Fig. 4(b) occur later than those of kf 0.15 in

Fig. 4(a).

As discussed in Eq. (4), it deals with the laminar-to-turbulent transition and reduces the accumulation of the eddy

viscosity near the stagnation point. For * 1, it can be regarded as the fully-turbulent SST model. For the fully-turbulent SST

model, Kang et al. (2012) have utilized this model to analyze the light- and deep-stall motion as Re104. It is found that the

numerical predictions are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental PIV data in terms of mean ow elds.

However, the computations are unable to predict the reattachment of the separated ow correctly. Martinat et al. (2008)

have used the fully-turbulent SST model, two types of k- models, and SpalartAllmaras (eddy viscosity) model to predict

ows over a deep-stall pitching motion under Re105 and 106. Furthermore, Ahmad et al. (2010) have compared the performances of the fully-turbulent SST model, standard k model, standard k model, realizable k model, and RNG k

model on a deep-stall pitching motion as Re106. Both Ahmad et al. (2010) and Martinat et al. (2008) have concluded that

SST k model can capture the behaviors of the dynamic stall the best among all the selected models. Similar analysis can

also be found in references of Sohail and Ullah (2011) and Velkova et al. (2012).

Ekaterinaris and Menter (1994) have considered the laminar-to-turbulent transition and indicated that the results of

turbulence models could become better after the implement of the transition model, and the SST model performs better

than standard k and k model under the light-stall condition. Wang et al. (2010) have utilized Eq. (4) to account for the

transition in their SST model, and the results can match the experimental measurements better than the standard k

model for a deep-stall pitching motion as Re 3.75 105. Recently, Wang et al. (2012) have used a more complicated Re

transition model. Besides transport equations of k and , the other two transport equations for intermittency and

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momentum thickness Reynolds number Re are added (Menter et al., 2006). For a deep-stall pitching motion as

Re1.35 105, the Re based SST model performs better than that of RNG k model.

Therefore, it is usually accepted that SST k model can capture the behaviors of the dynamic stall the best among all the

categories of RANS models. However, for the deep-stall condition, the discrepancies between numerical results by SST

model and experimental measurements still could be very obvious during the downstroke. During the dynamic stall process, the shedding of LEV can interact strongly with the evolution of the trailing edge vortex (TEV) and other recirculation

regions. Then the so-called secondary vortex is generated under by the mergence and interaction of these multiple recirculation region. As a matter of course, this strong nonlinear nature can cause the numerical difculties in prediction of the

post-stall ow structures, which could result in the discrepancies highly correlated to the secondary vortex. The evidence is

already highlighted in Fig. 4(a) and (b). Similar discrepancies in the downstroke have also been reported in different

numerical studies (Ahmad et al., 2010; Gharali and Johnson, 2013; Liggett, 2012; Martinat et al., 2008; Sohail and Ullah,

2011; Velkona et al., 2012; Wang et al., 2010,,2012).

The other factor causing numerical difculties could be the laminar-to-turbulent transition. Leading-edge transition

could affect the boundary layer development and the ensuing ow separation and reattachment. As a result, the use of fullyturbulent model could limit the occurrence of the laminar separation at the leading edge, leading to an inaccurate turbulent

ow development, as well as the prediction of the evolution of the LEV (Wang et al., 2010). The transition model and its

implement into turbulence models have already been documented in references of Ekaterinaris and Platzer (1997), Hill

et al., 2004, and Menter et al. (2006). Although Martinat et al. (2008) have claimed that the transition effects could be

avoided as Re106, Ekaterinaris and Menter (1994) and Ekaterinaris and Platzer (1997) have shown that this effect still could

be important as Re106. Ekaterinaris and Menter (1994) have assumed that the transition onset occurs immediately

downstream of the suction peak location, and the ow from the stagnation point until the transition onset is computed as

laminar with an eddy viscosity of almost zero. The eddy viscosity computed by SST model after the transition point increases

rapidly. Comparing with the experimental measurements under the light-stall conditions, they have demonstrated that the

numerical prediction by this transition consideration can predict a lower and more reasonable suction peak near the leading

edge than the fully-turbulent SST model. However, the quantitative agreement still could become poor during the downstroke with a much deeper stall predicted (Ekaterinaris and Menter, 1994; Ekaterinaris and Platzer, 1997; Hill et al., 2004;

Wang et al., 2012).

As pointed out by Kang et al. (2012), the SST k model and other RANS categories could underpredict the Reynolds

stresses in the detached shear layer. Consequently, it affects the prediction of the laminar-to-turbulent transition and leads

to the delayed recovery of the ow reattachment compared with experimental results. Visbal (2014) has also made similar

statements. RANS may display signicant deciencies regarding predictions for the laminar-to-turbulent transition, reattachment, and LSB, which could be partially corrected by the empirical transition model. Although the development of the

transition model will be continued due to the design purpose, the complex ow physics near the leading edge cannot be

truly predicted by this methodology. Visbal (2014) has shown that the LES computation with suitable high order numerical

scheme can capture the dynamics of the laminar-to-turbulent transition, ow reattachment, and formation of the LSB. The

discrepancies of our numerical results in Figs. 24 could also come from the decient predictions of the RANS model

regarding these details.

Nevertheless, the SST k model is still capable of qualitative prediction for the dynamic stall behaviors, and hence we

use SST k model in the current study. Moreover, we utilize the low Reynolds number modication as shown in Eq. (4) to

account for certain laminar-to-turbulent transition effect. As one can see in Fig. 4(a) and (b), our numerical predictions are in

good qualitative agreement with the experimental results in the upstroke phase and slightly after the stall during the

downstroke, and the signicant oscillations and discrepancies occur within the large portion of the downstroke process.

Consequently, at the current stage, we mostly conne our ow structure analysis in this study to the upstroke phase and

slightly after the stall during the downstroke process. As discussed in the last paragraph, in order to extend our results into

downstroke phase in the future, the LES computation will be more suitable than the RANS model.

