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COAL THERMAL

POWER PLANTS

Fausto, John-Lourico D.
Henera, Melvin R.
Prepared by

DEFINE

IDENTIFY

DISCUSS

COMPARE

DESCRIBE

OBJECTIVES

A thermal power station is a power


plant in which the prime
mover is steam driven. Water is
heated, turns into steam and spins a
steam turbine which drives
an electrical generator. After it
passes through the turbine, the
steam is condensed in
a condenser and recycled to where
it was heated; this is known as
a Rankine cycle.

The greatest variation in the design of


thermal power stations is due to the
different fossil fuel resources generally
used to heat the water. Some prefer to
use the term energy center because
such facilities convert forms
of heat energy into electrical energy.

Certain thermal power plants also are


designed to produce heat energy for
industrial purposes of district heating,
or desalination of water, in addition to
generating electrical power.
Globally, fossil-fuel power
stations produce a large part of manmade CO2 emissions to the atmosphere,
and efforts to reduce these are varied
and widespread.

Properties of a

COAL

Coal is a sedimentary rock formed in wide,


low-lying equatorial swamps crossed by
large rivers and covered by forests of
primitive trees.

The remains of trees and plants were


saved from biodegration and oxidation by
mud and water. Coal is usually black in
colour but sometimes it occurs as a
brownish-black colour.

Properties of a

COAL
There are four broad ranks or types of coal
depending upon its age. Commencing with the
youngest and lowest carbon content, these are:
lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous and anthracite.
Anthracite is classified as a metamorphic rock
because of its subsequent exposure to elevated
pressures and temperatures.
Bitumen obtained from bituminous coal is a black
viscous material generally referred to as 'tar'.
Coal is primarily composed of carbon, along with a
range of other elements, particularly sulphur. It has
been estimated that a coal seam 1 foot thick
needed as much as 7 to 10 feet of peat thickness to
commence with.

the contribution of coal to

ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION

the contribution of coal to

ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION

RELIABILITY

One of the greatest advantages of coal fired plants


is reliability. Coals ability to supply power during
peak power demand either as base power or as offpeak power is greatly valued as a power plant fuel.
It is with this fact that advanced pulverized coal
fired power plants are designed to support the grid
system in avoiding blackouts.

the contribution of coal to

ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION

AFFORDABILITY
Energy produced from coal fired plants is cheaper
and more affordable than other energy sources.
Since coal is abundant, it is definitely cheap to
produce power using this fuel. Moreover, it is not
expensive to extract and mine from coal deposits.
Consequently, its price remains low compared to
other fuel and energy sources.

the contribution of coal to

ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION

ABUNDANCE

There are approximately over 300 years of


economic coal deposits still accessible. With this
great amount of coal available for use, coal fired
plants can be continuously fueled in many years to
come.

the contribution of coal to

ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION

SAFETY

Generally, coal fired plants are considered safer


than nuclear power plants. A coal power plant's
failure is certainly not likely to cause catastrophic
events such as a nuclear meltdown would.
Additionally, the welfare and productivity of coal
industry employees has greatly improved over the
years. In fact, injuries, time lost, and fatalities have
decreased significantly in the past years.

Typical Coal Thermal


Power Station

Cooling Tower
A heat rejection device which rejects waste
heat to the atmosphere through the cooling
of a water stream to a lower temperature

Cooling Water Pump

Transmission Line (3-Phase)


the bulk transfer of electrical energy, from
generating power plants to electrical
substations located near demand centers

Step-up Transformer (3-phase)


an electrical device that transfers electrical
energy between two or more circuits
through electromagnetic induction

Electrical generator (3-phase)


a device that converts mechanical energy to
electrical energy for use in an external circuit.
The source of mechanical energy may vary
widely from a hand crank to an internal
combustion engine.

