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Environmentally-friendly monofilament cellulosic fibres have been widely used as

alternatives for conventional steel reinforcement within concrete. Recently, the use of
cellulosic fibre fabrics and their fabric reinforced polymer composites as reinforcement
materials within and/or outside of construction materials (e.g. concrete) has gained
popularity due to their inexpensive cost and favourable specific mechanical properties
compared with synthetic fibre fabrics (e.g. E-glass). This review presents a summary of
recent development on cellulosic fibre Fabric Reinforced Cementitious (FRC) and
Fabric Reinforced Geopolymer (FRG) composites, as well as their cellulosic Fabric
Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites as reinforcements of concrete, masonry and
timber structures for civil engineering applications. This review covers: (1) properties
(i.e. chemical composition, microstructure, mechanical properties and cost) of
monofilament cellulosic fibres and their comparison with synthetic fibres, the
relationship between fibre chemical composition and fibre mechanical properties,
parameters affect fibre properties; (2) properties (e.g. fabrication of monofilament fibres
to fabrics and structures) of cellulosic fibre fabrics, properties of polymer matrices, and
properties (i.e. flexural, tensile, impact, insulation and fire properties) of cellulosic fabric
FRP composites; and (3) properties (compressive, flexural and tensile and impact
properties) of cellulosic FRC and FRG composites, and the properties of cellulosic FRP
composites reinforced concrete, masonry and timber structures. In addition, the
degradation mechanisms of cellulosic FRC and FRP are discussed. Furthermore, the
durability of FRC, FRG and FRP composites are reviewed and the methods to improve
the durability of FRC, FRG and FRP composites from the aspects of fibre modification
and matrix modification are reviewed and summarized.


A. Fibres;
A. Fabrics/textiles;
A. Polymermatrix composites (PMCs);
B. Interfaces;
B. Environmental degradation


Concrete reinforced with PET bars and CFRP strips shows a higher ductility.

PET bars and CFRP strips are inserted inside the concrete casting to make
beam specimens.

Bending tests are performed with a point load in the middle-span of each

Comparisons of the results show a better behaviour of specimens with CFRP


Future tests with an equal area of reinforcement.

In this work the results of a series of preliminary tests on concrete beam
specimens reinforced with PET and CFRP are shown and discussed. The
novelty in the tests lies in the use of a waste material with promising results.
The reinforcement is made with PET and CFRP are arranged as continuous
bars and strips, respectively. They are positioned inside the specimen, in the
same position of the steel bars in a reinforced concrete element. For both
cases it is noticed that they limit the presence of cracks and, especially, avoid
and/or reduce the corrosion processes in reinforced concrete structural
elements. In particular, the concrete-fibers adhesion and the global behavior of
these fiber reinforced concretes is analyzed in order to evaluate the possibility
of future investigation. However, the results of the tests showed a better
behavior for specimens reinforced with CFRP strips.

This study has focused on evaluating the durability of the newly manufactured sulfur
polymer concrete (SPC) from recycled waste materials such as sulfur (by-product from
oil industry), fly ash (recovered from the gases of burning coal during the production of
electricity) and desert sand from abundant sand dunes quarries. The first step in such
manufacturing process is the sulfur modification using polymeric additives to control
sulfur crystallization and to prevent macro-crystals growth. In a controlled temperature
surroundings, modified sulfur was mixed with elemental sulfur, fly ash and desert sand
to form the newly SPC. The durability of the SPC was evaluated in: de-ionized water,
acidic solutions of 20, 40, 70, and 98 wt% H2SO4 solutions, and saline solutions of 0.5,
1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 wt% NaCl, at different temperatures for different periods of time. To
compare the SPC results with known material, normal Portland cement concrete (PCC)
mortars were also studied. The results indicated that the manufactured SPC material
has high compressive strength, low hydraulic conductivity, and high resistance to
permeation of water, and particularly resistant to corrosion in acid and salt