The discrepancies may also come from the three-dimensional effect (Choudhry et al., 2014; Ekaterinaris and Platzer,

1997). The three-dimensional effect is investigated numerically by Martinat et al. (2008) and Wang et al. (2012), and this

effect can come into play even in two-dimensional based experiments (Raffel et al., 1995; Wernert et al., 1996). For deepstall conditions, when AoA is close to its maximum amplitude or during the evolution of the secondary vortex in the downstroke process, the three-dimensional effect can become important (Martinat et al., 2008; Wernert et al., 1996). Martinat

et al. (2008) have found out that the coherent structure predicted numerically by three-dimensional computation is weaker

than that by two-dimensional computation. The uctuation of lift in the down-stroke becomes less signicant in threedimensional numerical studies. However, the discrepancy between CFD and experimental data in down-stroke is only

improved slightly (Martinat et al., 2008; Wang et al., 2012). Besides, the turbulence is essentially three-dimensional phenomenon. Therefore, the three-dimensional effect and its interactions with turbulence are worth further investigation.

However, two-dimensional studies are able to capture a signicant part of dynamic stall process and remain mainstream in

this led.

Experimentally, the measured normal force coefcient CN is calculated by averaging over the total number of cycles. At

any given cycle, the differences from the average value are most likely to occur, which is quantied as the standard

deviation. The high standard deviation in the experimental measurements can be attributed to the strong unsteadiness of

the secondary vortex after the lift stall (Gardner et al., 2013; McAlister et al., 1978,1982; McCroskey et al., 1982; Zanotti and

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Gibertini, 2012). The detail of standard deviation during the dynamic stall process is reported quantitatively in the recent

experiment by Gardner et al. (2013) and Zanotti and Gibertini (2012). The ow conditions in the experiment done by Zanotti

and Gibertini (2012) are more similar to our current case, and this experimental study also reports similar experimental

average CN curve as shown in Fig. 4(a) by McCroskey et al (1976) and McAlister et al (1978). The experimental result of

Zanotti and Gibertini (2012) is illustrated in Fig. 4(c). The ow condition is based on Mach number 0.15 and Reynolds

number1.5 106 over an oscillatory NACA23012 foil by a time-varying sine curve 10 10sin(f t) with reduced

frequency kf 0.1. The error bar over entire cycle shows low standard deviation in the up-stroke. The error bar over entire

cycle shows low standard deviation in the up-stroke. In down-stroke process from 20 to 8, the high error bar indicates

signicant standard deviation during this period. For instance, at 15.4, the average lift is 1.11 and varies between 1.36 and

0.87. Although the tested Mach number is higher (0.30.5) by Gardner et al. (2013), the high standard deviation is still

observed during the down-stroke process.

To sum up, the post-stall ow is complicated with high unsteadiness, which results in the discrepancy in the downstroke

process. In the future, more efforts should be added by utilizing the LES model, which can better capture the complex ow

physics near the leading edge. Nevertheless, by comparing our CFD results with other experimental measurements as shown

in Figs. 24, our results are sufcient to predict the mean features and qualitative tendencies of the dynamic stall phenomenon. Due to the limitation of the RANS model in highly separated ows, we will conne our ow structure analysis

mostly in upstroke phase and slightly after the stall during the downstroke process.

5. The ow structure and its mechanism to delay the stall at the rst stage for the dynamic condition (kf 0.15)

In Fig. 4(a), for the dynamic condition as kf 0.15, CN is still increasing after static stall angle 15. At this point, the ow

remains attached, and the LEV has not formed until 22. This period from 15 to 22will be categorized as the rst stage

in this study.

The characteristic of the lift curve has been well documented in terms of the angle of attack under the static condition

(Althaus and Wortmann, 1981; Choudhry et al., 2014; Leishman, 1990; Loftin and Smith, 1949; Mulleners et al., 2012b).

However, the detail ow structures after the static stall have received relatively little attention. At 17, The lift coefcient of

dynamic condition (CN 1.77 as kf 0.15) is much higher than that of static condition (CN 1.18). The goal of this section is

to investigate and compare the ow structures at 17under static and dynamic conditions, and hence the mechanism to

delay the stall before the formation of the LEV can be understood.

5.1. Flow structures at the rst stage for the dynamic condition at 17

Figs. 5 and 6 illustrate the elds of the pressure coefcient Cp and representative streamlines near the foil at 17for both

static and dynamic condition (kf 0.15) respectively, and Fig. 7 depicts Cp along the entire foil surface for both cases. In

Figs. 5(a) and 6(a) around the leading edge, the black dots in the lower surface represent the stagnation point that separates

ow toward upper and lower surface. The maximum pressure in the ow eld occurs at this stagnation point, which

corresponds to the location of the maximum Cp in the lower surface as shown in Fig. 7. In Fig. 7, not only the value of

maximum Cp but also their corresponding locations are identical for both the static and dynamic conditions. As for the

minimum Cp in the upper surface, their locations are still identical as shown in Fig. 7 However, the minimum Cp can almost

reach 12 for the dynamic condition, and while it is only 8 for the static condition. Thus the pressure in the upper surface

near the leading edge is apparently lower for the dynamic condition as shown in Fig. 6(a) than that of static condition in

Fig. 5(a).

Fig. 5. Cp contours and representative streamlines for the static condition at 17. (a) Near the leading edge (b) The entire foil

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301

Fig. 6. Cp contours and representative streamlines for the dynamic condition as kf 0.15 at 17. (a) Near the leading edge (b) The entire foil

Fig. 7. Cp along the entire foil surface at 17for both static and dynamic condition (kf 0.15).

Therefore, the distance of the acceleration path (from maximum to minimum Cp location around the leading edge shown

in Fig. 8) and the value of maximum Cp in the lower surface are the same. However, the value of the minimum Cp in the

upper surface is lower for the dynamic condition. This phenomenon can induce stronger ow acceleration near the leading

edge for the dynamic condition. Since the leading edge is rotating clockwise during the up-stroke, a movement component

same as the direction of the steamwise velocity can be decoupled and result in additional momentum into the uid ow.

Thus the stronger acceleration is acquired for the dynamic condition.

The streamwise velocities are sampled along 12 different vertical cross sections as shown in Fig. 8 and the results are

illustrated in Fig. 9. In Fig. 7, from the slope of Cp of the upper surface, the favorite pressure gradient only occurs very near

the leading edge (from the leading edge to the minimum Cp location), and the adverse pressure gradient (from the minimum

Cp location to the trailing edge) takes place at a signicant part of the entire upper surface.