Low Pressure Steam Turbine


a device that extracts thermal energy from
pressurized steam and uses it to do
mechanical work on a rotating output shaft

Condensate Pump
a specific type of pump used to pump the
condensate (water) produced in an HVAC
(heating or cooling), refrigeration,
condensing boiler furnace or steam system

Surface Condenser
commonly used term for a water-cooled shell
and tube heat exchanger installed on the
exhaust steam from a steam turbine in thermal
power stations.

Intermediate Pressure Steam Turbine

Steam Control Valve


used to control conditions such as flow,
pressure, temperature, and liquid level by
fully or partially opening or closing in
response to signals received from controllers

High Pressure Steam Turbine

Deaerator
A device that is widely used for the removal
of oxygen and other dissolved gases from
the feedwater to steam-generating boilers

Feedwater Heater
A power plant component used to pre-heat
water delivered to a steam generating boiler

Coal Conveyor
A common piece of mechanical handling
equipment that moves materials from one
location to another

Coal Hopper

Coal Pulveriser
Used to pulverize coal for combustion in the
steam-generating furnaces of fossil fuel
power plants

Boiler steam drum


A reservoir of water/steam at the top end of
the water tubes

Bottom ash hopper


Part of the non-combustible residue of
combustion in a furnace or incinerator

Superheater
A device used to convert saturated
steam or wet steam into dry steam used
in steam engines or in processes, such
as steam reforming

Forced Draught (draft) Fan

Reheater

Combustion Air Intake

Economizer
Mechanical devices intended to reduce
energy consumption, or to perform useful
function such as preheating a fluid

Air Preheater
a general term used to describe any device
designed to heat air before another process
(for example, combustion in a boiler) with
the primary objective of increasing the
thermal efficiency of the process

Precipitator
A filtration device that removes fine
particles, like dust and smoke, from a flowing
gas using the force of an induced
electrostatic charge minimally impeding the
flow of gases through the unit

Induced Draught (draft) Fan

Flue-gas Stack
A type of chimney, a vertical pipe, channel
or similar structure through which combustion
product gases called flue gases are
exhausted to the outside air.

Key Terms Related to

Coal-fired Power Plants

Key Terms Related to

Coal-fired Power Plants

BAGHOUSES
A generic name for air pollution equipment which uses
a range of filter bags/fabric types to separate
particulate (dust, ash, powders, etc.) from the
exhausting air stream.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is
particularly concerned with particles that are 10
micrometers in diameter or smaller because those
particles generally pass through throats and noses and
enter lungs, causing serious health problems.

Key Terms Related to

Coal-fired Power Plants

BOILER
A device found in power plants for generating steam
for power, processing or heating purposes, or for
producing hot water for heating purposes or hot water
supply.
Heat from an electrical combustion source is
transmitted to a fluid contained within the tubes in the
boiler shell. The fluid is delivered to an end-user at a
desired pressure, temperature and quality.

Key Terms Related to

Coal-fired Power Plants

CARBON DIOXIDE
A gaseous substance at standard conditions
composed of one carbon atom and two oxygen
atoms. CO2 is produced when fossil fuels are burned
and is thought to be a major contributor to warmer
global temperatures.

Key Terms Related to

Coal-fired Power Plants

CLEAN AIR ACT


A federal law that defines EPA's responsibilities for
protecting and improving the nation's air quality and
the stratospheric ozone layer.

Key Terms Related to

Coal-fired Power Plants

COAL
A fossil fuel and one of the leading energy sources in
the U.S. and around the world. As an energy source,
coal accounts for approximately 46 percent of energy
capacity in the U.S.
Physically, it is a black or brownish-black solid
combustible substance formed by the partial
decomposition of vegetable matter without access to
air.

Key Terms Related to

Coal-fired Power Plants

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR
(ESP)
Also known as electrostatic air cleaner, is a pollution
control device that removes particles from a flowing
gas (such as air) using the force of an induced
electrostatic charge.
ESPs are highly efficient filtration devices that minimally
impede the flow of gases through the device, and can
easily remove fine particulate matter, such as dust and
smoke, from the air stream.