Fly ash;
Sulfur polymer concrete;
Hydraulic conductivity;
Compressive strength

Geopolymers are a type of inorganic polymer that can be formed at room

temperature by using industrial waste or by-products as source materials to
form a solid binder that looks like and performs a similar function to OPC.
Geopolymer binder can be used in applications to fully or partially replace
OPC with environmental and technical benefits, including an 80 - 90%
reduction in CO2 emissions and improved resistance to fire and aggressive
Geopolymer cement is made from aluminium and silicon, instead of calcium
and silicon. The sources of aluminium in nature are not present as
carbonates and therefore, when made active for use as cement, do not
release vast quantities of CO2. The most readily available raw materials
containing aluminium and silicon are fly ash and slag these are the
materials that Zeobond uses to create its low carbon emission binder.
The main process difference between OPC and geopolymer cement is that
OPC relies on a high-energy manufacturing process that imparts high
potential energy to the material via calcination. This means the activated
material will react readily with a low energy material such as water. On the
other hand, geopolymer cement uses very low energy materials, like fly
ashes, slags and other industrial wastes and a small amount of high chemical
energy materials (alkali hydroxides) to bring about reaction only at the
surfaces of particles to act as a glue.
This approach allows the use of measured amounts of chemicals to tailor the
product to specification, rather than using an amount of very high-energy
material required for OPC, regardless of whether the material is used to build
strength (such as the inside of particles). This approach results in a very
large energy saving in the production of geopolymer cement.
The properties of geopolymer cement, when used to make concrete, have
been repeatedly and independently shown to be equivalent to other cements
in terms of the structural qualities of the resulting concrete. Indeed, the fire
resistance of E-Crete has been tested to be well in excess of double that of
traditional concrete. This is a highly significant technical benefit of E-Crete
and will drive wide scale adoption in high-rise construction in the near term,
including in some government department buildings.


An overview of geopolymer is presented alongwith its processing parameters.

The hardened properties and durability of geopolymer concrete are discussed.

The design guidelines for OPC concrete are applicable to geopolymer concrete

Geopolymeric building products developed at CSIR-CBRI are highlighted.

Ambient cured single component geopolymer may enhance its wider use in the

An overview of advances in geopolymers formed by the alkaline activation of
aluminosilicates is presented alongwith opportunities for their use in building
construction. The properties of mortars/concrete made from geopolymeric
binders are discussed with respect to fresh and hardened states, interfacial
transition zone between aggregate and geopolymer, bond with steel reinforcing
bars and resistance to elevated temperature. The durability of geopolymer
pastes and concrete is highlighted in terms of their deterioration in various
aggressive environments. R&D works carried out on heat and ambient cured
geopolymers at CSIR-CBRI are briefly outlined alongwith the product
developments. Research findings revealed that geopolymer concrete exhibited
comparative properties to that of OPC concrete which has potential to be used
in civil engineering applications.

Geopolymer concrete is an innovative and ecofriendly construction material and an

alternative to Portland cement concrete. Use of geopolymer reduces the demand of
Portland cement which is responsible for high CO 2 emission.

What is Geopolymer Concrete:

Geopolymer was the name given by Daidovits in 1978 to materials which are
characterized by chains or networks or inorganic molecules. Geopolymer cement
concrete is made from utilization of waste materials such as fly ash and ground
granulated blast furnace slag(GGBS). Fly ash is the waste product generated from
thermal power plant and ground granulate blast furnace slag is generated as waste
material in steel plant.
Both fly ash and GGBS are processed by appropriate technology and used for
concrete works in the form of geopolymer concrete. The use of this concrete helps
to reduce the stock of wastes and also reduces carbon emission by reducing
Portland cement demand.
The main constituent of geopolymers source of silicon and aluminium which are
provided by thermally activated natural materials (e.g. kaolinite) or industrial
byproducts (e.g. fly ash or slab) and an alkaline activating solution which
polymerizes these materials into molecular chains and networks to create hardened
binder. It is also called as alkali-activated cement or inorganic polymer cement.

Composition of Geopolymer Concrete:

Following materials are required to produce this concrete:

Fly ash A byproduct of thermal power plant

GGBS A byproduct of steel plant
Fine aggregates and coarse aggregates as required for normal concrete.
Alkaline activator solution for GPCC as explained above. Catalytic liquid
system is used as alkaline activator solution. It is a combination of solutions
of alkali silicates and hydroxides, besides distilled water. The role of alkaline
activator solution is to activate the geopolymeric source materials containing
Si and Al such as fly ash and GGBS.

Mechanical Properties of Geopolymer Concrete:

Compressive strength of geopolymer concrete have been found upto 70 MPa

(N/mm2). The concrete gains its compressive strength rapidly and faster than
ordinary Portland cement concrete. The concrete strength after 24 hours have been
found to be more than 25MPa. Compressive strength after 28 days have been found
to be 60 to 70 MPa. -Ref. Paper by James Aldred And John Day and Test results by
SERC Chennai.

Other Properties of Geopolymer Concrete:

The drying shrinkage of is much less compared to cement concrete. This

makes it well suited for thick and heavily restrained concrete structural
It has low heat of hydration in comparison with cement concrete.
The fire resistance is considerably better than OPC based concrete.
-Reference Paper by James Aldred And John Day.
This concrete jas chloride permeability rating of low to very low as per
ASTM 1202C. It offers better protection to reinforcement steel from corrosion
as compared to traditional cement concrete.

Applications of Geopolymer Concrete

The applications is same as cement concrete. However, this material has not yet
been popularly used for various applications.
This concrete has been used for construction of pavements, retaining walls, water
tanks, precast bridge decks.