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Fig. 9. The streamwise velocity u/U at 17along the sampled cross sections. The solid line represents velocity for the static condition, and the dash lines

represents for the dynamic condition. In each gure, the upper proles correspond to the velocity in the upper surface, and vice versa for the lower velocity

prole. The vertical distribution in between indicates the interior domain of the foil (a) Cross section 1 (b) Cross section 2 (c) Cross section 3 (d) Cross

section 4 (e) Cross section 5 (f) Cross section 6 (g) Cross section 7 (h) Cross section 8 (i) Cross section 9 (j) Cross section 10 (k) Cross section 11..

By considering the effective AoA, the dynamic condition actually experiences a higher AoA and has faster incident

velocity than those under the static condition. Thus the adverse pressure gradient in the upper surface is stronger for the

dynamic condition. This can be seen from the steeper slope of Cp in the upper surface for the dynamic condition in Fig. 7.

Since the acceleration near the leading edge is stronger for the dynamic condition, its velocity distribution is faster as

shown in Figs. 9(a) of cross section 1 and (b) of cross section 2. The resulting stronger inertial inside the boundary layer

provides better resistance against the adverse pressure gradient in the upper surface for the dynamic condition. Although its

adverse pressure gradient is also stronger as described in the previous paragraph, the stronger inertial overwhelms such

that the streamwise velocity in the upper surface is always positive in Fig. 9. Accordingly, the streamlines remain attached as

shown in Fig. 6(b) for the dynamic condition. On the contrary, for the static condition in the upper surface, the streamwise

velocity near the solid boundary becomes negative from Fig. 9(f)(k), indicating that the ow separation has already taken

place as shown in Fig. 5(b).

As discussed in Fig. 7, the adverse pressure gradient of the static condition in the upper surface is weaker. Therefore, the

free stream of the static condition encounters a weaker deceleration. The free stream velocity of the static condition in the

upper surface is eventually faster than that of the dynamic condition after cross Section 7 in Fig. 9(g). In Fig. 9(k) at the

trailing edge, the free stream velocity in the upper surface of the static condition is about 20% faster than that of the dynamic

condition. In order to meet the faster free stream velocity at the trailing edge, the lower surface of the static condition has to

experience a stronger favorite pressure gradient to accelerate the ow, which can be seen from its steeper slope of Cp of the

lower surface in Fig. 7. Thus, the velocity in the lower surface for the static condition can be faster than that for the dynamic

condition, which is shown in Fig. 9 through entire cross sections.

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As discussed in Section 5.1, in the upper surface, the minimum Cp value of the dynamic condition is lower. Although the

steeper slope of its stronger adverse pressure gradient grants the dynamic condition a more signicant increasing trend, it

still ends up with an overall lower pressure distribution in the upper surface for the dynamic condition in Fig. 7. In the lower

surface, the maximum Cp values for both conditions are identical. Then the gentler decreasing trend of the weaker favorite

pressure gradient grants an overall higher pressure distribution in the lower surface for the dynamic condition in Fig. 7.

Consequently, the lift coefcient of dynamic condition (CN 1.77 as kf 0.15) is much higher than that of static condition

(CN 1.18) such that the stall is delayed even before the formation of LEV.

For the static condition, the stall occurs because the ow is separated as shown in Fig. 5(b). Usually, a low-pressure

region will exist to maintain the centrifugal force if the vorticity is high enough inside the separation region. However, from

Fig. 9(f) to (k), the streamwise velocity inside the recirculation region is around 0.1to 0.2U, and only a very low vorticity

value can be obtained. Consequently, in Fig. 5(a), there is no low-pressure structure inside this closed streamline region to

provide extra lift.

In this stage before the LEV appears, the pressure distribution in the upper surface drops as AoA increases from 14.7to

20.5in Fig. 10. The lower minimum Cp value near the leading edge is observed to provide enough acceleration to maintain

the ow attached at an even higher AoA, and hence the lift force remains increasing correspondingly in Fig. 4(a). In Fig. 11, it

can be seen that the size of the low-pressure area near the leading edge will be enlarged during this short period. The

further increment in size will activate the formation of the LEV, which can be categorized as the second stage in the next

section.

6. The ow structure and its mechanism to delay the stall at the second stage (kf 0.15)

During the rst stage, the ow remains attached and the lift is increasing due to the mechanisms shown in Figs. 10 and

11. At the second stage, the LEV appears around 22as kf 0.15 such that the mechanism to maintain the lift will be totally

different. The representative streamlines in Figs. 12 and 13 indicate the evolution of the LEV and TEV. Besides, vorticity and

(Davidson, 2004; Haller, 2005; Jeong and Hussain, 1995) dened in Eqs. (5) and (6) are used to describe the rotation

strengths inside the recirculation regions:

Fig. 10. Cp along the solid boundary for the dynamic condition (kf 0.15) as 14.720.5.

Fig. 11. Cp contours near the leading edge for the dynamic condition (kf 0.15) at 14.7and 20.5.

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Fig. 12. The ow structures by streamlines and vorticity for the dynamic condition (kf 0.15) from 20.5to 24.7.

Fig. 13. The ow structures by streamlines and for the dynamic condition (kf 0.15) from 20.5to 24.7. Values above 0.2 is cutoff after gure for

22.7.

uj

ui

ijk

k =

xj

xi

(5)

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1 1

Q k = k k Sij Sij

22

1

S

S

ij ij

2 k k

k =

1

S

S

+

ij

ij

2 k k

305

(6)

The magnitude of indicates the angular velocity of the uid, which is often used to describe the strength of rotation

motion. The positive value of corresponds to the counter clockwise rotation, and vice versa for the negative value. The

notation ijk in Eq. (5) is the Levi-Civita symbol. In Eq. (6), the nominator of is 2Q. Q is the second invariant of the velocity

gradient tensor (Davidson, 2004; Haller, 2005; Jeong and Hussain, 1995). It is further normalized by the sum of the magnitude of the vorticity and strain rate, which is dened as . The value of can only vary between 1 and 1 (Jeong and

Hussain, 1995). The more negative value of reveals that the ow is more dominated by vorticity rather than strain. Under

the two-dimensional computational at the current study, only z component of and can exist.

From the representative streamlines in Figs. 12 and 13, the ow remains attached at 20.5. At 22.7, the streamlines

have already formed a closed recirculation region, which corresponds to the formation of the LEV. The LEV is then detached

from the leading edge, and the multiple recirculation regions are generated near the leading edge at 23.6. As LEV is near

Fig. 14. Flow structures of Cp, u/U, , and streamline from 20.5to 22.7(kf 0.15). The legend for each contour is shown as below.