Key Terms Related to

Coal-fired Power Plants

EMISSION
Substances that are released into the air from power
generating plants among other sources. Major
emissions that are regulated by the federal
government are nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide and
mercury. Carbon dioxide is also a major emission, but is
not regulated.

These pollutants are associated with a vast array of


health concerns such as respiratory hospitalizations, lost
school days due to asthma attacks, low birth weight,
stunted lung growth and infant death.

Key Terms Related to

Coal-fired Power Plants

FLUE GAS
A gas that exits into the atmosphere via a flue, which is
a pipe or channel for conveying exhaust gases from a
fireplace, oven, furnace, boiler or steam generator.

Key Terms Related to

Coal-fired Power Plants

FOSSIL FUEL
Ancient organic remains (fossils) in sediments which
over eons became sedimentary rock, giving rise to
solid, liquid and gaseous fuels such as coal, crude oil,
and natural gas.
Coal is derived from vegetable matter altered by
pressure, whereas crude oil and natural gas are
derived from animal and vegetable matter altered by
pressure and heat. They have been the primary energy
source for human societies since the industrial
revolution (mid-19th century to early 20th century), are
non-renewable and are considered to be a primary
source of global warming.

Key Terms Related to

Coal-fired Power Plants

HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS


(Also known as air toxins) Chemicals that are known or
suspected to cause cancer or other serious health
effects, such as reproductive effects or birth defects, or
adverse environmental effects.
Listed hazardous air pollutants include benzene, found
in gasoline; perchlorethlyene, emitted from some dry
cleaning facilities; and methylene chloride, used as a
solvent and paint stripper in industry; as well as dioxin,
asbestos, toluene, and metals such as cadmium,
mercury, chromium and lead compounds.

Key Terms Related to

Coal-fired Power Plants

SULFUR DIOXIDE
Also known as SO2, is a pollutant that is released into
air through industrial uses including when coal is
burned.
SO2 has been linked to a number of adverse effects on
the human respiratory system including chronic
bronchitis and emphysema. Physically, it is a colorless,
extremely irritating gas or liquid.

Coal Thermal Plants


In the Philippines

Coal Thermal Plants


In the Philippines

Sual Coal Power


Plant Philippines

1218
Design Capacity (MW)

Pangasinan
State

Coal Thermal Plants


In the Philippines

Pagbilao Coal Power


Plant Philippines

735
Design Capacity (MW)

Quezon
State

Coal Thermal Plants


In the Philippines

Masinloc Coal Power


Plant Philippines

600
Design Capacity (MW)

Zambales
State

Coal Thermal Plants


In the Philippines

Calaca (Batangas) Coal


Power Plant Philippines

600
Design Capacity (MW)

Batangas
State

Coal Thermal Plants


In the Philippines

Quezon Coal Power


Plant Philippines

490
Design Capacity (MW)

Quezon
State

Coal Thermal Plants


In Other Countries

Coal Thermal Plants


In Other Countries

Taichung Power Plant

5500
Design Capacity (MW)

Taiwan
Contry

Coal Thermal Plants


In Other Countries

Bechatw Power Station

5420
Design Capacity (MW)

Poland
Contry

Coal Thermal Plants


In Other Countries

Tuoketuo Power Station

5400
Design Capacity (MW)

China
Contry

Coal Thermal Plants


In Other Countries

Sual Coal Power Plant Philippines

1218
Design Capacity (MW)

Philippines
Contry

COAL THERMAL
POWER PLANTS

Fausto, John-Lourico D.
Henera, Melvin R.
Prepared by

Summarized Links of the Videos

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rEJKiUYjW1E
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SeXG8K5_UvU
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wySZl6JIwQw
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F9sXYf09K34
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0mjT8ETB128
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GxHQHcpCWa8