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the trailing edge at 24.7, the lift reaches its maximum as shown in Fig. 4(a). From 24.9to 24.7, the TEV has already

formed, and then the LEV is dissipated gradually.

However, in Fig. 12, is very high at 20.5even though the ow is still attached. Near the boundary layer of the upper

surface, the gradient of x-velocity u is very high along the y direction, and this large amount of strain rate results in a high

value of vorticity at region without really having a vortex. From 22.7to 24.7, in spite of the fact that the outlines of the

closed streamlines of the LEV become less slender in streamwise direction to favor the rotation motion, the magnitude of

the vorticity within LEV keeps decreasing during this period.

In Fig. 13, is used instead. At 20.5, we have found that is between 0 and 0.2 near the boundary layer as denoted by

the arrow. Since no vortex is supposed to be identied at this instant, 0.2 is dened as a threshold, and all the values

above 0.2 will be cutoff hereafter. This cutoff approach will fail in Fig. 12 since the value of near the boundary at 20.5is

even stronger than that inside the LEV. From 22.7to 24.7, the outlines of the closed streamlines imply that the ow

structures become favorable to the rotation motion. This phenomenon can be captured by since its value inside the LEV

region drops from 0.3 to 0.9, revealing that the strength of the rotation motion becomes more dominated. During

24.9to 24.7, the TEV has already formed, and the streamline structure near the LEV region becomes more slender, which

disfavors the rotation motion. Consequently, inside the LEV region increases to a less negative value, which corresponds to

the dissipation of the LEV.

In Fig. 12, a region without really having a vortex could possibly identied by vorticity , and the value of is more

consistent to the strength of the rotation motion. Therefore, will be used to identify the rotation strength hereafter.

6.2. Details of the ow structures and the mechanism to delay the stall at the second stage for the dynamic condition (kf 0.15)

As shown in Fig. 13 for kf 0.15, the ow structures change rapidly after the formation of the LEV. In this second stage,

details will be analyzed according to three short periods (i) 21.722.7, (ii) 22.724.7, and (iii) 24.724.7. Each period

has different ow patterns. In the rst short period, the pressure inside the LEV keeps decreasing and remains at the same

Fig. 15. Cp along the solid boundary from 20.5to 22.7(kf 0.15). The left gure (a) presents Cp for entire upper and lower surface, and the right

gure (b) highlights Cp near LEV in the upper surface.

Fig. 16. The representative streamlines and value for (a) 22.7and (b) 23.6(kf 0.15). The velocity vectors for 23.6inside the red box in (b) are

highlighted in (c). (For interpretation of the references to color in this gure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

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307

level in the second short period. Finally, when the LEV travels close to the trailing edge in the third short period, the

pressure suddenly increases to result in the lift stall. Similar observations can be found in references documented by

Ekaterinaris and Platzer (1997), McAlister et al. (1978), Visbal (2014), and Zanotti and Gibertini (2012). Due to the limitation

of the RANS model in highly separated ows, we conne our ow structure analysis mostly in upstroke phase and slightly

after the stall during the downstroke process.

6.2.1. AoA 21.722.7

The Cp distributions at 20.5in Figs. 14(a) and 15(a) are still similar as those presented in Figs. 10 and 11 at the rst stage.

The minimum Cp near the leading edge in Fig. 15(b) is still low enough such that the acceleration still can maintain the ow

to attach to the foil surface, and hence the u/U contours in Fig. 14(a) reveals no reverse ow. However, as the AoA increases

further, the minimum Cp in the upper surface increases instead as shown by the arrow in Fig. 15(b). As the consequence, the

ow acceleration near the leading edge in the upper surface becomes weaker and fails to resist the stronger adverse

pressure gradient. In Fig. 14(b) at 21.7, the velocity near the solid boundary becomes negative in the u/U contour, and

detached streamlines from the leading edge are observed. The positive u/U value of the free stream and the negative value of

the reverse ow in Fig. 14(b) generate a recirculation region of the LEV, and the negative value inside the LEV is detected.

This rotation motion transfers the low-pressure area from the leading edge at 20.5in Fig. 14(a) to the center of the

recirculation region at 21.7in Fig. 14(b). As 22.7in Fig. 14(c), from its u/U contour, the even stronger adverse pressure

gradient results in a more signicant reverse ow near the boundary layer. The greater relative motion between the

Fig. 17. Flow structures of Cp, u/U, , and streamline from 23.5to 24.7(kf 0.15). The legend for each contour is shown as below.

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incoming free stream and the reverse ow requires a stronger centrifugal force to maintain the rotation motion. Consequently, from the corresponding Cp contours, the pressure within the LEV as 22.7in Fig. 14(c) becomes even lower than

that of 21.7in Fig. 14(b). These tendencies of the ow structures from AoA21.7to 22.7favor the rotation motion such

that the value inside the LEV is decreasing, and the size of the LEV is also enlarged.

From 20.5to 22.7in Fig. 15(a), the Cp distributions along the lower surface are very consistent. However, the Cp

distributions are quite different in the upper surface. The concave Cp distribution in the upper surface corresponds to the

size of the LEV as denoted in Fig. 15(b). From 21.7to 22.7, the LEV is growing in size such that the concave Cp distribution

becomes wider as shown in Fig. 15(b), and hence the lift is still increasing accordingly.

Fig. 18. Cp along the upper surface during the detachment of the LEV from 23.6to 24.7(kf 0.15). The left gure (a) highlights Cp of 24.7, and the right

gure (b) compares Cp in the upper surface from 23.6to 24.7.

Fig. 19. Flow structures of and streamline as 24.7to 24.3(kf 0.15). For interpretation of the references to color in this gure the reader is referred to

the web version of this article.)

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309

As discussed in Fig. 14, the ow structure is changing to favor the rotation motion. When AoA increases from 22.7to

23.6, this tendency leads to an even more circular shape of the recirculation region. Therefore, the curvature of the

streamlines near the leading edge becomes higher, which results in the detachment of the LEV from the leading edge as

shown from Fig. 16(a) to (b).

As the black arrows depict in Fig. 16(c) for 23.6, the free stream and the front part of LEV have opposite ow directions

after the detachment of the LEV. In order to satisfy the continuity, two new recirculation regions with different rotation

directions are created, namely Vortices A and B. For Vortex A, the ow near the boundary layer is positive with counter

clockwise rotation, and vice versa for the Vortex B. New local minimums of Cp in the upper surface can be observed within

the recirculation region of Vortices A and B, which is similar as the trend shown in Fig. 15(b) for the LEV.

If the low-pressure area of the LEV is too close the solid boundary, the centrifugal force may hardly overcome the viscous

force, and hence this kind of ow structure will not benet the rotation strength. In the Cp contours of Fig. 17, after the

detachment, the low-pressure area of the LEV is transported away from the solid boundary. Therefore, the value inside the

LEV also indicates that its rotation strength is increasing, and the recirculation region of the LEV also becomes larger from

Fig. 17(a)(c).

In Fig. 14(b) and (c), from 20.5to 22.7before the detachment of the LEV, the value of Cp within the LEV keep

decreasing from 4 to 7. In contrast to this decreasing trend, in the Cp contours of Fig. 17, the minimum Cp inside the LEV

after its detachment maintains around 7.5. Therefore, instead of utilizing an even lower pressure within the LEV as shown

in Fig. 14, the mechanism to favor the rotation motion at this short period is due to the fact that the rotation center of the

LEV is transported away from the solid boundary, which is shown in Fig. 17.

The negative value of is also observed in Fig. 17 within Vortex A and B previously dened in Fig. 16(c). The values

become even more negative as the corresponding recirculation regions become larger in size from 23.6to 24.7. Since the

LEV is closer to Vortex A, the value shows that the rotation strength of Vortex A is overall stronger than that of Vortex B.

During this period, in the u/U contours of Fig. 17, the speed of the reverse ow within the LEV reaches its maximum

about u/U 1.7 in Fig. 17(a) as 23.6. Since the low-pressure area is moving away from the upper surface, the speed of the

reverse ow becomes slower as shown in Fig. 17(b) and (c), but its region becomes larger instead.

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Fig. 18(a) highlights the Cp along the upper surface as 24.7. Three local minimums can be found, and from left to right,

each concave distribution corresponds to the recirculation region of Vortices B, A, and LEV. In Fig. 18(a), it is clear that the

low-pressure area of the LEV is the largest and strongest, indicating that the LEV plays the most important role to maintain

the lift.

After the detachment of the LEV, the low-pressure area of the LEV is transported away from the upper surface, and hence

the values of Cp corresponding to the LEV in the upper surface increase as shown in Fig. 18(b). However, the region of each

recirculation region become larger in size as shown in Fig. 17, which still causes an increasing lift force from 23.6to 24.7.

In fact, the lift force reaches its maximum at 24.7in Fig. 4(a).

6.2.3. AoA24.724.3

In Fig. 4(a), the normal lift coefcient reaches its maximum CN 2.90 at 24.7. As AoA increases to 24.9, CN then drops

to 2.81. As the pitching motion begins the down-stroke process from 24.7to 24.3, CN drops rapidly from 1.7 to 1.25.

In Fig. 19(a) as 24.7, the LEV is very close to the trailing edge. At this instant, the streamline near the trailing edge and

the red arrow shown in Fig. 19(a) indicate the uid ow from the lower surface cannot enter the upper surface. As 24.9in

Fig. 19(b), the LEV are even closer to the lower surface, and hence curvature of streamlines from the lower surface are

changed more signicantly. The uid ow from the lower surface now will be attracted into the upper surface by the suction

force of the LEV. The red arrows in Fig. 19(b) as 24.9highlight this phenomenon. The lift is found to be stall when the

reverse ow from the lower surface is triggered.

From 24.7to 24.9, instead of keeping constant as shown in Fig. 17, the pressure of the center of the LEV starts to

increase as shown from Fig. 20(a) and (b). However, the reverse ow from the lower surface brings additional momentum to

compensate the rotation strength of the LEV, and hence its value still keeps decreasing from Fig. 19(a) and (b) even after

the lift stall. Since the strong rotation strength of the LEV still can be maintained as 24.9, the drop of CN is not very

signicant (from 2.9 to 2.81). At this instant, the LEV is still right above the upper surface, and hence the reverse ow has to

make a sharp turn into the upper surface as shown in Fig. 19(b).

As 24.9, since the LEV is leaving the upper surface, the pressure gradient around the LEV will become even weaker as

shown in Fig. 20(c), leading to a weaker rotation motion. Therefore, the recirculation region of the LEV is less circular in

shape, and the value of becomes less negative in Fig. 19(c). At this instant, the space between the LEV and the trailing edge

becomes larger enough, allowing the reverse ow from the lower surface to make a more smooth turn in Fig. 19(c) than that

of Fig. 19(b). Consequently, a new recirculation region is created right above the trailing edge, and the negative value

inside this region identies the so-called Trailing Edge Vortex (TEV). A low-pressure area corresponding to this TEV can be

found in Fig. 20(c).

In Figs. 19(d) and 20(d) for 24.7, the pressure inside the TEV drops even lower than that of 24.9. Therefore, the

inside the TEV becomes more negative values to represent a stronger rotation. At 24.3, although the pressure inside the

TEV in Fig. 20(e) is somehow higher than that of Fig. 20(d), the ow structure of the streamlines still favor the rotation

motion, which results in a lower inside TEV in Fig. 19(e) than that of Fig. 19(d). From 24.7 to 24.3, the pressure within

the LEV is rising to a level very close to that of the surrounding uid in Fig. 20(d) and (e). Thus the recirculation region of the

LEV is disappearing, which corresponds to the increasing value inside the LEV in Fig. 19(d) and (e). Therefore, when the

TEV develops its own strength, its more circular recirculation region will break down the recirculation region of the LEV and

enhances its dissipation.

Once the reverse ow occurs at 24.7in Fig. 19(a), the high pressure in the lower surface around the trailing edge will

decrease as shown in Fig. 20(a) and (b), which is the evidence to shows that the reverse ow is responsible for the lift stall.

After the formation of the TEV, the pressure difference between the high-pressure area in the lower surface and the lowpressure area inside the TEV will lead to a signicant acceleration for the reverse ow from the lower surface. Therefore,

Fig. 21. u/U contours and streamline from as 24.7to 24.3(kf 0.15).

C.-C. Tseng, Y.-E. Cheng / Journal of Fluids and Structures 58 (2015) 291318

311

Fig. 22. Cp along the solid surface from 24.7to 24.3(kf 0.15).

from 24.7to 24.9, the velocity near the trailing edge in the lower surface can be accelerated around twice of the free

stream velocity as shown in Fig. 21. Then the high velocity in the lower surface will cause a more signicant decreasing

trend of high pressure in the lower surface as shown in Fig. 20(c) than that before the formation of the TEV illustrated in

Fig. 20(b).

As discussed in the previous two paragraphs, when the TEV has formed right after the stall, the development of the TEV

can further suppress the LEV, which can increase the pressure in the upper surface. Besides, the high pressure in the lower

surface will decrease more signicantly. Therefore, the evolution of the TEV can reduce the lift dramatically if it happens

right after the stall.

From 24.7to 24.9, the pressure along the entire solid boundary is shown in Fig. 22(a). Before the reverse ow from

the lower surface is triggered, the pressure in the lower surface changes very slightly as shown in Fig. 15(a). Once the reverse

ow occurs as illustrated in Figs. 19 and 20, the pressure of the lower surface can vary more obviously as shown in Fig. 22(a).

Comparing 24.9to 24.7in Fig. 22(a), the pressure in the upper surface goes up since the low-pressure area of the LEV is

leaving the foil region, and the pressure in the lower surface decreases due to the reverse ow as discussed above. In the

consequence, CN drops from 2.90 to 2.81. From 24.7to AoA24.3, the TEV has already formed a new low-pressure area

as shown in Fig. 20(d), and hence Cp around the trailing edge in the upper surface drops again as shown in Fig. 22(b) as

24.7. But except region near the TEV, the pressure in the upper surface becomes much higher than that shown in Fig. 22

(a) as 24.7and 24.9. Therefore, CN drops to 1.7 at 24.7. As 24.3, the low-pressure area of the TEV is moving away from

the upper surface as shown in Fig. 20(e). Then CN drops rapidly as illustrated in Fig. 22(b) from 1.7 to 1.25. From

AoA 24.7to 24.3, CN drops signicantly from 2.9 to 1.25 with only 1 variation. This rapid drop of lift is due to the strong

interactions between LEV and TEV.

To sum up, before the formation of the reverse ow from the lower surface, the interaction between high-pressure ow

in the lower surface and low-pressure ow in the upper surface is almost absent. When the reverse ow is observed as

shown at 24.9in Fig. 19(b), the momentum exchange between the high- and low-pressure uid ows tends to balance the

pressure difference between lower and upper surface, and hence the stall occurs. If the TEV develops right after the stall, the

lift force can drop more dramatically.

Furthermore, in Section 6, three short periods, 21.722.7, 22.724.7, and 24.724.7, are analyzed at the second

stage. For 21.722.7, as shown in Fig. 14, the LEV remains attached to the leading edge, at this period, the pressure of the

rotation center of the LEV keeps decreasing to strengthen the LEV and enlarge its size. For 21.722.7, the LEV is detached

from the leading edge. The pressure of the rotation center is almost constant as shown in Fig. 17. The mechanism to

strengthen and enlarge the LEV is due to the fact that the rotation center of the LEV is transported away from the solid

boundary. Finally, for 24.724.7, the LEV is leaving the foil region. The LEV is then dissipated due to the increasing pressure

within the LEV as shown in Fig. 20. Each short period at the second stage corresponds to different ow patterns during the

dynamic stall as discussed through Sections 6.2.1 to 6.2.3, and these short periods can be distinguished according to the

trend of the pressure variation inside the LEV, which is decreasing, unchanged, and then increasing respectively.

7. Transport equation of

The transport equation of will be derived such that its convective, pressure, and diffusion terms can be further

investigated. For two-dimensional incompressible and laminar ows, the transport equation of 1/2SijSij and 1/2kk

(enstropy) can be derived (Chen, 1997; Davidson, 2004):

312

C.-C. Tseng, Y.-E. Cheng / Journal of Fluids and Structures 58 (2015) 291318

Fig. 23. Sum of source terms /t SC SP SV. The unit is 1/s, and the dark lines represent the contour level as 0.2 (kf 0.15). For interpretation of the

references to color in this gure the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

Fig. 24. The viscous terms SV. The unit is 1/s, and the dark lines represent the contour level as 0.2 (kf 0.15). (a) 23.6 (b) 24.3.

1

2

D 2 Sij Sij = Sij 2P + S Sij

ij

Dt

xm xm

xm xm

1

2

D1

2 k k = + k 2 k k

xm xm

Dt

(7)

In Eq. (7), three-dimensional effects such as the vortex stretching have already been neglected. D/Dt represents the

material derivative, and the notation of k emphasizes that the vorticity can only exist in the k direction when the twodimensional ow is conned to the i and j direction, and m represents as the repeated notation. Therefore, from Eq. (6), the

C.-C. Tseng, Y.-E. Cheng / Journal of Fluids and Structures 58 (2015) 291318

313

)(

Dk

=

Dt

Dt

) = 2

k k

D Sij Sij

2

Dt

2Sij Sij

1

Sij Sij + 2 k k

D k k

2

Dt

(8)

2k2

= um k +

t

xm

Convective

(S S

terms

Sji x x

i

+ 2 k k

Pressure

ij ij

terms

= SC +

SP +

SV

2Sij

2

2k Sji k x x Sij x kx

m m

m m

(S S

+ 2 k k

Diffusion

ij ij

terms

(9)

In order to include the turbulent effect of the vorticity equation, Senocak (2002), Huang et al. (2014), and Ji et al. (2014)

have simply replace the laminar kinematic viscosity in the vorticity transport equation by sum of the laminar and turbulent kinematic viscosity (t). This treatment will drop the terms related to the spatial gradients of the eddy viscosity t

and the turbulent kinetic energy k in the diffusion terms, which are usually assumed to be small. Similarly, we also replace

by t in the diffusion terms of in Eq. (9). The convective, pressure, and diffusion terms are denoted as SC, SP, and SV,

respectively.

Fig. 23 illustrates the sum of source terms SC SP SV, which is the local time rate of change, /t. In Fig. 13, we have

dened o 0.2 is a threshold to identify a rotation motion. The dark line in Fig. 23 represents the contour level as

0.2, and the enclosed area of this contour level indicates the size of the LEV. One can see that /t is largely negative

inside the LEV, and the region of negative /t becomes larger From Fig. 23(a) as 21.7to Fig. 23(d) as 24.3. Correspondingly, as shown from Fig. 14(b) to Fig. 17(a)(c) at the same angles of Fig. 23, inside the LEV decreases to favor the

rotation strength, and the LEV grows in size during the evolution. Moreover, the most negative value of /t is always

Fig. 25. The convective and pressure terms as 22.7. The unit is 1/s, and the dark lines represent the contour level as 0.2 (kf 0.15). (a) SP

(b) SC

Fig. 26. The convective and pressure terms as 23.6. The unit is 1/s, and the dark lines represent the contour level as 0.2 (kf 0.15). (a) SP

(b) SC

314

C.-C. Tseng, Y.-E. Cheng / Journal of Fluids and Structures 58 (2015) 291318

Fig. 27. u/U contours and streamlines for 20.5at different frequencies (a) kf=0.15 (b) kf=0.25 (b) kf=0.25.

Fig. 28. The ow structures by streamlines and as kf 0.25 from 23.6to 20.5.

C.-C. Tseng, Y.-E. Cheng / Journal of Fluids and Structures 58 (2015) 291318

315

located in the downstream part of the LEV or slightly outside the LEV (as shown by the red arrow in Fig. 23(b)), and hence

the LEV develops toward downstream. On the contrary, the most positive value of /t is slightly outside the LEV in the

upstream direction (as shown by the black arrow in Fig. 23(b)), which tends to detach the LEV.

The diffusion term SV is also illustrated in Fig. 24. Comparing the level of the legend of Fig. 24 to that of Fig. 23, the

diffusion term SV only contributes a little inside the LEV. The strong diffusion term seems to surround the edge of the LEV,

but the strength is usually 3 to 4 times weaker than that of the convective and pressure term in Figs. 25 and 26.

Therefore, the convective and pressure term play more important roles than the diffusion term. Figs. 25 and 26 show the

pressure term SP and convective term SC as 22.7and 23.6, respectively. It is clear that the pressure term dominates inside

the LEV as shown in Figs. 25(a) and 26(a). As discussed in Section 6.2.2 based on the concept of centrifugal force, the ow

structure becomes more circular in shape and favor the rotation strength, which reects the larger area of negative SP from

Figs. 25(a) to 26(a) as the angle increases. In other words, the pressure term dominates and enhances the rotation strength

inside the LEV. As a result, when the LEV leaves the foil, the rotation strength could become weaker due to the sudden

increase of the pressure and ensuing increase of the pressure term SP. As for the convective term SC, by comparing

Fig. 23(b) and (c) to Figs. 25(b) and 26(b) at the same angles, one can see that the most negative/positive /t slightly

outside LEV in the upstream/downstream direction mainly comes from the convective term SC. Therefore, it is the convective

effect to detach the LEV and move it downstream. Overall, the value of the convective term SC inside the LEV is mostly

positive, which cancels certain contribution of the pressure term SP.

As discussed in Figs. 12 and 13 of Section 6.1, a region without really having a vortex could possibly identied by vorticity

, and the value of is more consistent to the strength of the rotation motion. Moreover, for an incompressible ow, the

baroclinic term in the transport equation of vorticity is zero, and hence the pressure effect can hardly be evaluated directly

through the vorticity equation. However, the transport equation of retains the pressure term, which is very pronounced

during the evolution of the LEV as shown in this section.

The analysis of the ow structures in Section 6 mainly focuses on the dynamic condition as kf 0.15. In order to gain more

insights of the uidstructure interaction during the dynamic stall, the ow structures are compared between kf 0.15 and

0.25 in this section. Since more momentum can be transferred from the solid boundary into the uid ow at a higher

oscillation frequency, the streamwise velocity near the upper surface of kf 0.25 is higher than that of kf 0.15, which is

illustrated in Fig. 27 as 20.7. Accordingly, for kf 0.25, the ow separation is further delayed than that of kf 0.15, and so is

the evolution of the LEV. This phenomenon can be observed from Figs. 14(b) for kf 0.15 and 28(a) for kf 0.25. Their sizes of

the recirculation regions of the LEV are comparable, but the AoA of the latter is apparently higher than the former. Then the

stall is postponed into the down-stroke as shown in the CN curve of Fig. 4(b) as kf 0.25.

Therefore, even the stall occurs at 24.7for kf 0.15, the LEV of kf 0.25 is still under development from 24.7to 24.9in

Fig. 28(b)(c), and hence CN still increases slightly from 2.7 to 2.75 even to the downstroke process. The stall angle as

kf 0.25 happens at 24.5with maximum CN 2.84. Fig. 28(d) shows ow structures as stall just occurs for kf 0.25

(CN 2.81). The LEV at 24.3in Fig. 28(d) is very close to the trailing edge, and the low-pressure area of the LEV is sufcient

to induce reverse ow from the lower surface. Same as the mechanisms shown in Figs. 1921 for kf 0.15, once the ow is

attracted from the lower to upper surface, CN will drop to cause the stall.

Table 2

The reduced frequency, stall angle, and the corresponding maximum lift summarized from the selected references.

Reference

kf

Stall angle

Maximum lift

Leishman (1990)

0.1

0.16

0.2

0.025

0.05

0.1

0.025

0.05

0.1

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.25

0.01

0.1

0.2

0.4

20.3

19

18.9

14

14.8

14.9

18.6

21

24

21.3

23.7

24.9

23.8

17.6

22.6

25

24.69

CL 2.01

CL 1.78

CL 1.73

CL 1.3

CL 1.33

CL 1.40

CL 1.31

CL 1.66

CL 1.97

CN 2.43

CN 2.89

CN 3.05

CN 2.92

CN 1.17

CN 1.86

CN 2.13

CN 1.92

316

C.-C. Tseng, Y.-E. Cheng / Journal of Fluids and Structures 58 (2015) 291318

Since the LEV occurs later as kf 0.25, when it is close to the trailing edge as shown in Fig. 28(d) and (e), the oscillation

period has already entered downstroke process. In other words, the trailing edge now is tilting upward to approach the LEV.

Then the space between the LEV and the trailing edge is not large enough such that the reverse ow still has to make a sharp

turn into the upper surface as highlighted by the arrows in Fig. 28(d) and (e). Consequently, the TEV is further delayed. The

TEV is under development during 21.7to 20.5in Fig. 28(f) and (g), displaying a delay at least by 2.8 between the stall

(24.5) and the formation of the TEV. As discussed from Fig. 19 to 21 for kf 0.15, the pressure in the lower surface increases

rapidly when the TEV is formed right after the stall (0.4 phase difference as shown in Fig. 19(a) and (c)). This mechanism

will be absent for kf 0.25 since the phase between stall and formation of the TEV is more pronounced (2.8). Different

oscillation frequencies could activate different interactions between the LEV and TEV, especially when the lift stall occurs

around the maximum angle of attack. In other words, the lift curve slope after stall strongly depends on the position of the

stall angle. If the stall angle remains within the upstroke close to the maximum angle, the slope drops very rapidly such as

kf 0.15 in Fig. 4(a) by a strong interaction between LEV and TEV. On the contrary, if the stall occurs within the downstroke,

the drop of lift will be more gentle as shown in Fig. 4(b) for kf 0.25 due to the delay of the TEV. This kind of trend can also

be observed in the references by McAlister et al. (1978), McCroskey et al. (1976), and Sharma and Poddar (2013).

As shown in our simulation results, it is no doubt that increasing reduced frequency could delay the onset of the ow

separation and dynamic stall to a higher angle, which has already been reported in references by Lee and Gerontakos

(2004), Leishman (1990), McAlister et al. (1978), McCroskey et al. (1976), and Sharma and Poddar (2013). However, an

increasing reduced frequency is not always guaranteed to a higher maximum lift coefcient. Table 2 lists the reduced

frequency, stall angle, and its corresponding maximum lift coefcient from selected references. As shown in Table 2,

Leishman (1990) has reported that the maximum lift force decreases as the reduced frequency increases while Lee and

Gerontakos (2004) have observed an opposite trend. Moreover, the trend is not even monotonic in references by McAlister

et al. (1978), McCroskey et al. (1976), and Sharma and Poddar (2013). It seems that the relations between the reduced

frequency and the maximum lift are implicit. However, their connections still can be discovered from Table 2.

From the reference of Lee and Gerontakos (2004), the reduced frequency only has little inuence on the stall angle and

its maximum lift under the light-stall pitching while the inuence becomes more pronounced for the deep-stall pitching.

Futhermore, one can see from Table 2 that the maximum lift depends on the stall angle strongly under the same Reynolds

number. If the stall angle is delayed by a higher reduced frequency and remains in the upstroke, the maximum lift will

increase. On the contrary, if the stall angle is already postponed into the downstroke, further increase of the reduced

frequency can lower the maximum lift. This trend is well captured in our numerical prediction and the corresponding

measured results as shown in Table 1 (McAlister et al., 1978; McCroskey et al. 1976). In Table 1, both stall angles are close to

the maximum angle, and hence the differences of the maximum CN under kf 0.15 and 0.25 are very little. Moreover, the

maximum CN of kf 0.15 is slightly higher than that of kf 0.25 because the stall angle for kf 0.25 is already within the

downstroke process.

In this study, the uidstructure interaction is investigated for a two-dimensional ow (Re2.5 106) over a sinusoidpitching foil by the Shear Stress Transport (SST k) turbulence model. Although discrepancies in downstroke phase, which

are also documented in other numerical studies, are observed between our CFD and experimental results, our current CFD

results are sufcient to predict the mean features and qualitative tendencies of the dynamic stall phenomenon. Due to the

limitation of the RANS model in highly separated ows, we conne our ow structure analysis mostly in upstroke phase and

slightly after the stall during the downstroke process.

The mechanisms to delay of stall are categorized based on the formation of the Leading Edge Vortex (LEV). At the rst

stage, the ow structures are carefully investigated by comparisons between the static and the dynamic condition. The ow

has already separated as 17,and the free stream velocity near the trailing edge in the upper surface is faster for the static

condition. In order to meet the continuity, the uid ow in the lower surface for the static condition has to experience a

higher favorite pressure gradient, and hence the pressure in the lower surface is overall lower. Accordingly, the lift stall

occurs, and while the lift maintains increasing for the dynamic condition.

At the second stage for kf 0.15, the value is used to quantify the rotation strength inside the vortex. During the

evolution of the LEV, the low-pressure area of the LEV is transported toward the trailing edge, and multiple recirculation

regions are created. Before 24.7, the rotation strengths of the LEV and those recirculation regions are increasing, and so are

their sizes. The lift force still can be maintained accordingly. After 24.7, the lift is reduced once the LEV is close enough to

the trailing edge to induce the reverse ow. When the TEV is triggered, the acceleration of the reverse ow becomes

signicant, and the pressure in the lower surface can increase rapidly. Furthermore, the development of the TEV can break

down the recirculation region of the LEV. Therefore, the drop of the lift is very signicant for kf 0.15 since the TEV is formed

right after the stall. The transport equation of has been derived as the convective, pressure, and diffusion terms. It is found

that the viscous term is the least important while the pressure term dominates the rate of the change of the rotation

strength inside the LEV. This trend can hardly be observed directly by using the vorticity transport equation due to the zero

baroclinic term for the incompressible ow.

C.-C. Tseng, Y.-E. Cheng / Journal of Fluids and Structures 58 (2015) 291318

317

For kf 0.25, the stall is further delayed into the down-stroke. As the shedding of the LEV takes place, the TEV is absent.

Therefore, the lift drops gently after the stall for kf 0.25. As for the maximum lift, it depends on the stall angle strongly. If

the stall angle is delayed by a higher reduced frequency and remains in the upstroke, the maximum lift will increase. On the

contrary, if the stall angle is already postponed into the downstroke, further increase of the reduced frequency can lower the

maximum lift.

Due to the limitations of the RANS model, the laminar-to-turbulent transition, reattachment, and formation of the LSB

are very difcult to be predicted properly near the leading edge, which could result in the discrepancies during the

downstroke phase in this study. However, the LES computation is believed to be capable of dealing with these details.

Therefore, the LES computation will be considered as the future work such that more reliable numerical results during the

downstroke phase could be acquired.

Acknowledgments

The present efforts are partially supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology in Taiwan with Project number

102-3113-P-006-011.

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